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Plymouth Larimer^ Trend & .Oxford University Press^ Amen House y London E* GLASGOW NEW YORK TORONTO MELBOURNE WELLINGT BOMBAY CALCUTTA MADRAS KARACHI CAPE TOWN IBAD to the University Geoffrey Cumberlege. Publisher Printed in Great Britain by Co. Ltd..

how great a help therefore. to have a bird's-eye view of the whole of a particular period. it will a most useful guide to anyone wanting to enlarge surely prove I their musical experience. Kathleen Dale has supplied just this in her book on Nineteenth-Century Piano Music. but it can never give a just or true interpretation of the music. may works for wish its readers many hours of happy discovery? MYRA December 1953 HESS . Not only does she provide a fully comprehensive survey of a most important ture. This may be fascinating for the player momentarily. or potential concert performer is the choice of reperHe may not possess an extensive library of his own. this medium. and it is. Too few people realize that neglected category composers such as Schubert produced some of their very finest and usefulness of her book. In warmly recommending it. as it field of piano litera- does the principal classical and romantic embracing but she gives a very clear picture of the structure masterpieces. Kathleen listener and please the Dale examines many terest lesser works. toire. The importance of structure in music is too often overlooked: the pianist is to wallow in the sheer sensuous beauty of the apt sound oFhis instrument. student. which adds greatly to the in- Nor has she omitted the sadly of piano duets. public libraries are not always within reach.PREFACE One of the questions that beset the enthusiastic amateur pianist. which can be enormously enjoyed by of enterprising enthusiasts. In addition to the acknowledged masterpieces. any pair Apart from the pleasure this book will give to readers. and forms used in them.


Studies. Fugue. Weber and Schubert V. and pieces X. The Sonata. Rondo. and Fantasy VIII. The Sonata. IV. (i) (2) (3) Beethoven Beethoven (cont. Miniatures for beginners 209 XL Dance Forms 248 276 300 XII. 5 The The Sonata.) u 24 43 67 III. (4) From Clementi to Grieg VI. Duets EPILOGUE: Summing-up and a glance forwards BIBLIOGRAPHY 303 or unfamiliar APPENDIX i: Particulars of recently published works 305 the APPENDIX n Table of : numbering of Schumann's and 3 Liszt's Taganini Studies 307 308 311 APPENDIX in: Table of composers' dates INDEX OF MUSICAL ILLUSTRATIONS INDEX OF COMPOSERS AND WORKS 312 GENERAL INDEX 319 . Variations VII.CONTENTS PREFACE by Dame Myra Hess page v i PROLOGUE: The Scope of the book I. The Piano before Beethoven II. Romantic Music 97 122 143 181 IX. Sonata.


possibly help the reader to gain either of the general of musical construction. It is not intended as a contribution to musicology or as a manual for students preparing for examinations in musical form and as a history. The most important of the works surveyed are presented in of the origins and historical perspective. None of the works are submitted to minute analysis. may The piano music written during the nineteenth century is as enormous in quantity as it is varied in style.PROLOGUE The Scope of the Book 1 HIS book for their is own designed primarily for pianists who make music delight. that is to say. classical and romantic music flourished side by side. while many of the well-established types continued to be cultivated with unabated zeal. with some account ancestry of the classes to which they belong. and with such brief discussion of the form. or borrowed from public libraries. though not quite excluwith standard works. music-type illustrations are used only sparingly. with such generally sively. the content. to should thus As most of the musical material referred be readily accessible. . accepted compositions as may already form the basis of the this For pianist's own library or may easily be purchased. reason it deals very largely. but a small number are described in detail wherever treatment of this kind a clearer understanding. At times. and the musical and pianistic styles of the individual compositions as it is hoped may enhance the player's own interest and enjoyment in performing them. but simply companion to the intensive study of the best-known and most representative piano music of the nineteenth century. The momentous changes in artistic ideals which occurred during the course of the century resulted in the emergence of new types of composition. or of the principles technical devices used in composition.

their type: studies. vocal. determine. fantasies. impressionistic. that on studies. The plan classes of sorting the musical material into well-defined has been adopted with the intention of preserving some of order in the treatment of so many different varieties of kind composition. rondos. At the same time. variations. or their style: abstract. between etudes or concert-studies. chronological order has been maintained as far as possible within each category. They can be studied as separate units by readers desiring information on specific subjects. and virtuosic types. The chapter on variations is divided between intellectual. as well as to the relationship of piano compositions by individual composers to their works of other kinds: orchestral. piano duets. Weber and Schubert. transcriptions. technical studies. etc. miniatures. dances. opportunities have been taken of drawing attention to the connexions that exist between the several categories. the second considering the Beethoven sonatas from the aspects of style and expression. chamber. or descriptive. For instance. into categories determined either They are arranged by their structure: sonatas.2 NINETEENTH-CENTURY PIANO MUSIC In view of the heterogeneity of the works composed throughmore practical to survey this long period it has been found them in conformity with their nature rather than according to out the date-order in which they were composed. of the larger categories have had to be sub-divided. the sonata occupies four chapters: the first sketching its Some history and structural principles and its treatment by Beeth- oven as a musical form. Nevertheless. contrapuntal forms and textures. The chapters are to a large extent self-contained.. and the fourth surveying the post-classical sonata from Mendelssohn to Grieg. for instance. whether John Field's sonatas should be treated as classical (in date) or as post-classical (in style) or To . romantic. and pieces for beginners. the third examining the sonatas of Beethoven's younger contemporaries. Sometimes it has been difficult to decide which of two or three chapters would be the more appropriate place for the discussion of compositions which either fall between two periods or which are equally representative of two or more categories.

These various methods of treating the subject-matter have been devised with the aim of deepening the interest of pianists in the music they play. whether Grieg's Ballade should be considered as a set of variations or as a piece of romantic music. for permission to quote from Slatter. and from Johan Halvorsen's arrangement of a slat for violin solo. In equivocal cases such cross-references have been made wherever possible as a set of miniatures. Edvard Grieg's . or whether Schu- mann's Carnaval should be appraised dance music or as these. between the chapters in which the works are respectively mentioned. 72.. acquaintance with increasing its artistic acquire closer essentials so that they may derive to satisfaction from interpreting Acknowledgements are due proprietors to Hinrichsen Edition Ltd. op. as programme music. and of helping them it. the of Peters Edition.THE SCOPE OF THE BOOK 3 whether they should be examined side by side with his more important nocturnes. whether Chopin's Polonaise-Fantasy should be included among fantasies or among music in dance forms.


During the nine- HE teenth century some of the greatest composers of all time enriched the literature of the piano with enduring masterpieces. Chopin. and then as the only recognized keyboard instrument for concert and domestic purposes. definition of the terms Classical and Romantic as to music. It saw the production of a vast quantity of the finest of which has become indispensable to every music. a rare or a seldom-played instrument. applied 1 nineteenth century was the golden age of piano music. nocturnes. When the year 1800 dawned. These are the composers whose works occupy the principal position in the present survey. Indeed.1 The Piano before Beethoven Origin of the piano. their number variations. and lyric pieces are only a few of the many types of composition which flourished during the hundred years in question. Beethoven. early piano music. it had . Dvorak. also endowed the instrument with works which are loved and enjoyed. As for the works themselves. polonaises. fugues. Schubert. Sonatas. Cesar Franck. at first as the favourite. professional and amateur. Tchaikovsky. the piano was by no means a new. Liszt. and Grieg are the names that immediately spring to mind when nineteenth-century piano music is under discussion. rondos. now equally well known though lesser in stature. etudes. grade of performer. wherever it is played. It witnessed the final displacement of the harpsichord and the establishment of the piano. although many others are considered throughout its pages. Other composers. ballades. Weber. is legion and their diversity bewildering. Schumann. Brahms. Mendelssohn.

first By devising the simple but of using hammers to strike the strings iningenious expedient stead of metal jacks or to quills pluck them. whether it was heavy or light. who invented the 'Gravicembalo col historically authenticated piano: the 3 piano e forte at Florence in 1709. Let us consider for a moment the fundamental difference between the piano and the harpsichord so that we may see how it was that the former came to supersede the latter. At last it had gained almost total supremacy over the long-established harpsichord. The player's touch on the keys of the harpsichord. which from thenceforth disappeared rapidly from the number of scene. but the subdued tone of the instrument itself was ineffective in comparison with the greater resonance and brilliance of the harpsichord. dissatisfaction with the limitations in their powers of expression. as compared with those of stringed instruments. In the early days of keyboard instruments. Bartolommeo Cristofori. Experiments with a mechanical device to impart to the harpsichord a quality approximating to the sustained sounds of bowed instruments were undertaken towards 1600. was increasingly felt by musicians. made no appreciable difference to the the quality of the sound produced. The keys of the much smaller clavichord were to some extent responsive to the player's fingers. It was not until a century later that this vital problem of the rise and fall in tone was solved in quite another manner by the Italian harpsichord-maker. nor any power to give prominence to a single melodic strand in the amount or musical texture.. Moreover. Neither had it any control over accentuation or gradation of tone. on neither of these instruments was it possible to produce the exquisitely expressive crescendo and diminuendo which are the natural prerogative of the human voice and of stringed and wind instruments.6 NINETEENTH-CENTURY PIANO MUSIC been in use during the latter half of the previous century. it had been growing in the public favour and had already inspired a not inconsiderable compositions. Cristofori took the . pedals or stops. Contrast and variety in tone-colour could be secured only by the use of different manuals.

but his work seems to have found favour in his own one Ludovico di Giustini to the however.THE PIANO BEFORE BEETHOVEN first 7 undermining the harpsichord's pre-eminence among keyboard instruments. 2. this grading in dynamics. licly upon Mozart. Wilhelm Friedelifelong preference mann. op. Muzio dementi. Strangely enough. perfected it step towards He improved upon country. The Roman-born Clementi. had been brought to England as a boy of fourteen in 1766 to study music. apparently inspire composition of a set of Twelve Sonatas for the Cimbalo di piano e forte. It did. Bach. others had simultaneously been at work in France. languished in Italy. which are in the form of suites in several short movements. his invention in 1720 and little in 1726. and England. Carl Philipp Emanuel. Germany. which was published at Florence in 1732.. it was an Italian. especially the last-named. who settled in England and who was the first to perform pubthe piano as a solo instrument in London in 1768. It was almost certainly the growing vogue for the piano in this country which determined him when he reached manhood to make his head- . During the 17303 the first German pianos made by Gottfried Silbermann were submitted to J. Incidentally. he provided a stimulus to the creation of an entirely new of writing for style the keyboard. S. who was destined to make the first really important contribution to the literature of the solo piano with a set of three Sonatas. this isolated volume the first printed music written considered to coinfor the specifically piano. and Johann Christian greeted the new instrument with enthusiasm. too. and thereafter the making of pianos Fortunately he was not the only pioneer in particular field. He ac- corded them some small measure of his approval but retained for the clavichord. As the Sonatas. bear written indications of is prise Cristofori died in 1731. in which countries progress was maintained in the production of different types of the same instrument. who was Mozart's senior by four years and who was a prolific composer as well as a magnificent performer. published in London in 1773. His sons. warmly welcomed the piano and made it increasingly known to the musical public on the continent by the brilliant performances he gave upon it of his own concertos.

wrote his and his first sonata Tor the pianoforte or harpsichord'. Ludwig van One year later. the well-known in C minor. some of his works may justifiably be considered as nineteenth-century music. printed as No.8 quarters in NINETEENTH-CENTURY PIANO MUSIC London rather than in his native Italy. the very year which saw the birth 5 harpsichord of the greatest of all composers who have ever written for the Beethoven. His reputation as a composer of has been obscured both by his greater fame as a performer and as a writer of studies and by the overwhelming genius of Beethoven. is not cultivated eight of his sonatas. 14 definitely for the piano. Dussek has for so been as 3 same long thought of a writer of 'educational sonatinas that his faspianistically cinating large-scale compositions which were written between 1782 and 1810 have fallen into oblivion as far as public performance is concerned. Even Beethoven wrote his earliest keyboard works. Haydn. then in first his fortieth year. i in most performing editions was composed in 1 798. As Glementi continued to compose until within a few years of his death in 1832. which was also the first of expressive Sonata keyboard compositions to bear dynamic indications and his sonata in the minor mode. where the had aroused so little general interest. which was his twentieth for the keyboard. piano. and for almost the reasons. It was not until and with increasing understanding of for the consistently piano its The last and greatest of his works in this medium possibilities. the essentially pianistic Sonata in E flat major. Like Clementi. He wrote the piano sonatas just mentioned. This sonata. They are now almost exclusively the . remained for several years unpub- and in the meantime. during 1770. His large and interesting output of sonatas. Haydn had reverted to composing later that he wrote more harpsichord. Dussek. Tor the harpsichord or pianoforte . which he designated Tor the piano or . for the the first Only two Sonatas of op. Almost the same fate has overtaken the compositions of his younger contemporary. L. in 1 795 did he produce his First Concerto and in 1 799 the 5 by serious music pianists to-day. J. many of which are still easily available. including lished.

those of the sym- . But our study is scheduled to begin at the year 1800 we although shall often need to look back to origins or to make comparisons with preceding periods to trace earlier music. to some extent. in those of almost every age. Beethoven's works consequently form the natural and inevitable starting-point of this survey. mantic elements. Beethoven's classicism was strongly permeated by rotypical classical composers. earlier or later. but many written earlier in the century are almost as rocompositions mantic in conception as any dating from the height of the period. and of his paramount feeling balance. * 'Classicism' in music is * * * the outcome of the composer's objective attitude of mind towards his art. In so doing. to gain a clearer understanding and a greater of the works which were written during the appreciation period to be reviewed. to a more exact definition of the term. while others written much later retain all the distinctive attributes of classicism. indeed. They are. of his intention to lay emphasis on perfection of form rather than on intimacy of for symmetry and expression. the main body of whose production also falls within the same so-called Classical period. During the Classical period some of the best-known and still most frequently used musical forms.THE PIANO BEFORE BEETHOVEN 9 preserve of the historian. In his works we may watch the development of the tendency which was later to exert a powerful influence upon the whole musical output of the nineteenth century. Before The Romantic period we can arrive at any satisfactory appreciation of the diverse styles of nineteenth-century piano music we must attempt to disentangle and define the classical and romantic elements which are blended in widely varying degrees in the compositions of our prescribed period. he 5 cannot be described as being exclusively 'classical in his musical outlook. * * * * we may hope Beethoven yet is when it comes commonly spoken of as a 'classical' composer. He cannot be placed in the same category as the most Haydn and Mozart. begins officially in 1830.

Classical music makes its effect by musical means alone. The conception S. . Bach during the point of development much earlier.from them. In a few words: romantic music assistance relies to from philosophic concepts. a avowedly set out to portray the emocomposition tions inspired by parting. phony. sources. In this survey we shall often find compositions which display an equal admixture of classical and romantic elements. also characterized by impatience with the restraints imposed by conventional forms. however far their composers may have deviated of fugue was brought to its highest . Romanticism creative arts. we shall note that descriptive music in his in which he Grieg composed a romantically expressive Lyric Piece (Op. by . and reunion. 38. by J.10 NINETEENTH-CENTURY PIANO MUSIC became stabilized. by the introduction of the picturesque and the exotic. For instance. Later. It is a definition. no. The types then perfected have ever since constituted the standards by which subsequent works in their respective categories are criticized. 8) in strict canon at the octave throughout both its. and by the attempt to translate other arts into music or to combine the phenomena of other arts with music itself. contrasting sections. It bears the of classicism late stamp Baroque period (1675-1 750) reason of its objective. intellectual character. the sonata. and the solo concerto. absence. when examining contrapuntal forms and textures. a large extent upon literary or pictorial when studying sonatas we shall see that Beethoven transformed a classical structure into a framework for romantic 'LebewohP Sonata (Les Adieux). even when is comprehensive term which resists exact it is confined to one single branch of the upon exemplified in music by the insistence laid the expression of personal feelings and emotions or upon It is abstract ideas which have universal significance.

ever-changing organism. etc.The Sonata a) The types classical sonata. Its origins date far back in musical history. During its evolution it has incorporated the rondo. During certain phases of its history the sonata has been . In tonality it has expanded from one key two or more nearly related or strikingly contrasted keys. 1 HE sonata is the most comprehensive in structure and the most varied in type of all large-scale music written for the keyboard. In design it has varied series of short movements akin to those of the suite to being composed in one long unbroken movement resembling a fantasy. the air with variations. is based upon the same structural principles as that of symphonies and of largescale chamber works (quintets. trios. definition of the ofform of individual movements. but it is an ever-expanding. quartets. Its most characteristic movement. which owes its formal outline to the da capo aria. Throughout its long history it has borrowed features from almost every other type of musical form and texture.). With these sonata as a whole is thus closely great cyclic art-forms the piano to allied. Beethoven's sonatas as whole works discussed from the aspects of architecture and design. the fugue and several types of dance within its ample scope. It susceptible of in- has fascinated composers during the span of well over two centuries and still shows little sign of losing its hold upon creative musical minds. retaining or rejecting them in accordance with its own from comprising a capacity for assimilation. the canon. finite modification. history up to Beethoven.



of their regarded by composers as the most important part for the keyboard. Not until the end of the Classical production it in favour of less exacting period did they begin to neglect and to submit it to transformation kinds of piano composition so fundamental as to make it almost unrecognizable when compared with examples of its rudimentary state. Yet despite
the strange vicissitudes it experienced throughout the nineteenth century, especially during the Romantic period (18301900), the piano sonata has

emerged triumphant into the

twentieth century to be cultivated by composers mutually so different in outlook as Scriabin, Bartok, Hindemith, Prokofiev,

Bax, and Tippett. The piano sonata
to date


we know it to-day is

generally considered

from the time of Carl Philipp Emanuel Bach (1714-88). He was by no means the first composer of keyboard sonatas, but it was he who systematized the work of his predecessors in this and who determined the constitution of the sonata for sphere many years to come. His own most typical variety of sonata is is in firstin three separate movements. One or more of these movement or sonata form; the form that he himself was largely
responsible for establishing to his successors for

on a firm basis and for transmitting expansion undreamed of in the earlier Other types of movement that he often eighteenth century. included in his sonatas were the rondo and the tempo di minuetto', both of which, like first-movement form, were also to undergo remarkable developments in structure and style before many years had elapsed. Between 1740 and 1786 Emanuel Bach wrote about 150 sonatas, of which unprecedented number only the merest fraction is known to practising pianists. These compositions, which are alternately severely intellectual and over-florid in are style, well suited for performance on the the claviharpsichord and chord. They do not lend themselves so readily to effective interpretation on the piano, nor do they appeal to the modern player as strongly as they do to the historian. Yet pianists owe Emanuel Bach a debt of gratitude. His pioneer work in the

sphere of the sonata exerted a powerful influence

upon Haydn,



Mozart, and Beethoven, all of whom acknowledged him. as their master, and each of whom in turn established new traditions in

not within our present purpose to examine the sonatas

of the later eighteenth-century composers except in so far as throw light upon those written during the nineteenth centhey
tury. Nevertheless, as we cannot fully recognize distinctive qualities of the last-named

ing something of their the principal characteristics of the sonata-production of Beethoven's most notable predecessors: Haydn (1732-1809), Mozart

and enjoy the compositions before knowimmediate ancestry, we must glance at

dementi (1752-1832), and Dussek (1760-1812). Haydn wrote about fifty sonatas over a long period of more

than thirty years, during which time the form grew in his hands from diminutive to impressive proportions. He made a beginning with simple compositions in three short movements which he wrote for his harpsichord pupils and entitled 'divertimento' or 'partita' (alternative names for suites) Thereafter he gradually broadened his conception of the sonata as a whole form, modifying its structure by varying the number of the movements

and arranging them in diverse order. He introduced new kinds of movement; in particular, interesting species of variations and


of his innovations was the inclusion of the minuetthe sonatas but in a sufficiently to ensure this type of movement's becoming

and-trio in the scheme; not in

large number naturalized in the sonata-structure of his


time and


Haydn's sonatas are distinguished by characteristics which are far to seek in those by Emanuel Bach: namely, in melodic
lilt, and in a certain lightness of temct which them great fascination. They are rich, too, in expressive power. The piano writing in the later sonatas is highly imaginative and effective with its bold harmonies and animated contra-

charm, rhythmic

in puntal style. It is full of interest for the player, not only to that of Beethoven itself but inasmuch as it points forward and Schubert.


lived long



become much more intimately

acquainted with the special qualities of the piano than did




who wrote

fifteen years

and the majority of them

the whole of his keyboard sonatas within in early manhood. The

older master excelled the younger in writing sympathetically for the solo instrument. The younger, who was incomparably


brilliant as


an executant, was stimulated to his finest collaborating with another instrumentalist or with

and piano and his concertos contain much the most interesting and effective part of his on the writing for the keyboard. His eighteen piano sonatas, other hand, possess unique charm in their clarity of texture and
the orchestra. His sonatas for violin
in the subtlety of their structural planning. All are in three

movements. In this respect they differ as a series from Haydn's, among which two sonatas are written in four movements, and nine in only two movements.


distinctive feature of Mozart's sonatas



treatment of

first-movement form, into which he breathed new life by rearranging its smaller component parts into a multitude of
different patterns,

thereby introducing a strong element of

the minuet-and-trio and the air surprise. Mozart admitted with variations only twice each into his sonatas, but he made comparatively greater use of the rondo than did Haydn. From these two masters and from Emanuel Bach, Beethoven inherited the tradition of the classical piano sonata as an established art-form which, though variable in the number and types of its individual movements, was sufficiently well-defined
in structure to constitute a sure foundation for further develop-





Beethoven's indebtedness to

dementi and Dussek was of

another kind. Both these composers were outstanding performers and both confined their creative activities very largely to
writing piano music. They were familiar with every known pianistic device current in their day and were deeply interested
in experimenting in the production of novel effects. It natural that in focusing so much of their attention


upon the

layout of their compositions and upon the writing of brilliant passages they should have surpassed Haydn and Mozart in these

respects while not equalling exercised a profoundly


In structural mastery. They stimulating effect upon the piano style


of the rising Beethoven.


him,, the influence of these
itself felt far

neglected pianist-composers nineteenth century.





Beethoven saluted the year 1800 with
major, op. 22, a


Sonata in



work of


proportions in four


contemporary with
veals a

his First

that he used for each

Symphony. The types of structure movement are clearly derived from those
but the entire composition reof the sonata as an


his predecessors,

new and more dramatic conception

organic whole.

By what stages had he arrived at this easy mastery of structural design and effective piano style? Beethoven was a born composer of sonatas. At the age of
thirteen he wrote three, which show at a glance that from a tender age he had not the slightest compunction in reshaping

the contours of conventional structures in accordance with the
pressing needs of his own musical invention. Each of these youthful essays follows a different plan in the arrangement of


movements and even the same types of movement vary

greatly in outline. All three sonatas are remarkable for the assurance and fluency of their workmanship. One of them

makes an unforgettable impression by the unusual design of the movement and by its sustained expressive power. This is no. 2 in F minor, which anticipates the 'Appassionata' Sonata both in key and in intensity of mood, and the Tatheit shares the distinctive characteristic of a tique', with which slow introduction that recurs later during the movement. A marked similarity exists, too, between the opening themes of the Allegro and that of its renowned successors. The exquisitely F minor reveals tranquil slow movement of this early Sonata in an amazing depth of feeling, to which the exuberance and

vigour of the Finale present a striking contrast. In addition to being an unmistakable forerunner of the two great works just



mentioned, as well as an extremely effective piece for the player,, the whole composition possesses interest for the student of the Beethoven sonatas in showing that some of the characteristics of the master's mature style were already present in the



repetition of dynamics, short figures or phrases for the purposes of emphasis and exrelentless

They include sudden rhythmical drive and the




These sonatas, known

1 783. The series in the whole of Beethoven's production and the greatest collection of piano sonatas by any composer, was inaugurated in

'Bonn Sonatas, were written in of the Thirty-two, one of the most vital sections
as the


795-6 with the Sonatas in F minor, A major, and C major, to Joseph Haydn, from op. 2, nos. 1-3. They were dedicated whom Beethoven had received some instruction and whom he admired as a composer even if he held a poor opinion of his


methods of teaching. Although the sonatas of op. 2 and their up to and including op. 14, no. 2, were composed 1 800, before they must of necessity be included in our survey. No one who is interested in Beethoven's piano works could be

satisfied to

momentous opening

section of a series


equally rewarding to study as a a collection of single items.
it is

whole entity and


In the earlier part of this chapter reference was made to various types of sonata movement, but no details were given of their structural characteristics. Now that we are to consider
the individual sonatas


a collection which includes an

increasing our attention to the few technicalities in the


of different kinds of movement

we must



of definition


description which are indispensable

to the endlessly fas-

cinating study of the formal


architectural aspects of music.

preliminary purpose the sonatas of Beethoven's op. 2 an eminently satisfactory basis. Their twelve moveprovide ments (four to each sonata) exemplify several of the types of

form which occur most frequently in the sonatas written during



the late eighteenth century and throughout the whole of the nineteenth century.



of pieces of instrumental music belong to one of two principal types of structure: binary (twofold) or ternary

The majority

The former

complete section

to a close in a

type comprises pieces in which the first new key and the second

which opens in a new key and

based upon material

ultimately returns to the original key. The two sections are often very unequal in length. Simple binary form,

used in the

exemplified in the first (and other) movements of many early sonatas, may be observed in Beethoven's op. 2 in the Trios of nos. i and 2. Compound binary form, in which the scheme


just described is extended by the insertion of a central section, is known as 'sonata form or synonymously as 'first-movement

form'. It


used for the opening movements of


three sonatas

of op. 2 and will be fully described later. When it has no welldefined central section, as in the Andante of op. 2, no. i, it is

termed 'modified sonata form'.
first of which Ternary form consists of three main sections, the (A) ends in the original key and is repeated, sometimes with after a contrasting central section (B) superficial modifications, form may be seen at its written in another key. This no. i, in the Scherzo of no. 2 in the Minuet of op. 2, simplest and in both the Scherzo and the Trio of no. 3. The Minuet-


and-Trio (or Scherzo-and-Trio) as a complete entity



ever, in itself ternary in form inasmuch as the Minuet (or Scherzo) is repeated after the Trio which forms the contrasting

central section.

The whole



rounded off with an inde-

pendent coda, as in op. 2, no. 3. This simple threefold scheme forms the basis of



the Marcia funebre of Beethoven's Sonata in flat, op. 26, and the Andante of the in innumerSonata in major, op. 79. It is also exemplified able single pieces such as some of Schubert's Impromptus and

movements of


For instance,



Moments musicaux, Chopin's Nocturnes, Brahms's Intermezzos


Grieg's Lyric Pieces.

two of the former and three of the latter form the most usual and possibly the most satisfactory scheme. In both binary and ternary forms. and by the inclusion of a central section consisting either of a contrasting interlude (as in the Finales just mentioned). is a fundamental necessity. In this type of form the number of intervening contrasting sections (episodes) is the introduction of entirely fresh material. 3. exact or approximate repetition. tween the quantity of the thematic material. by the recurrence of the refrain at the end of the first complete section. Indeed. which is used for many finales. increased. the number of stated and the variety of guises in which it is presented a composer's highest powers of invention. of episodes or the repeats of the refrain. 2. but in practice. whether of single paragraphs or of whole sections of the music. either by as in the Largo of op. no. as in the key of material already used in In theory. 2 and no. It no. Modem or Sonata Rondo form. Its already huge proportions are enlarged by long sections that form links between the episodes and the recurrent refrain. It may be recognized by the presence of a 'second subject' which later recurs with the customary 'sonata- form' key-change. repetition is one of the most art of musical vital and indispensable elements in the whole the ideal balance becomposition. the movement is crowned by a magnificent coda in which the inextinguishable time after time in progressively principal theme reappears effective and thrilling variations. or by the repetition in another a previous episode.The most impressive example of the older rondo form in the Beethoven sonatas is number furnished by the Finale of the 'Waldstein' Sonata. 2 in the Finales of both exemplified in Beethoven's op. Only by being familiar with the salient features of the recognized musical forms can the music-lover derive the maximum enjoyment from To maintain times it is calls for . 2. or of the development of material two pre- viously used (as in the Finale of op. 22). is a blend of the structure of is older rondo with that of sonata form.l8 NINETEENTH-CENTURY PIANO MUSIC accretion leads to Enlargement of the ternary structure by the formation of Simple or Older Rondo form. 3. there is no limit to the second movement of no.

the late-eighteenthexcellence. section. which century and the nineteenth-century form the many par in the hands of the greatest masters of that long period attained a nobility of conception and expression perhaps never since * Sonata form * * surpassed. 'exposition which is major mode. or of subjects is announced. a second subject. 2. key has been reached. but sometimes. It generally forms a contrast group is in the When this fresh in character or mood to the principal subject and usually ends in a distinctive phrase termed the codetta. In op. It proceeds towards a fresh key. 2. no. entirely fresh material is introduced in addition to that which has already become familiar. for instance. 3 The first generally repeated. comprises a principal subject or group of subjects in the tonic key. back to the third and The development-section of the movement eventually leads last section. merging into a short or long passage of transition. which is known as the re- . tonal or rhythmic.THE SONATA: BEETHOVEN all 19 subtleties of repetition and variation which disthe works of any tinguish great composer. no. Most especially is this so in the instance of sonata form. 2. One of the most important functions of the developmentsection A means strong key-contrast to provide contrast to the surrounding sections by of key-change. particularly outset of the deis furnished at the is very velopment. to G by the sudden plunge in tonality from E major and then by successive modulatory passages through major first a number of keys. 2. Then follows a central section. no. or the relative major if it is in the minor. * consists (or first-movement form] of three main sections whose mutual key-relationships are of paramount im- portance in the organization of the movement as a whole. This procedure is major. op. i. known as the development or working-out. 2. During its course some of the thematic material stated in the exposition recurs in new keys and in fresh guises. normally that of the dominant if the sonata . F minor. exemplified in the first movement of the Sonata in as in the Finale of the Sonata in op. with a cadence in the fresh key.

. These are extreme instances of Beethoven's powers of formal organization. and the opening movement of the last Sonata in C minor. no. The capitulation. 10. as it does in the Sonata. in which tonality the movement usually remains until the end. He transformed it into a closely knit organic whole. He achieved an effect in the 'adagio sostenuto' opposite of the 'Moonlight' Sonata by eliminating all but the barest essentials of formal structure in favour of creating a supremely poetic atmosphere. The dimensions of this type of movement and * last movements of the * * * 5 Such is the traditional scheme of 'first-movement form to which Beethoven adhered in principle. a movement compact of powerful rhythms. The codetta is sometimes lengthened by a few to so as to ensure the return of the major be modified passage bars to are at times greatly the addition of a separate introductory section. of transition has generally instead of in F. or of a long. in unexpected key. op. as in the 'Waldstein'. usually or it may make a deceptive re-entry in an entirely disguised. whose terrific and mysterious introduction a stretch of musical fabric in which distinctive attripreludes butes of sonata form and fugue are closely interwoven.2O NINETEENTH. D second subject in the tonic key. 1 1 1. component parts into He expanded it into a as to make possible the musical expression of an illimitable range of human emotions and abstract Among the sonata movements that most strikingly reveal new conceptions of musical architecture are the Allegro of the 'Hammerklavier' Sonata. as enlarged by in the first movement of the 'LebewohP Sonata. self-contained coda. op. bringing the structure so gigantic more intimate mutual relationship. first make a more impressive coda. 106.CENTURY PIANO MUSIC In this final section. and yet so plastic ideas. a multiplicity of key-changes and intricate fugal texture. the principal subject rein the original key. although he carried it to a far higher state of development. op. It may be decorated or appears. 2.

display a wide range of planning. the third. The feeling of equili- brium established by the suave. a transcends every limitation Presto whose tameless of impetuosity construction. op. no. its threefold sucfirst is movements in contrasted The a tone- poem so serene that any thought of conscious formal layout is banished by the unruffled continuity of its triplet-quaver classical figuration. the second. Most of the two-movement sonatas comprise strong mutual contrasts in structural design and expressive style. the alternately gracious and recondite opening in tempo d'un minuetto'. is balanced by an invigorating e mo to perpetuo of running semiquavers. In this powerful work the opening c is followed by a short allegro con brio' in symphonic style c linking section. The three-movement sonatas. mood of the sonata-form The anxious movement of the Sonata in E minor. He integrated the individual movements ever more closely. op. is shattered by a quicksilvery 'allegro vivace 5 that defies exact classification. In the Sonata in F major. air of mysterious anticipation before leading into the colossal. left his mighty impress. an Allegretto-and-Trio. op. 2. in. is unique in style. the towering strength and intricate contrapuntal mechanism of the first movement are perfectly counterpoised by a sublimely restful set of variations on a tranquil theme in the major mode. 53 (1804). In the great C minor Sonata. well-balanced Allegro of the Sonata in F sharp major. adagio molto' which creates an without a break isolated The 'Moonlight' and the 'Waldstein' are only . op. 27. Introduzione. itself a curious blend of rondo and variations. is entirely offset by the imperturbable contentment of the rondo Finale in E major. so on the sonata a whole. 90. strictly in form but romantic in its delicate chiaroscuro. arranging their succession in a variety of ways. The 'Moonlight cession of 3 . which comprise the largest number of the Thirty-two.THE SONATA: BEETHOVEN As on the Beethoven single 21 as movement. clearly recognizable sonata-form The earliest sonata in which Beethoven departed from the its conventional scheme of three self-contained movements was the 'Waldstein'. brilliant rondo Finale. op. 78. op. 54.

tragic in F minor. 3. The was the first of the Thirty-two to be as an unbroken whole. first 01. known as the 'Funeral March Sonata. 7. 1 He also resorted to it in the A major Sonata. either by being marked to be played without a break (Attacca). a rondo whose quickly running imitative counterpoint presents an ideal contrast to the heavy chordal texture of the Mania funebre. op. It entire sections. op. Among these arc the large-scale. lends the whole work a strong sense of unity. 5 op. It opens major. op. 8ia. op. 2. in which the peaceful flow of the first movement is twice checked by Adagio interludes. whose arioso slow movement and fugal major. The first op. nos. the E major purports Sonata. and the Sonata in A flat no. 109. for its second movement a Scherzo-and-Trio. Finale are inextricably interlocked. no. This was the first sonata of Beethoven's 'second period' ( 1 802 1814). con variazioni' instead of the exceptionally with an 'andante and unlike all the preceding sonatas has customary Allegro. The recurrence of sonata. c 10. seven of the four-movement sonatas. 'allegro molto'. the only one of all the sonatas that to delineate specific emotional states. date from Beethoven's first period'. third movement is the Mama funebre. op. 1-3. They were succeeded principles in 1802 by a sonata of an entirely original type: the A flat 26. i. by inserting the tranquil opening phrase of the . during which time he followed traditional structural with varying degrees of fidelity. sometimes varied or in a fresh key. the Sonata in E flat major. and op. op. All the movements are joined designed together. 57. is yet another type of four- Symphonies. 22. or by means of linking passages. the Finale. no. 27. op. This expedient of restating whole sections of material during the course of a work in cyclic form was employed by Beethoven with dramatic force in the Finales of the Fifth and the Ninth quasi una movement c fantasia'. op.. further differing types.22 NINETEENTH-CENTURY PIANO MUSIC which also include examples of the three-movement sonatas. Its immediate successor. the picturesque 'Lebewohl' 'Appassionata' in E flat major.

From the foregoing necessarily brief comments on some of the formal aspects of the Beethoven Sonatas it may be seen that these compositions fall into three distinctive the types: types are by no means mutually exclusive. op. 27 and the 'LebewohP Sonata. the romantic and the intellectual.two. Classical principles underlie all the sonatas. Of these. even when they are so romantic in character as classical. too. play of all c is the Thirty. The the 'Funeral March' Sonata. In other words.THE SONATA movement : BEETHOVEN 23 for expressive purposes just before the soliloquizing leads into the strenuous Finale. the the most recondite and the most difficult to longest. only of a Beethoven. the only one in four movements separate the 'Hammerklavier' Sonata in B flat major. free organization of the movements and in the improvisatory passages We and sections. In the intellectually conceived 3 romantic elements are present in the 'third-period' sonatas. This type could be suca composer whose command of cessfully cultivated only by technical resource equally high order. shall meet the classical and the romantic types of sonata again in the works of the later nineteenth-century composers. but not the superlatively intellectual. and whose power of imagination were of an by the master mind . Adagio The last-named Sonata is the first of the five of Beethoven's third period'. the 'quasi fantasia Sonatas of op. 106.

colour-efects. seldom makes impossible demands upon his technique. This close acquaintance during his early years with the realities of keyboard technique resulted in his writing for the piano in a style which. expressive qualities. contrapuntal treatment. whether or not he is interested in musical architecture. His gift of extemporizing at the keyboard was not only remarkable in itself. the principal attractions of the Beethoven sonatas are the infinite variety and beauty of their actual musi- range of expression and the of their pianistic style. are the .The Sonata Beethoven's sonatas from the aspects of rhythm. tonality. made a deep impression upon his hearers. viola. He was not a virtuoso cal substance. but he began his musical career as a pianist and teacher of the piano. particularly of his own works. A emphasis speculative rather than upon the humanly expressive. variation technique. Beethoven had also learned to play the violin. r OR the pianist. It was not until after Beethoven's deafness had incapacitated him as a performer that he tended to allow the intellectual aspects of his instrumental music to predominate over the pracfew of his 'third-period' sonatas. in musical history or in the evolution of the sonata as an art-form. it was also the cause of his discovering new pianistic effects. but a player whose compelling performances. the last five of the is laid Thirty-two. although it calls for the player's utmost skill. and organ in his boyhood. har- mony. melody. in which upon the philosophically tical. their limitless effective according to the dementi standard. supremely quality Beethoven was himself a fine pianist.

They make the effect of the composer's having been obsessed by an inmusical escapable poetic idea which could find equivalent expression only in the ceaseless repetition of distinctive groupa uniform figure ings of notes and beats or in the maintenance of of accompaniment. Even skilled performers do not lightly undertake to play the 'Hammerklavier Sonata or the Sonata in C minor. It furnishes an early example the elements of sonata form and fugue into a con- blending . 2. incisive figures persistently for bars at a stretch or throughout the greater part of a whole movement. 10. the beauty and the enthralling piano writing have ensured their retaining a firm hold upon the affections of players of all grades. Nevertheless. professional and amateur. 2. Beethoven sometimes used short. aspects principal characteristics of the thematic material is its vitality in rhythm and metre.THE SONATA: BEETHOVEN 25 only ones that are almost beyond the powers of performance of any except professional pianists. despite a succession of changes in musical fashions. Among the movements which display these features are the Finale of the Sonata in F minor. no. op. of the Sonata striding Vivace alia marcia' in the presto Finale of the F major Again Sonata. no. in. in A major. i. and the jauntily op. op. with these few exthe Beethoven sonatas can be ceptions. Many of the actual themes or phrases may have no well-defined Looking more closely into the musical and expressive of the sonatas we find that one of the melodic outline or commanding harmonic scheme. 101. for well over a hundred years. but never for a moment loses its initial of Beethoven's skill in impetus. played with enjoyment efficient 5 by any reasonably musician. a tornado of peremptory staccato crotchet chords and whirling quaver triplets. op. Their inestimable value interest of the as music. the strongly accented opening theme is reiterated in a number of harmonic and quasi-fugal guises and in a great variety of keys. but they make an indelible impression upon players and listeners by the inner strength of their rhythmic patterns.

In the presto con fuoco' of the Sonata in E flat. 28 and of the 'Hammerklavier'. 14. Turning to more purely melodic features we discover many characteristically Beethovenian traits. op. whose clear-cut rhythmic pattern is their principal merit. the second subject of the Allegro of op. Sonata. In the coda it is eventually caught up into a vortex of repetition. where the pianissimo scale in triple time is broken up into units of two crotchets on the weak beats E A . op. are all strenuous in character. 31. op. It is a mastersuspense piece of monothematic organization. Further examples are too numerous to specify. it an almost hypnotic effect by its unhurried perpetual motion. Despite an occasional syncopation and a breathing-space of a quaver's duration every now and again. no. 3 in major. Melodies proceeding mainly scale-wise up or down (or both) include the boldly curving theme of the Presto of op. 31. no. an almost unbroken tissue of six semiquavers to the bar. Indeed. no. 10.26 NINETEENTH-CENTURY PIANO MUSIC and others. The opening motive of three rising notes. no. 3. the irresistible elan of the iambic metre of the dance far exercises c outweighs the triviality of the short-breathed melodic outlines. 2. op. no. D the listener perpetually in pervades the whole fabric and keeps as to how and when it will next appear. Another movement of this kind is the Finale of the D minor Sonata. i in E flat. among which the following are some of the most easily recognizable. A movement that exhibits the same type of strongly marked though less emis the rondo Finale of the major phatic rhythmic features no. 27. 3.. such as the respecvincing unity. The Finale of the 'Waldstein' is entirely dominated by the combined rhythmic and melodic pattern of the short opening theme that recurs innumerable times throughout the movement. which seems to be forever asking an unanswerable question. 10. they may be found in almost every movement of the Thirty-two. i in D major. the Trio section (in flat) of the 'allegro rnolto e vivace' of op. These movements tive Scherzos of the 'Pastoral' Sonata in D. in which the scale is alternately diatonic and chromatic.

and the theme of the variasixteen bars are tions in the E major Sonata. 2. Themes which start in detached segments before they assume of the greater continuity of motion form the principal subjects Sonatas in G minor and F B is major. 109. the largo e mesto' of sostenuto' of the 'Hammerklavier' and op. op. 31. simplicity of the chords upon Melodies that proceed which subject of the first movement of the 'Appassionata' as well as the chordal section in the coda of the Finale. first in the right hand and then in canon with the left. op. 3. i). op. 31. C minor section of the E Perhaps the most striking of all is the flat major Sonata just mentioned (op. 22. i forthright opening by the sprightly. 3. arpeggio-wise are exemplified by the theme of the F minor Sonata. and the second subject of the brio' of the 'Waldstein' is con of the outline of this theme (from bar 35). vertiginous codetta and other passages of the con fuoco' of op. type. the melody of which drops down a fifth three times within the space of five bars. no. It consists of a steady succession of broken chords and culminates in one last tirelessly ascending and descending. no. 3 in E flat. whose no fewer than seven times by falling intervals rangpunctuated ing in extent from a third to a sixth. no. tute Melodies distinguished by recurrent falling intervals constithe opening phrase of the 'adagio cantabile' of the Tathetique'. 7 also of this The opening phrase of the Themes such as these make the of the composer's being determined to secure the impression listener's close attention before announcing a more important musical idea. 27. and of the Sonata in flat major. nos. . 10.THE SONATA. 10. the 'adagio c the almost moveless theme of the variations forming the slow movement of the 'Appassionata'. i and 2. op. no. by the principal 'presto . no. Entirely opposite in effect are the long. smoothly flowing melodies of the Minuetto of op. Largo of op. BEETHOVEN with a 'allegro rest 27 on each strong beat. fortissimo down the C major arpeggio into the depths of plunge the keyboard. and by the whole of the Trio of the 'Hammerklavier'. The severity emphasized by the strength and it rests.

27. no. grazioso' ethereal in character as the Allegretto of the 'Moonlight' Sonata D major. rondo Finale of op. in the 'adagio sostenuto' of the 'Moonlight Sonata. in which accented passing-notes occur on the first beats other - of the opening bars.28 NINETEENTH-CENTURY PIANO MUSIC Nevertheless. Piquant . 22 is permeated throughout by a motive of a rising semitone which originates in the second bar. 10. 31. the Minuets of op. a 5 device that is exemplified in the Scherzo of the 'Hammerklavier Sonata and in the second movement of the 'Moonlight'. in the earlier sonatas. the G does not escape periodic interruption by impatient sforzandos. 2. in op. i in major. Other distinctive features of Beethoven's melodic invention include two which intensify the expressive character of the material. many of Beethoven's otherwise tranquil themes. One is the building of themes by means of sequences (the repetition of a figure or phrase at a different pitch). the accented C natural in the right-hand part in bars 16 and 18 and its D natural in the right-hand part in bars 52 and 54 equivalent are the only disturbing elements in this ineffably peaceful movement. 7 E flat major. For example. 22. 3 in of op. the 'adagio con expressione' and the 'adagio Adagio of op. The Adagio of op. Lastly comes the breaking up of a theme into short sections for distribution over the 5 keyboard at various of all the sonatas. The exis the use of accented passing-notes (melody-notes traneous to the supporting harmonies). no. no. i. op. are punctuated by sudden especially accentuation or wayward syncopation. i. no. imparting great pungency to the melody: JRondo Poco aHegVetto e graxioso Again. These abound in the thematic material and the passage. 26 Even a movement so of op. 7 in Typical examples may be found in the E flat. the Marcia funebre of op.

and in the 'adagio cantabile' introduction of op. 2.THE SONATA: BEETHOVEN effects 29 arising from 2. 54 in F major and in the coda of the 'andante con moto' of the 'Appassionata'. We have already observed the closeness of the relationship between Beethoven's melodies and their underlying rhythmic schemes. op. i in E op. 28. at its first especially appearance. dominant and subdominant). bars 25 and 35. the Adagios of op. no. This last passage is closely paralleled in the final section of the Allegretto of the Seventh Symphony in A. 79. By these limited means he nevertheless succeeded in investing his themes with the quality of supreme inevitability. 78 in F sharp major. tonic pedal-point beats three purposes. 3. no. The 'Pastoral' Sonata. throughout the 'in d'un tempo minuetto of op. 3. Examples may be found at the openings of the following movements: the 'presto the Allegro of alia tedesca' of the Sonata in G major. this treatment occur at the end of the e Adagio of op. 31. 22 and of the 'Waldstein'. in this context termed a pedal-point. withdrawing support to other. Some Other melodies are treated even more simply by being anchored to one bass-note. In the Allegro the . which is almost invariably the tonic. What of their harmonic aspects? Beethoven's manner of harmonizing his melodic material. op. i. furnishes an example of the device used for colourop. in the Finale ( allegro vivace') of op. the Adagios of op. i between 3 no. no. 27. to name only a few. no. The note. was frequently simple in the extreme.. no. B flat and of major. 22 in i in G major. and sometimes he cut down his resources to the primary triads (tonic. less forcible chords only at intermediate points. no. Such are the respective opening themes of the rondos of the Sonata in B flat. of the melodies rest the bulk of their weight upon the of tonic and dominant-seventh harmonies. i and op. 27. He was often content to rely upon the solid strength of plain diatonic harmony. 31. persists for a few bars while the harmonies change above it. 14. op. and the 'allegro con brio' of op.

begins over a pedal-note which is struck on every strong beat for the first sixteen bars. Instances of important themes harmonized with a preponderop. In the recapit- even longer. and the 'andante espressivo' of the 'LebewohF Sonata. the Allegro. planning. They occur in the specific developmentsections of sonata-form movements and in the episodes of rondos where remote key-changes produce a particularly telling effect. They also play an active part in creating a feeling of suspense before the return of a long-awaited theme or in springing a surprise by presenting fundamentally diatonic material in strikingly fresh versions. are comparatively rare. 7 in E fiat at the last appearance of the refrain. There it pursues its double-octave furtive course pianissimo for nearly seven bars until a sudden sforzando jerks it back into the original tonality. The few points just mentioned in connexion with Beethoven's use of diatonic or chromatic harmonic resources are limited to small-scale operations. which includes the ships necessarily His long-range harmonic determining of key-relation- between the different sections of whole movements and . ance of chromatic chords. such as those of the Adagio. Beethoven used chromaticisms spar- ingly in his main thematic material but introduced them freely to perform functions. so to speak. too. ulation it persists An exception to the use of the tonic as the basis of passages of this kind is provided by the short pedal-point on the dominant at the major. 101. into a key a chromatic semitone higher. typical instance of the latter occurs in the A of op.30 NINETEENTH-CENTURY PIANO MUSIC crotchets in a bar for twenty successive bars and continues to beat almost without interruption either in the centre of the texture or as a bass-note during another nineteen bars. The last movement of this sonata. it suddenly slips out of gear.two which does not disclose its fundamental tonality at the very outset. beginning of the Allegretto of the Sonata in A one of the few movements of the Thirty. After the theme has first been enlivened with decorative Rondo chromaticisms and has come to an impressive pause on a B flat.

are not thus technically equipped may be subaware how greatly the very life and interest of a consciously sonata are dependent upon this fundamental matter of keyrelationship. C sharp. of the major Sonata. A enharmonic notation. It Others who may be borne in mind that some key-relationships which look extremely remote on paper simply to their owe their apparent mystery enharmonic notation. far beyond the scope of this handbook. is a highly technical subject. an impossibly difficult Sometimes whole movements are written with an enharmonic key-signature for the sake of convenience in reading. affords of the lowered sub-mediant (F another example of the use within the framework major) for providing strong key-contrast of a whole sonata. a enharmonic equivalent. flat major. The Allegretto of the 'Moonlight' Sonata is written enharmonically flat in major. is accidentals denoting the 7. the lowered sub-mediant (the sixth some G degree basic tonality of the whole sonata. The third movement of the 'Hammerto the impracticklavier' is written in F sharp minor owing flat minor. case in point. but in this case. but musicians with a knowledge of harmonic progressions and a strong sense of tonality will almost certainly be able to follow Beethoven's modulations in all their logic and through all their vagaries. op. There. the numerous tonality of E major (a sharp key within a flat one) are merely doing duty for the more complicated notation of the implied just referred to.THE SONATA: BEETHOVEN 31 between the several movements of whole sonatas. . 101. the of using the signature of key of the ability of the scale) of B flat. the key-signature of five flats being less cumber- D to the sight-reader than the seven sharps of the actual tonic major. F key. op. The change in key-signature flat to E from major during the course of the first movement A of the Sonata in The second movement is made for the same reason. op. no. there is no necessity for A flat. Only movements in detail is it possible to come by analysing complete to an understanding of these vital issues. The seven-bar passage in the rondo Finale of the E flat Sonata.

if not exceeded. 2. or to be running in double counterpoint. and op. For the Adagio of the Sonata in C major. independence of tradition. They prove on closer scrutiny to be compact of canons or canonic imitations between the upper and lower earlier but here we strands of the musical fabric. the enharmonic of D for the slow remote key possible: E major. 3 (1795-6) he chose the 5 much less usual key of the mediant (third). a chromatic semitone Many years later Schubert used the key of the lowered movement of his last and with magic effect greatest Sonata in B flat flat) major (1828). They are this matter Beethoven showed his the Largo of op. They will be referred to in another chapter. Such passages occur in abundance op. or horizontal. 2. 31. mediant (C sharp. 7. i in Peters Edition). The central movement of this splendid work is written in the most distant. or vertical. Five other inner movements besides those already mentioned demonstrate his preference for sub-mediant tonality. It produces a sharp contrast in tonality. Indeed. E major.32 NINETEENTH-CENTURY PIANO MUSIC Up In till the time of Beethoven the use of any but nearly related keys (relative or tonic major or minor. not the place to discuss the elaborate fugal movements of the later sonatas. i. the pianistic texture of the Thirty-two derives a very large part of its effectiveness and from the devices of counterpoint incorporated within it. 2. in the three Sonatas of The Trio in the third movement of the F minor Sonata . interest of the piano writing in the Beethoven sonatas is at least equalled. 10. At first sight they seem to owe their effectiveness as keyboard music simply to decorative figuration. but one less sharp than that in Haydn's last Sonata in E flat (1798) (no. no. no. the Adagios of op. no. by the contrapuntal. vitality This is may examine a few representative passages in the and middle-period sonatas. The harmonic. op. the 'andante con moto of the 'Appassionata and the 'an5 5 dante espressivo (Absence) of the 'LebewohP Sonata. dominant or subdominant) for the inner movements of sonatas was exceptional.

In this instance. In the 'allegro con brio'. the pithy subject- matter of the first and last movements affords wonderful tunities for diverse contrapuntal treatment. and between bars 47 and 60 the thematic material is tossed from one hand to the other in canonic imitation. D major. the right-hand part in bars 5 and 6 is imitated by the left hand in bars 9 and i o. 10. 3. freeing the right to provide a decorative counterpoint above In the Sonata in it. 3) are rich in contrapuntal devices. opporIn the Presto. Towards the end of the development-section the right hand proceeds in canon at the ninth with the left hand in three short phrases in octaves: All eg'ro eon brio The Scherzo of this Sonata imitations. the right-hand and left-hand parts in bars 1-4 each other's functions in bars 5-8. is later transat first the chords. In the Finale is built up in a series of short canonic some of the most telling passages are the rising scale in staccato those in which the principal theme. upper lower can be reversed without altering the musical sense. and perform again at the beginnings of the middle and final sections of the same move- ment. op. no.THE SONATA: BEETHOVEN 33 provides an example of double (invertible) counterpoint: that is to of a combination of two themes in which the and say. Three of the four movements of the G major Sonata (no. of the right hand. The Rondo: . prerogative ferred to the left hand. the the concluding ascending notes opening descending notes and of the principal subject are reiterated countless times either initial three-note motive of the separately or combined.

ture. and the Vivace of op. as well as the Allegretto Finale of op. Contrapuntal treatment of similar and other kinds may be . as at bars 60 and 61: or alternating with them. i. or modified. either literally It may be found now at the top of the musical tex- now at the bottom. its sometimes in notes. melodically inverted or re-shaped. combination with original three accompanying some- times separated from them. no. often in the middle. sometimes running in canon below c them.34 NINETEENTH-CENTURY PIANO MUSIC Rontto Aitegro movement. 79 are notable examples of Beethoven's power of constructing a whole movement upon one dominating motive supported by a wealth of subsidiary material. are placed deep down in the left-hand In the coda. This Rondo. 31. as at bars 100-1: db irrepressible thematic fragments. these part while the right hand executes a counterpoint of chromatic scales or broken chords above them. in every section of this appears.

for The is former. In the Finale of the closely a four-bar phrase of ascending a longish phrase in three-part harmonic counterpoint leading up to a powerful climax. the for instance. is notes made the subject presentation of a theme in notes respectively longer or shorter in value than those of the original statement. sG. which exemplified in the Finale of the 'Waldstein' Sonata: the latter. op.e. conduces to a sense of relative leisureliness. 54 in F major abounds in in the Finale of the them surging scale-passages 'Appassionata' are occasionally enriched by and the animated texture of the 'Return' section of the 5 free canonic imitations.THE SONATA: BEETHOVEN 35 found In almost every one of the sonatas. which has the effect of increasing the musical tension. i: . no.. The compact fabric of octaves and sixths in the first movement of op. in the Finale of the Sonata in Aliegfro vivace E flat. were used by Beethoven purely expressive purposes. A more is 'Lebewohl wrought kind of fugal texture heightens the effectiveness of the central sections of many movements. "of TastoraP Sonata. 27. The greatly enhanced by highly expressive double Towards the end of the Scherzo of the Sonata in counterpoint. A fiat. The fugal devices of augmentation and diminution: i. the main theme appears first above and then below the same accompaniment in running quavers. op.

Treated thus. 2 in G major. Here. In each of five sonatas. Some of them will be referred set 5 to again in the chapter on Variations. is presented in both diminution and augmentation. but Beethoven carried to a fine art. go. as is the example free canonic imitation the parts in the 'horn-calls' at between the left-hand and right-hand end of the 'Farewell' section of the 'LebewohF Sonata. the 'Funeral Sonata. Unpretentious though it is in style. which is the salient feature of the principal subject. . one movement comprises a selfcontained March and C 3 of variations: op. a convincing ment-section of the use of technical means for poetic ends. its subsequent reappearances.36 NINETEENTH-CENTURY PIANO MUSIC In the first movement of the E minor Sonata. feature of it Haydn's and Mozart's sonatas. if not all. 109 and i u. * * * * Beethoven submitted much of his thematic material to variation. it creates a strong forms an Ideal link between the developfeeling of suspense and and the recapitulation. The writing of variations had come to him as easily as had the writing of sonatas. opp. no. E. It points forward unmistakably to the mature Thirty- two Variations in G minor as clearly as does the little F minor Sonata of the same period to the Tathetique' and the 'Appassionata'. It is. in connexion with Beethoven's a few we may consider points of variation technique throughout the Thirty-two. F sharp. when he presented the material first stated in the exposition in a fresh guise in the recapitulation. 14. to the opening section of which he imparted an entirely new aspect when he restated it after the central Variation of this kind was no uncommon episode. and in movements in ternary form. There. It is displayed most particularly in sonata-form movements. the imaginative employment of the contrapuntal device gives rise to exquisitely romantic tonecolouring. the threenote figure of descending notes. in rondos. G. op. the 'Appassionata and the Sonatas in E major minor. in which he varied the refrain at some. it is strongly individual in technique. His very first published composition was a set of variations written when he was about twelve years old. besides.

The beating quavers in the left hand which accompany the principal subject at its first appearance (bars 1-4) are replaced in the recapitulation by energetic scales in semiquavers. in E major. to the comparative security of the valley below. more effective kind of this essentially straightforward movement of the 'Appasof pianissimo plain octaves. the theme is presented in its original state tive left-hand though enhanced by a syncopated and decorathe feeling is of a descent from the rarefied part. Examples of the variation of the rondo refrain are almost too atmosphere of the mountain-top numerous this to require comment here. When. 22. after sixteen bars of this recondite but beautiful figuration. i. very the top notes rarely on the fourth.THE SONATA: BEETHOVEN 37 A very simple example of variation within a sonata-form movement may be found in the opening Allegro of op. sonata and the last of his nineteenth-century . is in the right hand. and single notes reappears at the lightly outset of the recapitulation with the thematic outline set above treatment is displayed in the first sionata'. no. The passage of transition also undergoes a change in colour in the recapitulation by being restated pianissimo at a lower pitch than before and in an entirely unexpected key. now on the first. often on the second or third. 5 . 14. op. A typical instance B flat of how treatment can affect the character of a whole movement occurs in the Finale of the Sonata in Beethoven's first major. and sometimes reinforced by of chords played by the left hand. sketched harmonies. The opening section a nearly changeless pedal-bass of triplet quavers. In strong contrast to these easily recognizable metamorphoses is the recapitulation in the slow movement of the 'Hammerklavier' Sonata (beginning at bar 88) The theme of the prinmolto sentimento one of cipal subject 'appassionato e con Beethoven's most peaceful and expressively harmonized melo. dies. capriciously note concealed within a delicate tracery of demisemiquavers The actual melodic outline is distributed by note among the four demisemiquavers of every beat. It issues in a statement in the major of the chordal passage which had previously appeared in the minor. Another.

The this Finale of op. in C major (1795-6). i of especial interest inasmuch as it shows Beethoven to his most reverting typically eighteenth-century manner. 494) of Mozart's Sonata in F major. 31. At the third bars are entrusted entirely to the entry. 3. sketches the melodic outline in triplets above the nonchalant left-hand accompaniment. very spirit * It is * * * hardly possible to study the pianistic layout of the Thirtytwo sonatas without being acutely aware of the importance . the first eight hand while it figure above bar. decoration of the initial section of a move- in ternary form is a feature so usual in the works of all periods that it is hardly necessary to quote any particular example. 2. The whole movement it is is dis- tinguished by interesting piano writing. 31. Thereafter the right maintains a desultory accompanying before resuming its normal functions at the ninth it carries out variations in broken octaves and ornamental runs. in the 'adagio grazioso' of op. is a movement of the same kind.38 'first NINETEENTH-CENTURY PIANO MUSIC period'. the refrain is enchantingly varied at every one of its The subsequent ment several appearances. It sometimes omits the first note of the thus imparting a feeling of breathlessness to the triplet. no. the right hand. This (1802). is At its first and second appearances the eighteen- bar refrain left identical in all respects with the first. is leisurely movement with a superabundance of formalized em- bellishment sounds amazingly antiquated by comparison with the Adagio in E major and minor in the much earlier Sonata. no. expressive It breathes the of a Schubert song. no. however. op. At the fourth and last appearance of the refrain. otherwise placid final section. but in the recurrent refrain that constitute its the deft changes especial charm. One. once again the dominating partner. however. The latter is a movement in older rondo form throughout which the romantic atmosphere of a tone-poem is created by the maintenance for many bars at a time of a mysteriously susurrant accompanying figure between an bass and plaintive melodic fragments in the treble. In graceful Allegretto. i. as in the Allegretto Finale (K.

It claims the privilege of announcing both phrases of the rondo refrain in the centre of the keyboard. 2. no. octaves beneath (and occasionally above) the suave right-hand chords in the Adagio of op. and again in the laconic of detached semiquavers below the right hand's accompaniment of the 'adagio eloquent. continuous theme in two sections of the 'Hammerklavier'. In the Finale of op. below. 90. and the 'allegretto vivace' of It is also manifest in the ominous little tremolando op. the left-hand part is accorded a certain measure of independence and interest. no. op. consisting of melody and accompaniment). provides ment * * * * Beethoven's understanding of the possibilities of imparting distinctive tone-colouring to the texture by differentiating the manner of performance of the left-hand part from that of the staccato right hand is exemplified in the persistent left-hand of the Andante of the 'Pastoral' throughout the greater part Sonata. sostenuto' . we have noted how often the left and the right hands exchange their usual functions.THE SONATA: BEETHOVEN 39 passages embodying trapuntal devices and variations. which inevitably recalls the style of a Mendelssohn Song without Words. leaving the right hand to echo each of them in turn an octave higher. 79. 2. 2. 31. At one point it meets the right-hand part on equal terms. instead of above the accompani- an arresting and welcome change in the colouring of a movement which in general tends towards monotone. the Largo of op. 31. as heretofore. 3. provides one of the rare instances. no. a movement which promises to be one long stretch of accompanied right- hand melody. In examining some of the more deeply into the matter we find that in very few of the sonata movements is the activity of the left hand limited to that of mere accompaniment. The placing of this much-repeated theme just for once in the tenor register. G In some of the movements which are otherwise predominantly homophonic in character (i. The song-like Andante of the major Sonata. Looking Beethoven attached to making the left-hand parts musically coninteresting.e. the left-hand part grows in significance as the movement proceeds.

imparts a ghostly or an ethereal timbre 101. Examples occur in the Trio of the 'alia marcia' of op. especially in the later sonatas. beginning and its owes ending pianissimo with stretches of fortissimo between. serenity. There. the lower strings seem to be straining away from the upper strings throughout a series of a repetitions of two-bar phrase. In surveying the inner structure and the outer surfaces of the Thirty-two sonatas we have incidentally made closer acquaintance with Beethoven's unrivalled manner of using technical resources for the purposes of creating poetic atmosphere and of have studied expressing many different states of mind. these 1. Another instance of a different kind occurs near the end of the development-section of the opening movement of the TastoraP Sonata (bars 219-40).40 NINETEENTH-CENTURY PIANO MUSIC other methods by which Beethoven secured unusual Among colour-tints in the sonatas are the separating of the right-hand and left-hand parts by wide distances. 109 and all Beethoven created stormy cloud-effects by constantly repeating distinctive figures. Beethoven's wit material itself is manifested than it is frequently in the musical in the unexpectedness of the treatment less . 1 1 and in the Variations of opp. We have not as yet taken any opportunity of revelling in his wit. In pasthe combination of extreme heights and depths of pitch sages to the texture. At times. For weirdness of effect this sombre cloudscape may well be compared with the famous passage towards the end of the first movement of the Seventh Symphony in A. tragic gloom or careless rapture. Three-note figures in each hand pull against one another time after time in contrary motion and at increasing distances while a pedal-point in varying parts of the texture binds the whole fabric firmly together. sublimely indifferent to the strings' agonized struggle for liberation.wind and brass remain static upon a dominant pedal-point. We movements that depict moods of excitement. 7 of undulating broken chords in both hands. while the wood. The minore section of the third movement of mysterious tone-colour to the persistent reiteration op.

of the Sonata in E flat. deceiving the listener at every turn. temporarily in sequentially delaying the progress of the phrase. the last three beats are repeated a tone lower. the key of flat C E flat These are small-scale manoeuvres. the argument may be resumed though nothing unusual had taken place. In the midst of a smoothly running passage the music may then. possibly after one or suddenly come to an abrupt pause and two false starts. the same little figure is repeated (amplified) four times in succession. 31. however. constructional and expressive. no. Such a movement is the light-hearted 'allegro vivace' of op. which eventually succeeds coming to a cadence. in major. but it is the treatment. op. could not be made to stop. the original length of twenty-four bars is extended to fifty-three by several series of repetitions and by various circumlocutions. 7. by an unexpected translation into whence the return to the original tonality of several bars and even necessitates a whole bar's occupies rest for recovery from the effort. In the recapitulation of this whole section. and on being restarted. to which they are submitted that determines the whimsicality of . The counterstatement of the opening eight-bar phrase stops suddenly at bar 12. Its true inwardness can best G be realized and enjoyed by players or follow listeners and relish the oddities of its construction. It is as though a machine had un- accountably ceased working. They are witty in themselves. and after another pause. i. who are able to The thematic and jerky syncopated chords for and a singularly undignified little tune at the principal subject units include perfunctory runs the beginning of the second subject-group. an theme may without warning dart out of its native important key and the listener may be kept in a state of anxiety as to how and when it will be able to regain its basic tonality. Allegro.THE SONATA: BEETHOVEN to 41 which it is submitted. Sometimes Beethoven exercised his wit throughout an entire movement by arranging whole sections in unusual order and keys. Again. Most particularly. After a pause. Illustrations of both these points may be found in the third as movement.

The principal subject. Its ubiquity is the most distinctive feature of a movement whose eccentricities of construction and of mood are emphasized by the unusual keys chosen for the second subject: mediant major in the exposition and submediant major and minor in the recapitulation. it normal place 3 harmony. his sonatas from those by his younger study in contemporaries. six times no fewer than or nine times or a portion of it. wealth and diversity of treatment are the characteristics that most clearly distinguish the next chapter. The proclivities Finale. contains further examples of the composer's for poking fun at his musical material. Weber and Schubert. Lastly. in the key at the very moment when the announceincomplete. it heralds the longish coda. complete. They reach is a climax in the coda. Immediately a tone lower. Economy of thematic material. with between. It reappears in its at the beginning of the recapitulation. appears if the exposition is re- after its first announcement in the tonic peated. the opening figure is suddenly detached and whirled. it is restated. and presented Beethoven extracted the very his last ounce of effectiveness from musical subject-matter. telescoped into the transition theme. After the theme has been stretched to uneasy pauses its utmost limits and the music has come almost to a standstill. from top to bottom of the keyboard. presto. Still in the opens the development section. It recurs. where the rondo refrain bisected eventually alternately allegretto and adagio. in the tonic ment of the second subject seems to be imminent. preceded by of dominant thirty-one bars elaborate preparation consisting tonic.4'2 NINETEENTH-CENTURY PIANO MUSIC the movement. which we shall . too.

which included several sonatas. date from after 1800. invasion of the sonatas by the elements of the song and the dance. The four sonatas with which we are concerned in this chapter were written during the decade ending 1822 . This opuscule written in 1898. style of the piano writing. were destury. troyed by fire. All his now well-known published compositions for the piano: variations. his four sonatas described individually and their musical qualities summarized. concertos and sonatas. is the only survivor of the numerous prentice works he wrote before the turn of the cenThe others. Weber's only piano lasting composition in the 'severe' style. 164 detail for purposes of comparison.4 The Sonata (3) Weber as a composer for the piano. They gave more than an inkling of the characteristic style of his mature production. Schubert's sonatas as a whole collection. WE Not so Weber's. discussed in op. The thumbnail Opus i which the future composer of wildly romantic operas and grandiloquent piano music printed in his twelfth year comprised six of the shortest. driest and most naive little fughettas that can ever have issued from the pen of a composer who was ultimately to achieve fame. dances. the eleven best the basis known selected as of a survey of their distinguishing formal and expressive attributes: the Sonata in A minor. have already seen that Beethoven's very first printed works for the keyboard revealed the youthful composer's phenomenal understanding of the instrument for which he was soon to write masterpiece after masterpiece.

Moreover. ally flowing accompaniments than pregnant themes capable of infinite development such as abound in the Beethoven sonatas. as a composer of extremely colourful orchestral music he not unnaturally attempted to transfer orchestral effects to the piano. The Second Sonata in major. he was more inclined to write melodies of a singable type with conventionhe was to invent the terse. He could play widely extended chords from one note to passage-work and could leap another far distant on the keyboard with the utmost ease. found nor does he seem to have been strongly drawn to it or to have it easy. Nevertheless. These circumstances encouraged him to write music to suit his and florid own abnormally brilliant capabilities as a performer rather than to consider the limited skill of the average pianist. despite the desultory manner of their composition.44 NINETEENTH-CENTURY PIANO MUSIC and are thus roughly contemporary with Beethoven's last six sonatas: op. 90 and the five of his 'third period'. Weber was a virtuoso pianist whose individual style of playing was largely determined by his long slender fingers and by an unusually large stretch. and the Third in flat weeks in November 1816. But the difference in style between the two composers' works in this category is immeasurable. It will readily endowed for the be understood that Weber was not ideally composing of abstract music for the keyboard. In effect they are both picturesque and dramatic. While following in the main the accepted principles of classical sonata form they display a freedom from formal restraint and an exuberance in style that bring them within the category of at intervals occupied him from 1814 to 1816 the early romantic. which he began to write in 1819. Weber's constant preoccupation with opera have made it almost inevitable that he should have a may narrative in his thoughts when he was composing instrumental . the four works are poetically and imaginatively conceived. D A and the Fourth in E minor. As pre-eminently a composer of operas. was not completed until 1822. Only two of his sonatas were written within a short space of time: the First in C major between April and minor (the shortest) during three July 1812.

as a whole. c avowed proseem to portray stirring events.THE SONATA: WEBER AND SCHUBERT music. they were the most important and valuable of their period. his piano compositions were highly so far critic. Adolph Bernhard Marx. went next to Beethoven's. But if these resplendent works cannot be adequately interpreted by any but highly accomplished performers. movements or their mutual and no two movements of the same kind of at all closely in outline. deeply grammatic background. he himself made 45 known the romantic story upon which he based his Concertstuck for piano and orchestra.trios lively. form resemble one another The works . from uniform in Beethovenian scherzo type. and that in respect of grandeur and elaboration they sometimes even surpassed those of the older master: an opinion no one would dream of holding to-day. three of the four slow movements and one of the finales are rondos and all the minuets-and.and-trio. One of them. felt emotions and inescapable moods. Indeed. it is known as . Yet the sonatas are Each is differently planned style or design. The sonatas have unfortunately fallen into neglect. they are not too difficult to be played through and enjoyed by musicians technically less well equipped exploring unfamiliar music. who take a delight in three of his sonatas. and he also described the varying states of mind he sought to depict in the Fourth Sonata. The heavy make upon performing technique specialized demands they them beyond the reach of amateurs and even deter the place majority of concert pianists from including them in their proand grammes. In 1824 one as to write that. now known as the Programme' Sonata. has thereby acquired a descriptive the 'Demoniac 3 title. The Weber wrote opening each is every are of the far in sonata form. although they have no The Sonata. In Weber's lifetime prized. either in the order of the key-relationship. the Third other three sonatas. and the Third in three movemovement of ments without a minuet. the Second and the Fourth. in four movements. the First.

may sometimes not be referred to again. that the descending diminished-seventh arpeggio played by the left hand at the very beginning of the Allegro is not merely the preliminary flourish that it appears to be. and of others which are equally characteristic of Weber's production. First. subjects and even whole sections are just as likely impresses itself adventures throughout a it to recur in haphazard fashion as they are to take their to established custom. The thematic material of the sonatas is strongly marked and well differentiated in character. that in the Weber sonatas. harmonically and rhythmically and in weaving them jointly or severally into highly effective pianistic texture. Portions of the music places according which seem to be essential to the argument in the early part of a movement versely. phrases. Among points of interest in this sonata the following may be specially noted. pianistic style his First major. Before he wrote the First Sonata in C Weber had already composed several sets of variations. so readily upon the memory that its movement can generally be followed without difficulty. Weber's gift for thematic development was not comparable with Beethoven's but he possessed extraordinary facility in rearranging his themes in unexpected sequence. part in the codetta an integral figure which takes an important and the coda and is referred to in the . in 1812. as in Mozart's. Con- an apparently insignificant figure may later assume an important role. It must be borne in mind. 24.46 NINETEENTH-CENTURY PIANO MUSIC are fascinating to study on account both of the many structural of the composer's unending irregularities they display and resourcefulness in treating his musical ideas. Piano Concerto and traces in the These activities left may straightway be observed in the concerto-like brilliance of the first and last all of the sonatas which movements of the C major Sonata and in the variation tech- nique of the Adagio. He was adept in varying them melodically. however. op. As we make a brief survey of the four sonatas we shall find examples of all these features. but in reality.

in which the main part of the rondo refrain is stated four times note-for-note. attenuated to is become a distant. is immediately followed by a minuet-and-trio in the tonality of E (minor and major). It is also the most vivid in narrative orchestral colouring. this effective ment. well known as a separate The superficial glitter of the passage-work conceals the piece. ingenuity of the structure. A resumption of the closing bars of the opening section and a brief coda bring the movement to a quiet end. In place of the customary of the whole repeat opening section. only the first four bars reappear. is altogether more intimate in style. Secondly. An enchanting feature of the ending of this section is the recall of the opening sentence. the texture richer and the tone-colours are infinitely more varied. The Second Sonata in A flat. op. This Adagio. E flat. The Finale the Moto perpetuo in C major. ghostly echo of its former self. Even so. The moderate in 12/8 time is the most expansive of all Weber's first movements. short and quick. It abounds in brief phrases. The passage-writing is less spectacular. however. a rare choice of keys for adjacent movements. 39. too. quality and the most subtle in suggesting The Andante. is in miniature sonata form.THE SONATA: WEBER AND SCHUBERT 47 development. lively cross-rhythms and neat canonic imitations. is in ternary form. which is in F major. but subsidiary figures the movekeys. major and minor. The Minuet. whereas the Trio contains a flowing accompanied notes that sounds like melody and a triplet motive of repeated a fairy horn-call. This most easily recognizable of The Adagio fragment the thematic substance is restated four times in succession. causing is perhaps the least imaginative in dequicksilvery movement appear in new sign of all the four rondo finales. and only gradually works its way round to the tonic. that the recapitulation of this movement opens most exceptionally in the key of the lowered mediant. throughout a succession of surprises. each time in an entirely fresh guise. is written in the style of a ballad which 'allegro 3 .

a second phrase with the bass. chromatic harmonies. complex in its in the treble. On this its next appearance it is limited to the first two time with the melody in octaves in the left hand below a decoration of semiquaver triplets. which is varied with fresh. Later it is reduced simply to the first phrase. This threefold statement of the refrain never recurs haunting character of the melody intensified by its complete. which pureffectiveness as the sparse crotchet into groups of progressively way with cumulative is and minim beats are broken up tent but fundamentally simple in thematic conirregular rondo structure. in C major to become the dynamic climax of the whole movement. phrases. the introflat Sonata reappears in the codetta.48 NINETEENTH-CENTURY PIANO MUSIC its recitation. It opens with a threefold statement comprising a first phrase with the melody smaller note-values. is later re-introduced. The recapitulation is little more than a summary of the salient features of the exposition. varied. Andante in C minor. in the opening movement of the First Sonata. beginning in E flat major at the end of bar 57. legato. accompanied by light detached chords. in the right hand. for the so much repetition and elaboradevelopment-section contains tion of the many themes that their reappearance would be redundant. stimulating . slightly modified. The is presentation in single notes. After the spacious Andante comes the impetuous. When it returns in C minor towards the end of the movement it is shortened by the telescoping of the long lefthand and right-hand phrases into one short phrase divided bar by bar between the two hands. ductory phrase of the As A though not in the coda. A 'second subject' in E flat which begins to unfold at bar 35 displays its thematic outline in demisemiquavers first in the left hand and ten bars later. The sues its following movement. The only other important theme. melody in the tenor or and a varied counter-statement of the first phrase. The 'menugrows in fervour of expression during etto capriccioso' and the Finale both evoke the rhythms of the dance. It is eventually tapered to form the coda.

the last ment of the Sonata in A flat major is movemoderate in tempo and than nimble. The sensitively pianistic layout of the menuetto capriccioso of the Sonata in A flat.. Examples may be found particularly in the Moto perpetuo. The endings of Treambule' and Marsch der a figure that strongly recalls the one immedibiindler' contain the first double-bar of the 'menuetto capricc ately following cioso'. Schumann Presto Presto assai W&er p dotce rti Unlike the finales of the other three sonatas. It is com- at varying pact of short rhythmic figures continually repeated and in fresh keys. whereas in the bar comflat whole of the central episode in major. undoubtedly served as a model to Schumann when he came to write Carnaval in Davids1834-5. The two sections are ultimately prises linked together by the sudden return of the quaver figuration. which recalls that of the sparkling prestissimo Momenta Capriccioso in 5/4 c 5 time composed by Weber six years earlier.THE SONATA: WEBER AND SCHUBERT c 49 traditional menuetto capriccioso' which bears little resemblance to the minuet but is capricious beyond a doubt. this kind were a speciality rondo movements. graceful rather The refrain creates a pleasant . and more notably in the Finales of the Anticipatory links of in his Third and Fourth Sonatas. The greater part of the main section pitches flat in major consists of figuration in quavers. of Weber's. every A D three beating crotchets. which combines with the crotchets leading to the to form an exciting passage repeat.

The former. The changes in harhabitually mony throughout the whole movement are inclined to leisurebut the melodic outline is liness is of the sections which movement even more ingenious it resembles in both rhythm and texture brilliance. The ensuing 'andante con mo to in B flat in older rondo 3 form is the least complex in structure of all Weber's slow movements but is the most lavishly decorated. The second is Weber's operatic arias. The dovetailing than in the Moto perpetuo. at whose first announcement the melody is accompanied by simple chords. though not in speed or Weber wrote the Second Sonata in two instalments: the last two movements in the early part of 1814 and the first two in October 1816. Its dynamic dreaming beauty of forcefulness furnishes its an astonishing contrast to the The first movement.50 NINETEENTH-CENTURY PIANO MUSIC feeling of stability owing to the first of its two phrases being tethered to a tonic pedal-bass. 'tranquillo lusingando' with gracious melodic curves. with the octave theme that forms the mainstay of the development-section. its melodic contours are softened almost beyond recognition. 49 (the 'Demoniac'). rich in variety. Beethovenian tinge in the determined statement and the strongly marked rhythms of the principal the purposeful fugal texture in the desubject-group and in e subject. and to introduce the recapitulation in conjunction. The tranquil sixteenbar refrain. has a 'allegro feroce'. The second time. is written in a style typical of velopment section. returns in the major to inaugurate the development-section. is immediately varied twice in succession. having made two appearances in the minor at the very outset. These two highly poetic movements were immediately followed in November the same year by the whole of the Third Sonata in D minor. op. A noticeable feature of the movement the treatment of two of the musical ideas as motto themes: the initial phrase and the one first announced in octaves in bar 36. Both the episodes its . It finally dominates the coda. and at each of it is still appearances two subsequent more richly embellished. predecessor.

It tells of an unhappy sufferer who passes through various stages of mental disturbance. to the great enriching of the texture and to the building up of a highly effective climax. is only outbursts. The inspiriting occasionally interrupted by stormy of rhythms of the Finale go far to counterbalance the feeling the feverish repetitions of the inescapable torment suggested by thematic material. The concluding rondo in D major. Some The 'Programme' which Weber is reported by his biographer. to have had in mind when composing the Fourth Sonata in E minor. but there are at least five distinctive themes. which recur in of them eventually combine in pairs. 'presto con molto vivacita'. is as follows. differs in three important respects from those in Weber's other sonatas. 70. consolente'. Sir Julius Benedict. is by no means unrelievedly sombre. which melancholy first tale is. may be regarded as the second subject. to exhaustion however. the continuity of the semiquaver figuration is several times broken by the insertion of contrasting sections in quavers. and one of the themes cantabile in waltz rhythm such as the an expressive composer had not preis known it is viously introduced into his finales. . it is no empty piece of virtuosity. far from oppressive in character. which appears twice in different keys.THE SONATA: WEBER AND SCHUBERT are dramatic in expression and even the refrain 51 is punctuated sudden and violent changes in dynamics which contrast by strangely with its placid character. The waltz section. from acute depression. op. Although the alternatively as 'Allegro di bravura' and movement is is sometimes played separately. while are alternately bracing and hypnotically the Minuet-and-Trio enchanting. irregular sequence. It is in triple instead of duple time. The musical outcome of this sanity. The movement is distress intended to portray the temporary alleviation of the sufferer's by the sympathetic ministrations of his friends. by way of rage and inand death. The 'andante quasi allegretto. Structurally a blend of older and modern rondo and is full of interesting points in design and layout.

52 NINETEENTH-CENTURY PIANO MUSIC movement is built almost exclusively upon two ideas which may well be termed motto themes. which seldom leaves the centre of the keyboard. is the only one of Weber's finales in the minor mode. bears the distinguishing marks of a rondo: a recurrent refrain (sometimes varied) and episodes in contrasting keys. and the only one. Andante. in which the majority of the themes are in dotted rhythms. E minor and major respectively for the the syncopations and crisp texture of the Minuet-and-Trio. contrasting They are a descending passage that constitutes the most dis- The first tinctive feature of both the first and the second subjects. whose strongly-marked triplet figure and dotted notes recur again and again in each single strand of a texture so . The latter plays a prominent part in the and recapitulation sections and finally supplies development the purling accompaniment to the descending scale theme as it gradually falls to silence in the coda. repetitive A pattern of pianissimo quavers. The refrain folk-tune character as are the themes upon which Weber's other slow movements are based. 'leggiermente murmurando'. floats so lightly above a waltz-like accom- paniment that the individual notes form a web of delicate sounds. too. Minuet recall the corresponding movements of the First Sonata. Schumann. however. the movement is a mosaic into which every unit of the musical material is is deftly fitted to of the same simple form a convincing design. and Brahms. a type of melody which is hardly to be found in Beethoven's sonatas but which often occurs in those by Schubert. but no sooner is the pianissimo reinstated than the precipitate crotchets of the Minuet return to dash the murmuring quavers brusquely from their path. The Prestissimo of the Fourth Sonata. Eventually the pattern is worked up into a long crescendo and diminuendo. In actual construction. entitled La Tarantella and also known as Jet tfeau. is unlike those of the other sonatas either in texture or in character. It is dominated by the opening phrase. The tonality of The Trio. The third movement. and an agitated passage in ascending semiquavers that first appears in the transition.

THE SONATA: WEBER AND SCHUBERT fine-drawn that every melodic fragment stands out in relief. Among the earliest sonatas. The earlier ones are not altogether easy to obtain. a few in three movements begin in one key and end in another. for every one of his most important sonatas differs from its predecessor in some essential aspect of form or style. the unfinished which are even more difficult to acquire. he would very have developed it in fresh directions. reveal that he did not arrive easily at the style of sonata-writing which he cultivated during his last years. to write his First Sonata when he was twentyseries and he spread the composition of the of four over a period often years. are of . the sensuousness of Chopin's and the rhetoric of Liszt's. The whole series These. Nevertheless. likely fragments. Few pianists know or play all the Schubert sonatas. He composed the first when he was eighteen and the last in the year of his death consequently displays the growth of his pianistic style from early to late in his career. 53 Weber's sonatas occupy a midway position between the classical and the romantic. They combine something of the rhythmic urge of Beethoven's with the virtuosity of dementi's and Dussek's and the lyricism of Schubert's. and the several unfinished fragments. Had he lived longer. in which transported glowing immediacy of expression counts for more than formal balance and the systematic development of thematic material. To play them is to be to a world of sound. He designed many on an altogether smaller scale than Weber's and he left a number in various stages of incompleteness. They anticipate to no small degree the vivid colouring of Schumann' s. Schubert's sonatas stand in the centre of his production for the piano. Schubert compressed the writing of twenty-one sonatas into the space of thirteen years. at the age of thirty-one. Weber began six. as though Schubert could not decide upon a satisfactory type of finale to complete each work.

Unlike Weber. When playing Beethoven's sonatas we are constantly aware of the compelling personality behind the music. if it is to it calls for particularly sympathetic understanding less difficult to yield its deepest secrets to the performer.54 NINETEENTH-CENTURY PIANO MUSIC interest only to the historian. These attributes as an executant. In some movements he repeated or if he elaborated a few themes as could hardly bear to part from . together with his superlative genius as a composer of a kind of songs. We recognize the fineness of the balance maintained between the several component parts of each movement and between the individual movements of each sonata and we realize that we are following the workings of the mind of a great symphonist. nor was he equipped with a powerful technique as was Beethoven. His hands were small. few appear regularly in recital programmes. When we play the Schubert sonatas we are more often led to think of the insong-writer and the composer of Impromptus and Moments musicaux than we are of a born symphonist. Another. Among the eleven which in the course of time have come to be considered the most valuable and which are readily obtainable. Disparity in musical value between the individual movements of some of the sonatas may be one reason for the infrequent performance of these works in public. Wealth of melody. were largely responsible for his writing piano music which seldom indulges in brilliant and effective passage- work. While it is technically perform than Beethoven's or Weber's. Schubert leisurely and discursive. Schubert was not a virtuoso of the piano. but his fingers could run swiftly and lightly over the keys and his exquisitely sympathetic touch made him an incomparable accompanist. with the thematic content at the the composer's preoccupation expense of its presentation in terms of grateful piano writing. profoundly interesting harmonies and compelling rhythms are its most distinctive features. He could not easily play heavy chordal passages or extended stretches. Whereas Beethoven treated his musical ideas with extreme economy and spired was evolved large-scale movements from slender material.

The difference between his very but expressive E major (1815) and his first sonata. however. his in sonatas style immeasurably. posth. While it composing deepened did not change fundamentally. It is. His sonatas are lyrical rather than dramatic. In this way we shall have opportunities of becoming acquainted with each of the eleven sonatas in respect either of its structural features. The eleven will first be enumerated in the order in which they were written and a short survey will be made of Schubert's methods of planning whole sonatas and designing we shall explore one complete single movements. the eleven best-known and most easily-available sonatas must suffice the ten included in the standard practical editions. works. as the composer's last three sonatas. Thereafter sonata. it is truly representative of his sonata-production in general. some of which were do not represent the . essentially a sonata. Andante. but that is not to say that they are ineffective in performance or that they do not repay study in respect of their and workmanship quite apart from their deeply expressive qualities. however. the slight last. This latter work was first published as 'Fantasy. of the same large dimensions architecture : 3 . comparing its movements with those of the other sonatas which exemplify similiar distinctive features in different fashion. Menuetto and Allegro an ambiguous title that led to its being classified as a Fantasy and printed in the same volume as the 'Wanderer' Fantasy. they form his publishers. 78. As the basis for studying them here. The opus-numbers of Schubert's affixed indiscriminately by date-order in which they were written. the magnificent Sonata in B fiat major (1828). op.THE SONATA: WEBER AND SCHUBERT 55 them. he filled the musical structure to overflowing with melody after melody. collection leaves out of Although this necessarily incomplete account the sonatas that Schubert wrote in earlier years. and the 'Fantasy or Sonata' in G major. in others. op. For this reason we shall find it in simpler to consider the sonatas as a whole series instead of to periods as we did when studying Beegroups according thoven's. is one of degree rather than of kind. its expressive style or of points which are specially interesting to pianists. As.

composed in years from the next sonata.56 NINETEENTH-CENTURY PIANO MUSIC remained the most practical means of identification they have are. op. The G major. The sonatas in A minor. posth. op. the String Quintet in C. This in turn was separated by nearly four minor. the year that saw the composition of his 'Great' G Symphony in C major. A long period was to elapse before he completed another whole sonata. op. and many other works. deceptive though they is study minor. less planning of whole sonatas seem to have exerted no perceptible influence upon Schubert's own For whereas Beethoven occasionally chose a usual type of form for the . two of which he left unfinished. in general use. op. the so-called Swan-song' collection of songs. the Mass in c E flat. the 'Fantasy or Sonata' in major in 1826. 164. with an increasingly hand and with a greatly enlarged conception of the sonata an art-form. comthat year he posed in 1817 when Schubert was twenty. And then in 1828. the little' A major. in three movements. op. For this reason alone it might be expected that he would have manifested stronger leanings towards romanticism than did his senior. 42. minor. the l so i*1 three movements. Beethoven's innovations in the style of musical architecture. Only two the Sonata in The earliest in date of the eleven sonatas of the present A in of the others are included in the practical editions: the sonatas E flat major. only a few weeks before he died. During composed six sonatas. Yet although his sonatas are no less romantic in colouring and expression than are Beethoven's. and D major followed in 1825. op. they are more classical in structural principles. and the B flat major (opp. Thenceforward Schubert wrote 1823. 143. 147. each in four movements. a all his A sure as piano sonatas in four movements. 120. in three movements in 1819. 122 and in B major.) were in the incredibly short composed space of one month. the A Schubert was twenty-seven years younger than Beethoven. he wrote his three greatest sonatas.

no. Instead. as in the 'Appassionata'. in an enchantshall look more ingly fluent kind of double counterpoint. too. such as the Andante of the Sonata in B major. He used the same treatment in movements in ternary form. no. (In op. he wrote numberless passages. 3. 101. A thematic op. i.THE SONATA: WEBER AND SCHUBERT first 57 3 of variations or a 'tempo d'un minuetto . 27. as it were subconsciously. Schubert composed nearly tional forms. printed in some editions in only two movements. the 'LebewohF and others. notably in the Adagio of the Sonata in C minor and in major. 106. whereas Beethoven several times placed it as the second. and while he once composed a whole sonata (op.(or Scherzo-) and-Trio as the third movement. In the eight completed four-movement sonatas he invariably placed the Minuet. While Beeset movement: a thoven sometimes joined two or more movements together. The early work in E minor (1817). actually comthree if not four movements and has only recently been prises published in full. Schubert never deviated from using sonata form. Unlike Beethoven. style of presenting In sonata-form movements. often modifying all his sonata movements in tradito suit his highly individual them his musical ideas. 42. op. and Haydn. in the scheme. but closely into the subject of first we must consider a few points in connexion with the archi- tecture of the sonatas. especially in the recurrent sections of rondos. Schubert composed no sonatas in two movements. no. known as fourth Filnf Klavierstucke (1816). and no. 27. 31. variations. Schubert wrote every movement throughout his twenty-one sonatas as a separate unit. he frequently submitted his material to variation. We Schubert's piano writing later. and in opp. Although he was a highly experienced contrapuntist the con moto' of the c D he hardly ever combined the elements of fugal construction with those of sonata form as did Beethoven. But like Beethoven. the scherzo-and-trio comes He designed only one movement as a set of the 'andante poco mosso' of the Sonata in minor. i) in an almost unbroken sweep.) In Schubert's solitary five-movement sonata. .

The long Finales of the Sonatas in A minor. he intensified the effectiveness of this part of the movement by presenting the subject-matter in a succession of keys. One of countless examples occurs in the 'andante molto' of the Sonata in this E flat major.58 NINETEENTH-CENTURY PIANO MUSIC he often elaborated the thematic substance so it could hardly stand further for instance. the second subject begins in F sharp minor. Schubert imparted a strong feeling of homogeneity to some of the movements by maintaining similar types of figuration or persistent rhythm throughout their course. and in C minor. In romantically-coloured movement in modified sonata form he excluded the passage of transition (bars 20-26) from the recapitulation but held it in reserve to make a more telling effect in the coda. thus creating a feeling of growing excitement. in the key of the sub-dominant instead of in the In others. is The accompanying figure all hand (J) ?VJ repeated in except nine bars of the entire opening section. He occasionally opened the second subject-group irregularly in an unrelated key before it swing round into the accustomed tonality. c and the flattened super-tonic respeclater. the 'andante sostenuto' in in the left C sharp j fc) minor. op. For letting the molto moderato' of the B flat example. In a few movements to be referred to he opened the recapitulation tonic. and in the recapitulation. and the much shorter. or almost entirely fresh material. the original tonality and mode are not re-established beyond a doubt until a tonicand-dominant coda decides the issue with resounding finality. Sometimes Schubert varied the succession of the thematic units at their second appearance. in the exposition of major Sonata. op. 42. . The development-section had consequently to assume the function of a contrasting episode of entirely. 42. sonata-form Finale of the illustrate this B major Sonata convincingly example of the same point. In the Moderato of the Sonata in A minor. An intensely poetic kind of treatment applied to the individual sections of a movement in ternary form is comprised in the second movement of the B flat major Sonata. in B minor: the enharmonic keys of the flattened sub-mediant tively. that copiously in the exposition working-out.

and in which there is no developmentsection as there is in its modern rondo form. A Schubert employed both older and modern rondo rarely-used type that he made particularly his own was a long rondo in which the two episodes are alike in thematic content but not in key. to 'develop' the subject-matter prematurely in the exposition. Each movement displays characteristic features of his style. It may be considered in that it includes two typical of Schubert's sonata-writing movements in traditional forms treated in a strongly individual manner. the one we shall explore in detail. 59 slightly varied (J>J"3 J> *J33) * n a ^ but three bars of the final section. of short figures and whole phrases. in three movements.THE SONATA: WEBER AND SCHUBERT and again. In of new a part of the movement paragraph material in a fresh key is the salient point. are tone-poems which recall the most posth. the Andante of the G major. It also provides a concrete instance of his tendency. The 'con mo to' of the D major Sonata. This movement and the Andantino in F sharp minor of the Sonata in major. 164 (1817). and the Adagio of the G minor are among the most sublimely restful he ever wrote. already mentioned. 'allegro. In a few of his later sonatas he found ample proportions^ which conduce to a sense of great spaciousness. either exact or sequential. For the slow movements or finales of his sonatas from the to the last. op. The opening ma non troppo' shows his fondness for the repetition. The flow of twelve or eighteen semiquavers in a bar in either one hand or the other during the central episode is never for a moment interrupted. op.. first form. and a third in a form of his own devising. # * * * is The Sonata in A minor. expressive of the A composer's Impromptus. The reiteration of the dotted figure of the principal to subject and the varied subject-group serve thematic material as to necessitate repetition of focus so much the first phrase of the second attention upon this its exclusion from the development-section. this The movement also exemplifies a procedure the composer favoured on several occasions: the opening of the recapitulation . ideal for slow movements.

in E 'allegretto quasi andantino' major. The music either slips in and out of keys with A lightning rapidity. as also in the Finale just mentioned. op. Another distinctive Schubertian touch. or it proceeds gradually from one key to another by way of a rainbow of chromaticisms. Among them are the following. and the main episode in the development-section opens flat in the far-away key of major. Returning to the discussion of the A minor Sonata we find that the second movement. transient bert's unrivalled movement modulations to distantly-related keys diversify the tonal colourscheme. are the movements that contain no striking Few. indeed. fresh is the if to call the listener's coming announcement of a unexpected change of key. notably in the Finale of the B major Sonata. Throughout the whole twenty-one sonatas there is no more remarkable modulatory passage than the long and breath-taking series of swiftly-changing chromatic harmonies that fills the central part of the development-section of the 'molto moderato' of the Sonata in B flat major and leads with miraculous inevitability into a stretch of comparatively stable tonality. composed in older rondo form. 120. is typically Schubertian in many respects. This first theme or an also gives a preliminary idea of Schuof modulation and of his partiality for powers introducing a series of chromatic harmonies into a predominantly diatonic context. During the exposition. modulations. he restored the balance by re-introducing the principal subject in its native key in the coda. the choice of distantly-related keys: C major and minor respectively for the two episodes and F D major for the first restatement of the refrain. several times exemplified in the Allegro of the occasional insertion of a bar's rest as attention to the A minor Sonata. The vocal quality of the air of the refrain and the gently ambling staccato bass over which it is poised. the variation of the .60 NINETEENTH-CENTURY PIANO MUSIC in the key of the sub-dominant. In the movement under discussion. He had already employed it in the two sonatas preceding the minor. and he was to resort to A it the again in the first movement of the B major Sonata and Finale of the little' A major.

164. even though it of the attributes of modified sonata form and of possesses some rondo. of the Sonata in A minor. * * * * Other sonata movements for which Schubert evolved individual types of form include the Finale. and the Andante of the A major Sonata. op. quavers. stands alone among the movements of Schubert's piano sonatas 3 A although c it the Trout' Quintet. Finale of op. It has parallels in the second and last movements of is cast in an entirely individual mould and cannot be assigned to any definable class. 143 shares with the movement just described the distinction of being composed in repetitive panels. op. likewise an Allegretto. of the minor Sonata. The movement exemplifies Schubert's unparalleled gift for incorporating an artless. the graceful curves of the its melody as component figures. written eleven years later. The Finale. each made of similar material. 120 (1819). The second is merely a reflection of the first. which is seen from a fresh angle by being transposed into a different set of keys. but the later movement affords an even more striking instance of the integration of the melodically simple and the structurally complex. The refrain of the one is a variant of that of the other. Each comprises a whirling introduction in triplet transition in crisp chords and quick runs. a passage of and an episode in lilting dance rhythm. the Andante of the same work. Fundamentally. songlike melody within an intricate musical structure. op. The panels themselves are threefold in The construction. It falls into two main divisions. 'allegro vivace . posth. but . op.THE SONATA: WEBER AND SCHUBERT refrain each time it 61 recurs. the each differs in some way from the others. this time three instead of two. but in modern rondo form. the expressive left-hand accompaniment and the leisureliness of the modulatory link to the final section. The appearance of the introductory paragraph for a third time to form the coda suggests the planning of the whole as a rondo.. 'allegro vivace'. well as the reiteration of These two movements are closely connected. panels are similar. 143 (1823). Another more highly-developed example of the same procedure occurs in the long Finale of the A major Sonata.

Andante (in D major) of the seems to be predetermined by the op. both in conception stance. Andantes mentioned at the beginThe two deeply expressive ning of the last paragraph are the very antithesis of the two and in musical subAllegros just described. and seldom ventures beyond the confines of nearly- it is anything but monotonous. which recurs in either the right-hand or the left-hand part in thirtynine of the seventy-five bars and is implied in sixteen others. 143. The suddenly flies off at a tangent into The appearance each time in a different key. More telling even than the originality of construction is the pervasive sense of urgency and continuity and the marked contrast between the pianistic styles of the first three species of thematic material. to the left hand in the centre of the key- board between supporting harmonies and a canopy of triplet quavers far above. after a brief but passionate interlude. 120. and. however. but at its second a fresh key. The tranquil course of the Sonata in A major. . restricted thematic substance of which it is composed. to the sphere of the song. op. which opens every phrase.62 NINETEENTH-CENTURY PIANO MUSIC introduction always begins in the tonic. The piece is virtually it harmonically monothematic and mono-rhythmic. This last-named movement for is written in the style of an arrangement of a song piano solo. in which the triplet quavers return in double octaves to whirl the movement to its close. The quietly expansive voice-part is entrusted first to the right hand in octaves over a sparse chordal bass. Melodithe distinguishing feature is the interval of a falling second cally. For the opening phrase of the melody. episode in dance rhythm appears The passage of transition is omitted from the last panel but is reinstated to form a link between the episode and the coda. one crotchet and four quavers in a bar it is a pattern of fj j j J j). beats. In range of expression. The melodic outline and the piano writing of this Andante in D major are essentially instrumental in style. Those of the Andante (in F major) of the Sonata in A minor. Rhythmically. The Beethovenian in intensity of expression. pertain related keys. the Schubert of the Valses sentimentales two are almost third represents The composed the same year.

Schubert borrowed the last few bars of his song An den Mond' (To the moon) (Schreiber) composed five years earlier. Another. Sometimes a strong rhythmic likeness may be traced between a sonata movement and a specific song. The piano writing throughout this deeply expressive piece of music is imaginative. op. # (F. J"J3) which. the first movement of the 'little' A major. and the central major) of the 'andante sostenuto' in the B fiat Sonata. brings the movement into close relationship with the song 'Fiille der Liebe' (Abundance of love) the same year (1825). With their continuous streams of melody and major A accompanying figures they might well be transcriptions for piano solo of typical Schubert songs. Pieces such as the Andante of the B major Sonata. and the Andante of the G major Fantasy contain pages of the kind of music of which many Schubert songs are made. J"J^ |J. whether in quick or . which is inserted pianissimo between every phrase of the melody and which eventually detaches itself to become an independent episode. is entirely new. The 'con moto' of the D major Sonata is distinguished by the recurrent figure (| J. In movement after movement. together with the rich chromatic harmonies. The little serpentine figure. Two extreme instances are the second episode (in G major) of the rondo Finale of the Sonata in section (in ceaseless D major. is their invasion by the rhythms of equally distinctive feature the dance. 120. * * * The player of the Schubert sonatas who is acquainted with the composer's songs is frequently reminded of their supremely beautiful piano accompaniments. Schlegel) which Schubert composed # # # In studying even these few movements we have already found that the vocal style of much of the thematic material is one of the most distinctive features of Schubert's sonatas. It possesses an ethereal quality in the passages where the texture is widely spaced and pianissimo trills vibrate in the upper reaches of the * treble.THE SONATA: WEBER AND SCHUBERT c 63 which finally reappears to round off the movement.

though none of Schubert's is so large The Trio of the Sonata in D from all the others by being composed in an major almost unbroken succession of semi-staccato chords in both hands. dance measures are immanent. more stately type. are mutually very different in and mood. c The Contrarily enough. also in sonata form. That of the E flat Sonata is the only one in style which the style and the tempo (Allegretto) conform to the older. The Allegro of the G minor is restless in gait and the allegro moderato' of the Tantasy or Sonata' in G major moves briskly.(or scherzo-) and-trio movements which come within our purview. in the major or the minor. In the molto moderato e cantabile' of the major Tantasy or Sonata' the mysteriously is followed hushed by a long section in unabashed c G opening waltz rhythm. three in number. like a scherzo. the series of dotted beats in the central section lends it a pastoral air. The Finale of this work. but one of the eight minuet. minuets. either as separate short or in groups. In the Sonata in E flat. that of the Sonata . They pieces bear a resemblance to some of Haydn's and to that of Weber's Fourth Sonata in differs E in dimensions as the last-named. in triple or in quadruple time. a type of national dance that Schubert had been to writing from boyhood. They lessen the rhythmic plasticity of the movement but lend it a distinctive and romantic tone-colour. the lilting rhythm of the trio evokes the landler or the waltz and the music could In all well serve as little an accompaniment to dancing. In this respect the are unlike those in the Beethoven sonatas. minor. They often determine the character of the second subject-group in a sonata-form movement and cause this thematic material to stand in acute contrast to the principal subject. The Trio is unfeignedly a accustomed pieces handler'. one of the five scherzos. and although the beginning and ending of the Minuet are almost Mozartian in their classical preciseness.64 NINETEENTH-CENTURY PIANO MUSIC slow tempo. nearly the whole of the extensive second subject-group of the opening Allegro is written in the style of dance music. preserves the spirit of the dance throughout its more than two hundred bars in 6/8 time.

sets it c 5 . It contains no passage. The apart other four scherzos are all marked allegro vivace Those of the Sonatas in A minor. nor as high as momentarily in the central section of that movement. however simple. * * is The all Trio. the layout of the accompaniment. which seldom rises above a pianissimo. The Finale of the a case in point. op. Yet even in and the piano texture much movements where the melodic outline claims the principal attention. The two remaining scherzos. the is in pitch. 42 and D major make an impression of their and sforzandos. The movement also shows the full use Schubert made of the whole compass of the keyboard. is seldom lacking in interest. is figuration.. only one in the minor mode and the lowest of tinged with a feeling of anxiety which from all the others. posth. display in varying strength and different fashion the typical features of the waltz: two-bar rhythm and the persistence of one harmony throughout the bar. The variety in the piano figuration is greater in the A major than it is in the B flat major scherzo. in which the entire texture is placed so deep in pitch as it is at the ending of the Andantino of the same Sonata. The latter swings is B major. robustly along in a series of phrases in dotted beats punctuated by heavily accented chords. noticeably absent * * is The musical less the style of Schubert sonatas more expansively tuneful than that of Beethoven's complex. displays an elfin lightness of spirit unparalleled in all Schubert's sonatas. The vigour by respective syncopations former is alternately it explosive and equable in temper. op. It witnesses to Schubert's skill in placing the melody in any part of the texture and in surrounding it with a never-failing variety of decorative Sonata in A major. but the latter movement. however. but its lightly-tripping metre from the more dignified Allegretto in E flat.THE SONATA: WEBER AND SCHUBERT In 65 marked Allegretto. no definite characteristics of the dance although the possesses Trio is laridler from the first note to the last. The pre-eminently Sonata in D and expressive con moto of the of major remains more consistently in the centre tuneful c 3 . those of the posthumous Sonatas in A major and B flat major.

such as the dashing Finale of the Sonata in C minor with its never-flagging rhythm. trill B flat major. In striking contrast is the decorative. the interpolations in the Andante of the latter. A major. the exotic colouring and rhapsodic style bring the movements into close with the composer's Impromptus and Moments relationship musicaux. At the other extreme are the short pianissimo phrases in tenuous plain octaves or single lines which seem to express some of Schubert's deepest thoughts: the openings of the two Sonatas in A minor. 42 and 143. opp. op. poco minor Sonata. A more florid kind of part-writing is maintained almost continuously throughout the Finale of the Sonata in flat E major. Entirely opposite in effect is the compact part-writing of the theme of the variations. Schubert sometimes left very wide gaps between the parts for the two hands. swirling scale-passages and cross-hand leaps. In both the two towards the end of the development-section of the Allegro of the Sonata in C minor. Wide gaps of this kind also impart an eerie character to the passage. In the development-section of the first movement of this sonata they create a feeling of extreme attenuation during the the right hand breaks up ghostly pianissimo phrases in which left the melody of the second subject Into dotted beats while the hand preserves the rhythmic pattern in chords. 42 and the close but mosso in the luxuriant texture of most of the Andante of the Sonata in B 5 . supremely instrumental style which sometimes characterizes whole movements or portions of movements. a type of layout familiar in the composer's string quartets. op. posth. and the descending scale and long low in the Allegro of the Sonata in there is an infinitude of meaning. In all of these .66 NINETEENTH-CENTURY PIANO MUSIC the keyboard. but the sensitive style of the piano writing and the great diversity of figuration lend the movement intense fascination for the player. 'andante. as we noted when studying the Andante of op. 143. and the weirdly impressionistic central episode of the Andantino of the same work. the development-section in quasiHungarian style in the Allegro of the Sonata in A major.

In the hands of their successors it was first to undergo further modification and then to suffer neglect. Liszt. but their smaller piano The Romantic period. Both had also enhanced its purely pianistic qualities and Schubert had made it more intimately lyrical. AFTER longer to Schubert's death in 1828 the piano sonata was no maintain the central position it had occupied for so years in the output of serious composers. which is reckoned as dating from about was preceded by a period of transition during which classical composers were becoming more closely drawn. Schumann. and the coming romantic composers were Beethoven had still under the influence of classical principles. which 1 830 to 1 900. who had produced a long series of predomiand who was then nantly classical sonatas from 1770 onwards last five works in this in his seventieth year. dementi. theirs in units. Weber had imparted to it some of the attributes of operatic composition.The Sonata (4) Brief survey ofpost-classical sonatas from dementi to Grieg. Two of them. Beethoven had already greatly enlarged many its structure and intensified its expressive possibilities. to romantic ideals. Grieg. dementi. Tchaikovsky. the romantic and neo-classical composers were to count pieces in legions. his one programme sonata. the 'LebewohP. nor was it to preserve its original characteristics as a framework for the expression of abstract ideas. published his were far from being regular in category. Brahms. Mendelssohn. Chopin. Sonatas by individual composers. Where the classical composers had counted their sonatas in tens. . in 1811. composed In 1821.

but whose mellifluous affinity Words which the composer came central Adagio unmistakably prefigured the Songs without to write far more naturally did sonatas. the other movements were composed in 1839. have not only survived. op. who was later to win renown as a romantic composer. a boy of twelve. The op. is three were composed during the 18305. foretold nothing of the power and the originality of conception he was to display about ten years later in the 'Funeral March 3 Sonata in B flat minor. same year saw the completion of the Funeral March that was to become the third movement of Chopin's Sonata in B flat minor. however. Another. 26. In 1837 came Liszt's 'Dante' Sonata. as were the two other large-scale works he conceived as sonatas but published under different titles: the Fantasy in C. Mendelssohn wrote three sonatas early in his career and then turned to other forms of piano composition which were more congenial to him. the third Sonata of op. 50. His last sonata and Chopin's first coincided in date (1827) an(i both are now equally forgotten by the practising it the one because it is faded in style. scena tragica^ for which reason it may be considered as definitely romantic in intention. The piano sonatas written by the principal composers during the next few decades. because immature. Only the sensitive piano writing revealed the future poet of the keyboard. Six years later. a Polish youth of than he ever seventeen produced as his op. Some of them have become indispensable to recitalists and have won the affection of amateurs. 17 and Faschingsschwank aus Wien. were issued as Caprices. the sonata- . unconventional though it was. Schumann's pianist. Chopin wrote his third and last Sonata in B minor in 1847. the other. bore the title Didone abbandonata.68 NINETEENTH-CENTURY PIANO MUSIC form and which contained connecting movements. 4 a Sonata in C minor in which the treatment of classical form. In the same year (1821). completed a Sonata in G minor whose opening and closing movements showed a strong with Cleinenti's earlier style. When Liszt had written his Sonata in B minor a few years later.

Tchaikovsky. Not until 1865 was the species continued in varying styles by two composers from countries with musical traditions very different from those of their sonata-writing predecessors. The young Johannes Brahms. 7. 37. Petersburg sharp minor the year Conservatoire at the age of twenty-five. The Grieg Sonata. Both these works of his have disappeared from the average C G and from publishers' catalogues in this performer's repertory has never lost its charm country. in fact. A composer of the younger generation stepped temporarily into the breach. it is . As for Brahms's * * Clementi. however. wrote three sonatas in quick succession during 1852 and 1853. came to an end.THE SONATA: FROM CLEMENTI TO production GRIEG- 6g of this generation of composers. op. # * * * sonatas of the post-classical period are so widely contrasted in style that it will be easier to consider those of each The group them for study according their dates of composition. returned once more to the fray thirteen years later with the Sonata in major. born in 1833. the senior composer of the period under review. The form is no more irregular than that of Beethoven's 'LebewohT Sonata (1811). op. a more irreconcilable difference between two works ostensibly in the same category and written in the same year (1853) can hardly be imagined. although solid fare for public performance. all of whom were born between 1809 and 1811. * * movements each. Grieg. Mendelssohn's Sonata in G minor and Clementi's Didone abbandonata Sonata. did not break fresh ground as regards structure when he wrote Didone abbandonata (1821). have the little in common beyond being in same key and in three Sonata in F minor and Liszt's in B minor. wrote his Sonata in piano solo Sonata in who was twenty-two when he painstakingly E minor. recitalists do not consider it for the amateur sufficiently pianist. did not pursue this type of who wrote a composition any further.. which composer in turn than to to both date from 1821. he left the St. but then eschewed the composition of piano sonatas for the remainder of his life. For instance.

Among Other composers wrote programme them were Karl Loewe of ballad fame and our own Sterndale Bennett. almost improvisatory intermezzo. In the last-named work. whose style of writing for the piano was often more effective than was Beethoven's. not only is the first. dementi. material of the Largo is re-introduced in cipal The its other thematic original tempo as an interlude before the presto coda. Neither holds a key position in musical history as does the Tather of the Piano'. the the energetic prinlanguorous central phrase of which becomes subject of the ensuing Allegro. also an Allegro. whereas many of dementi's are still current 'classics'. by his complete renunciation of minor) virtuoso passages and by the graphic performing-directions ranging in intensity from 'languente' to 'con furia'. The sonatas of both have been doomed to obscurity.70 rather NINETEENTH-CENTURY PIANO MUSIC less advanced than that of dementi's own Sonata in B minor composed in 1804. conceived in very different style from the slow movement in cut-and-dried ternary form of the first sonata of the same opus (50). The adagio c dolente' leading into the Finale is a con- tinuous. did not always succeed in subordinating technical means to artistic ends. The second movement. The 'intro- duzione largo patetico' is heavy with foreboding. The two c Allegro movements. which is in two movements. power and the passionately of Didone which distinguish it from dementi's earnest other sonatas. 'allegro con fuoco'. dementi's ingenious strict canons in Didone sound academic and out of place in their dramatic context. diliberando e meditando' and con disof the thematic perazione' are filled with agitated reiterations e content. While Beethoven's expressive canonic imitations of the horn' theme in the 'Lebewohl' Sonata c add picturesque touches of colour. . preceded by a long Adagio introduction. is preluded by a short Largo section. That he was carried away by enthusiasm for his It is chiefly the greater expressive mood same dark key (G is implicit in his choice of the tragic subject for all the movements. nineteenth-century sonatas for the piano.

It is the slow movement. For one thing. also in precise sonata form but with a contrasting second subject. in the scherzos that the composer reveals himself at his most likeable. using only three of the units. Adagio in E flat major. both halves are marked to be a separate coda. structurally as well as pianistically. the second works gradually back to the tonic. the third is of the simply a partial restatement in the tonic is an interesting cross between opening phrases. The first movement is short and sectional. magic of the Overture to the same period. they show features of construction and they contain stretches first one from the last two. The piece falls into three main divisions. They would hardly sound inappropriate on the harpsichord. The spirited presto Finale. the monotony of which is occasionally relieved by deft cross-hand passages.THE SONATA: FROM CLEMENTI TO GRIEG 71' Although Mendelssohn's sonatas are less generally familiar than are many of his other piano pieces. they are by no means lacking in interest for musicians. each shorter than its predecessor. In their fairy lightness of touch they approach the A Midsummer-night's Dream written at outer movements of the first The two Sonata in G minor are conceived in the style of the eighteenth rather than the nineteenth century. The whole kind of sonata form. It stands in ternary form and the simplest . they are among his earliest published works. abbreviated and in fresh first division. which is made up keys. The of five thematic units. Characteristically enough. consists of a nearly unbroken succession of two-bar phrases. of lively. that displays the composer's later well-known lyrical style and his ingenuity in arranging his subject-matter. except in the relative major. is is that it practically identical with the principal subject. imaginative piano writing. ends in the key of the dominant. He wrote all of them between the of twelve and eighteen and ages they reflect both his precocity and the remarkable maturing of his style during the years that separate the uncommon it is For another. Mendelssohn made such strenuous use its of most characteristic figure that the movement tends to sound wearisome. roughly as follows. As in some of Haydn's repeated and there is the chief theme of the second subject-group sonata movements.

from publication is less understandable. mood in Brahms's early Ballade in B minor. molto allegro in E major runs its c 3 headlong course until rounded off unexpectedly with the opening phrase and codetta of the first movement. though in actual pianistic style they are far closer to Weber's sonatas than to Beethoven's. While it is only natural that the composer should have declined to print this boyish work during his lifetime. piu vivace . these two sonatas is in four movements with interconnexions between the movements.72 NINETEENTH-CENTURY PIANO MUSIC movements in effective contrast to the other which the structural outlines are notably clear-cut. In this respect the works show Beethovenian influence. Only the third and fourth movements are actually . an easy-going Allegretto in 6/8 time in sonata form. Pianistically. a of a stretch of recitative-like twice-repeated panel. c 5 a pair of movements displaying all the accustomed sprightliness of a scherzo. leads into the movement. The Sonata bears a late opus number (105) because it was not published until after Mendelssohn's death. op. sharp minor. consisting 'adagio e senza tempo' in fluid tonality. allegretto. op. 6 (1826). a single chordal phrase. op. The time it Each of Sonata in E major is a continuous whole. one of the most striking features in the whole work occurs in the miniature development-section of the first movement. The first movement. This last andante and a section of passage-work. It is a passage that finds a counterpart in 10. 3. is straight- way followed by a ' tempo di minuetto' in F 'staccato e leggiero' with a legato Trio in D minor. Finale. no. The attempted statements of the principal subject are interrupted by the mocking goblin laughter conjured up by low staccato octaves played by the left hand. which he thought fit to publish at the was written. The work is of much the same calibre as the E major Sonata. Mendelssohn's Sonata in in B flat is less continuous than the one E major. 106 (1827). Instead of the conventional slow movement. his witholding of the third Sonata in B flat.

. however. interesting piano writing in the sonata occurs in The wide gaps in the layout of staccato semiquavers cause some piquant sound-effects. but the passage that joins them contains a reference to the principal subject of the first movement. The composer's the first the whole of this indication pianissimo for the playing of almost movement and of many virtuoso passages in to the effectiveness and last The writing of orchestral. His flexible by great fluency hands were not unusually proportioned as were Weber's. as they are apt to do on the full-toned instrument of to-day. a 'barcarolle' in the remote placid key of E for the of attaching it to the Finale. more A than organic. Brilliant pianist though he was. technique was distinguished and extreme lightness of touch. choral and concerted instrumental music exerted stronger claims upon his interest. and in the parallel passage later. so the passages he wrote to be played in the depths of the keyboard can hardly have sounded confused. The most the Scherzo. The interruption of this last movement by an excerpt from the imaginative. It was in these spheres that he achieved his finest work. adds immensely of the music. merely purpose sound incongruous in this context. giving an effect of unity which is. where the right hand's high G flat and the left hand's low F natural produce a bizarre semitonal clash across the intervening distance of four octaves. portion of the second (Scherzo) is interpolated and developed in the Finale. The rushing passages appended to the third movement. particularly in bars 14 and 15.THE SONATA: FROM GLEMENTI TO GRIEG 73 linked together. major. his Mendelssohn's own performing writing for the piano is consequently less exacting to the performer. Mendelssohn did not give the ideas in his compositions for deepest expression to his musical the piano. light-footed Scherzo only serves to emphasize the purely bravura quality of artificial the surrounding passage. The piano of his time had not as yet attained any great resonance in the lower octaves.

He was seldom ideas into traditional moulds. It gains by side with the two sonatas of the composer's maturity. existence. 4. No one could equal him in the interpretation of his music. 'polonaise-fantasy op. 4 is in interest. The intrinsic musical worth of the Sonata may be extremely slight.technique at the age of seventeen.74 NINETEENTH-CENTURY PIANO MUSIC the piano To Chopin. in which the clear outline of the rich thematic content and the definite key-changes at focal points cannot be missed by even the most inattentive listener.. During his lifetime he as a performer of his own works. with the minuet- and-trio or scherzo as the second movement and the slow movement as the third. the 'allegro .. of the 'Funeral March' Despite the tremendous popularity Sonata in B flat minor Chopin's sonatas are not among his most at his happiest in pouring representative works. new The its composition and which was never performed in public. with which it has several in points common: its composition in the minor mode. since his death his compositions have come to be recog- fame acquired almost legendary nized as one of the treasures of the whole literature of piano music. His manner of playing was as original methods distinctive as was his style in composing. In writing large-scale works he forms. op. Unlike the opening movements of the Sonatas in B flat minor and B minor. Yet first it printed after his death. As an example of Chopin's youthful production and as a record of his standard of performing. too. is cannot justifiably be passed over by anyone who is interested in studying the growth of this composer's style. such as the 'ballade' and the first Sonata in C minor. if it is studied side historically valuable. and he spent his whole life in exploring its possibilities and evolving new and of writing for it. and the arrange- ment of the four movements in similar order. for which he did not succeed in finding a publisher at the time of preferred to invent 3 . was the be-all and end-all of his He found it nearly impossible to conceive music in any other terms than in those of the keyboard.

Nevertheless. Chopin's sonata-form movements are alike in the irregular opening of the recapitulation. which is placed in the most expressive register of the keyboard. the second movements of the three sonatas the tonality of E flat. and in the C principal subject minor Sonata the opening phrase appears in the key of the this section starts is deep-pitched flattened leading-note. Moreover. although short-term modulations occur by the fundamental or abiding change of key. The choice of the key of the Sonata in C minor and of that of the submajor dominant for the Sonata in B flat minor is in accordance with Finale of the for the B minor established practice.THE SONATA: FROM GLEMENTI TO GRIEG maestoso' of the 75 G minor Sonata is sparse in subject-matter and indeterminate in key-relationships. there is little rhythmic variety. its air u lv Strangely enough. in of E flat major reappears in the minor. and two of them end. Two-bar rhythm prevails and there is little intermission in the pattern of eight quavers to the bar. In the Sonata in B flat minor with the second subject. A second subject can hardly be detected. however. the much B minor . a passage that faintly adumbrates the immeasurably more striking close of the Ballade in G minor. a whole tone lower than at original statement. during which a chromatic scale descends from the high treble to meet a rising bass. The pianistic layout bears the Chopin imprint from the opening phrase. major and begin. to the last few bars. In the nature of E flat Sonata. for during the whole movement. the shorn of its first sixteen bars. the resulting monotony is increased by the lack of hundred. the movement is undeniably attractive on account of the interesting part-writing and the decoratively beautiful passage-work of which it largely consists. the sigdoes enharmonic duty for D sharp. The short chromatic curve which is the characteristic feature of the opening paragraph and virtually the motto theme of the whole movement is practically the only fragment of melody that the ear can readily seize. and the key-signature relative Sonata. In the B minor.

Larghetto in A flat major in 5/4 time. justification D The far so-called removed in Minuet-and-Trio of the C minor Sonata is less than it is in dimensions from the scherzos spirit of the later sonatas.76 less NINETEENTH-CENTURY PIANO MUSIC usual key of the mediant major. The Scherzo of the B flat minor Sonata also differs in all except structure from that of the B minor Sonata. the in double notes that flash up and coruscating triplet figures down in the Minuet and the waltz rhythm in the centre of the Trio all go to impart a rhythmic vitality that is absent from the the terrific energy preceding movement. Yet they hardly presage of the main section of the Scherzo of the Sonata in B flat minor. the music flows almost continuously throughout the forty-two bars. The movement is vague in contour but it makes an impression of unity by being opened. closed and twice punctuated by a phrase containing an easily memorable harmonic progression: Larghefcto . whose self-repeating pattern of running quavers and central section of furtively-moving inner melodies in crotchets and minims are the very reverse of the former's crisp staccato octaves and cantabile accompanied melody. It is not conventional in is its two famous successors in ternary form. movements build as are the most individual in style of all the in this youthful sonata. are the broad expanses of melody in the 'piu lento interlude of the latter foreshadowed by the limited melodic curves of Nor 5 the early Minuet-and-Trio. The sudden sforzandos on weak beats. The ending of the Scherzo of the last-named Sonata on E flat and the beginning of the sharp may be interpreted as a subtle succeeding Largo on of the unusual tonal procedure. The slow movement of the Sonata in C minor.

THE SONATA: FROM GLEMENTI TO GRIEG 77 The most distinctive feature of the Larghetto is the piano writing. is The cross-rhythm of the central episode counter-balanced by liquescent figuration. In a Funeral eight years earlier March in C minor which he composed when he was nineteen. Chopin designed the two presto Finales on similar lines. The division of the beats into irregular groupings of notes. where the character of the music demands a Sonata in steadily recurrent beat. but they stand in much less acute contrast than do those of the Funeral March in B flat minor. tiated the style of the two sections very in mode and tonality. dramatically explosive insertion with strong accen- A flat tuation. It is in the even more than in the structural aspect rhythmic that the Larghetto differs so profoundly from the Funeral March of the Sonata in B flat minor. 26 reveals how differently the two conceived the respective central portions: Beethoven. as a spacious interlude in which the heavy tread and muffled drums of the surrounding sections are entirely forgotten. Although a period of seventeen years elapsed between the composition of the first and the third Sonatas. frequently repeated phrases . The whole movement is serene in character. Chopin had differenlittle. composers as a short. the second displaying the copious original material in a fresh light. In the type and the treatment of the musical subject-matter and in the style of the piano writing the contrast between these two Finales is immeasurable. the jagged edges of the dotted beats in the left-hand part throughout the opening section are ironed out. The short-breathed. the delicate tracery of broken chords in the right hand and the flowing melodies in the left hand combine to intensify the atmosphere of languor created by the unhurried already quintuple metre. Each consists primarily of two long panels. the occasional cross-bar rhythm. so to speak. op. and each movement ends with a last statement of the opening subject and a coda. Chopin. named movement with the A comparison of the lastMarcia funebre of Beethoven's major. apart from changes The Largo of the Sonata in B minor also comprises two kinds of musical material. into gentle curves during the shortened reprise.

Papillons and a few other more complex. For although Schumann could 'no own compositions adequately. On the contrary. In his youth he was an excellent pianist. a tone-poem as comin effect as it is simple in the musical means it employs. the chords became progressively more widely extended and the passage. and the masterly intricately. pianist Much of his music unmanageable by the average on account of its great technical Schumann's equipment as a performer was of a different order. At that time he had already written the 'Abegg' Variations. of his pianistic texture more intricate. Chopin's powers as an executant were so phenomenal as not only to determine the style of his own creative production but to set an entirely is new standard difficulty. his now decreased command The style to simplify his manner of writing of the keyboard might well have led him for the instrument. and by texture.woven conciseness of the movement in ghostly plain octaves that brings the Tuneral March' Sonata to its terrifying close. he could entrust an incomparably finer executant: Clara Wieck. As he always composed at the piano. Yet the contrasts in the superbly variegated pianistic and workmanship of the two movements so widely conception with the complete separated in date are as nothing compared antithesis in style that exists between their large dimensions. The exceptionally wide span of her . With this darkling cloudscape of scurrying chromatic notes Chopin wrote one of the most remarkable movements in the entire history of pelling the piano sonata. of performing-technique. his future wife. who was from girlhood the ideal interpreter and the longer play to his them champion of his music. It was not until he damaged his right hand at the age of twenty-two that he renounced his intention of adopting the career of a virtuoso and decided to devote himself to composition.78 NINETEENTH-CENTURY PIANO MUSIC and the monotonous figuration in quavers of the early movement in C minor are replaced in the B minor by subject-matter that is rhythmically and melodically convincing. fabric and virtuoso passages. and at the same time.

'Aria . when the opening movement was constructed out of a revised version of an allegro Fandango which Schumann had written the year before as a single piece. reference will be made in a later chapter.THE SONATA: FROM GLEMENTI TO GRIEG hands and her 79 skill as a performer were responsible for many of the technical difficulties in Schumann's piano music that have ever since beset the inexpert player. The second movement. wholly congenial. The first movement and the third (Scherzo) were written in 1833. in another key and with a few alterations. An c c introduction. or of any works in established large-scale forms. of a song. were composed of fresh material and the whole was completed and published in 1836. revised op. scherzo ed intermezzo' and Finale. From start to finish it exercised Schumann's mind during the space often years. the Second it was spread over a shorter period th^n was that of in G minor. was simply a transcription. B minor. proceeded in desultory fashion. Lengthy as was this process of composing the First Sonata. incorporating a melodic fragment from it in the vivace'. The First Sonata in F sharp minor. 22. op. 1 1 was begun in 1833. The remaining movements. Like Chopin. which Anna' (To Anna). He expressed himself at his most typical in successions of short pieces such as Papillons. that he had written four years previously. Schumann used a greatly enhanced transcription of yet another . and Davidsbundler. Kinderscenen. 8 (1831). all of which are in four movements. For the second movement. Carnaval. op. Schumann did not find the writing of sonatas. op. He prefaced it with an Adagio 5 ensuing 'allegro also contains a theme from the Adagio. His musical ideas themselves so well to were of a kind that did not lend as development they did to statement in alternating paragraphs or to repetition in fresh guises. 7 (1829. It appeared under Schumann's duple pseudonym Tlorestan and Eusebius to the origin of which 5 . The composition of the three published sonatas. Before he began the of any of his three sonatas composition Schumann made sonata form. Only pieces: the well-known Toccata in 1832) and the Allegro in several attempts at writing movements in two of these survived to be printed as separate C major.

or a satisfactory balance between exposition. his Sonata in F minor. now known as the Third. though evidently without conviction. attributes which are among the prerequisites of sonata form. These shortcomings in technical procedure are to a very large The extent offset by the expressive musical material itself. and vivid character of the Schumann's long opening and closing filled movements are like great tapestries with incidents depicted . often. Sometimes the development-section is repeated in the recapitulation and the movement is lengthened for 5 still further by a third statement of the principal subject before the coda. and Finale as we know it to-day then as a replacement for another written three years earlier with which Schumann was dissatisfied. lm Herbst' (In autumn) which he had in 1830. Schumann's 'subjects often consist of a series of selfcontained paragraphs which are restated intact or in instalments in unorthodox keys at points during the movement where their occurrence obscures the scheme of tonality and destroys the formal proportions. tions rather development-sections themselves contain repetithan fresh workings of the various thematic units.8o NINETEENTH-CENTURY PIANO MUSIC c of his songs of 1828. When he revised and republished the work in 1 853 he included one of the dis- carded scherzos as the second movement. The already remodelled as an independent piano piece was not composed until 1838. From a study of the principal that although he was never at a movements it is also loss for musical ideas. development and recapitulation. Schumann wrote it originally in five movements. Meanwhile. From the foregoing it is plain that Schumann did apparent not conceive his sonatas as organic wholes. but in view of its elaborate two scherzos and to style let it his publisher urged him to cut out the appear in three movements as Concert sans orchestre (Concerto without orchestra). Few of the sonataform movements display either a sufficiently definite contrast between first and second subject-groups as wholes.. with ingenious canonic treatment. had been published in 1836. The composer con- sented. however. he found great difficulty in arranging them in logical sequence and in submitting them to development which they were fundamentally unsuited.

'quasi variazioni' (on a theme by Clara Wieck). is an interestare of the ing example of the composer's great skill and inventiveness in writing variations. They are a delight to play and to listen to as sheer music. This interesting Scherzo includes a example of his fondness for repeating subject-matter in a key only one semitone distant: in this instance. It also contains some of his more intricate cross-hand typical passages. large-scale works in several move- ments. Schumann had at first intended the Fantasy to be a contribution . in ma which the composer burlesques the extravapomposo'. and Faschingsschwank aus Wien. will be considered in the present chapter. The shortest. most difficult though most rewarding to play is the Scherzo of the F minor Sonata.THE SONATA: FROM GLEMENTI TO GRIEG in 81 glowing colours. in D and D flat. op. The 'scherzo ed intermezzo' (Allegrissimo) of the F sharp minor Sonata opens conventionally which the but breaks off suddenly into an 'intermezzo alia burla. winding up with a mock-heroic gances recitative. here combined with unusual pedal-effects. same lyrical type as some of his shorter pieces such as the Intermezzos of op. is a miniature rondo in refrain is accented regularly but both the episodes are strongly syncopated. The Andantino of the F minor Sonata. It exhibits to much greater advantage than do the sonata-form movements Schumann's genius for arranging his material in alternating paragraphs. The slow movements of the First and Second Sonatas. in the G minor Sonata. Longest. the Fantasy. Schumann's two other 26. which as we have already seen are based upon Schumann's own songs. these two were not which as we noted he brought into being without alterations in their planning. The three Scherzo movements are of varying size and shape. for they throw a different his conception of sonata style. lento. a branch of his art that we shall study in the next chapter. 4. op. of the 'galant' style. designed originally as sonatas. most continuous. light upon Like the three works just examined. 17.

omitted the titles. is G major and minor c is approximately in The central section. only in their main outlines that the three pieces of the Fantasy approach established types of sonata-movement. which in the nature of a self-contained interlude with a different time-signature and in slower tempo. He named it proposed Beethoven monuGrand Sonata and gave the 5 'Triumphal Arch'.82 NINETEENTH-CENTURY PIANO MUSIC to the from Tlorestan and Eusebius' ment titles. fantastically widestyle of this c The rhapsodic moderato ma spread chords and terrific leaps which accompany and decorate the invigorating thematic substance. Schlegel to indicate the of the composition poetic basis and dedicated the work to Franz Liszt. added four lines of a poem by F. In the Finale in C major. alla leggenda'. in E flat. Then he changed his mind and as Fantasy. performs the function of a development-section as it is based largely upon a theme first heard in the opening pages: movement is intensified in the next. which is also the slow movement of the work. He published the work under his own name simply 'Ruins'. The It is opening Allegro in first-movement form. all the technical difficulties of its two predecessors are smoothed away in a piece . at Bonn in 1836. It is a energico' piece in free rondo notable in pianistic layout for the form. W. and 'Starry Grown to the three movements respectively.

op. It consists of a collection of variegated episodes grouped round a recurrent short section. Among by the surrounding episodes. composed on a long visit to Vienna in 1839. The forceful metric pattern this section are harmonic scheme of and the straightforward thrown into strong relief of them contain long and passages or whole parastretches of chromatic progressions the graphs characterized by persistent syncopation. of calmly flowing music in 12/8 time. He designed it as a 'Grand Romantic Sonata. not without powerful The movement is distinguished by a great wealth of melodic ideas in all parts of the texture which are presented with sonata-forrn key-relationships in two long panels between an introduction and a coda. The kaleidoscopic first movement in quasirondo form. scrappy themes which are constantly repeated. but the descriptive title it now bears 3 Faschingsschwank aus Wien (Carnival jest from Vienna) in five while Schumann was movements. recalls the mood of Carnaval which was written a few years earlier. an 'intermezzo con molto energia which Schumann printed separately before he decided to include it in Faschingsschwank^ is a short moto perpetuo of speeding semiquavers: a 'song without words' very 5 . Some last-named at that is a hardly-concealed allusion to the Marseillaise time forbidden in Vienna which occurs about halfway through the episode beginning in F sharp major. movements are hardly of the The second movement. an assemblage of lively. the most conventional in structure. The Fantasy as a whole composition is typical of Schumann's very finest production for the piano. thzpidce de resistance of the whole work. The three central same brief calibre as those of the sonatas. exemplifies Schumann's most vivid style of composing. similar in style to the first of the composer's well-known Three Romances. The fourth movement. Only the Finale. 28. . a Romance comprising a few it inconclusively though meditative phrases.THE SONATA: FROM GLEMENTI TO GRIEG 83 climaxes. ends does not lead without a break into the Scherzino. is in sonata form. four of which were conveys a far truer idea of the picturesque nature of its musical content.

his admiration for Mendelssohn led to a modification of his own musical outlook. when he came to write large-scale chamber and orchestral works. which occupied him throughout his earlier years when his romantic tendencies were at their strongest. large and small. he was more inclined to follow classical procedure. Schumann was to proceed much further in basis of the slow the direction of thematic metamorphosis in his symphonies. which are among his earliest extant compositions. When Brahms began his career as a composer his classical and romantic tendencies were fairly evenly balanced. and less ready to give free ship rein to his imagination and fancy. his unior by a whole generation. Waldscenen. which c Prophet'. Schumann himself gradually shed his ultra-romantic traits and turned more readily to the writing of abstract music. and that Schumann made connexions by means of mutual thematic quotation. Brahms. and in the quotation of a few lines of poetry at the head of the Andante of the Third Sonata. all of chapters. Later. He did not altogether renounce the such as the Album for composition of imaginative short pieces contains the favourite Vogel als the Toung. was already using this device at . and which will be discussed in collections of highly fanciful later piano duets.84 NINETEENTH-CENTURY PIANO MUSIC With the writing of Faschingsschwank Schumann had almost completed the long series of piano compositions. signs of romanticism appear in the use of folk-songs as the movements of the First and Second Sonatas. which he began to write when he was over thirty. In the three sonatas. We noticed earlier in this chapter that both Clementi and Mendelssohn continued Beethoven's later practice of introducing a phrase or a whole section from one movement into another. Mendelssohn's romanticism was only a as a neo-classical comyouthful phase from which he emerged of form and fine craftsmaninterested in perfection poser. In the smaller piano pieces and songs that he wrote all his life his deeply-rooted romantic characteristics found their natural musical outlet. As time went on. more than in evocative tone-painting.

which was the in C major. It begins in one key and ends in another. greatly slowed down in the closing bars. Andante. time-signature is changed five times tempo-indications. end when a longish final section of fresh character The movement seems and there are four different to be drawing to an is added. This poetic Andante and the fourth movement. Brahms's. Retrospect'. opening Schumann's in being much more firmly knit. makes the impression of not having been conceived as a whole but of Brahms's sonatas differ strongly from having developed in unexpected directions during the course of the its composition. The first and last movements of the Sonata the age of twenty. The relationship between the movements of each sonata is integral. Intermezzo the ('Retrospect'). broad sweeps of melody and many contrapuntal ingenuities. of part of theme of the second movement. There is a vast difference between the Finales of the two composers' Sonatas in F minor. i (1852-3).THE SONATA: FROM GLEMENTI TO GRIEG 85 first to sharp be composed (in 1852) although it is numbered op. and in the F minor Sonata. corresponds to the moonlit rapture expressed in the lines perfectly in feeling of poetry prefixed to the movement. We shall find evidences in every one of his three sonatas. . together with the Andante of the C major c Sonata and the Trios of all the sonatas are the only ones which do not make heavy demands on the player. a sectional rondo characterized by great rhythmic variety. the Scherzo is based upon a rhythmic variant of the theme of the slow movement. 2. of the same sonata. The beautiful music itself. In the Sonata in F minor. which is far from being rigid. are similarly related. the Andante of the F minor. Only one movement in the Brahms sonatas. the form of the individual movements. Even a last allusion to the opening theme. however. there are cross-references between all five movements. is clearly-defined and purposeful. op. The others bristle with difficulties in the shape of strenuous chord-passages. Schumann's is a brilliant toccata with hardly a break in its uniform pattern of twelve restless semiquavers to the bar. does not achieve a convincing unification of the whole. 5 (1853). op. The most obvious is the recrudescence in the fourth movement.

In the sonata-form moveso well differentiated in ments the respective subject-groups are character that they are easily followed. awkward and intricate part-writing. effectively on some Leaving aside all strictures on the pianistic style of these works of the composer's youth. tempestuous cascades of octaves (furioso) tremolos wider than an octave in the single-handed double Scherzo and writing on three staves in the Andante thirds abound in the Finale F minor there are major. whose compositions seem to emanate from the piano's very soul. He bestowed greater interest upon the formal than upon the colourful presentation of his material. long upsurging arpeggio ornaments in the Scherzo. It is rare in the Brahms sonatas to find passages which sound as if they could not possibly be performed as other instrument or group of instruments. average performer. we find that the actual musical material is clear-cut and attractive. When he wrote for the piano he spared neither himself nor his interThe very look of some of the pages is intimidating to the preters. and German may In the sonatas. The chief formative influences in his early production were the works of Bach and Beethoven. it is as music rather than specifically as piano music that they yield their greatest fascination. Brahms was himself a magnificent pianist with large. and C of alternately rising and falling quicksilvery semiquaver passages molto agitato ) in the Finale. him from studying them as indeed. Non-stop passages in of the Sonata in in the first movement. His writing for the piano takes far less And account of the distinctive attributes of the instrument than does that of Chopin. The difficulty of all these ( as well as other impediments to easy sight-reading. Brahms had undergone a rigorous training as a composer. powerful hands.86 NINETEENTH-CENTURY PIANO MUSIC skips. Brahms's musical style was more intellectual than sensuous. but they need not deter music. be seen in the Beethovenian terseness of idiom in some of . In the Sonata in bass to high treble in the first moveacrobatic leaps from deep ment. e 5 sixths may debar the pianist of limited attainments from performing the sonatas. The Sonata in F sharp minor contains complex and the Finale. the fruits of his studies folk-songs. passages.

in which. This figure of three whole tones descending its followed by the fall of a fourth reappears in single notes in c canon between the two hands. Examples of double counterpoint occur during the section with the keysignature of two sharps and again in the Trio of the third movement. In the the development-section in canon at the octave. opening curve seems to take charge of the remainder of the movement. In the Finale of the same work a short fugato is based on a variant of the principal subject. the four-note in diminution in the right hand. F minor is less scholastically in the rondo Finale. A few may first of the numberless instances of contrapuntal treatment be studied with the eye before they can easily be appreear. the notably melodic outlines of subsidiary themes and the recondite contrapuntal treatment to which the material is at times submitted. and figure emerges triumphant before finally disappearing. Later. runs momentarily in canon with the left hand.THE SONATA: FROM GLEMENTI TO GRIEG 87 the principal subjects. left . at piu mosso'. The tuneful second subject opens before the coda. the principal subject is soon broken up into fragments for treatment in canonic imitation. a longer section of the theme appears by diminution in quavers in the hand and is soon combined with its original self in dotted crotchets in the right hand. at 'presto'. Lastly. which is written (in C major) on the lowest of the three bracketed staves just first movement of the Sonata in C major. c In the allegro non troppo ma energico' of the Sonata in F sharp minor the return of the principal subject hended by the in its own key (bar 131) is signalized by the running of the theme in canon between the two hands. The opening notes of the theme (itself easily recogniz- able by the twice-repeated interval of a falling fifth) are announced in augmentation in the bass-part. once the contrapuntal except flat has been anchordal theme of the second episode in The texture of the Sonata in D nounced.

The variations which form the slow movement of the Sonata in F sharp minor are more complex. Secondly. The theme itself ends indefinitely on the dominant. He marked the Scherzo to emphasize the fact that the a variant of the same theme. Schumann re-arranged broke theme than did the three sections of the theme treated his in different order in each variation. a collector and editor of German folk-songs. The extreme simplicity of outline. by the theme. in which respect it resembles the slow movement of Schumann's F minor Sonata. In the third variation he it up so rigorously that recognizable fragments are far to in the last. however. the change from minor to major for the last variation. First. occasional little enclaves of colour-effects (the demi- semiquaver passages. W. the warm harmonies. because during the variations it is for the most part kept myster- rises to iously in the lower strands of the texture. The much longer theme is less direct in expression. because the melody ranges over a wider compass and wanders outside the key.88 NINETEENTH-CENTURY PIANO MUSIC This is perhaps the most intellectual of the sonata-movements. It only occasionally the surface. he seek. As if to convince the listener of the finality of this variation he appended no fewer than nine successive tonic chords to bring it to a close. and the tranquil coda above a tonic pedal-point carry the poetic intentions into effect. and even then. By printing the words of the first verse at its announcement. heavily disguised. Brahms against the notes of the theme tation made clear his intention that the movement should be under- stood as portraying the romantic sentiments and the atmosphere of the poem. It monically straightforward Andante which Brahms believed to comprises free variations on a theme be a genuine folk-song but which was later shown to be an imi- composed by A. At the other extreme stands the melodically and harof the C major Sonata. Zuccalmaglio. ended his last variation faithfully upon the dominant harmony prescribed follow without a break. Brahms. upon as if to new movement was based . compared it If these two sets of variations are will be seen how much more freely Schumann Brahms. compressed its salient features into a recurrent motto phrase. una corda).

Those of the Sonatas in C major and F minor unfold in great arcs of melody soaring above firm basses and radiantly variegated harmonies. together with the glowing Andantes of the Sonatas in C major and F minor and the Intermezzo of the last-named. These movements. Our most recent study. a practice initiated by Emanuel Bach and followed once by Haydn and more frequently by Beethoven. He produced a single piece of music comprising within its scope some of the distinguishing characteristics of the . by Schubert and Brahms in their respective five-movement sonatas and by Schumann in his quondam sonata Faschingsschwank. minor. be unrecognizable The traditional division into movements was only rarely set aside. three or four composers of the post-classical period. underwent during than in structure.THE SONATA: FROM CLEMENTI TO GRIEG The Trios of the Scherzos in all 89 the sonatas display the com- most genial. the Brahms sonatas. That of the F sharp minor Sonata moves briskly in short repeated segments over a simple harmonic foundation. The linking together of* two or more movements. was only occasionally adopted by the two. though certainly only short-lived phase in the history of the sonata. Franz Liszt broke down the barriers of established form.. has shown us that two of these works by the composer furthest in date from Beethoven are actually more classical in form and style than are those of the Bonn master's 'third period'. With his Sonata in B minor composed in 1852-3 and perhis pupil Hans von Billow on the first Bechstein grand formed Our by piano in 1856. go far to clear against him of In following the fate of the sonata from Beethoven to Brahms we have this noticed that the modifications it None to period were more pronounced in style of the examples we have studied is so unusual in shape as as a sonata. * * * * next study concerns a startlingly new. a brief tone-poem in the poser at his composer's much-loved key of B fiat Brahms of some of the many charges brought being a predominantly academic composer.

it does not stand entirely alone Although this in his output. with the torments experienced by man during his mortal inescapable life. Aprh une lecture de Dante (After a reading of Dante). too. Chopin. It was a and they are mighty feat. one written as long as fifteen years before.go traditional NINETEENTH-CENTURY PIANO MUSIC movements. to which even Liszt's detractors. was singularly dependent upon external He made extensive use. chapters. the most substantial piece in the Second Book It c j ( ltaly ) of the Annees de Pelerinage (Years of was sketched in 1837 an<^ was fi rst performed by pilgrimage). only three years previously. was a romantic who did loth to not shed his romanticism with the passing years. the structural principles of first-movement form and the elements of variation and fugue. firmly all deny greatness. His compositions for his instrument. The first is the so-called 'Dante' Sonata. either literary. paraphrases. the mann. which he submitted to highly imaginative and elaborate treatment in the form of fantasies. is that of a poem by Victor Hugo in which the writer compares the horrific visions seen by journey through the infernal regions. Yet Liszt could be austere and intellectual is as well as amazingly brilliant. Liszt in Vienna in 1839. many. the piece should his Dante on . His intellectuality manifest in the thematic metamorphosis and complex structural organization of the Sonata in B minor. Based as it is upon a literary subject. are Liszt. form a turningpoint in the history of piano music. It as had two predecessors which may be regarded preliminary studies. even more than those by Chopin. other composers. His pieces of The two piano concertos. of music by pictorial or scenic. The title it bears. and one or two the most important. He clung to its tenets. the piano sonata. and Schuof whom he long outlived. and of which we shall study in later transcriptions. examples abstract music are few and far between. He was largish pieces for organ are among an unparalleled virtuoso of the piano and was possessed of an invincible performing-technique. and the other. For the composition of his original works he stimuli. composition was the only one upon which Liszt conferred the title 'Sonata'. contemporary of Mendelssohn.

this time for piano and orchestra. has come been performed. and shrieking throughout the whole length of the keyboard. rather than by his expand innovations in structural principles that Liszt exerted his most of the art profound influence upon the subsequent development of music. ant piano writing. The peremptory opening motive hurtling downwards in diminished intervals. They consist less in the division of the whole into mutually balancing sections than do in the continual development of a few themes. # 3 # # # the Grand Concert he later arranged for Solo which Liszt wrote in 1849 and which two pianos as Concerto patetico. the boundaries of tonality. and the outstandingly melodic theme which slightly alleviates the are welded into prevailing despair a cumulatively effective movement.THE SONATA: FROM GLEMENTI TO GRIEG 91 title rightly be placed in the category of programme music. The thematic is The metamorphosis place throughout the piece often assumes the character of elaborate variations. 27. stronglythey contrasted in character like those of a typical first movement. It is equally fascinating as piano music and as an experiment in form. The music itself is amazingly evocative of the subject it portrays. and in an even wider range of which takes pianistic figuration. The vestiges of sonata form are not as easily discernible in this piece as they are in its two successors. subject-matter frequently restated in varying sequence in a wide range of keys and tempi. Liszt's style efforts to even more than in the luxuridiffers most essentially from that It was by his untiring predecessors except Chopin. And this is to omit all reference to the harmonic daring which characterizes the whole work. shuddering. though in reverse) justifies consideration in the present chapter. The subFantasia quasi Sonata (which recalls that of Beethoven's two its sonatas of op. the passages of chromatic octaves and chords sighing. and it is as the . In the of all his latter respect. The original version for piano to light and has solo may be regarded as the most authentic. In recent years another arrange- The 'Dante Sonata was succeeded by ment of the work.

The B signature which prevails unchanged throughout minor Sonata. however. . to the several basic themes. are nominally. at least a programmatic background. number Pffd. Sonata and the Concert Solo is the quadruple time'Dante' A both. In the Sonata in tions or B minor Liszt carried the device of thematic than heretofore. Diminished intervals and prominent themes in semibreves and minims are characteristic features of the musical substance of all feature common to the these three large-scale works. which begins and ends in quadruple its time. One. Allegro energfoo 8 - 'Dante' Sonata longer than the of significant themes. Few pormetamorphosis even single passages can be found that do not bear to far greater lengths some relationship. is The Concert Solo a little and comprises a larger which contains the falling interval of a diminished seventh.92 NINETEENTH-CENTURY PIANO MUSIC immediate predecessor of the Sonata in B minor that the piece possesses its greatest interest. This Sonata and the Concert Solo being. contains several sections in triple time which heighten separate rhythmic interest and simulate movements. one of the most important themes of the actually prefigures Sonata in B minor. which constantly reappear in new and unsuspected guises. although each is interrupted from time to time by little of brilliant 'quasi cadenza or thoughtful 'quasi recitapassages tivo' character such as Liszt could seldom forbear from intro3 the effect of division into ducing into his compositions. close or distant. independent of less fantastic in style and pianistic layout than is the 'Dante' Sonata.

It regains its forceful character and takes on new meaning in the Fugato (in B flat minor) where it is combined with the insistent figure containing five repeated quavers (y) . it is all fire and energy as the dominating bass of the vigorous semiquaver passages preceding the change its The contemplative theme c to the signature of B major 3/2. but reverts to its original note-values when it is exultantly hurled forth in double octaves with canonic imitations in the section in B flat major. easily identifiable by the reader. we must be themes. voce) assumes a firmer character when it recurs in minims (pesante) between pulsating octaves during the section in E flat. of notable transformations in the expressive style of the most significant among these malleable Here. would be effective in and affinities.THE SONATA: FROM GLEMENTI TO GRIEG Only bar-to-bar analysis. content to seek out a few instances. lento assai' (sotto with which the Sonata opens and closes. The most immediately striking theme Allegfro energfico (x) announced impressively in the eighth bar ('allegro eneris soon accelerated in busy single notes in diminution gico') first 5 ('forte e sempre agitato ). in descending crotchets. It seems to be invested with magic import when presented (espressivo) first in awed and then in flowing curves over a slow-moving single notes chordal accompaniment at the end of the Grandioso section in D major. Again in original notation. 93 grossingly interesting tracking down all these thematic interconnexions to make which any musician would find enfor himself.

in triple time. are presented in different keys frequently. or of its superb piano writing. awakened an immediate echo in Liszt's individual . conception of sonata form went almost unheeded by his contemporaries. The B minor Sonata. No analysis in words can give any adequate idea of the splen- dour or the pathos of the B minor Sonata. returns in the tonic major only just before the end of the sonata. 'andante sostenuto 3 beginning in F sharp major. Two others. The latter figure develops almost beyond recognition into the cantabile melody beginning with four repeated crotchets which recurs in a succession of different keys throughout the whole sonata. It establishes a sense of tranquillity before the last uneasy mutterings of (y). Although they fresh types of accompaniment they do not undergo such violent rhythmic or metric metamorphosis as do their One. which was dedicated to Schumann. is restated in crotchets and quavers (3/4) in a slower section of the sonata. equally prominent. appear less and with any fellows.94 NINETEENTH-CENTURY PIANO MUSIC (y) Allegro energ'ieo P 3 1 which originated as the bass of bar 14. which opens and plays a determining part in what may be regarded as the slow movement. which heralds the grandioso section (3/2) with the melody principally in minims and crotchets. The other. the. where it is sometimes distributed in fragments at different in typically Beethovenian style. Only a playing or a hearing will suffice. pitches The ubiquitous themes so far mentioned are all in quadruple time. It makes a final emphatic appearance in the 'stretta quasi presto' near the end. subdued plaint of the once commanding (x) and the measured descent of the opening lento e 5 assai theme bring the tumultuous work to an almost inaudible close.

Hence. makes such severe demands on the player's tech- nique that the work is beyond the reach of the average pianist. Thereafter. The sonatas he subsequently wrote for early Piano Sonata. But the Grieg Sonata possesses practical advantages over Tchaikovsky's: it is shorter. especially in the slow mo vements of both the sonatas. was pre-eminently a miniaturist.THE SONATA: FROM CLEMENTI TO GRIEG 95 the now almost forgotten Sonata in B flat minor by Liszt's pupil Julius Reubke. 37 (1878) made any his essential contribution to the evolution of the sonata. the one-movement sonata went out of cultivation during the remainder of the century. From this aspect the two works may be compared with Grieg's only Piano Sonata. who was like keyboard Chopin He was neither endowed by nature nor equipped by study to structures. who died in 1858 at the age of twenty-four. Grieg. formal develop his small-scale musical ideas to fill large-scale music is sectional rather than continuous. was not published until after death and is little known except to Neither this specialists. displays features typical of Russian folkmusic. more concise. and comparatively easy to play. The Sonata in G major is not sufficiently convincing as a sonata to hold a secure place in the recitalist's repertory. perhaps. which is faintly tinged with characteristics of Norwegian folk-music. for it is by no means representative much of the composer at his best. The piano writing. with its heavily chordal passages and awkward left- hand parts. At his musical style was not as deeply . its survival. like the violin and piano and cello and piano. maintains its interest by rather than by the vividness and charm of the subject-matter any great skill evinced in its the time Grieg composed it folk-music permeated by the characteristic traits of Norwegian arrangement and organization. op. which he composed in 1865 at the end of his student days. His a fine pianist though not a magician of the or Liszt. Some of the thematic material. op. The next piano sonatas to appear were written in the conventional four movements. Tchaikovsky's Sonata in C sharp minor. 7 (1865). work nor its successor in G major.

definite may be found in the two inner movements the Sonata: particularly in the Andante.96 as it NINETEENTH-CENTURY PIANO MUSIC was to become a few years later. The piece and-trio of the classical school nor a lively scherzo -and-trio of traces of folk-idiom c c the romantic type. It is a robust. at poco piu vivo' of and in the whole of the alla menuetto'. as are those of Tchaikovsky's sonatas. latter facet of his art . as a composer lay in the freshness of his Grieg's strength melodies and the extreme originality of his harmonies. op. Nevertheless. In this third movement is neither an elegant minuetGrieg struck a new note. The is displayed at its most convincing in the a set of variations which will be discussed among Ballade. 24: the compositions of this type in the next chapter. dignified and rhythmical Norwegian peasant dance in the minor mode with a wistful trio in the major: a forerunner of many of the Lyric Pieces that we shall meet in the later pages of this book.

Moreover. Variations by Beethoven. Schubert. variation form never fell out of favour with creative musicians. It gradually assumed proportions which could never have been foreseen by the early com- Their posers of instrumental variations. Grieg. that these composers employed the technique of variation in other movements. a We made acquaintance earlier in these pages with short sets of variations written by Beethoven. Mendelssohn. Brahms. Weber. and Brahms to form individual movements in their sonatas. 9 type. John Bull's Courante. . Chopin.6 Kiriations Origin. Schumann. Liszt. the Elizabethan virginalists. the art of variation itself. Dvorak. particularly in rondos at the recurrence of the refrain. and styles of variations described and exemplified. as in Giles Farnaby's 'A Toye'. efforts in this category sometimes consisted simply of a single variation upon each of two or more consecutive tunes. means of securing length and continuity in music at a period when the longer and more elaborate instrumental forms we It afforded know to-day were either non-existent or in a rudimentary state of development. types. Tchaikovsky. Now we After shall look more closely into making a rapid survey of the several different types of variations we shall study some of the most interesting sets composed during the nineteenth century. too. Sometimes they wrote elaborate variations on one theme. Schumann. Schubert. 'Jewel' and in hundreds of pieces of this chain of increasingly William Byrd's 'Carman's Whistle' and 'Sellenger's Round are two of the best known. We noticed. and I HE writing of variations was one of the pieces for the earliest methods of almost the only composing keyboard.

the air of the theme is submitted to decorative treatment. and in some of Beethoven's earlier sets of variations. and the grouping of these units to engender a sense of progress towards a climax. in which the treatment of the theme is altogether freer. tempo. A much Ground in Gamut' and extremely pic(Funeral march) turesque specimen (1885). Weber's. The harmonic c An early example is is PurcelPs later c (late seventeenth century). repeated beneath a continuously changing decorative superstructure. In the former. Such a set of variations . and dynamics. and Schubert's. Variation form series of Among making of radical changes in key. The finest repetitions been able to composers of variations have nevertheless always find means of counteracting the monotony inherent in the type. These are the classical kinds of variations. the bass and the harmonic scheme remain more or constant while the upper and middle parts of the texture undergo all manner of transformations. these are the tions in groups alternating in expressive style so as to create well-defined units within the larger design. the last-named being one of the most important sets of keyboard variations ever written. It may include variations based on short motives detached from the theme and the entire series of variations may be interrupted by the insertion of a free inter- lude and finally rounded off with a coda. A third. They are exemplified in conven- two Chaconnes in G major with twenty-one and sixty-two variations respectively (1733) and in the Passacaglia in G minor from his Seventh Suite (First Collection. Liszt's Trauermarsch The chaconne and species of the same tionally direct fashion in Handel's the passacaglia are more elaborate genus. In the latter kind.98 NINETEENTH-CENTURY PIANO MUSIC is by nature static. as in most of Mozart's. more modern kind is the symphonic variation. On an infinitely more impressive scale are Beethoven's Thirty-two Variations in C minor (1806) and Bach's 'Goldberg' Variations (1743). consisting as it docs of a of the same stretch of music. the writing of several consecutive variarhythm. 1720). The two principal kinds of variations are the melodic and the harmonic. less variation includes the 'ground bass' or basso in which a short melodic phrase placed in the bass is ostinato'.

a set may exhibit more than one of these characteristics. From the artistic and expressive aspects. i.VARIATIONS is 99 Schumann's Impromptus on a Theme by Clara Wieck. Bach's Goldberg' Variations. 2. in of them are profoundly romantic. the whole may be accounted melodic. 7. or romantic. Moreover. harmonic. are intellectual in the sense of being the result of elaborate calculation rather than of spontaneous expression. in Handel's set known as The Harmonious Blacksmith. melody (nos. variations can be described as intellectual. Another work of this kind but on a much larger scale. is Cesar Franck's Symphonic Variations for piano and orchestra (1885). others on the interlude (no. some of the variations are founded upon the bass of the theme (nos. Brahms's Taganini' Variations (1862-3). and 4). Many of them are to apt display the distin- guishing marks of two or more kinds. in which the beats are divided into increasingly florid scale and arpeggio figuration in smaller note-values. they are virtuosic in the piano style of the majority of the variations. As the set also includes a longish and a free. virtuosic. 5. Beethoven's 'Diabelli' Variations (1823) blend these two qualities in almost equal degree. which are virtuosic in the extreme. 5 (1833). In Schumann's Impromptus just mentioned. In this sense. expression. however. are highly intellectual but they also possess c a strong element of keyboard virtuosity. They represent the early kind of variations termed 'Divisions'. with a longish introduction and without any well-defined breaks to destroy the sense of continuity. which are predominantly contrapuntal in conception and are filled with recondite technical devices. too. For instance. They are intellectual in their passacaglia foundation and in their inclusion of a fughetta and a fugue which form the twenty-fourth and the thirty-second variations respectively. and symphonic at the same time. but all the variations are strictly harmonic in preserving the chordal structure throughout the whole series. be rigidly classified into exact categories. many . fugal Finale. op. 10) and 9). the opening variation is purely melodic. Sets of variations cannot.

They impose None listeners and present forbidding technical difficulties to performers. To study them at the keyboard with the aid of Tovey's superb descriptive analyses is not in itself. in free variation form. for each is a compendium of the styles of keyboard technique cur- rent during its own period. and each in its own way is a landmark in the history of the variation. the exquisite manners of the French. proas is gramme or descriptive music.IOO NINETEENTH-CENTURY PIANO MUSIC of these large-scale compositions is played very often in tremendous intellectual demands upon public. during which a four-bar phrase is . no. to qualify for the epithet 'romantic a set of 3 variations should be the stimulus. A blend of the romantic with the intellectual is to 1 Romance. The 'King's Hunting Jigg' composed during the sixteenth century is descriptive of the bustle of the chase and its echoing horn-calls. An Aria Allemagna' dawn c with twenty variations written by the seventeenth-century Italian composer Alessandro Poglietti contains variations bearing titles to show that the pieces are intended to depict respectively the noisy chatter of market-women. op. It comprises a tiny chaconne in a fresh key. But acquaintance with them is essential to pianists. but is also a means only a valuable musical experience of acquiring a greater understanding of variations in general. The title gives no indication of is the fact that variation-technique employed from beginning to end of this expressive piece. outcome of inspiration by some external It may even be literary or poetic. consisting of four varied statements of the c little The opening Andante same basic section is theme followed by an interlude. the feats of a tight-rope dancer. allegretto grazioso'. Strauss's orchestral tone-poem variations Don Quixote (1898). In these two sets of variations the romantic elements are blended with the virtuosic. the characteristic sounds of the musical instruments typical of several nations. Keyboard tentatively foreshadowing this kind were written long before the of the Romantic period. and so on. Strictly speaking. 5 (1893). pictorial. be found in Brahms's pianistically simple 18.

The sub-title of is the work 'Scenes mignonnes sur quatre notes'. Another. throughout fifty-four of whose seventy bars the same harmonic progression. (A flat). or their enharmonic in Bohemia. shortened. It is a sequence of short movements strongly contrasted in their character but nevertheless closely related to one another by common derivation from a motto theme. immeasurably more poetic piece of this kind is Chopin's Berceuse (1843). the Carnaval. 'Stravaganze' (c.VARIATIONS six times IOI variations over an almost changeless repeated left-hand part above a tonic pedal-point. The three short thematic figures which Schumann devised from these notes. is one of the studies in dementi's Gradus ad Parnassum: no. Only in the last sixteen bars does the harmonic foundation undergo slight moditonic dominant. with a decoratively varied righthand part. B and C represent the musical letters in Schumann's name and those of the place-name ASGH A home of his inamorata at the time he wrote German symbols for A flat. other short romantic pieces conceived in the sense of Among variations. 94. and not until the final cadence does the bass sever its connexion with the tonic pedal-point. possible to conceive. opening In the method of its construction the movement is not unlike the with Elizabethan type of variations upon two tunes. is made up of four continuous sections. is repeated beneath a treble part which rises and falls in patterns of delicate pianistic filigree. Es and H). in the first three of which the same eight-bar phrase in the bass is presented noteIt ibr-note but in different keys. They may be identified. to form the final section. in all the pieces except ally . The four notes in question. 1817). The Berceuse is a series of continuous variations upon the most minute 'theme' it is fication. the heading 'Sphinxes' as the equivalents. generin the upper part of the texture. though not so entitled. E flat and B natural (The are respectively As. are printed under ninth section of the whole work. E flat. In the fourth section the musical argument is summed up in brilliant passage-work. At its conclusion the Andante returns. Perhaps the most original and imaginative of all the sets of nineteenth-century variations is Schumann's Carnaval (1834-5).

Carnaval may be considered a set long of symphonic variations. 2 and 3 of the Finale of the E major Sonata.102 NINETEENTH-CENTURY PIANO MUSIC Treambule' and Taganini'. based . a 'double variation': a term used to denote the varying of the is necessitates a repeat variation in the slow of each half of the theme. From the aspect of nineteenth-century keyboard technique. as each bar of the theme tion is spread out to become two bars of variation. however. and exof theme undergo. he wrote twenty-one independent sets for piano solo. but we may look into a few of them kind. as predecessors of the later. Apart from form. For example. inasmuch as in tonality. other examples of which we shall examine later. the Variations on a March by Dressier (1782-3) is of particular interest. It maintains the same harmonic structure throughout. op. are possibly of greater but Beethoven's are the more universal in interest to pianists. more important works of this Beethoven's earliest composition in this category. in the third movement of the 'Appassionata' Sonata and in variations nos. Many of these were composed before the turn of the century and do not fall within this study. The element of variation is present in the subtle alterations in outline. Schumann's and Brahms's works in variation form. It is not. The 'Righini' Variations (1790). the 'Dressier 3 years later set is (1806). 109. harmony. This final variadouble the length of the others. except in the last variation. where the minor gives way to the major and the change of mode rearrangement of the harmonies. Like this well-known a chaconne. few points of interest in Beethoven's pre-nineteenth-century variations may be noted before we consider those belonging to A our prescribed period. and because of the placing introduction and a finale. mood and style it is clearly the ancestor of the Thirty-two Variations in C minor that he was to compose more than twenty work. the five sonata movements in variation expression. For this pression which these tiny segments of the movements between a reason. rhythm.

maintains the triple rhythm of a dance throughout many of its bars. It ends with a Presto in which the theme. thus anticipating the 'Diabelli' Variations. For instance. and a brief coda based on a characteristic motive. It is characterized by numerous changes of tempo and abounds in witty touches arising from the superabundance of repetition in the theme itself. is intellectual in type. 'Kind. a Capriccio. (1797). marked 'all' Austriaca'. first in plain octaves and then . 15 which comprise melodic variations. last is The horn-calls Papillons. workings and ends with a fugue. most of them as simple in style as the early 'divisions'. op. in E flat. It is made up of upon both the bass and the melody of the it includes canonic theme. modulating fantasy upon motives from the theme. are most notable ending. Beethoven's variations show a remarkable diversity of type. One of the most original features is the Introduction. That of the last-named. 35 on a highly ornate Adagio. and a March. of which the first five are all in different keys and the last (in the tonic) is succeeded by a long. (twenty-fourth) variation develops into a free. The Finales of the sets of variations on Das c (1798) incorporate prolonged workings of motives detached from their respective themes. and the Variations ballet Prometheus. in one and the same year (1802) he composed the Variations in G on an original theme. This last-named set. Some of the variations lead a pause and the work ends with a brisk fugato Allegro (2/4) sandwiched between two stretches of 'molto adagio ed espressivo' in 3/8. once more in its original key. op. 34. the Variations in F. during which the bass of the theme is stated. the theme from his own most important of fifteen variations all. op. the fading evoking the romantic ending of Schumann's of thirteen Variations on Dittersdorf s air c Es war einmal ein alter Mann' (1791) includes an Arioso. willst la stessissima' du ruhig schlafen' (1798) Scherzen' (1799) is distinguished by a certain sense of coninto their successors without tinuity. 'Tandeln und Waldmadchen' and 'La stessa.VARIATIONS IO3 for their effec- on a theme of great tive simplicity. The set gradually attenuated to a pianissimo nothingness.

IO4 NINETEENTH-CENTURY PIANO MUSIC three and four parts. a Finale two Variations are frequently played in public.. far more frequently than Beethoven's own most favoured sets in F and E flat. is the connexion of this set of variations with the 'Eroica' Symphony which Beethoven composed the of the Symphony is based upon the following year. 31-32) filled with violent contrasts in such as characterize the entire work. The sets of varia3 E major. the 'Diabelli Variations (1823) already referred to. Beethoven composed two sonata movements in yet another style of variation form. dynamics In after years Beethoven spoke slightingly of this composition. op. takes its rightful place above the bass and the variations begin. minor. opp. a double variation with double counterpoint texture). as follows: Variations It falls into four main sections r-n in the minor. 12-16 in the major. but his opinion has not been endorsed by pianists. more expansive differ- Beethoven himself considered 34 and 35 to be ent in style from his previous sets of variations. in (1822) are distinguished by great continuity. (nos. A point of great interest same subject-matter fashion. the work as a more powerful and convincing but he planned whole than any of its predecessors. When he came to write the Thirty-two Variations in G minor four years later. as indeed they are. with a quiet chordal variation.. after a solemn statement of the theme in chords (var. 34 and 35. The livetions that constitute the Finales of the Sonatas in 109 (1820) and in C liness of two variations in the E major Sonata and (no. The Thirty- 30). is others. 5. 17-30 again in the beginning minor. The more than compensated by set comes to an end with a calm restatement of the no. including one (no. it inspires meditative rather than virtuosic treatment. and lastly. The theme of each is tranquil in the extreme. after which the melody successively in two. The Finale treated in incomparably his opp. 22) in strict canon in double octaves. 3. op. he reverted to a more conventional style in the actual pianistic treatment of the sparse eight-bar theme. which is fugal in the reflective mood of the . Between the time he wrote the Variations in C minor (1806) and his last and greatest set.

composed alternating chordal phrases and passages of dramatic recitative. The 'Schone Minka' Variations. in. The almost continuous variations broidery abounding (in C major) of op. op. op. where a free linking passage leads into the Finale. The Gas tor and Pollux Variations. Whereas the 'Diabelli' Variations are resplendent with their alternations of amazingly in- genious. The Variations on an Air from MehuPs Joseph. 6) in the tonic minor. the 'adagio molto poetically expressive variae cantabile' of semplice op. when it is not merely superficial in style. Among the Variations on an original Theme. Fantasia. 9 (1808) c 5 writing. especially at the end. 4) a genuine characteristic piece with in Spanish atmosphere. Variation 6. by no means overwhelming in difficulty. largo. A few sets include variations in the dance rhythms that abound in this composer's works. is a . op. long quiet ecstasy and The eight sets of variations for piano solo which Weber wrote from the age of fourteen onwards add or nothing to the of the form. and as piano music. 1 1 1 is one of radiantly beautiful sounds. op. 28 (1812) in flat B are predominantly virtuosic in type. are musically clear-cut. The Samori Variations. The fifth variation of the c set. op. notable for its deep pitch (both staves bear the bass clef throughout) and for romantic tone-colouring. They exemplify the brilliant technique already familiar to us in the composer's piano sonatas. 5 (1804) and those on Vien qua Dorina bella'. whose predominantly demiserniquaver figuration blackens the pages with unmanageable-looking passage-work. They are for the most part decoratively history melodic and extremely sectional in treatment but the piano little and rewarding to the pianist. is attractive c is a 'Spagnuolo' (var. 40 (1815) end with a long 'Espagnole' in which the prosaic theme movement in triple is transformed into a graceful and spirited time. presto con fuoco'.VARIATIONS 105 theme preluded by a long section of delicate pianistic emin trills. op. profoundly intellectual tions. 6 is typical of Weber's operatic style. major (1804). contain a Marche fun&bre (var. 7 (1807) end with a mazurka and a polacca respectively.

3 (1827). forms the slow movement of the Sonata in minor. 42 A A last is the Impromptu in B flat major. seems to foreshadow the glittering fingerwork of Schumann's Toccata in C major. Schubert's variations are of a different calibre. another Presto. in C major. The third. Fourth *leg- The last variation. Only in the Largo. Of his four for piano solo only one. the Variations in A minor. is based on a theme not his own. giermente staccato'. does Weber renounce technical brilliance and present the theme as if in orchestral guise. They are pre- dominantly lyrical in character although the pianistic figuration is occasionally as exuberantly decorative as Weber's. op. 7. a wide range of tonality and beautiful part-writing. Almost midway in date between these two pairs comes the single variation written in 1821 at the request of the publisher and composer Anton Diabelli upon the same waltz (1825) an d ^e that inspired Beethoven to the writing of his Thirty-three Varia- Vivaoe . All are distinguished by interestsets ing harmonic progressions. trasts in pitch. op. op. 142. The two earliest sets: the F major (1815) and the minor (1818) are independent.NINETEENTH-CENTURY PIANO MUSIC mo to perpetuo recalling the abandon of the Finale of his 'Programme' Sonata. no. colour and dynamics. with strong consixth.

the second time an octave lower. 20.VARIATIONS 1 IO7 tions. by devising echoeffects between short sections of the theme. A comparison between the F major Variations. In the former. like delicate overtones from the harmonic basis. A distinctive feature of Schubert's earliest set of Variations in is the irregular phrase-construction. in the later composition he conceived it in the sense of romantic tone-colouring. and the sonata movement written ten years later shows that whereas in his early days the composer designed the ornamental passage-work in a purely conventional manner. The brief allusion to the theme at the very end of the piece is as . by the final phrase with a double repetition of the last extending bar. which date from Schubert's nineteenth year. The semiquaver triplets in the last variation and the coda make the impression of a great wave of sound eventually subsiding in the far distance. In the Impromptu in B flat. The demisemiquaver sonata movement and passages in the second variation of the sonata movement spring. as it were. the third variation in the tonic minor and the fourth in G flat major are romantically impressionistic in a style that seems to anticipate many of Schumann's and Chopin's compositions. in the latter. which Schubert composed the year before he died. these in turn being sub-divided into four plus five and seven plus five bars respectively. The effect of these picturesque touches is enhanced by the unbroken continuity of the whole set of variations and by the many changes in tonality. Schubert's transformation of the sturdy waltztune in the . those in the fourth variation form an enveloping cloud around the theme. The themes of the F major sists the Impromptu run in phrases of regular Yet in both these pieces Schubert found ways of bar-lengths. The theme conof twenty-one bars divided into two main sections of nine bars and twelve bars. op.major mode into a gently-swinging landler in the minor with all the obvious harmonic sequences smoothed out into subtle modulations is a perfect example of one aspect of his conception of the art of variation. obviating rhythmic squareness.

12. but can also be played with the orchestral accompaniment incorporated in the piano part. op. minor is based upon a set of thirteen Variations in A shorter theme in dactylic metre from a string quartet by Schubert's friend Anselm Hiittenbrenner.IO8 NINETEENTH-CENTURY PIANO MUSIC in as are the preceding variations deeply expressive in its restraint all their wealth of colourful figuration. for piano solo. much less subtle both in the early sets. tonality alternate with those in the minor. Variations mano'. the distribution of the theme between the different strands of the texture in The the ninth and the diversity of virtuosic figuration in the Finale. The technique of thematic metamorphosis employed in this composition brings it within the sphere of works in variation form. 2. are charming style of variation music. although and in the keyboard technique. In Variations in the major interesting. In the last variation the music it is much more hovers indecisively for a long time on the borderline between G it swings back to the tonic. but its title 'Fantasy' marks it out for inclusion under that heading in the following chapter. In pianistic style it is less florid. sharp minor and G major before whose radiant major mode is finally contradicted by an un- answerable cadence in the minor. The sets be considered 4 5 of variations that Schubert wrote for piano duet will later in these pages. as will also one of his longest and most important works for piano solo. the little-known zeitung in 1831 hailing . though hardly less attractive than its predecessor. op. the unclassifiable Wanderer Fantasy. the melodic left-hand part of the fifth. It was followed in 1833 by the Variations brillantes on a Theme by Meyerbeer. Especially rewarding to players of the ten as piano are the flowing contrapuntal harmony of Variations in F The two major the fourth. on Mozart's 'La ci darem la The work in question. * * * * variations Chopin is remembered principally of his two compositions of this type called forth an enthusiastic article by Schumann in the Allgemeine Musik- As a writer of first because the composer as a genius. was designed for piano and orchestra. which was written in 1827 when Chopin was seventeen.

part. comparison. The piano writing in both Chopin's sets of variations contains features of interest to the student of his style. to his 'Schone Minka' Variations in 1815.VARIATIONS The two works differ from most of their forerunners in each being prefaced by a long improvisatory introduction based on motives from the theme and leading up to the first complete statement of the theme itself. . 12 and the passage of flickering demisemiquavers at the end of the Lento seem to presage the picturesque writing of the Nocturnes. 2 hand throughout the combination of melody and accompaniment in the same the first variation. Chopin's command ranges at will through a series of keys. and the leaping staccato figuration in the fourth point forward to some of the fifades and Preludes. comparison of c A the two Finales shows that though Weber's piano technique was his little less fluent than Chopin's. but Chopin's prelude to the 'La ci darem' Variations extends to well over sixty bars. his skill in modulation and of chromatic resource were infinitely less. between the sixth variation of Weber's 'Castor and Pollux' and the fourth of A darem' Variations displays the last-named comdeeper understanding of the possibilities of keyboard poser's effect. In Weber's it runs leg- formation over giero e piano' in single notes in broken-octave in Chopin's. Weber's polacca remains principally in its home tonic. and the passage-work shimmers with chromaticisms. Chopin's 'La ci darem' Variations end with a polacca. The detached chords in close formation in the Scherzo variation of op. Weber had written a stately introductory Largo. Like Weber's Variations on Vien qua Dorina bella'. Apart from one longish section in the key of the flattened sub-mediant. twenty-five bars in length. octaves are galvanized into life by a bravura accompaniment of to and fro in resilient contrary light staccato chords an uneventful left-hand but the broken springing motion. Throughout both these variations the melody of the ci Chopin's La far c theme forms the surface of the texture. In op. It is filled with brilliant though delicate passage-work and culminates in a long and highly decorative cadenza above a dominant pedalpoint. too.

Variations serieuses in D large-scale. is preceded and followed by a well-marked pause. though mainly self-con- tained. Pianistically. the thirteenth variation is the most rewarding. 54. an Adagio in the major mode. Only the fourteenth. and in part to the convincing plan of the whole work. op. The seventeen Variations serieuses. He wrote three sets of variations themes within a short space of time in 1841 and did not return to the form again. the tenth. but Mendelssohn relied on his own invention. Mendelssohn used the . The eleventh variation manifests close affinity of with style and expression some of Schumann's short pieces. after a meditative allusion to the theme has created an expectant atmosphere for the final summing-up in a whirlwind of presto quavers. are virtually continuous in effect. The theme. Another halt for breath occurs at the end of the fifteenth variation. Its survival in the concertattributed in part to the superior quality of the room may be theme as compared with those of the other two. whose changing harmonies are tethered to a tonic pedal-point. The theme winds its way legato in the very centre of the keyboard surrounded by a quivering of staccato demisemiquavers in the right hand accompaniment and detached quaver beats in the left. a fugato a motive derived from the theme. but only one has escaped oblivion: the upon original minor. upon throughout which the rhythmic implications of the theme are carried to their logical conclusion by the placing of the salient melodic features entirely upon the weak beats.IIO NINETEENTH-CENTURY PIANO MUSIC of his variation-themes from other Weber borrowed most composers. and the fifteenth. is which distinguished by cross-bar suspensions and chromatic to variations of greater musical interest progressions. Among the individual variations which stand out from the others by reason of their more intellectual conception or their are the fourth. All these compositions are still extant. Chopin took his from Mozart and Meyerbeer. which runs in poetic quality sparkling two-part canon. alternately strict and free. the fifth.. gives rise than do the rhythmically more straightforward and harmonicthemes of the Variations in E flat and B flat ally less eventful respectively.

now lost. other adepts in superficially brilliant writing for the keyboard. each set comprises five variations with a longish finale attached to the last. Schumann art of variation with the deepest understanding of its musical and technical possibilities. Where Weber's. His very last composition was a set of Variations on an original theme in E flat which he was unable tions written to as recent times just complete. These two poetic variations are 'characteristic pieces' in the most typically Mendelssohnian style. Chopin's. # # # # Among and Brahms practised the the romantic composers. the fourth variation is equally romantic in the tone-colouring evoked by a persistent metrical figure which is maintained throughout each by the left hand. The respective themes are exactly the same length (twelve bars plus eight). Schubert's. It was followed by a series of works in the same category (a few of the earliest incomat intervals plete and unpublished) which Schumann wrote throughout his whole life. the 'Abegg' Variations. 82). Slighter in dimensions and different in overall construction are the Variations in E flat and B flat. The two works have several points in common. It had already been preceded two years earlier by another. at the beginning of the Variations in E flat (op.VARIATIONS III same extremely of the fifth effective variation of the set in B flat figuration for the whole of the first (op. and in both. Cramer. Schumann immedi- . These two composers went far to restoring the form to the important position which it had attained in Beethoven's hands and from which it had fallen through being cheapened by Moscheles and 'pianist-composers' such as Czerny. 83) and again. But there he modified the design by allowing the theme to escape every now and again from the inner to the outer parts of the texture. Schumann's first published composition was a set of varia- when he was twenty. early and late. and Mendelssohn's sets of variations are decorative or lyrical. In his opus i. but which has been published in he left it. Schumann's are supremely imaginative and Brahms's are intellectual and closely reasoned.

The Etudes symphoniques in C sharp minor. and in the Finale loses its it almost completely identity. The crossing-over of the left hand in bars 9-16 of the cantabile second variation to play the bass part of bars 1-8 The uncommon and effective two octaves above the stationary right hand. E. The fourth presents the theme expanded in one place and contracted in another. 9 (1834-5). In none of them can the melody be recognized as a whole entity. The 'Countess Pauline von Abegg' to whom he inscribed the Variations was simply a figment of his imagination. as he did Carnaval and the much later Fugues on the name BACH. Moreover. and in the two works mentioned near the beginning of the present chapter: the Impromptus. Schumann's free interpretation of the term Variation' is manifested even more clearly in the slow movement of his Sonata in F minor which we discussed in the previous chapter. G. bol for Bflat). He developed rather than embellished it in each of the four variations and the the theme rondo-form Finale. the surname of a real person. piano writing includes two features which are characteristically Schumannesque. but also in reverse order (melodic inversion) for the beginning of the answering phrase. The first three variations are all 'double' in the first half. op. The theme itself is derived from the name ABEGG. op. B flat. a much-admired girl whom Schumann had met at a ball at Mannheim. and Carnaval. op. and the gradual releasing of the notes of a chord in the Finale (thirty-two bars before the end). 5. he Varied 3 G not only for the open- statement by repeating each half itself at its original with slight alterations in the pianistic layout. 13 (1836) . Schumann used the letters of the name (B is the German syming notes of the theme: A. a device Schumann employed with much more telling effect at the end of Papillons. and even the harmonic framework is heavily disguised. He based the whole work on a musical motto. of which he wrote and published two successive versions (1833 an d J 85o) showing considerable mutual differences.112 NINETEENTH-CENTURY PIANO MUSIC which were to characterize ately displayed features of style some of his more mature works of the same kind.

both in writing variations and in devisfertility. practically. is exhibited in five addiing tional variations. The ninth variation in G sharp minor. The variation tech- nique and the pianistic figuration stand on equal terms. concert-studies. written in the enharmonic tonic major (D flat) in free It is as exuberant in mood. Further examples of his art of variation. which follows the theme equally closely. throughout which a metrical pattern (ffjgfff py] runs furtively in every bar and in every part of the texture in succession. but which are at the same time concert-studies exemplifying the finest aspects of his many-sided keyboard style.VARIATIONS 113 furnish another proof of his unusual conception of the form. pieces as a piano duets. which are printed in most editions of the Schumann's Etudes symphoniques although the composer rejected them from his own final version. it is a study in the playing of detached chords whose rhythmic scheme calls for a different system of accentuation in each hand. starting each time a demisemibeat earlier than the accented and less vertiquaver regularly J ginous right-hand part. For instance. novel kinds of pianistic figuration. with a melodic line poised over an accompaniment of long-drawn-out murmuring demisemiquavers. though not quite so exacting in piano technique. conventional and otherwise. is a meditative tone-poem. the third variation is theoretically a strict two-part canon based on the theme. gives the pianist's Ifet hand gruelling practice in executing rapid leaps across intervals wider than the octave. will be referred to later in this book for beginners and transcriptions. is as much a Fantasiestuck as are any of Schumann's movements bearing descriptive titles. The fifth variation. this particular form and style of com- . The seventh / variation. The Finale is rondo form. as the second movement of the composer's Fantasy in C which we considered in the preceding chapter among his sonatas. They show how strongly his creative work among whole was influenced by position. The work comprises a series of pieces which are variations in a stricter sense than those he had published hitherto.

These two examples of comcanonic treatment are supplemented paratively straightforward more abstruse. one bar distant and at the interval of a compound sixth below. i and 3 the melody is assigned to the left hand and in no. the twenty-four-bar bass is compressed genuity. the writing of variations was almost as much a science as it was an art. 9 (1854) variations reproduce the melody or the bass of the ^theme so clearly that it is immediately recognizable. the two outside parts. and for the greater part compel admiration rather than affection. The ninth . Nearly all his works in this category teem with recondite devices. In nos. 9. A distinctive feature of this to make good whole composition is the prominence given to canonic treatment. an octave or more apart and at in the fifteenth. yield In the Variations on a to Theme by Schumann. It is accompanied by flowing arpeggios. The hand is let off lightly with a single-line arpeggio accompani- ment. each strikingly different in effect. it runs between the distance of two bars. whereas in the eighth variation the space between the two canonic parts is filled by chords. is characteristics Brahms's op. it In several aspects is pianistically gracious. Again. 99. which Despite these forbidding based upon the first of Schumann's Five Album Leaves from recalls Bunte Blatter. 16 the in legato notes three times their original bass some of the proceeds solemnly value. Schumann's own fundamentally more imaginative The elliptical style of the seventh variation retype of writing. In the eighth. In resultant six-bar phrase repeated its to a length and the quarter the loss in extent. Three of the variations are two-part accompanied canons. Only the continuous variations comprising the slow movement of his Piano Sonatas in C minor are sufficiently straightforward major and F sharp most of their secrets at a first hearing or playing.114 NINETEENTH-CENTURY PIANO MUSIC With Brahms. the canon runs between the treble and the bass. op. op. In other variations the theme is disguised with great in- the second. minds us of his mysterious utterances in Kreisleriana. In the fourteenth variation the right another by hand has left its to play a decorated version of the melody as well as canonic reflection a tone higher at two bars' distance.

The right hand is to is in sole charge of two strands of decorative texture which are often far apart in pitch. After the next variation in 9/16. both in (21) D major.VARIATIONS 115 second 'Album its variation actually adopts the key and the figuration of the Leaf in B minor. (1856). surpasses even the fifth in the intricacy of the smoothly-flowing part. and thrice some of reproduces bars note-for-note 2.writing. This last (double) variation. As piano music they are less satisfying. the 3/8 time-signature restored. the only one of all the composer's piano solo variations that he wrote himself. It is composed and four beats and bearing the unusual time-signature of 3/4 G which persists during the first eight variations. to which Brahms same opus number although he wrote them at different times. The first the next four are in duple time and only at the eleventh theme. The Hungarian song on which Brahms based the second variations of op. the time changes to 2/4 for the remaining four variations and until the end of the Finale. which the Finale is attached. are rhythmically more interesting and are grouped with greater subtlety than are those in the work just discussed. The theme is then restated fortissimo in the original time-signature and is extended by one bar to make a more impressive close. 21 (?i853) has a peculiar rhythmic constituof eight bars containing alternately three tion. is typically Brahmsian in the uneven bar-lengths (nine plus nine) of its two The theme of the first set six variations maintain the of the triple time phrases. first Brahms secured the desired effect by writing the one hair's-breadth from the eighteight without deviating bar pattern. while the left hand performs an untrill broken on a series of different bass-notes throughout the set of whole thirty-six bars. When he changed the time-signature to 2/4 he . The two gave the sets of variations.. (e. Schumann's bar i becomes Brahms's bars 6 and 16).g. The rhythmic eccentricity of the theme called for perceptive treatment if it were not to lose its distinctive flavour in the ensuing variations.

Each style is written outline upon a theme with an exceptionally clear-cut melodic and a straightforward harmonic basis. twenty-five in number. The 'Handel' utterly different from Variations. where it figures as an Aria with five variations. all of which Brahms wrote had completed his twenty-fourth year. he made changes in key. i of the Second Collection. 35 (1862two completely independent sets which were 3). the 'Handel and the Taganini' Variations. In our own time it composition of his Taganini' Rhapsody for piano and orchestra (1934). all the re- Different as are these masterpieces by Brahms in point of and expression. This same theme was later to attract other composers of variations. they have two features in common. Liszt for the last of his Paganini inspired Rachmaninov to the it used tudes. The two large-scale works are one another in conception. studies. the most variegated . op. major. They are arranged into groups designed to produce a feeling of growth towards a climax and they end with a fugue. which rank among the finest key- concert-room due less to any intrinsic 5 board variations of all time. or by combinations of syncopation of notes (three against two in the twelfth irregular groups variation and four against three in the thirteenth) In the Finale and figuration. and each theme to variation had already been subjected by its own composer. Paganini's. constitutes the his Suite in flat The Handel theme comes from B twenty-fourth of his Caprices. i for solo violin. comprising never intended to be played consecutively. is shortcomings than to the unchallenged superiority of their successors. are of great Their rare appearance in the musically and technically. in which respect they resemble the 'Eroica' and the The Taganini' Variations.Il6 still NINETEENTH-CENTURY PIANO MUSIC of rhythmic mutability by means of preserved the feeling and cross-bar accentuation. follow the Beethoven tradition. op. 24 (1861). one outdoing another in virtuosity until sources of the keyboard seem to be exhausted. no. op. with twelve variations. many These several before he interest sets of variations. mode . are in reality concert'Diabelli' Variations.

The piano writing is bolder and the contrapuntal devices are used with greater skill. and the determination with which Brahms adhered to their structural design The very throughout responsible for the make in tions create tials. Even at their most decorative the variahis an impression of being concerned only with essen- variation technique is less recondite than in the comearlier works in the same poser's category. mechanical in character. The chromatic fluency of the second comes with startling freshness after the solidity of the primary harmonies of the first. The contrasts between successive variations are particularly finely planned. in a sense. except the last of each of the two phrases. fascinatingly diverse variations. chords that bounce up is quickly forgotten in the light staccato and down the keyboard in the tenth. most daring adventures in variation. contains exactly the same metrical pattern (JT"3J333). The powerful fugue with a subject based upon the theme introduces the element of consums up the protracted series of tinuity and magnificently short. The closely concentrated texture of the ninth. the 'learned' variations are introduced only sparingly among others whose principal attraction is their pianistic layout. of the Taganini' Variations is less melodic than that of the 'Handel' set and is. the brisk chordal fanfares of the seventh follow gratefully upon the laborious canonic progress of the sparse octave passages throughout the sixth. which are more purely musical in interest than the Taganini' set. Every bar. are largely overwhelmingly powerful effect both sets performance. simplicity of the themes themselves. and The theme .VARIATIONS in 117 style. The In the 'HandeP Variations. and in point of performing-technique the most difficult of all these formidable tests of the skill and pianist's endurance. every two bars of which are held in the inescapable grasp of a pedal-point.

The final variation. Klagen which a passacaglia. alternatively. In the first set. of different rhythms or metres is a strong characteristic of Brahms's music as a whole. but entirely different in style from. Closely contemporaneous with. which begins in 2/8 time. tradistinction to the 'Handel Variations. It is is Theme by Bach from the Cantata Weinen. This apparently unpromising musical substance nevertheless forms an auspicious basis for variations of the most brilliantly virtuosic type.Il8 NINETEENTH-CENTURY PIANO MUSIC the melodic line proceeds entirely in cut-and-dried sequences. the right-hand part is written in 2/4. whose two hands sometimes have to cope simultaneously with four lines of texture each running in a different metrical grouping. ruple time of the theme is retained throughout eleventh variation of the 3 the Taganini' Variations exploit the device of rhythmic metamorphosis. The theme in F minor. in which the quadthe whole work. own them technique in in a later among piano studies. Brahms's greatest sets of variations is Liszt's large-scale set of Variations on a (1862). In the second set. but also. proceeds through sections in 2/4 and 6/8 to end with the right hand in 2/4 and the left hand in 6/8. and in one. as the treble or as one of the inner parts throughout a succession of over fifty almost continuous variations interspersed with free interludes. It also yields to more gracious treatment in the first set and in the fourth (almost a the twelfth and the thirteenth of the second set. In conwaltz). rhythmic complexity is more pronounced. and in the to 2/4 in the right seventh. a line of semitones is descending from F to C and returning direct to F. It is especially The combination noticeable to pianists. constructed upon a theme used predominantly as the bass. hand with 6/8 in the left. short and distinctively . the left-hand part in 3/8 and vice versa. Brahms even went to the length of writing special finger-exercises to perfect his this particular respect. We shall consider chapter. the 2/4 time-signature of the theme is changed in some of the variations to 6/8 and 12/8. The time-signatures of 3/8 and 6/8 appear in some of the early variations.

'allegro brillante'. Its ceaseless it repetition could easily con- duce to monotony were not for Liszt's inexhaustible resource in submitting it to changes in accentuation. The Variations are accordingly ro- mantic by reason of their literary basis. Zagen' (Weeping. Klagen. The ninth variation is a strongly syncopated mazurka in B flat. but it forms the introductory phrase of all the variations and of the separate coda. The basic musical material is comparatively limited in extent and the whole lacks an overwhelmingly convincing climax. Another set in F major which forms the last item of his Six Pieces. which forms part of the cantata itself: Was Gott thut. das ist wohlgetan' (What God does. tonality and pitch and in decorating it with a wealth of effective figuration. The much-needed element of contrast is introduced at the end by the presentation of a chorale in the major mode with simple diatonic harmonies strongly differentiated in style from the preceding welter of chromaticism. is headed alla Schumann'. the c principal Schumannesque elements being the repetition in . The antithesis in an extra-musical is fully justified between the words associated with the theme: 'Weinen. sorrow. Musically. Sorgen. The eleventh. Next in chronological order to Liszt's Variations is Tchaikovsky's set in A minor written in 1863-4.VARIATIONS chromatic in character. each time in either a fresh rhythmic pattern. a new key or in a different part of the texture. (1873) has recently been published in this country as a separate The distinctive feature of the theme is a short melodic curve of seven notes rising and falling between C and the F above it. it forms an anti-climax The although the procedure sense. thematic metamorphosis recalls that of the composer's Sonata in B minor. fear) and those of the chorale. is reflected in the music which portrays the c respective opposing moods. op. is well done). mourning. 1 9 piece. The whole piece is fascinatingly interesting to the player. ^ was not published until after his death and is now very difficult to obtain. but the work is less powerful in effect. Not only is it introduced three times into the theme twelve itself.

is a duet in which the melody of the work. are extremely individual in character. Dvorak's Variations in A flat major. op. whence his Piano Sonata has long since vanished. is actually the composer's only Grieg's Ballade. 36 (1879) are based on a tempo cludes so itself c di minuetto'. notably the fifth. a few of the variations. strong contrasts in mood and style. Adagio. to whose simple and repetitive melodic outline he supplied harmonies chromatically so rich as to render further harmonic development difficult. especially towards the end of by unexpectedly remote modulations. 24 (1875). forty-five bars in length. By the time Grieg came to write the Ballade he was thirtytwo. survivor of the period in question. which in- many repetitions of short figures and phrases that it is almost a variation. In some of the eight variations the element of repetition becomes still more prominent. be heard from time to time in the large-scale piano solo still to The most important concert-room. op. sixth and seventh. which are arranged to form a succession of variations. his command of keyboard resource was already highly developed his and musical style had assimilated many of the most striking Norwegian folk-music which he had been studying enthusiastically for about ten years. Indeed. He was fully qualified to compose a work in which the typical features of characteristics of Norwegian folk-music should find expression in apt and effective pianistic terms. Some of the most telling effects in others. He based the Ballade on a folk-song in the minor mode. The third. and it is has disappeared from the perhaps for this reason that the work the attractive style of the keyboard pianist's repertory despite writing. simplify rather than elaborate the chordal structure underlying the theme. He had composed the Piano Concerto seven years earlier. are produced The .ISO NINETEENTH-CENTURY PIANO MUSIC the heavy accenevery single bar of the same metric figure and tuation of the first beat in many of the bars.

The sixth and seventh variations. 'allegro scherzando'. The fifth is an ardent dialogue. the time alternates elegiac abundance of brilliant and passionate argument. The first eight variations follow of their the theme fairly closely but the remarkable diversity figuration precludes any sense of monotony. For the conclusion of the work Grieg followed an old tradition which is exemplified in Bach's 'Goldberg' Variations. Only in the thirteenth and fourteenth variations is the key of G minor definitely re-established. Up the triple time and the tonality (G minor) of the theme have remained unchanged. major and minor. From the tenth variation onwards to the cloud-effect between quadruple and and compound) and the music. The tenth is a peasant dance in 12/8 time. as if to remind the listener the character of the music which gave rise to such an end of the twelfth. op. The ninth variation. are written in canon but are the reverse of academic in their pianistic style. He restated the theme in its of the simplicity and original version. which now runs duple (simple without any break. an interlude based on fragments of the theme. Although Grieg's strongest gift was for composing short lyrical pieces. in the last movement of Beethoven's Sonata in E major.VARIATIONS the theme 121 is sung in thirds in the middle register of the keyboard between an undulating accompaniment above and below. . passes through several keys. 109 and in Brahms's 'Hungarian' Variations. is twice interpolated ible by delicate arpeggios based on the notes of a chromatic dominant-ninth chord which are unfurled in a flexdouble line in the treble and are merged into an opalescent to this point. by means of the sustaining-pedal. his planning of the Ballade as a large-scale whole work is completely convincing. a funeral march accentuating the melancholy inherent in the theme. the eighth.

IN nineteenth-century piano music the dividing-line between and romantic is seldom very firmly drawn. which boasts no descriptive title. it bears a comprehensive title Moreand the individual pieces carry superscriptions denoting that they are the musical likenesses of personalities. classical but frequently to display romantic characteristics in conception. Mendelssohn. and their doings in . both in naval is whimsical method employed for varying the motto theme and in the construction of the whole as a set of miniatures. Chopin. This one-movement sonata of Liszt's is an extreme example of the romantic treatment of a classical form. Cesar Franck. is not a whit less romantic in effect for it comprises an equally fundamental transformation of the recognized structure of the sonata. Balakirev. Fugues and works works by Beethoven. the romantic element is predominant. Schumann's Caranother.7 Rondo. Weber. in Mendelssohn. Mendelssohn. Chopin. The majorof the large-scale works already studied in these pages have ity been found to follow classical principles in their main outlines. In some. Liszt. contrapuntal style. or In the details of their structure. definition of fugue. and Schumann. and Fantasy Other established forms: rondos by Beethoven. in Beethoven's Lebee wohl' Sonata and in dementi's Didone abbandonata. but his Sonata in B minor. real or fictitious. over. Their titles denote an extra-musical basis and on this account they come within the category of romantic programme music. For instance. Fantasies by Beethoven. Fugue. Although it is based on the variaprinciple of tion form it displays the greatest the possible freedom. Schumann. Schubert.. Liszt's 'Dante' Sonata is also of this type.

is in modern rondo form. the fugue. long before it like the variation. op. Beethoven's Rondo in C major. by passages Rondo in A minor.RONDO. Rameau. constitute a remote if logical development of the intellecnizable in structure or style. Schubert's in G known as the 'Wanderer' even Fantasy major inaugurated a new type of composition: the symphonic poem. Beethoven's and Cesar Franck's fugues. in remote keys. AND FANTASY 5 Schumann s world 5 of imagination. and the fantasy also underwent basic alteration in their hands and emerged in some case almost unrecog- Schumann's Blumenstiick and Humoresque demonstrate the rondo principle of recurrent sections although they strain the conventional resources of the form to their utmost limit.5ii (1787). led an independent existence was incorporated in the sonata as an individual movement. Carnavdh programme music in the truest sense of the term* The sonata and established the variation were not the only types of form to be remodelled by romantic composers. Rage ventional as it its is G presented with occasional chromatic displacement of the diatonic material. and stolidly in the tonic. These exquisitely merely of a number of short sections or couplets interspersed with repetitions of the opening wrought compositions consist paragraph. with their ornate keyboard writing and passionately rhetorical style. it is vividly expressive with furious repetitions of the recurrent theme. 51. but his Rondo in G major (1801). The rondo. i (1796) conforms to this type. less sectional type known as which the episodes are often linked to the refrain of transition and the whole is completed by a coda. 2 of the same opus. or fragments of it. tual contrapuntal technique of the Baroque period. The rondo. The more developed. Among the simplest examples still current in the concert-room are the rondeaux by the early eighteenth-century clavecinistes. is exemplified by Mozart's well-known older rondo > in K. no. Unconover a lost major. furtively in title penny and in style . Neither of these with the early Rondo a capriccio in pieces compares in interest vented in a Caprice'. no. Couperin and others. FUGUE.

another rondo. belongs equally to the provinces of programme music and dance forms. and the constant repetition of short thematic . NINETEENTH-CENTURY PIANO MUSIC In effect. op. however. At the same time.. dance-rhythms. Rondo a in the la Mazur in F major. op. The second. 14. is although distinguished from all of them by its lilting rhythm. Chopin's three rondos. in modern rondo form. # is # # # brillante. to their all-pervading i (1825) and the third E flat is latter major. In this sense in structure with Haydn's only independent affinity of this kind: a little-known but fascinating Capriccio in piece major published in 1789. make irregular organization of an in entirely different impression owing op. it features that differentiate it displays stylistic sharply from both its fellows. but the figuration in demisemiquavers it an His Invitation to altogether more buoyant character. 16 (1832) are both in duple time. though unmistakably. shows an G between Haydn's delicate wit and Beethoven's grim humour immeasurable. written time native to the mazurka.124 It it is. a rondo combined with variations. but the preceded by a long introduction in quadruple time. of the same calibre as the finales of his sonatas. The wistful theme of the refrain in the Lydian mode (with the sharpened fourth degree of the scale) is woven surreptitiously. in both of which conthe dance. a presto movement with a longish andante introduction in the tonic Mendelssohn's Rondo capriccio in E major. is free in construction and light-footed in style as are the also scherzos of his sonatas. which are in the their component sections. op. into the texture several times by the left hand. The first in C major. resembles the Rondo in E triple flat in its construction in two long panels with a final statement of the refrain and a coda. op. minor. 5 (1826). nexions it will be referred to later. 62 (1819). The difference in mood. Insistence upon the distinctively modal flavour of the musical material. In tempo and mood it bears a likeness to the rondo of the composer's Weber's Rondo it is lends Second Sonata in A flat.

20.. It demonstrates almost every distinctive feature of Schumann's pianistic style. paragraphs in flowing contrapuntal harmony. The first. It ends. is proincomparably which foundly interesting to performers. all with fanciful titles. with a valedictory section in which the composer seems to give the listener a final message to turn over in his mind. is divided into five numbered sections. as do others of Schumann's piano works such as the Humoresque and Kinderscenen. persistently lively rhyth- mic patterns. more intricate in musical architecture. Long cantabile melodies in every part of the texture. op. but not on a theme'. op. build. which * * * * The three works in rondo form. only one in clear-cut older rondo form with episodes in contrasting keys linked to the recurrent opening section.RONDO. appearance of the melodies in different threads Section notable for structural ingenuity than expressiveness. 125 is also a characteristic of Polish folk music. AND FANTASY figures. the well-known is the Arabesque. short canonic imitations. c Blumenstuck (Flower piece). 19. are successively more complicated in They are alike in being composed of a series of independent sections. The element of variation in Blumenstuck may be recognized in the II. In the Arabesque. ing. that Schumann wrote in 1838-9. 18. outrageously difficult cross-hand . Schumann described the movement and its successor Humoresque as Variations. each neatly railed off from the next by doublebarlines and headed by a specific tempo-indication. this section. The whole piece is more the presentation of the thematic units in different keys and in of the texture. FUGUE. it is for convincing musical With it its monotonous figuration and narrow than attracts the player. is clearly which is much slower than any of the precedmarked Zum Schluss' (In conclusion). is range of tonality repels rather over three times as long and is Humoresque^ op. emthe national style of the piece and prove phasize romantically the strength of the sixteen-year-old composer's affection for the folk-idiom of his homeland. recurs in B flat minor and later in D flat major. which is first stated in A flat major. and the melodic line of section I becomes the tenor part of section IV.

except during the latter half of the eighteenth century to the part of the nineteenth owing of the sonata as an art-form. style to A no On the other hand. But portions of larger works. Humoresque listener. serves as the energetic fugue in penultimate variation of the The placed to the very greatest advantage. the fugue comprising the development-section of the sonata-form Finale of the Sonata in major. c The fugal Finales of Beethoven's Hammerklavier' Sonata and the Sonata in form the most perfect endings to fiat. languished and the earlier writing of keyboard fugues as independent pieces. The 'Eroica' Variations culminate in a fugue whose subject is derived from the bass of the theme. op.. is far more satisfying to the player than to the who may well fee] bewildered by the superabundance of the thematic content. either as the culminating section of a long composition or as an insertion in a musical context completely antithetic to it in style. op. Nor did and other nineteenth-century composers showed their they. It stands between three extremely leisurely variations in the minor is Diabelli' Variations mode. It constitutes the most to the ultimate fitting prelude . these profoundly expressive works by reason of the sheer contrast of their argumentative all that has gone before. awareness of the unsurpassably telling effect that could be produced by a fugue.126 NINETEENTH-CENTURY PIANO MUSIC colour-effects all find their place in this passages and picturesque is only faintly apparent in the glowing music. but the of the musical substance is to some generally loose organization extent offset by the vividness of the piano writing. and before the concluding 'tempo di minuetto' whose fine-spun chords and placid runs still the torrent of discussion that was let loose in the preceding pages. Even so. The for didactic purposes. The rondo plan restatement of some of the earlier sections of the piece. 101 A is little differentiated in character from the contrapuntally wrought opening and the major mode which c closing sections. Neither growing importance Haydn nor Mozart composed fugues for piano solo except as Beethoven or Schubert.

dignified character of the Fugue. all of them enmusic and pioneers in its revival. The third Prelude ticularly c fifth beyond singer's . and Liszt. which were written between 1832 and 1837 when he was in his twenties. Chopin stood aloof from this movement. Schumann. The flexible melodic line threadof the ing its way through the ceaseless arpeggio figuration the expressive. second.RONDO. The first. the first in E minor is the only one that is still a regular Among item in the pianist's repertory. op. AND FANTASY 127 it statement of the melody of the theme which follows hard upon and brings the whole work to an end. the strong sense of climax in both movements make them par- rewarding to players. It thusiasts for Bach's was Mendelssohn. fourth. who resuscitated the independent fugue for the piano and for the one fugue organ. The fugato of Liszt's Sonata in B minor is introduced at a point where its terse treatment of the motto theme shows up most vividly against the luxuriant style of figuration which has previously surrounded it. and Prelude. Schumann's Imon a Theme by Clara Wieck effectively rehabilitates promptus the theme which has forfeited so much of its identity during the five-part fugal interlude in the Finale of The adjacent variations. The fugue which terminates Brahms's 'Handel' Variations gathers up all the threads of the theme and weaves them into a texture glowing with brilliant colours. FUGUE. By ultimately presenting the fugal subject in a style of piano writing similar to that of the opening movement it seems to form the last arc in a great musical circle. 35. The energetic fugue that concludes Schubert's tremendous 'Wanderer' Fantasy not only counteracts the meditative languor of the variations on the 'Wanderer' theme and the light-hearted grace of the Scherzo-and-Trio. Mendelssohn's Six Preludes and Fugues. and Preludes are in effect songs without words'. The melody running through each is essentially vocal in type and never goes is a a typically compass. The still extant under his name is thought to have been written by Cherubini.

is interpolated in paragraphs of varying length known as episodes. The central or modulatory section is inaugurated by the entry of the subject in a fresh key. each of which two. fugue may have or even three subjects. in which the tension of the fugal argument is tightened by entries of the subject following one another so closely (stretto) as to overlap. The fourpart mechanism having been set in motion the voices are free to proceed more independently. the sixth The six weighed down by a heavy chordal accompaniment. may undergo separate A . allowed to rest during short periods while fresh musical material. A fugue is essentially a musical discussion of a subject by a (instrumental parts) generally three. The third voice then enters to reaffirm the subject in the tonic and the fourth joins in to repeat it in the dominant. the subject can be introduced by any of the voices. the second answers in the dominant with the first running against it in counterpoint. in any It is also key and any number of times. The opening section stated number of voices in turn four or five and known as the exposition adheres to an accepted formula in the manner of presenting the subject. often derived from it. this structural outlines of the opus follow the main the contrapuntal fugue according to Bach and incorporate mechanism which he perfected. In a four-part fugue. The whole fugue is brought to a close with a coda which sometimes coma last statement of the subject in a full panoply of prises triumphant chords. the first voice announces the subject in the tonic. A brief description of these Fugues of phenomena is appended to serve as a standard of comparison in studying the various methods of fugal composition practised during the nineteenth century. Thereafter.128 NINETEENTH-CENTURY PIANO MUSIC is Mendelssohnlan will-o'-the-wisp prestissimo scherzo. The return of the subject in the original key usually marks the opening of the final section. These are the barest outlines of a type of composition which acknowledges no hard and fast rules and whose length and character are determined largely by the subject itself. in combination.

diminution. Beethoven's evince an entirely new conception of The fugue of the 'Hammerklavier' its expressive possibilities. augmentation. to take the longest and most original. is designed on a Sonata. inversion. tenth followed by a trill. Sometimes. The first subject. canon. FUGUE. Their contrapuntal technique is imspirit but they make no fresh contribution to the evolution peccable. AND FANTASY 129 exposition before being combined with the other. the opening section of the the fugue may be extended by a counter-exposition in which voices enter in reverse order from that of the exposition. the second of the two subjects may be the melodic inversion of the first. which may be introduced severally or into its texture. which is distinguished by the initial interval of a rising like a leit-motive. stretto. Mendelssohn's Six Fugues convey the imof consciously preserving the letter rather than the pression of Bach's fugal style. It has three subjects and a wide range of tonality. and double-counterpoint. pervades the entire movement Yet at the end of nearly four hundred bars it sounds ever-new in its final guise of bare octaves. seem to transcend all its inherent limitations. of the fugue. colossal scale. have already observed in many of the sonata movements and sets Beethoven's fugal movements. as in Mendelssohn's Fugue in E minor. while observing most of the conventional technicalities of fugue. are of the same kind as those we of variations discussed in the earlier chapters of this book. armament of Beethoven's contrapuntal technique The whole is brought . The learned contrapuntal devices.RONDO. it is essentially continuous and unified in character. collectively The fugue is a texture rather than a form. g-j^'iOTiil When there is only one subject.

is possibly the most enjoy5 5 . even the stratagem of cancrizans (the It is. 5. The sparkling no. conjures up first movement of the of fugue as a 'characteristic piece' is also exemplified in Schumann's works of the same type. 3. but their titles and their inclusion in a set of pieces portraying various moods denote that they were conceived as romantic. is finally many exhibited in an entirely fresh light. rather than the indriving force of the musical material itself. in 1845. In his eagerness to enlarge the scope of his piano compositions he had a pedal-board attachment fitted to his own piano. embodied in chords and op. rather than as absolute music. The subject. pattern of chords towards the end of no. with increasing animation In design and texture they are strict fugues. the immense playing of the subject backwards). The five-part fugal Finale of his Impromptus mentioned earlier in this chapter was an isolated phenomenon in his early production for the piano. op. 7. With this composer. 3. after being conducted through leisurely Arioso. the writing of complete fugues was a phase rather than a lifelong preoccupation. it reveals in every bar the composer's familiarity with Bach's keyboard works. 5 instantly A the ubiquitous figure in the Third Brandenburg Concerto. varieties of learned contrapuntal procedure. no.130 NINETEENTH-CENTURY PIANO MUSIC into action in this fugue. did The romantic conception he concentrate his energies for a time upon writing contrapuntal works for the keyboard. this long movement. Incidentally. that produces the genious treatment to which it is subjected. . Not until later in his career. which is a purely decorative floating above or below scales and broken chords. no. Utterly cumulatively powerful effect of different in style is the much shorter fugue of the Sonata in A both preluded and interpolated by a flat. accompaniment of Another aspect of Mendelssohn's contrapuntal production is displayed in two of his Seven Characteristic Pieces. able to play of all Mendelssohn's fugues. a model of grateful and effective piano writing. 'Seriously. 'Energetic and fiery and no. however.

is of several varieties. Schumann had shown a natural aptitude for working his musical material in canon and enlivening it with short canonic imitations. In the upper first. The canon to the The canonic occurs at the fourth Study fifth. One of the principal points of interest connected with this is its group of works board production relationship in style to Schumann's keyas a whole. they need hardly be excluded from it. with or without the assistance of a second player.RONDO. op. only the Four Fugues. The Six Studies. AND FANTASY 13! Of his 72 five works in and the Seven this category. it runs at the unison and a whole bar apart: a in this instance produces the unsatisfacspecies of canon which the piece sound as if it were composed effect of tory making The third Study differs from entirely in pairs of repeated bars. while the most important and enduring of all. op. 3-6 might easily take their places among the miniatures of Kinderscenen and Bunte Blatter. 58 were written for the now almost extinct pedalpiano. Even in the Six Studies for the pedalpiano. Etudes symphoniques. Although these three last-named compositions do not actually belong to our study. which in five of the Studies is confined and middle parts. feather-weight accompanying texture of the fifth Study. the canon (at the octave) stands out crystal clear to . every one of which is a two-part accompanied canon. In the second. op. 126 were in- tended for the piano. His most typical keyboard texture was largely homophonic. In many of his well-known earlier compositions such as Carnaval. The pedal-parts of each are not so exacting that they cannot be managed by the pianist himself. writing. Nos. Pieces in Fughetta form. the canon occurs at the octave at the distance of half a bar. op. the others in having a brief introduction and a coda. the Six Fugues on the name BACH. op. 60 were designed Tor organ or pedal-piano'. the of the accompaniment of at least four of them brings these style pieces into line with the composer's earlier works. while in the rhapsodic varies in interval and distance as the music proceeds. Amid the crisp. the sonatas and Faschingsschwank. FUG-UE. 56 and the Four Sketches. it two beats apart.

but contrast to the accompanied in strict canon. The canonic mechanism is very similar to that of the Schumann piece in the chordal central section in the major mode. op. also question. But it is the elfin quality of the music itself player and rather than the contrapuntal skill that went to its making which has endeared this little piece to players. no. Langfsam . 3 is the canonic element strongly in evidence.132 NINETEENTH-CENTURY PIANO MUSIC listener. an Adagio. in a tiny motive with a melodic compass no wider than a minor third. 8. 1883). belongs to the same category. offers a complete melodies of the opening and closing sections. This opus is the least scholarly among the group of works that Schumann composed in 1845. It is a triumph of artistry over intellectuality. 4 does it exercise and only in a artistically charming function. Throughout the set of Four Sketches for the Pedal Piano. Schumann cut down the independence of the pedal-part to the very an integral and minimum. this forbiddingwork springs from the same imaginative source as the looking ebullient little masterpiece Carnaval. He none of his other works had cost him so much time asserted that in composing and polishing. Yet despite its seriousness in intention and its impressive contrapuntal technique. Grieg's Canon in B flat minor (Lyric Pieces. Only in the antiphonal no. 38. few bars of no. op. likewise in ternary form. it five-part fugato simply lends harmonic support to the upper parts while they canonic interplay. The last of the Schumann Studies. Elsewhere. The set of Six Fugues on the is the most recondite of his whole career. It proceed soberly in canon at the octave. is the only one of the six in which the pedal-part makes a contribution to the performs an essential role in the midget that comprises the central section. Book a miniature II. 58. It is based on a 'theme of four notes and furnishes yet another example of the composer's name BACH 3 faculty of realizing the infinite possibilities latent in apparently unpromising material.

wistful. Even so. . This is to C by a sixth instead falling in no. The individual fugues range from the to the quicksilvery and culminate in a double-fugue of immense complexity shot through with passionate feeling. Schumann but in pieces. which nevertheless repays their closest study and analysis. When it is minor in no. assumes new rhythmic basic tonality of the whole work is B flat major. The third in F minor bears an ible. It also shows its adaptability to fresh tonal surroundings. ponderous Pianists who know Schumann only from 'first the brilliant and period' may hardly recognize in this deeply learned and severe composition. where the A proceeds show any alteration in its outline. Recondite devices are not altogether banished. FUGUE. himself described the Fugues as 'characteristic In structure and contrapuntal tech- nique these movements conform to current fugal standards. the expressive style of the fugue-subjects is far more intimate than in the BACH Fugues. 3 and to F major in no. eager and resolute. the theme in its original close formation is later introduced into the texture 'per moto retrogado' (backwards) as a counter-subject to its second self. stricter form'. the second. 4. both in D minor. 5. show marked differences in mood: the first. With the Four picturesque works of his him Fugues and the Seven Fughettas they find themselves on more familiar ground.RONDO. In each fugue the theme guises and undergoes every conceivable permutation and combination in respect of contrapuntal treatment. the theme remains unchanged in notation but takes on an entirely new The shifted to G aspect by virtue of its altered harmonic relationship to the different keys. AND FANTASY 133 In only one of the fugues does the compressed thematic unit. but a more is clearly perceptdefinitely harmonic basis for the part-writing Above all. which invariably forms the opening notes of the subrespective jects of all six. A mere glance at the pages of this complete composition gives trasts in a fair idea of the great variety of figuration and the strong conexpressive styles. a of' rising third. The first two.

leaving a wreckage of enchantingly crude discords in their wake. sectional build. It is pervaded by with a strong tinge of chromaticism. transparent part-writing. In Liszt's hands the semitonal intervals which constitute the theme give rise to a kaleidoscopic fugue-subject proceeds chromatically throughout its whole length. the key-signature changes web of sounds. The melodic lilt of the first and the fifth. Where Schumann spread BACH trated the thematic metamorphosis of the motto-theme over six individual fugues. the subject assumes a slightly agitated air by having its longer beats first shortened and then syncopated. stands in indescribably sharp contrast to the stern linear counterpoint of Schumann's op. so as the key-system of the whole work is narrow in range. Liszt conceninto it one Fugue on the Theme BACH. stands in complete contrast to the others. 60. The other fughettas of comparatively uneventful. The . style its undeniably cheerful subject. For a time. This same light-hearted mood time. When it with and finally regains its habitual poise in the last few bars it sounds more buoyant than ever. allegro molto' in 12/16 another in their breathless haste. together key. torrents of octave runs The exuberant and handfuls of mighty chords. however. The subject of by each is practically never allowed to retire from extremely active this set are service. Seven Pieces in Fughetta form There is not a single break in the semiquaver figuration. topple over one prevails in the sixth of the c (1853). accentuates its affinity in with this composer's works. He wrote it 1855 and arranged it for the piano in passage-work. and the headstrong determination of the fourth recall the untram- melled style typical of the composer's earlier productions. The fourth Fugue in F major. the pieces tend to sound monotonous. or segments of them. all the more In consequence. the Prelude and originally for organ in 1870.134 NINETEENTH-CENTURY PIANO MUSIC unmistakable thematic likeness to Chopin's tude in the same a haunting melancholy which. with its full-length composition. but all are distinguished the fierce concentration of their fugal style. and the fugal entries.

The constant interweaving of the principal themes strengthens the feeling of almost unbroken continuity. The process of dovetailing the thematic content is carried on The fugue-subject is ceaselessly throughout the whole work. and after it has run its full course in the Fugue itself.RONDO. Each category stand alone among consists of three separate movements that are closely inter-related by means of thematic connexions and each whole work is musically of the calibre of a sonata. It dominates the short section following the Chorale. is itself permeated by a strong element of He vir- * # this * Cesar Franck's two works in large-scale piano compositions. to luxuriate in chordal finery and eventually to charge in the splendour of double octaves to a triumphant close. After the riotous opening Fantasy. gives every indication of developing into a conventional fugue. which tuosity. 'pianissimo. distributed over the keyboard to as become ostinato basses. in the phrases which form the episodes between the statements of each line of the Chorale in the same manner as in a Bach chorale-prelude. Even so. The virtuosic style of the piece predominates over the intellectual conception. in which. Chorale and Fugue (1884) the movements merge into one another without breaks. TOQUE. however. But in a flash the contrapuntal texture dissolves into decorative The thematic particles are figuration. hinted at within a few bars of the opening of the Prelude. too. it is united with the Chorale in the resplendent passage-work of the final pages. already It is implicit. AND FANTASY eight times to allow the music to extend to the furthest limits and there is its 135 harmonic boundaries hardly a page that is not strewn with a myriad accidentals. In the Prelude. the strict four-part exposition of the subject. this Fantasy and Fugue may claim consideration as a collateral descendant of Bach's Chromatic Fantasy and Fugue. Great diversity in the sense of growth and of climax figuration and a strong pianistic . the prevailing diatonicism of the Chorale and the acute chromaticism of the Prelude and Fugue stand in perpetually creative opposition. to be chromatic embroidery upon diatonic foundasuperimposed tions. misterioso'.

The Finale blends the rondo form epilogue. as well as to the part-writing and the involved style of the formal construction. of thematic Interconnexions is less continuous. The movements are separate entities and only in the Finale is the musical material of all three placed unmistakably side by side. Its comparative neglect may possibly be due to the tedium caused by the endless repetition and over-emintricacies of the phasis of short lengths of thematic material. every transferred from one strand of the texture to another. In movement the melodic outline is Chorale and Fugue.. The themes. Aria and Finale (1887). Despite the homophonic style of the pianistic layout. the most work. often with variaextremely decorative accompaniment. each movement is markedly sectional. The principal theme from the Aria. the chain Throughout the Prelude. set between a recitative-like introduction comprises two panels. Lastly. that of the Prelude. the contrapuntal element is as strong as. lude In structure. Phrase after phrase is presections reappear in aspects and even whole unfamiliar guises. The technique of tion also plays sented in new an important part. and an the second of which is a of the Prelude with the panelled construction of the Aria. soaring above a liquescent accompaniment. decorated version of the first.136 NINETEENTH-CENTURY PIANO MUSIC work in Increase the effectiveness of a which the Intellectual and the virtuosic elements are unusually closely integrated. The Preis in older rondo form with a long anticipatory link between the second episode and the last appearance of the refrain. constitutes the central section. are frequently presented in double counterpoint. if not stronger than. distinctive subject-matter of the Prelude reappears majestically in augmentation to form the climax of the whole This elaborately planned and harmonically enterprising piece is not cultivated by pianists to the same extent as its muchloved predecessor. . The Aria. which are mostly short and are very easily memorable.

or of separate movements. as in Schubert's 'Wanderer' Fantasy. Such are Mendelssohn's Three Fantasies or Caprices.RONDO.3Q4. K. like Beethoven's. At its very simplest it can be an almost symmetrical movement in binary form. op. Thereafter. and il is in this sense bestowed upon a number of shortish pieces which in C of the fantastic in their structural make-up howdisplay ever imaginative they may be in style. the most highly organized of all the fantasies of our study. style and tempo. on the other hand. constitute a free extemporization upon a given theme or themes: for instance. op. 16. as in Schumann's in C and in Mendelssohn's Fantasy Fantasy in F sharp minor. 1 1 6. Some of these movements are approximately in simple ternary form. a type rather than a form. which. others show a mosaic-like pattern of great ingenuity and charm. ends in conventional style. A fantasy sometimes consists of several connected movements. It may. * * * * Beethoven's one Fantasy for piano solo. The whole of the preludial section makes the effect of a rambling extemporization. op. both in the originality of Schubert's 'Wanderer' . B with a theme. AND FANTASY Each of these two big works of Franck's 137 is a compromise between a sonata and a fantasy. In this respect the piece resembles Mozart's Fantasy in C major. Allegretto. Liszt's Fantasy on two Swiss melodies and Balakirev's Islamey' Fantasy. such as Bach's Fantasy in C minor and Handel's Fantasy The fantasy is that the title is little major. but with a fugue instead of a set of variations. to end the piece. and Brahms's Fantasies. Fantasy (1822). which gives rise to square-cut major nine florid variations and then returns. After opening minor it roams through key after key with a short phrase in G in a succession of entirely unrelated paragraphs varying in it settles permanently in length. which comprise three Caprices and four Intermezzos. Adagio. FUGUE. differs profoundly from its all his other piano compositions. 77 (1809) ^ s a curious blend of improvisation and formality.

They are largely self-contained but they and are closely related. whole work grows out of a single theme containing an is announced in the very figure which The unique The allfirst bar faj fpf f f I f) ' ^e sense of unity is further strengthened by other thematic connexions between the movements: for example. their original martial character. The heavilyaccented beats of the opening 'allegro con fuoco' in G major take on a more gentle. in lilting triple luminous haze of demisemiquavers during the Reborn as crotchets and quavers they dance resuming about the fugue. It may have been Liszt's close . The main substance of each movement is derived from the same source but makes a com- by its successive transformations in rhythm. As design and in the extreme difficulty attributes of the sonata in its division a whole work it continuously on a melody nearly identical with that of Schubert's song Der Wanderer' from which the Fantasy subc displays elements a set of linked variations of both sonata and rondo forms. as they pletely fresh impression dissolve into a ensuing variations. between the melody of the second episode (in E flat major) in the first movement and that of the trio section of the third movement. they stride furiously * * * * The orchestral quality of Schubert's keyboard writing induced Liszt to arrange the Fantasy for piano and orchestra. and again. The second is title. tempo and expressive quality. Adagio in C sharp minor. They lose all their fieriness as they announce the 'Wanderer' theme of the second movement in a hushed pianissimo. Finally. key. in which quasi-concerto version it is now as well known to concertgoers as is the original form.138 NINETEENTH-CENTURY PIANO MUSIC possesses into four movements. The first movement run of the keyboard writing. cantabile character in the first episode (in E major) of this movement. rhythm through the presto Scherzo. The principle of thematic metamorphosis underlies the entire composition. The third sequently acquired its and-trio and the Finale a fugue. movement is a scherzo- pervading rhythmic character of the Fantasy is its organic unity.

Despite the immense differences between Schubert's 'Wanderer' Fantasy and Chopin's Fantasy in and . this sonata-like Fantasy is differentiated from Mendelssohn's earlier Sonatas in E major and B flat major by the dark. romantic colouring which pervades the opening and closing movements and lends them great charm. separate movements. A few of the numerous fantasies he wrote upon other composers* works and upon national melodies will be referred to in the next chapter. The other. which we studied earlier in connexion with Liszt his Sonata in B minor. scope. Their clear-cut structural outlines and ter of unified key-system impart to the whole composition the characa sonata. The second movement. also known as Sonate ecossaise. AND FANTASY that led to his in 139 acquaintance with a large-scale work based on a single theme adopting the principle of theme-transformation tion some of his own symphonic poems. comprises a series of intersections of passage-work. One. himself composed only one fantasy entirely upon thematic material: the Fantasia quasi una Sonata. an improvisatory musing upon the Irish song of summer'. This species of composiowes its title to him. 15. the much longer Fantasy in F sharp minor. apres original une lecture de Dante. in regular sonata form with the traditional presto Finale is the principal repeat of the exposition and a coda summing up features of the movement. style length. in the relative major. In point of expressive quality.RONDO. Mendelssohn's two full-sized Fantasies vary greatly in extent and shape. recitative and aria in widely linking E minor and differing tempi but all in the same tonality of last rose e The major. 28 (1833). but in type and style it is deeply in- debted to the 'Wanderer' Fantasy. is a The scherzo-and-trio in feeling despite its quadruple time-signature. is divided into three op. FUGUE. The alternately rhapsodic and narrative style of the opening movement do not wholly conceal its fundamentally binary form. op.

One of them. Chopin assembled a number of distinctive but complementary musical ideas and arranged them in convincing succession with periodic restatements of well-defined paragraphs to ensure cohesion. Almost all the other themes in the main body of the piece reappear twice. The ceaseless reiteration of the limited material throughout the longish piece would produce a hypnotic effect were istic not for the infinity of its transformations within a pianlayout that blazes and scintillates with chromatic brilliance. is later extended to serve as a linking passage between the more strongly melodic most particularly before and after the tranquil episode portions. in which he experimented even more boldly in both form and texture. Balakirev (1837-1910) Oriental step further by writing the whole of his went a Islamey: Fantasy (1869) as a series of continuously interwoven variations upon three separate themes. The large-scale Polonaise-Fantasy. although by exactly opposite means. It also underlies the coda and is one of the principal agents in maintaining the feeling of continuity that distinguishes a work in which the urgent flow of the musical thought determines the structural mould into which it is poured. Each already contains much repetition of short figures. which Chopin wrote six years before the Fantasy in F minor and which was published posthumously. must await consideration with the composer's Polonaises in a later chapter. op. sense of unity.140 in NINETEENTH-CENTURY PIANO MUSIC the two works alike convey a op. Schubert employed a minimum of thematic material and dis- played it in a multiplicity of guises. Only the haunting opening phrases of the stately introduction are never heard again. 49 (1840-1). which are all Armenian and Caucasian . sometimes in fresh keys but not always in the same order. in B major. * * * * set Beethoven and Schubert each incorporated a of variations into their respective Fantasies. the serpentine figure in triplets first announced immediately after the introduction. it Two of the three themes. is a trifle that belongs more correctly to the province of the miniature than to the realm of the imaginative fantasy. strong F minor. 61 (1845-6). The Fantasy-Impromptu.

AND FANTASY 14! in origin. it 3 three different kinds of composition discussed in this attributes. or the fugal movement. Islamey is an amazing fusion of the primitive with the cultivated. It is of the same calibre Etudes ^execution transcendante. for the melodic outlines become obscured. they form the vivid periodic opening section which straightway evokes the exotic atmosphere cessively that surrounds the whole piece. e soon quickens in pace until it is wholly assimilated into the resurgent semiquaver figuration of the two preceding themes and the three become more and more closely interlaced. It melodic. They are felt rather than heard. FUGUE. The musical subject-matter is crude but the manner of its treatment reveals the utmost refinement of technical re- The themes go through a process of fragmentation as are hurled into the seething mass of chromaticisms which they forms the coruscating texture. with which. their rhythmic beats on with inexorable regularity.. the ally once languorous melody rings out in an exultant fortissimo and eventually sounds a last clarion call during the culminating 'presto furioso'. Oriental Fantasy. with an occasional interval of a third or fourth. Of the even if it begin breaks off immediately afterwards into a less rigid . pulse Balakirev's conception of the fantasy as an equal blend of when in unparalleled virtuosity and romantic impressionism was new the history of the species. but for its sub-title might equally well have been bracketed for consideration under the heading of 'Studies in a later chapter. are composed principally of tones and semitones. should at least with a formal exposition of the subject. source. more definitely theme steals in andantino espressivo' in 6/8 time. The rondo must chapter. In point of pianistic style. as Liszt's Islamey is a concert-study. The fugue. two possess certain specific have a refrain and episodes.. The third.RONDO. Graduthe rhythmic tension tightens into a 2/4 'allegro vivo'. however. Running suconly in unflagging semiquavers in 12/16 time with a accent like a warning drum-beat. however loosely the piece perforce as a whole is organized.

conforms to no definite rules.142 style of NINETEENTH-CENTURY PIANO MUSIC contrapuntal writing. . and consequently the most romantic of all the types of composition we have so far studied in these pages. despite its long ancestry as a musical type. For this reason it is inherently the most subjective. however. but shapes itself according to the composer's whim of the moment. The fantasy.


Romantic Music
Nocturnes and other new

Romantic pieces: Impromptus, Scherzos, Rhapsodies., Ballades, and Novellettes. Descriptive and Programme music. Romantic transcriptions.
types of


Weber and Schubert were

early decades of the century, when Beethoven, writing their sonatas., another com-

poser was evolving a type of piano piece which was to secure lasting fame although his sonatas were destined to occupy

only a minor position in after years. John Field (1782-1837), an Irish pianist who spent the greater part of his musical career on the Continent, was the first composer of the nocturne, or night piece The title he chose
5 .

for these

romantic movements was not


in the history of

music. It

had been used in the eighteenth century as an alternaname for an instrumental serenade or divertimento in

several movements.

The novelty of Field's nocturnes


in their being essentially piano music single pieces with flowing
tiveness in

melodies and graceful arpeggio accompaniments whose effecperformance depended to a great extent upon the
use of the sustaining pedal. Some years before he embarked

upon the composition of nochad written three Sonatas which were first published in London (PiSos) and subsequently in Paris in 1803 as his Opus i. They were dedicated to dementi, to whom Field was apprenticed as a pupil from the age of twelve and with
turnes Field


he eventually travelled

to Russia, there to settle per-


three Sonatas of op. i no. i in E flat major, no. 2 in in major, and no. 3 in C minor, all of which are still available succeeded in 1814 by a Sonata in B major which is print, were




longer in circulation.

first of the nocturnes but is now no Each of these four compositions consists of a pair of movements in the same key, strongly contrasted in

contemporary with the




movement of each


in classical

sonata form; the second movements of nos. i, 2 and 4 are is in free scherzo-andgraceful or spirited rondos. That of no. 3

form with alternating sections in the major and minor. The Rondo of no. i in E flat, an irrepressibly gay, dance-like movement in 3/4 time, Allegro, has become well known apart from its context: first through having been published in a series of solos edited by Hans von Billow, and latterly, by having piano

been selected to form the
Suite arranged for orchestra



in a 'John Field'

by Hamilton Harty.


musical style of Field's sonatas not unnaturally reveals

the influence of dementi. In the opening movement of the Sonata in major, he even followed a formal precedent estab-



by dementi


some of



sonatas. This

was the

recapitulating of the principal subject in the key of the subdominant; a procedure later adopted several times by Schubert,

we have already seen. In point of contrapuntal ingenuity and

his master. Pianistically

scrupulous workmanship the Field sonatas do not rival those by they are more delicate and imaginative,

yet they contain surprisingly bold modulations, and passages invested with a fire and energy that lend them a Beethovenian

The piano writing, with its occasionally intricate fingerwork, vital left-hand parts and uncommon colour-effects, is rewarding to players, but the sonatas as whole works lack continge.

viction in their structural outlines

and tonal schemes. As


amples of Field's production for the piano they stand far behind the nocturnes, which he composed and published at intervals between 1814 and 1835 anc^ which were edited with a long and
appreciative foreword in 1859.


Liszt for republication in

one volume




the eighteen pieces in this collection were written in place as piano solos. No. 6, Andante in F major, is an

alternative version of the Larghetto in E major in Field's sixth Piano Concerto; no. 14 in G major is an excerpt from the first

movement of
turne in
the seventh Piano Concerto.


The seventh Noc-


major and the

Le Midi, in


major, are

movements from his Divertimenti for strings and piano. In pianistic and musical style, however, and in their independence
of the string accompaniments, these compositions resemble the genuine nocturnes. Their inclusion in the Liszt collection is
fully justified.





Nocturnes were the prototypes of a new kind of piano

piece which was subsequently cultivated by many nineteenthcentury composers. They would possibly be better known and more frequently performed to-day had they not within a few years of their composition been surpassed in beauty and interest

by Chopin's. Chopin took the

title and the general character of the comfrom Field, but his own Nocturnes, composed between position 1827 an d 1846 reveal a depth of expression and an exquisite

in the piano writing that leave Field's far behind. Nevertheless, some features of Field's piano style foreshadow

Chopin's. They include the wide-ranging figures of accompaniment in the left hand, the single-line ornamental passages in the
right hand, the use of the very highest register of the piano


the immediate repetition of a phrase with the melody embellished almost beyond recognition. Only in Chopin's earliest
nocturnes, however, is his indebtedness to Field as noticeable as it is in the Nocturne in E flat major, op. 9, no. 2, which bears a distinct resemblance to Field's Nocturne no. i. Both pieces are
in the

same key and time (12/8) and both have the same kind of long-drawn melody over a flowing accompaniment of a far more highly quavers. But Chopin's piano writing reveals harmonic sense and a greater awareness of subtle developed


In general, a comparison of the two sets of nocturnes shows that while Field's are for the most part distinguished by great
continuity, they effective contrast.

are inclined to be monotonous and to lack



the type of figuration varies and the changed during the course of a piece, the expressive mood





remains fundamentally the same. The majority of Chopin's, however, even the early Nocturne in B major, no. 3, are strongly

by changes in either the figuration, key, mode, timetempo throughout a single movement. The third, a in 6/8 time, encloses an agitato section in the lilting Allegretto alla breve', studded with syncopations and conflicting minor,

signature or

metres. In the seventh in

C sharp minor, the serenity of the section is counteracted by the rhythmically vigorous opening into the (enharmonic) major. *piu mosso that eventually settles The Nocturne in F sharp minor, no. 14, opens and closes with a
stream of reposeful continuous melody in


time which

by a slower but more firmlyaccented interlude in triple time. The fourth Nocturne in F major furnishes the most extreme instance of a violent antithesis

thrown into strong


in expressive styles. Its turbulent passage-work 'con fuoco' in the minor mode is flanked by two supremely tranquil stretches of accompanied melody in the major.

In a few of Chopin's nocturnes the element of contrast is secured only by changes in the type of figuration. In the tenth, in A flat, the layout of twelve quaver chords in a bar in both hands during the interlude in compound time brings new life into a movement that consists primarily of a melody in simple
time floating above a languorous accompaniment of triplet quavers. The G major Nocturne, no. 12, a rondo with both

but there

episodes thematically similar., is written throughout in 6/8 time, is an immense difference in rhythmic effect between

the semiquaver arabesques of the refrain and the gently swinging theme in crotchets and quavers of the sostenuto portions.

With the exception of the
of contrasting themes in
that intensifies their

which a pair minor and major undergo variation expressive qualities from the tranquil to the
thirteenth Nocturne, in


impassioned, most of the other nocturnes not referred to here remain in one mood throughout. In one of Field's nocturnes, the poetic Reverie-Nocturne, no. 13

C major, the maintenance of a single mood is achieved by the continuous repetition of an eight-bar phrase alternately in the tonic and in nearly-related keys. The limited musical material

consists of


a semi-staccato chordal progression in the


and a melodic outline in the right that winds like a between the upper and lower notes of an octave:


The atmosphere

of variegated sameness created

by the



Berceuse, which., as

evanescent sounds over a monotone bass recalls that of Chopin's we noted in an earlier chapter, comprises a



of changing decorations above a repeated harmonic


In point of structure. Field's Reverie-Nocturne is a rondo, but the episodes are simply translations of the refrain into fresh His Nocturne caracteristique, Le Midi, no. 12 in E major, a keys. more conventional rondo with episodes of contrasting material, the category of programme music. It ends with
twelve equidistant beats on the tonic, clearly marked in the score as denoting the striking of the hour of noon. This romantic effect is paralleled towards the end of Schumann's Papillons by the six widely-spaced beats on the dominant which bear the
strikes six' and which are composer's direction The turret-clock intended to indicate the approach of dawn. Among nocturnes of a later date are two by Tchaikovsky. One in C sharp minor, op. 19, no. 4 (1873), is a short piece in ternary form with a varied reprise. The other, in F major, op. 10, no. i Nocturne in G (1871), has points in common with Grieg's

one of his Lyric major, op. 54, no. 4 (1891),


Both these



movements begin with accompanied melodies which merge into
interludes of impressionistic tone-painting. Tchaikovsky's ree leggiero', recall the 12/8 section of Chopin's chords,

Nocturne in A flat, op. 32, no. 2, but Grieg's colour-effects with decorated dominant-ninth chords are unmistakably his own. They are of the type familiar in many of his piano works, from
the Concerto to the smallest Lyric Piece.



The nocturne is among the earliest of several ne\v kinds of medium length: impromptus, novellettes, ballades, rhappieces of titles such as Berceuse, Barsodies and others with more specific that came into being in the nineteenth carolle, Humoresque, etc.,,

They were

cultivated with enthusiasm

by the romantic

composers in preference to the older-established forms, such as the sonata, the variation and the fugue, with which they were unable to come to satisfactory terms. The very titles of these
pieces denote the intention of composers to write subjective music unfettered by considerations of formal balance. But in

point of structure some of the works to which the term "romantic piano music' is loosely applied are based on classical precedent.

For example, Brahms's Rhapsody in G minor is in straightforward sonata form. Schubert's Impromptu in B flat major,
op. 142, no. 3, Schumann's Impromptus, op. 5, and Grieg's Ballade, op. 24, are sets of variations. Schumann's Novellettes include several in rondo form; many of Field's and some of

Chopin's nocturnes are in well-balanced ternary form. It is the rather than the shape of these pieces that style
tinguishes them from movements conceived The Brahms Rhapsody in G minor follows


as abstract music.

the conventions of

sonata form in its clear-cut division into three parts, in its modulatory central section based on material from the exposition and
in the sonata-form key-relationship in the reprise. demonstrates from the very first bar that the

much less

Yet it composer was concerned with form in the abstract than he was with

setting forth his musical ideas in boldly effective

and with creating a

particular atmosphere

by maintaining one

90. short and long. no. 4. 4. 124. The first in C minor. 2) are formally the equivalents of a scherzo-and-trio and a minuetand-trio respectively. is a set of variations.(scherzo-) -and-trio form. The last. especially when the piece in question has a literary basis and the music is in- tended to portray a words. op. but the eloquent cantabile melodies and the quivering or impassioned broken chords throughout both these pieces differentiate pianistic style poser's sonatas. i. One. 9 of the Alburriblatter. Six out of Schubert's eight impromptus make the from that of being genuine improvisavery opposite impression The various and the whole group comprises a variety of formal types. in F minor. Schumann's short Impromptu in F major. and the Impromptu in F minor. we have already seen. in E flat and G flat. both sound genuinely extempore. combines the characteristics of several forms. 142. story. nos. and op. Two others. no. op. op.ROMANTIC MUSIC 149 type of figuration during the greater part of the piece. and two are in minuet. no. as visatory characteristics. and Dvorak's longer and more rhapsodic Impromptu in minor. are in ternary form with a coda. 142. is made up of a succession of units. They consist mainly of short G and they sound as phrases or sections many times repeated the respective composers were simply toying with the though musical ideas. The remaining two show definitely improtions. i. which has only . 2 and 3. it rule. no. is a blend of rondo and sonata forms. i. no. generic titles used for romantic piano music have no very exact connotations. the structure of romantic music is flexible. 52. op. Another Impromptu by Dvorak. 90. no. a scene. Schubert's two Impromptus in A flat (op. of vividly rhapsodic music with a Hungarian tinge. them in intensity of expression and in from movements of the same shape in the com- As a general Sometimes others. continuous variations on two alternating comprises rambling themes. Pieces with the same title by the same composer often evince strikingly different conceptions of the basic idea. no. op. 90. or a state of mind: in other when it is programme music. At it develops on entirely fresh lines in the process of giving musical significance to the emotional content. 142. op.

But even these 'impromptu' features appear to be the outcome of close thinking rather than of extemporization at the keyboard. The style A G Only the second Impromptu in F sharp major (1839) attributes in design and tonality. Tovey cites this Impromptu as an example of Chopin's capacity when writing in classical in larger than lyric forms'. Chopin was the century. He goes on to speak of Chopin's first form will lend itself to a two Scherzos as being 'rare cases where a "romantic" idea'. Two and no. no. ternary pianistic three pieces recalls some of the composer's Etudes and the central episodes are suavely melodic in the manner of the Nocturnes. classical The scherzo as a musical form dates back to the seventeenth it was a development of the minuet and remained for some time within the sphere of the classical sonata and symphony. but the evasive tonality and persistent syncopation lend subtle character.150 NINETEENTH-CENTURY PIANO MUSIC precision. is composed with the utmost recently been published (1949). but as a piece of instrumental music first to raise it to the rank of a full-sized piece of 'romantic piano music'. All are est marked composed between 1831 and and are constructed with the greatpresto tion freedom upon a sonata-form basis. in one key and ends in another it even begins though a model of symmetrical ternary form. They reveal their derivafrom the earlier type of scherzo only by the retention of the triple time-signature and the inclusion of self-contained trios first (interludes) in three of the pieces. i in major (1837). His four Scherzos were 1842. Scherzo in B minor is based on the The interlude in the melody of a Polish Christ- . to produce 'something essentially more or less free form'. and the principal theme ultimately dissolves into a fine chain of demisemiquaver runs. The displays unconventional march-like interlude in D major is linked to the reprise by means of a tentative opening phrase in F instead of F sharp major. of the outer sections of these form. are likewise in straightforward flat in 3 major (1842). flat of Chopin's Impromptus. this tiny movement a bewitchingly It is (G major and E major).

The character of this interlude is restrained. make a less immediate effect than they does the eagle-winged tune in D flat major that dominates the first and last of the movement.ROMANTIC MUSIC cradle-song.. The tiny Scherzo in B minor consisting of composed feather-weight detached chords and notes. scintillating thematic units that surround it on all sides. In the second Scherzo in B flat minor. . The third Scherzo in C sharp minor differs from all the others in style and shape owing to its less melodic character as well as to the absence of a central cantabile episode. the interlude. Rumbling bassnotes and terrific thunderclaps of chords form the introduction is material to an unyieldingly stark theme in double octaves. The gap between these A two distantly-related keys is bridged by the ending of the exposition on the chord of D flat and the opening of the interlude with a phrase in which the enharmonic G sharp is the most prominent melody-note. tempo that it mas The rocking accompaniment and slower form an effective contrast to the coruscat- inspires ing passages of the presto sections. The melodies are short. and as they are closely confined within the texture. and the scherzo a e capriccio in 5 F sharp minor. is in major. The thematic essentially instrumental in type. showers of quavers descending upon it leggierissimo from the heights of the keyboard. A spacious melody of portions the same kind but in the minor mode forms the core of the fourth Scherzo in E major. minor or major. placed between the exposition and the development-section. Its long phrases and leisurely progress distinguish it sharply from the brief. a longer movement in binary form. The music never strays very far from the original tonality. Mendelssohn interpreted the term scherzo (joke) much more His two works of this kind were both literally than did Chopin. the form is symmetrical without being rigid and the coda sums up the thematic and pianistic features of a work that is the very embodiment of dynamic energy. The dignified chordal contrasting subject is continually interrupted by. The whole movement is closely integrated. in 1836.

at least. This latter theme.. but is much assured than that in Brahms's later pieces of similar length: the three Rhapsodies. 4 demonstrates an al(1851). It is a revival of the gether different conception earlier category. two. which minor mode. Brahms's one and only Scherzo in E flat two trios and type of scherzo with Yet its generally ample of themes where the second trio leads back to the overlapping scherzo by way of a linking passage lend it a certain feeling of continuity. of the two outer sections molto passionato'. no. of Brahms's rhapsodies belie the second part of this definition. inevitably sectional proportions and the skilful is The piano writing is vivid and effective. his first published composition. earlier. less in build. This third Rhap- . but each 79.. Though the music is in pianistic style. The mental music denotes that c it is G B minor Rhapsody. were followed well known. the arrangement of the subjectrhapsodic matter is carefully planned. Only in the last four bars does it send up a faint echo to the treble surface. Technically. Two themes dominate the moveis whole piece ment: the opening phrase containing a c little figure in triplet semiquavers that lends itself to development later in various parts of the texture. both composed in 1893 by another which is less in 1879. whose characteristic feature is the interval of a rising fourth. The two Rhapsodies. op. assumes a less plaintive aspect on being transposed into the major and expanded to form the interlude. i. is c itself in first-movement form and the lengthened by a coda. 2. no. 79. In actual fact. op. of the form. as we first-movement form. the title rhapsody applied to a piece of instru- a composition of emotional character and irregular form'. is in strict noted minor. Its companion in is ternary in its main outlines. but it reverts to the minor for the coda. op. where its sombre character is emphasized by the depth of pitch to which is in the it is confined.152 NINETEENTH-CENTURY PIANO MUSIC are charming fairy pieces entirely lacking in the daemonic forcefulness that characterizes Chopin's powerful works in this minor. and the second subject'.

The in E flat major runs in five-bar periods with the strong accent sometimes falling on the weak beat. Some of the its coda salient features. but are based "upon the kind of gipsy music with which Liszt was familiar through having heard it performed in his native land. In the first place. chiefly by the two Hungarian composers Bela Bartok and Zoltan Kodaly. As performing fascination colossal pieces. It was simply music which gipsies heard in the towns and which they re-interpreted by performing it in their own picturesque style. They display every facet of Liszt's keyboard technique and exploit the resources of the piano to the very utmost. come within a different category. are only within the triplet figuration.ROMANTIC MUSIC sody in 153 more It is major. no. The three sections of musical material towards the interlude in A flat major which forms the keystone and then descend in reverse order of appearance. Liszt in his turn submitted this alternately barbaric. op. which are as irreshape as Brahms's are symmetrical. 4. five bars into phrases of three instead of the conventional four and respectively twist by being divided * Liszt's * * * gular in numerous Hungarian Rhapsodies. Is shorter. the buoyant eightbar melody of the grazioso interlude in flat major is given a A subtle and wayward and four. open-heartedly melodic. varied rise either in key. just recognizable this Rhapsody is the most interesting of the three. During the G minor mode. Rhythmically. 'allegro risoluto'. 19. all their the Hungarian Rhapsodies have a own. they are not entirely ori- ginal compositions. it is placed much lower on the keyboard and its robust chords are reduced to an awed pianissimo. For instance. theme recurs after the interlude it is ing to when the open- transposed from E flat major. and freer in form than the others. disguised in the theme principal phrases are irregular in length and accentuation. flat 1 E built up arch-wise. In many instances it was not genuine gipsy music such as has been collected during the present century. mode or figuration. The pieces vary in extent from two or . melancholy and wildly exultant musical material to the most graphic pianistic treatment imaginable.

5. They are placed in every part of the texture in turn. the Rakoczy March. speed A no. and no. which are short. Often they are broken up into small segments and decorated with mercurial figuration or percussive ornaments. but all are composed in sections few bear titles: and expressive style. simply for the sake of becoming familiar with their contents and not with a view to studying them for performance. a a repetitions of short phrase or of single figure and which tend to be accented or undergo variations of strongly syncopated. 15. octaves or odd bar-lengths. With the exception of the Third and the Fifth. sometimes divided between the two hands and flung to and fro across a wide compass. which is based on a tune already well known as a march Hungarian army. phrases of in staccato thirds. which often contain specifically rhythmic type. quick repetitions of notes. one of the least impetuous. the long Carnaval de Pesth with a separate Finale mounting to a frenzied climax. The pieces generally include at least one languorous or melancholy theme and others of quicker. the Hungarian Rhapsodies bristle with technical difficulties for the performer. restrained and comparatively easy to play. 9. melodies combined with accompanying trills in the same hand. in quasirondo form. Yet the pianist who reads them through. Hirotde-tlegiaque. more The melodies. ornaments that impart an .154 NINETEENTH-CENTURY PIANO MUSIC three pages to over twenty. will find himself greatly enriched in pianistic experience by having examined Liszt's for the methods of cajoling the keyboard into producing a limitless range of astounding colour-effects. no. passages in which the two hands are closely interlocked while they play tiny rhythmic figures. to Distinctive features of the piano writing which may be found a greater or lesser degree in all the fifteen Hungarian Rhap- sodies published in standard editions are cadenza-like passages in single or double notes. or their barest outlines are incorporated in lambent passage-work so that the tunes seem to be dissolved into a fine spray of sounds. many kinds. Certain basic characteristics persist throughout the Hungarian Rhapsodies. sixths or octaves. differing in length.

The themes in question are the Folies triple andante in 3/4 time. and 15. The 5 As a general rule the music is invested with spaciousness and continuity. but Chopin's Ballades. as if to recall to the listener's memory the salient points of the tale that is being told. have common with the Brahms Rhapsodies: every one of them is written in quadruple time. in the 'allegretto a la zingarese' of the Fourteenth nos. or for a heavy chordal theme. and the Jota aragonese in 3/8. 14. an instrument of the dulcimer type whose strings the player strikes with hammers. They were submitted by Liszt to fantastic decoration of the type that he used in the Hungarian RhapsoThe cimbalom effects. however. as in no. d'Espagne. Among the more specialized effects are imitations of the sounds produced by the Hungarian cimbalom. and again in the glissandos of The Hungarian Rhapsodies. . 'emotional character and irregular form which are of many rhapsodies are also distinguishing marks of the typical ballade. 'quasi zimbalo'. occur during the whole of the opening section Typical examples of the Eleventh Rhapsody. themes in both of them well-known melodies which have been used by other composers. which date from the 18408. but a more dominating trait of the latter is its narrative style. rather than proceeds in ordered sequence. either for drum-like tremolandos. as in the Finale of the Carnaval de Pesth.ROMANTIC MUSIC Incisive accent to 155 melody-notes or chords and the use of very low pitch. bear no descriptive titles. Neither do Liszt's two works in this category. are transformed into the simulated beating of castanets. 14. dies. Themes or thematic fragments once heard are reintroduced periodically. it unfolds. The nature of the tale itself may or may not be indicated by the composer. 10. Liszt's Rhapsodie espagnole one feature in (1863) differs from all these pieces by being based largely on time. The origin of Brahms's 'Edward' Ballade is revealed by the sub-title. which are generally considered to have been suggested by the epics of the Polish patriot Adam Mickiewicz.

movement to an appropriately violent The later time and in quicker tempo than the Ballades are less sombre in character. enhanced in expressive power by mal fuller G chords and a more rapidly flowing accompaniment. the plaintive theme in G in minor and the radiantly expansive melody in E flat major. It stands apart from the others by structural mould. All are in 6/8 first. the melody in E flat is ultimately restated in its original key. to merge into a furiously energetic coda. and apart fact that all are written in compound duple time.156 NINETEENTH-CENTURY PIANO MUSIC ballade as a single movement for the piano was Chopin's was an outcome of his need to evolve a structural framework within which to develop musical ideas that transcend the bounds of orthodox forms. but each is entirely indivi- The creation. prepares the listener for the heroic style of the music. in subdued plain consisting of a phrase octaves starting out of the basic key. Instead. was completed in 1839 and dedicated to Schumann. The piece unique opens with a pair of strongly-contrasted sections: a contemplative. the composition of which long occupied Chopin's thoughts. It dual in design and expressive character. follows. lento in common time. The second in F major. c The minor theme desolate as ever. stand mutual relationship as first and second subjects. They undergo development in the central section of the piece but escape for- recapitulation. alla breve'. sonata form. The whole dramatic movement in 6/4 time is held together by brilliant passages which exemplify Chopin's art of weaving significant inner melodies into the pianistic texture and of making effective use of the heights and depths of the keyboard. The solemn Introduction. The first Ballade in G minor is the most strongly influenced by The two main subjects. they bear little resemblance to one another except in greatness of con- ception. He composed them at from the longish intervals between 1831 and 1842. His four Ballades sometimes display the tensions of sonata form or the alternations of refrain and episodes familiar in the rondo. song-like played the first . to whom he had being cast in a draft in 1836. The downward-swooping octave passage brings the end.

in the development of the material. the musical material undergoing contraction. The opening panel in F major shows a tendency. an essential feature of the com- The restrained aprising-scale theme. later more pronounced. established. Thematic metamorphosis position. A distinctive flavour is imparted piece by the unpredictable changes in tonality which occur throughout its length. which belongs to as in F minor. and from the descending-scale motive in the third bar. is quickened graceful falling-octave motive (a) in quavers into continuous figuration in animated semiquavers that leap to and fro above the phrase in descending notes in the minor (c) The : . The six-note fragment of a rising scale in the first bar of the Ballade and the two-note rhythmic figure with which it is clinched form the nucleus of the musical substance. The Fantasy abounds in a variety of musical ideas. Three units of the contrasting subject are detached to play their parts. a series of chromaticisms perpetuates the tonal ambiguity until within a few bars of the concluding The third Ballade the same from the latter (1840-1). after several pearances in the centre of the keyboard. expansion or development in sonata style. is distinguished period Chopin's Fantasy in A flat major by its slighter dimensions and by the close concentration of the thematic material. Even after the key of A minor seems to have been definitely phrase. to slip in and out of minor and the music subsequently passes through many to the A keys.ROMANTIC MUSIC Andantino in lilting 157 c rhythm and a volcanic presto con fuoco'. the Ballade is evolved from a very few. finally soars in octaves high in the treble to form the culminating point. Chopin created a movement which never slackens in interest as the music presses on inevitably towards the magnifiis cent climax. From this slender material. This twofold presentation of the musical subjectmatter is followed without a pause by a final section of agitated passage-work which is suddenly halted by a terrific sforzato. The two sections are straightway restated. whereupon the Ballade fades out pianissimo in a haunting phrase in A minor from the Andantino. but the mutual contrast in expression remaining unchanged. singly or combined.

former accompaniment of dancing chords transformed into restless broken octaves and chromatic scales: The opening phrase (b) whole sections of smoothly-flowing and persistently syncopated music ensure the Ballade unflagging The alternations of .158 NINETEENTH-CENTURY PIANO MUSIC Allegretto its reappears in a succession of keys.

The Chopin Ballades. and made up of short fragments many times repeated. it is presented three times in the same key. unassailable freedom. The first in in grandeur D those by major (1845-8) is of slighter dimensions than and is less dignified in style. After first being announced in simple chords in B flat major. Indeed. The second subject points in are based chiefly in both.ROMANTIC MUSIC rhythmic vitality. hold a Liszt's examples of the place in the affections of pianists which attained. varied at each re-appearance. the threads of the thematic argument are gathered up and woven into the fabric of a coda whose intricate passage-work is the logical outcome of the contrapuntal writing that distinguishes the whole piece. Thereafter. it has an introduction to which allusion is made later and a coda derived from the central section. an . Both works is on two acutely contrasted subjects. while the second comprises a melody whose wide intervals and swaying rhythm endow it with an unforgettable. it re-emerges in D flat major with the left-hand part running eagerly in passages of triplet semiquavers. In other respects the two Ballades differ profoundly. Of his two Ballades. Fundamentally in ternary Chopin form. released from the bondage of its plain chordal substructure. allusion to the regularly-accented tion seems to resolve all the theme from the central preceding rhythmic The fourth Ballade in F minor (1842) has two common with the first in G minor. only the second type have never of conception. with their vitally interesting subject- approaches Chopin's flat matter. 159 The rounding off of the movement with an secconflicts. the principal subject in F minor assumes the character of a rondo refrain. rides majestically at a higher pitch. the first subject undergoes variation of a more fundamental kind. This section constitutes the emotional climax of the movement. The melody. making an impression of unlimited. their brilliant and sympathetic piano writing. It combines attributes distinctive of sonata form with those of the rondo and the variation. ear-haunting quality. The principal theme. The F minor is far more highly organized in structure.

those Brahms are less elaborate in style unified. The ' music of the principal phrases actually follows the metre of the poem. reaches a in B major with the chordal phrase of the introquiet ending duction. Like Brahms'sRhapsody in form. this Ballade displays the characteristics of 'arch' The two opening themes. powerful and cumulative in effect. after extensive variation. It becomes progressively more ornate and the 'tempo di marcia' theme gradually loses its original a welter of heavy chords. romantic piece. 10 (1854) are often minor hovers on the played as a whole group. the narrator of the Ballade running an adventurous course. It is headed 'After the Scots "Edward" (in Herder's German translation). It makes the impression that is intent upon securing the close attention of his audience before beginning to tell them the story which eventually starts in animated fashion at 'allegro deciso'. they are short. a far longer piece which is free in form. towards the arch. varied at every successive appearance. but sive character is it is much less exuberant and trivialized. The thirty-four-bar introduction in B may minor with mysteriously surging chromatic scales low in the bass followed by placid chordal phrases is immediately repeated without alteration in Bflat minor. and as their key-system is closely In comparison with Chopin's and Liszt's Ballades. the thematic material undergoes and which. but it is almost entirely lacking in the second Ballade in B minor clearly be perceived (1853). its expres- intensified rather than Surprising modulations and harsh dissonances deepen the sense of mystery which surrounds many sections of this dark. by and technique and are straightforward though by no means conventional in form. As in the first Ballade. and the piece as a whole gives dramatic expression to the bloodthirsty sentiments of the narrative. The first in D borders of ballad programme music. Andante and 'poco piii mo to'. their design and expressive character . sparse crispness in The narrative quality which distinguishes Chopin's Ballades in this first Ballade of Liszt's.160 NINETEENTH-CENTURY PIANO MUSIC Is 'andantino con sentimento' in waltz rhythm. an Allegro episode in D major. the four Ballades that constitute op. Moreover. rise E flat. They descend in reverse order.

Later.ROMANTIC MUSIC modified in accordance with the spirit l6l of the narrative. Lastly. The third Ballade in B minor. the other Ballades of op. The music of the interlude. Although it is free in structure. which sounds from the heights of the keyboard in serene phrases of chords in root position. B major consistently lyrical. Many years later. but the recurrent refrain is grad- theme moves ually reduced in importance. The literary content of this ballad evidently exerted a strong attraction over Brahms. low-pitched chords. composed in simple ternary form. . especially in the middle section which comprises a series of phrases in furtive staccato crotchets in both hands revolving on an axis of sustained longer notes. the longest and most sectional and the only one in triple time. he set the words to music as a duet for contralto and tenor. another stealthily in five-bar phrases of quiet. The fourth Ballade in B major. the piece shows some of the attributes of rondo form. The cantabile theme that floats easily on the surface of the 'andante con moto gives place in the ensuing Lento to one of reflective character that threads Its way with difficulty through a dense fabric of murmuring quavers. in 1877. reminds the listener of the once radiant cantabile. twice repeated. The piano writing of this new version reveals the composer's entirely fresh concep- tion of the poem. eight bars before the end. but the type of of accompaniment change with the changis 5 ing sections. only a single wraith-like phrase. opening section of cascading semiquaver runs and strongly syncopated light chords conjures up a vision of sprites at play. full None of being narratives in intention. 10 has an avowed poetic but the second and fourth make the impression of background. the is slightest in dimensions. sub-titled Intermezzo. It melody and the style melodic throughout. is so ethereal in character as to suggest a distant chorus of birds. is the most in (6/4). The second Ballade in D major is of mysterious implications. It narrates a tale but it creates a fairy atmosphere by means hardly of its The transparent texture and unusual harmonic progressions. At Lento interlude it is shortened its first appearance after the is and the accompaniment thinned out.

which. he suppressed before publication. although makes an impression of unflagging energy. The tiny dance movement races breathlessly along in two conflicting c rhythms: compound duple in the right hand and simple triple in the left. mediant to tonic. first exemplified in the tenth movement of his Davidsbundler (1832) to which he prefixed the performing-direction ln the ballad style'. Schumann did not compose ballades. at the very end. Brahms's remaining Ballade in G minor. We noted earlier that some of the pieces are composed in rondo form. but in a hushed pianissimo as though the tranquillizing spell cast by the far-away bird-song were still unbroken. op. 21 (1838) which he described as depicting longish connected tales of adventure'. is more strenuous than its imaginative predecessors. rhythmically intricate style of portions of the Novellettes. is passionate and urgent in the extreme. except where to the bar is broken by an incursion of a chordal temporarily phrase from the opening section.l62 NINETEENTH-CENTURY PIANO MUSIC it When fades away the sprites resume their pranks. which he composed in 1893 as the third of the six Klavierstucke. imparts a final touch of fantasy. A typically Brahmsian touch in this Ballade is the overlapping of some of the phrases and the division of others into uneven bar-lengths. such as the Intermezzo "presto con fuoco' of no. It prefigures the vigorous. Schumann treated both these formal types with equal freedom. It contains not a the flow of eight quavers single breathing-space. The rare cadence. 3. 118. however. op. also 'pianissimo. with the beats. Their nearest equivalent in his production for the piano is the set of eight Novellettes. major which. he did not publish until many years . except in the conventional miniature Novellette in B minor which. although he wrote it at the same period. strong and weak. Others are in ternary form. It is an 'allegro a contrasting episode in B energico' of detached chords with it is marked una corda'. heavily accented. His conception of the ballade. He gave some of them titles.

'pomposo e brioso'. omitted and in c major. which is first heard in F major. none so irregular or so complicated as the eighth. By these means he enhanced the 21 mutual key-relationships and secured variety as well as continuity. 5 short figures. It first steals in quietly in now D minims before the end of the D major trio in the first main section of the Novellette and is developed in a leisurely manner. melody and harmony are both transformed. during the ensuing interlude. about a hundred bars before the end of the whole movement. out like distant drum-beats at the very end. is composed of a multiplicity of themes which recur in unpredictable order and run through a succession of tonalities involving no fewer than nine changes of key-signature. When the opening section of the fourth Novellette. only its rhythmic foundation emerges intact. is dominated by two . 99 (1851). 'tempo di ballo makes its final appearance. For instance. is The tension never slackens for a as are moment. with two more trios in A and B flat major. now to form linking then to set a fugato in motion and eventually to fade passages. Vivace assai con molto spirito'.ROMANTIC MUSIC later 163 among the Bunte Blatter. the refrain. The fifth. Unconventional in form most of the Novellettes. reappears in A major. is major. he generally arranged the paragraphs in unwonted sequence and restated them in fresh keys. though in shorter notes. Whether he used much or little subject-matter in the individual Novellettes of op. They recur jointly or severally in every part of the texture at intervals throughout the piece. op. also originally presented in F major. It finally returns in minim octaves at the point where the key-signature changes one flat. the Trio. It begins in F flat and minor as a scherzo with two trios respectively in sharp after the second trio The restatement of the scherzo D D is replaced by a short interlude entitled Continuazione'. This pair of large-scale movements is unified by the theme marked * Voice from the distance'. in the centre of the first Novelflat lette. These are only the main outlines of a piece of music in which the imaginative dovetailing of themes and the fitting together of to . The sixth Novellette. recurs in interest of their D major. The piece eventually develops into another scherzo.

Bach composed a Capriccio on the departure of a beloved brother (1704) in the form of a suite. have been found c so far mentioned in this chapter. but music of this kind came into existence centuries earlier. this is type of music. the canonic imitations in the ious utterances in close and the seventh and the mysterchord-formation in the B flat major first interlude of the fifth are a few of the many features that all students of this composer's work will recognize as typically Schumannesque . Schumann's writing of the Novellettes represents individual style from the exuberant to the intricate. each with a Piece. The glowing The piano broken-chord figuration and the lyrical accompanied melody of the second. The Elizabethan virginalists wrote title. S. which descriptive The seventeenth-century German composer Johann Kuhnau composed a series of vividly descriptive Bible Sonatas for the keyboard (published in 1 700) to each of which he prefixed long accounts of the events depicted in the music as well as annotating the music itself. Each movement portrait-studies tricoteuses Les . among which Couperin's (The knitters) and (Les petits moulins a vent (The little windmills). J. Programme or descriptive music has existed ever since composers could find the means of portraying non-musical ideas in terms of instrumental music. The title romantic music was invented by of this type of nineteenth-century Liszt. the persistent minor section of the fifth and in the metric pattern in the G outer sections of the miniature Novellette in B minor. Rameau's La Poule (The hen) and Les Tourbillons (The whirlwinds) and Daquin's Le Coucou are well-known examples. for example. William Byrd's Battle composed in several sections..164 NINETEENTH-CENTURY PIANO MUSIC close numerous component parts are points that well repay study. only two be qualified for inclusion under the heading of 'programme music' Field's Le Midi Nocturne and Brahms's to : Of the many pieces Edward' Ballade. The French clavecinistes wrote numerous miniature and nature-sketches. the dance-rhythms of the fourth.

does Weber's 'Programme' Sonata. So too. as the programme music exactly corresponds to the very obvious 'programme'. and Liszt. who developed programme and descriptive music to a much higher state of expressiveness than hitherto. The which is composed in unbroken swaying rhythm but structurally and pianistically far more complex than the Berceuse. conveys the sense of utter peacefulness implicit in the title. creates the atmosphere of a boating scene in which the lapping of the waters. is beauty of the summer sky find their perfect musical counterpart. even though they are their constituent generally unorthodox in the arrangement of parts. it is in ternary form with an introduction and . published actually print the it is intended to illustrate. both of whom had strong period literary interests and were themselves writers. Chopin wrote only two pieces with descriptive which may be interpreted as implying that he had definite pictures in his mind while composing them: the Berceuse and the titles Barcarolle. the shimmering heat. in both larger and smaller forms. His Invitation to the dance. though only infor when he it he did not directly. and Schubert his. dementi's Didone abbandonata Sonata and Beethoven's 'LebewohP Sonata come more or less within the same category. and the luxuriant Barcarolle.ROMANTIC MUSIC 165 bears a title indicating the various stages of the 'departure' and the whole ends with a fugue *aW imitazione delta cornetta di Postiglione*. specific descriptive title the composers of piano music during the Romantic was Schumann and Liszt. concen- Among it trated his finest powers of musical scene-painting upon his orchestral works. Despite its picturesque style the Barcarolle is as clear in form as are most of Chopin's large-scale pieces. however. whose static harmonic and rhythmic scheme and ever-changing melodic line we noted when studying variations. Mendelssohn. The Berceuse. Basically. a genuine piece of music which requires no analytical notes. Schumann most particularly in the smaller forms. upon the piano accompani- ments of his songs. with story its is. who was a gifted painter in water-colour.

Representative examples are included in the three books of the Annees de Pelerinage (Years of pilgrimage) (1836-77). the play of fountains. Francis waves are essentially programmatic. extends for over two hundred bars. Their formal outlines are less distinct. Their form and style are inevitably conditioned by the events they set out to illustrate. Francis of Assisi preaching the to the birds and St. During its course the limited musical presented in a myriad pianistic guises. In character. criptive. It makes the impression of a desperate struggle against the forces of nature. Les jeux ffeaux a la Villa d'Este scintillates in pellucid arpeggios piece comes to a decisive climax. the music itself and the style of the piano writing are and sufficiently interesting attractive to make their own appeal to listeners and players. they can hardly be enjoyed to the full by anyone unfamiliar with the details of the legends. material is Liszt's two Legends'. The established feeling of continuity already is by the uniform rhythm quaver further enhanced by the periodic references to themes already heard. and the pieces are extremely of Paula walking on graphic in their respective simulation of the twittering of a multitude of birds and the surging of angry waves. and tremolandos. bass The interval of a rising fourth in the fortis- which opens the interlude in F sharp minor rings out simo in double octaves in the very last bar. The little flickering semireturns to figure in sixths that adorns the opening pages prelude the final cadenza. or the effect of a landscape some of Liszt's upon a human soul. but in the repeat of the opening section some of the original material is omitted and the gap is filled by a longish paragraph from the interlude. Vallee d'Obermann. especially when they portray a subject that has no definite beginning or end: a storm.1 66 NINETEENTH-CENTURY PIANO MUSIC coda. Orage (Storm) rages without intermission in octaves and heavily-accented chords. St. Theoretically. the as are Barcarolle is impressionistic rather than des- pieces of this type and length. and neither which is prefaced by Liszt with two quotations from de Senancourt's novel Obermann and one from Byron's Childe Harold. . Nevertheless.

deliberately imitates the sounds of the native instrument. The Scenes from Folk life are even more strongly nationalist in None of the themes is a genuine folk-tune. 7). the Hardanger fiddle. for the characteristic dotted rhythm of the funeral march. composed in memory of three Hun- garian friends of Liszt's who were killed in the Petofi rising of 1849. type. Shorter pieces of descriptive music by Liszt. Here. The work consists of three movements which are thematically interrelated and should be played as a whole group. 3) are both prefaced with verses from the relevant poems. which is by far the most original and . whose poems were the inspiration of three of the in question. The second movement in E major. the most powerful of all the four intensely expressive movements. the words of which are printed above the chords. throbbing. the title of which the composer borrowed from Lamartine. 4) works up to a tremendous climax of heavy chords metrically spaced to simulate the intoning of the Deprofundis. Scenes from Folk op. of the piano writing. which has a set of sympathetically-vibrating strings in addition to the usual Some equipment and is capable of producing resonant chords. but the whole style. i) and Benediction pieces de Dieu dans la solitude (no.ROMANTIC MUSIC 167 Similar in type are the longest items of Liszt's Harmonies et poetiques religieuses (1845-52). drum-like bass-notes are sufficiently graphic to paint the tragic scene of this. Schumann. whose sentiments they in interpret music alternately contemplative and passionate which makes the very most of the singing-tone and the warm resonance of the piano. needs no written programme. Grieg and other composers will be considered in the chapter on miniatures. Funerailles (no. too. 19 (1872). this we among which we may are concerned only with longer works. When studying Grieg's Sonata we noticed that two of the characteristics of movements displayed Norwegian folk-music. include Grieg's principal composition of life. of the musical material is permeated by Norwegian folk-idiom. Pensee des Moris (no. the grief-stricken melody and the deep. Invocation (no.

or from a body of instruments . notably Liszt. 29. but they are of minor interest compared with his other works based on shall study.. both in A minor and each with a trio section in the major. Smetana. and its gradual withdrawal into the remote distance by the dynamic markings and by the relative density of the texture. we have already examined. the melodies of which he also used in his well-known Le mal du pays (Home-sickness) in the Annies de Pelerinage. The first and third is spirit implicit quarters are denoted movements. has inevitably become detached from has acquired world-wide fame. op. folk-music which we Another type of romantic piano music which came into prominence during the nineteenth century requires consideration before we leave this whole subject: the transcription or 'piano arrangement'. The idealizing of folk-music and national music. but in mic vitality they are closely related to his Norwegian Dances. in the decorative figuration. was of absorbing interest to some nineteenth-century composers. in design as it is realistic in giving expression to the title. which represent one form of musical activity. Less virtuosic examples are his three Glanes de Woronince (Gleanings from Woronince) based on Polish and Ukrainian airs and the Fantasie romantique sur deux melodies suisses. in later positions chapters on dance forms and piano duets. if not an exclusively romantic trait. 'On the mountains' and 'Carnival scene'. The art of translating music from one medium to another: from the voice to an instrument. The stateliness and dignity of the occasion are while the festive expressed in the steadily marching rhythm. This is 'The Bridal Procession a piece of sensitive piano writing that is as satisfying passes by'. Grieg wrote two Improvisata on Norwegian folk-tunes. are structheir rhythturally similar to many of Grieg's Lyric Pieces. branch of Liszt's this Hungarian Rhapsodies. Dvorak and Grieg. The its resplendent passing at close approach of the procession.l68 NINETEENTH-CENTURY PIANO MUSIC its context and effective. together with nationalist comof other types and countries.

M . Composers often re-arranged their own works. Pieces en concert . as we saw earlier. and he interchanged movements of his harpsichord suites with instrumental from excerpts operas.. 6. for harpsichord solo. constructed the slow movements of two of his piano sonatas out of songs he had composed long before. perhaps. Handel transferred his compositions from one medium to another. Sometimes. It l6g was already flourishing in the sixteenth century. The Petrarch Sonnets in the Annees de Pelerinage and the three Liebestraume all originated in songs for voice and movements of his Harmonies poetiques et piano. and Hymne de 1'enfant religieuses ( a son reveiP) are reductions of his own choral works.. no. John Dowland. and Grieg transcribed at least a dozen of his songs for piano solo. 39 that he had originally written as piano duets. Brahms re-wrote for piano solo the Waltzes. Liszt turned several of his own vocal works into piano pieces. my tears ) by their contemporary. Three of the ten c Ave Maria'. he made use of his Lesson in minor as the presto Finale of the Third Suite for harpsichord. At a later period. which we studied in the he transprevious chapter. 3. Among study are the two Lachrymae Pavanes' in the Fitzwilliam Virginal Book. Tater noster'. has subsequently been cultivated with varying degrees of the earliest examples relevant to our intensity. Rameau adapted five pieces of his chamber music. and as a portion of the as the last Overture to the opera Pastor Fido. & ^ & . For instance. op. Beethoven re-wrote his Violin Concerto as a Piano Concerto. 7 and of the Oboe Concerto op. The c Prelude and Fugue on the name BACH. c transcribed respectively by William Byrd and Giles Farnaby from the song 'Lachrymae' ('Flow.ROMANTIC MUSIC to the keyboard. simply as a recreation between periods of intensive work on original compositions. at other times. op. his D movements of the Organ Concerto in D minor. Bach arranged some of Vivaldi's Violin Concertos for solo harpsichord as well 5 as freely transcribing pieces of various kinds by other composers. Schumann. because opportunities may have arisen for hearing their works performed on instruments different from those for which the music was origi- nally conceived. is one of a few organ compositions ferred to the piano.

170 NINETEENTH-CENTURY PIANO MUSIC typically The romantic transcription was the outcome of the romantic composer's faculty of make-believe. all figurations of the most learned and deepest creations in sound. Mendelssohn. It . In so r of enterprise that he embarked upon on the operatic music resplendent fantasies the desire to demonstrate doing.' was in this spirit writing pianistically of all the well-known composers from Mozart to Wagner and Verdi. reproduce all features. He considered that with the immense development of its harmonic c powers the piano seeks to appropriate more and more all orchestral compositions. . when compositions of every type and period are much more readily available to the general public in their original versions. and that he made piano arrangements of orchestral. Chopin. the need for this kind of 'second-hand' music has passed and the Liszt's taste for it has declined. piano solos and duets by Schubert. the Beethoven symphonies. songs by Schubert. chamber and vocal w orks by greater and lesser composers. He was genuinely anxious to secure recognition for compositions of all kinds which he considered the were too little appreciated in their original forms. he was not actuated solely by the limitless variety of tone-colours that could be produced on modern grand piano. Rossini. At the present day. practised the art of transcription with an enthusiasm that knew no more assiduous in arranging his bounds. prodigies of transcription are deeply interesting as . and others. symphonic poems by Berlioz. In the compass of its seven octaves it can. with few exceptions. all combinations. . of his conception of the cantabile tone of the piano as equivalent to the human voice. Schumann. the strings or the wind instruments. Never was a those of own works and works inspired him to these tireless feats of re-creation. Among these were Bach's Preludes and Fugues for organ. The catalogue of his activities in this direction runs into several pages of print and includes the names of well over a score of composers whose and pedal-effects capable evoking percussive qualities other orchestral colours. Even so. overtures by Weber. the romantic par excellence. and of the piano's as composer by other composers. Liszt.

chosen to exemplify many methods of treating the given material. the performer. they are accessible only in the volumes of the Collected Edition of Liszt's works. To the numberless transcriptions still extant only a few can be referred to or described here. The literal arrangements are represented at their finest by the Beethoven Symphonies. representative examples Among works in several categories. the trans- formation of intimate piano music into concert-pieces. the free composition based on or incorporating Italian vocal arias. Liszt made them at intervals between 1837 and 1864 and published them complete in 1865 with the avowed intention of 'contributing to the knowledge of the great masters and to the formation of a sense of beauty'. cribed. the imaginative transcription of songs. These splendid re-creations are unfortunately no longer current. The literal arrangement of orchestral and instrumental They will include some of Liszt's works. Details of the scoring are marked in so that the player can follow the part. and the paraphrasing of operatic music. they are a challenge to imaginative interpretation and a stimulus to studying the originals and the re-creations side by side. He carried out his task with the utmost faithfulness. For practical purposes they have been made for superseded by easily available reductions for piano study purposes by excellent musicians who would never claim to be considered poets of the keyboard. The very look of the printed pages of these arrangements conjures up in the mind's ear the sounds of the symphonies in their original version.writing and can bear in mind the timbres of the instruments which he is called upon to simulate as best he can by gradating his touch.ROMANTIC MUSIC literature for the tunities for and his They afford musicians unrivalled opporboth his supreme mastery of the keyboard observing insight into the musical qualities of the works he transpiano. To show the distance Liszt's realistic interpretation of a romantic that separates orchestral effect from a prosaic rendering by one of his succes- .

In the latter types of composition Liszt employed all board virtuosity elaborations at his command. NINETEENTH-CENTURY PIANO MUSIC two versions of a single phrase from the 'Storm movement 5 of the 'Pastoral' Symphony may be quoted: In Bach's Fantasy and Fugue in G minor for organ Liszt's amplification of single-line runs with sixths. Liszt's It will be seen that no empty decoration. sive character of the music was in many intensify. re-arranged to lie easily under the pianist's hands. the incorporating of the pedal-part within the pianistic texture is so contrived that it makes the effect of exercising its original function. but an attempt to reproduce on the piano the greater resonance of the organ. strongly though they Liszt's attempts to rival their may Singers disapprove in and accomprinciple of unique art of ensemble. Between these straightforward arrangements of orchestral and instrumental works and the free adaptations of solo vocal and music there is an operatic infinity of difference. The upper parts. rather than distort panists. but his the resources of keyfeeling for the exprescases so acute that his it. can but . octaves or tenths is reverberating spread chords deep in the bass depict thunderclaps far more graphically than do the comparatively tame tremolandos placed higher up the keyboard.172 sors . In the Fugue. maintain the fugal argument unbroken (see next page).

then rises to the surface. occasionally crossing . transcriptions the vocal part and the essentials of preserve the outline of the piano accompaniment. while evoking the distinctive tonecolour and the rise and fall of the voice by variations in the pitch of the melody and by gradations in the volume of sound of the of treataccompanying passage-work. the left hand quivering demisemiquavers by adds support with deep bass-notes or trills. The voice part. in the contralto register in the centre of first in the tenor.ROMANTIC MUSIC Alle^t-o 173 admire his imaginative skill in interpreting upon one instrument the fundamentals of music designed so sympathetically for two performers. hark the lark and Ave Maria' 5 c (1838) are typical examples. An example of this kind be found in Schubert's 'Das Wirtshaus' (The wayside ment They may is placed inn) (1839). Some of the finest of the songare at the same time literal and impressionistic. written on a third stave. and gradually into quaver and crotchet chords of the original are broken up the right hand. where he generally devised a fresh and more decorative type of figuration for each successive verse. The art of variation played a large part in Liszt's transcriptions. especially in strophic songs. Schubert's 'Hark. The subdued the texture.

174 NINETEENTH-CENTURY PIANO MUSIC little flashes over the right hand to add of brilliant colour high up in the treble. In Du bist die Ruh' (Thou art repose) he cut out the introductory bars and started off with the first verse e arranged expressively for left-hand solo. This transcription preserves the structure of the original. Liszt's additions to some of the songs. The little melismata (decorative passages) Etwas g'eschwincL Schubert! * Schubert-Liszt: Un-poeovivo points and the precipitate four-bar arpeggio passage before the end of 'Die Post (1839) are features which emjust c phasize the agitated mood of the song. But his insertion later of a repeat of one verse in elaborate chordal figuration extending across four octaves weakens the ensuing climax and disturbs the tranquil atmosphere of the whole. The extension of Auf dem Wasser zu singen' (To be sung on the water) (1838) the at climactic 5 by repetition of a verse elaborated in style to form a postlude enhances rather than diminishes the effectiveness of a transcription which faithfully integrates the ebullient voice-part and Truhlingsnachf (Spring the the exquisitely sparkling figuration of the original. can hardly be considered out of keeping with the character of the original. Similarly. In some of the other Schubert song-transcriptions Liszt added or subtracted portions varying in extent from the repeat of a whole verse to a few bars. however. doubling in length of Schumann's night) (1872) by a repeat of the whole composition with more .

The second piece of the Chopin song-sequence. Chopin himself incorporated the vocal melody within the accompaniment. As c 3 . In the Six Polish Songs which he selected from Chopin's Seventeen Polish songs. Liszt found little scope for making alterations beyond occasionally thickening the right-hand part with octaves. The individual transcriptions vary in type. 2 of Glanes de Woronince] based on the same theme. 4. elaborate technique.ROMANTIC MUSIC intricate 175 to the piano writing seems to give fuller scope of the emotional exaltation inherent in the expression brilliant and song. c 3 . the second verse. 3. In no. 5 . Liszt employed other methods of transcription. 'The maiden's wish which opens with a lightlylink. decorated version of the original prelude. 'The Ring he varied the accompaniment of 5 . 'Bacchanal . By arranging the songs in a succession of related keys and contrasted moods and by joining two (nos. op. My 3 darling . he increased the feeling of excitement by 3 inserting glissandos and by adding a long c final section based on motives from the song. continues with a set of three variations on the melody. The piano writing of this does the simple piece sounds far more typical of Chopin than accompaniment which the composer himself designed for the In the final piece. For the fifth song. he used a much more transformed the simple song in E flat major with an extremely sparse chordal accompaniment into an He expressive. poetic Nocturne in G flat major in which the left- hand part runs in legato arpeggios and the right hand embellishes the melody with trills. . The Bridegroom Liszt turned original. in no. 3 and 4) together by a modulatory he built up a sequence of pieces which can effectively be played as a whole. 74 and published complete in 1860. The first. None of them resembles any of the variations included by Liszt in his original piano composition Melodies polonaises (no. fioriture (flourishes) and decorative cadenzas in single or double notes. adding coloratura-like passages at climaxes. Spring approximates the most closely to the original.

positions. (The of his c The Canzonetta c Vado ben spesso' to Salvator Rosa has been questioned in recent times and the name of G. del Salvator Rosa' (1849)5 no. Bononcini put forward as the most Liszt likely composer. He was strongly attracted composers. which he maintained . He both transcribed Liszt to the vocal it music of Italian the basis of some and made it own compositions. 12.) presented the martial tune of the canzonetta without superfluous pianistic decoration. 3 of the Second Book (Italy) of the Annees de Peleriis the most straightforward of the four pieces of this type nage. Chopin i o. f */ Prestissimo tempe&taoso n=^$ i Ctwptri -Lis-zf: ended the piece with the last thirteen bars of the original spun out in expressive fashion to nearly three times their length by means of augmentation.176 NINETEENTH-CENTURY PIANO MUSIC into brilliant passage-work in Chopin's spare harmonic pattern the style of the 'Revolutionary' Study in C minor. but with a strong feeling for the swinging rhythm. B. Agitato vivo Vows Pia. which he included in the last-named collection of original comcorrectness of the attribution of the canzonetta. no.

the Soirees de Vienne. Cottrau and e ends in a blaze of chromatic chords. piano writing of these movements accords with the warm-blooded character of the tunes. None of the individual items is so ornate in or so difficult to play as the style Tarantella just mentioned. and sometimes sung in its original form. 'pianisc simo e leggierissimo'. and the whole is interspersed with cadenzas. The transcriptions of florid The twelve songs by Rossini which Liszt published in 1837 were made in the same spirit but with less virtuosity. The last 'Taranpiece. both as songs and as piano solos. The music of only one It is well known to music-lovers to-day: no. Fr. Throughout the second Canzone' the melody piece. In the first. recovered some of its former popularity when it was pressed into of the service of dancing to form part of the musical background it is still to the Rossini ballet. he applied a similar title to another kind of Valses-caprices d'apres transcription: Schubert. These twelve charming pieces in a variety moods which were once widely played are now almost forgotten. which opens with a whirlwind of passages alternately in tella'.ROMANTIC MUSIC 177 unbroken between the verses by effective Interchanges of scraps of melody between the two hands. and some are distinguished by extreme simplicity. 9. of the aria 'Nessun maggior dolore (No greater sorrow) from 3 3 Rossini's Otello proceeds slowly above and below a harmonic foundation of mysterious tremolandos. develops into a cumulatively brilliant series of variations upon a canzona napolitana' by G. 'Gondoliera'. the canzone by the Cavaliere Peruchini is set within a decorative filigree of rapid notes. La Boutique fantasque in 1919. 6/8 and 2/4 time. La Danza'. In directness of musical statement the Ganzonetta offers a striking contrast to the three virtuosic pieces of Venezia e Napoli (1859) which form the Supplement to the Second Book of the Annees de Pelerinage. . L. They abound in pianistic embellishments. Liszt named Many years later the Rossini song-transcriptions Soirees musicales.

A brief description of the make-up of one of these pieces will give an idea of Liszt's method of constructing them. which Liszt used for the prelude. They comprise sections of the and three Marches from op. He had early shown the first place composer's piano music. op. is founded on three dances: a German dance. The ninth Valse-caprice is a set of six variations on the waltz known posed in 1816 which Schubert comand which Schumann used as the basis of the opening movement of Carnavalin 1835.. 9. 'allegretto malinconico' in A flat major. no. 15. as the Sehnsuchtswalzer (Le desir) either in their own keys or transposed. no. after having appeared in B major. phrases from op. 121 (1846). hongroise (1838-9) 40 and op. transposed into major. The first Waltz forms the two sections flanking the initial statement of the second Waltz which. No. Each of the other eight consists of a free arrangement of two or more Valses-caprices dances which are formed into a coherent whole movement by means of introductory and linking passages derived from the thematic material and by the repetition of individual sections. 33. in several movements from his duets both as piano this a partiality for by transcribing solos and as orchestral Divertissement a la pieces. no. 22 and op. over of which he transcribed for piano solo. An examination of the manifold of piano writing which characterize Schubert's styles . the postlude. 14. I. 67. as we Fantasy into a symphonic piece for piano 5 noted earlier in these pages. recurs flat twice.178 Liszt fifty NINETEENTH-CENTURY PIANO MUSIC was not only a great admirer of the Schubert songs. In 1852-3 he published the nine short pieces Soirees de Vienne: paraphrases of some of Schubert's in dance forms which we shall study in their original versions in a later chapter. tory links as well as presenting the dance once in its entirety. glance at the original dances reveals how effectively Liszt utilized their fluctuations between the major and minor to impart variety and contrast to A A complete production of dance music shows that Liszt's work of transformation in the Soirees de Vienne was carried out in a manner the paraphrase as a whole. In 1851 he transformed the Wanderer and orchestra. and the modulamosaic-like and two Waltzes.

It is not possible here to analyse details of Liszt's subtle treat- . years and which he named indifferently Grande paraphrase. Paraphrase de concert and Reminiscences. of warning The drinking-song.ROMANTIC MUSIC which only occasionally does violence subtle beauty of the basic material. He was the first of the long series of only eighteen of this kind which he wrote over a period of more than works The operatic when he produced fifty Grande fantaisie. successively which are sung by the statue in Act triple time. but which convey a general impression of the character of the drama itself. containing uttered to the unrepentant Don. It the finest qualities of these genuinely magnificently represents creative works. Laci daremlamano'. It is rounded off by a brief cadential an allusion to the solemn phrase passage. This section of the duet. begins and the the opera. preluded comprises the whole a few bars derived from a little ornamental figure in the by elaborate varia(bar 29) and followed by two accompaniment tions. and as many heard. andante. The fantasy. which the supernatural introduction in II. a fateful common and founded on the two solemn phrases. The longish conviviality. One of the most important and the most easily obtainable is the Reminiscences of Mozart's Don Giovanni (1841). Tinche han dal vino' forms the basis of the presto final section. to the simplicity 179 and the or dramatic fantasy was Liszt's invention. contrasting sections respectively Don's amorous proclivities and his devil-may-care typifying the and ends on a serious note. As the listener's of this type of composition depends appreciation almost entirely upon his familiarity with the operas thus paraof these operas are now seldom if ever phrased. which not only embody significant portions of the music. of repeated notes which is theme is consisting largely c heard again towards the end of the next section. The musical extracts that Liszt chose as the foundation of his Reminiscences de Don Juan symbolize in worldly elements present consists chiefly of two long. few of the fantasies have survived to be printed in modern editions.



merit of the basic material One point, however, may be referred to as the transformation of a three-bar chromatic typical: aria Tinche han dal progression in the predominantly diatonic
vino' into a twenty-seven-bar passage during

which the chroma-



ticisms are carried to their furthest conclusion.




bars are quoted for the purpose of identification.




In the creation of yet another specialized type of transcription was inspired by the same model as was Schumann: by Paganini's Caprices for solo violin. The piano pieces that came into being as the result of the two composers' having been captivated by Paganini s indescribably virtuosic playing of his own

works belong to the sphere of the piano study. They will be discussed under that in the next chapter. So, also, will heading Brahms's few transcriptions which, although of a very different
type, are

on the whole of greater


technically than

from musically. His version for piano of the Gavotte in Gluck's opera Paris and Helen is a more romantic genuinely transcription in the sense that the technical considerations are subordinated to the artistic. The solid piano in thirds
writing in the major section and the gossamer lightness of the staccato arpeggios in the minor section realistically interpret the contrasts in the orchestral colouring and help to re-create


and sixths

the poetic atmosphere of the original.




for Beginners
Origin and early history of Studies; pioneers of concert-studies: dementi, Czerny, Moscheles, Cramer. The tude: Mendelssohn, Chopin, Schumann, Liszt,

Brahms, Grieg. Pieces for dementi to Cesar Franck. beginners: J from o

1 origin of the study may be ascribed to the teacher's need to provide his pupils with materials suitable for developing their technical abilities and their powers of interpretation. In modern
times the writing of studies and 'educational music has grown into a separate branch of composition, but in earlier times it


was not




took pupils composed studies for


as a

matter of course. As a consequence,



be written by the great composers of all periods. pieces the earliest of those which have been preserved are Among two little collections of pieces, mostly in dance forms, composed



Bach for his second wife, Anna Magdalena, and his eldest son, Wilhelm Friedemann. Earlier still is a set of Toccatas
J. S.

by Alessandro

Scarlatti (1659-1725). It


of special interest to

not only as the work of a pianists,

man who won undying fame

an opera composer and who was the father of one of the but also all harpsichordists, Domenico Scarlatti, greatest of


throws light upon early systems of fingering. The Toccatas are accompanied by a short preface containing a of two outspread hands with each finger marked by a

was Scarlatti's method of elucidating the of fingering which he indicated in the score and which he system recommended the 'studious pupiP to follow in order to 'place
distinctive sign. This

hands in the most advantageous position


producing good



A tiny five-finger exercise preceding a Menuet en rondeau in
Pieces de clavecin

Jean Philippe Rameau's




reminder of a composer's concern for technical efficiency in the his works. Yet another is the supplement of Eight playing of Art included in his textbook Preludes that
Francois Couperin de toucher le clavecin (The art of playing the harpsichord) (1716) as exercises for loosening the player's fingers before performing


the composer's Ordres (Suites). Many of the more advanced 'educational' pieces by great to be of lasting value, not only as composers have proved "studies' but as music. Some of the works which were written in


as studies have become indispensable in the place concert-room. Bach's six Partitas, the Italian Concerto, the French Overture, and the 'Goldberg' Variations were pubfor organ, in a series lished, together with several compositions of four volumes which he named Clavier Ubung (Keyboard Domenico Scarlatti's Sonatas were originally issued


as 'Exercises'; the title the

composer himself gave

to a set of

the only ones out of a total of nearly six hundred that he thirty, ever troubled to publish. Handel's Suites, which he wrote for
his royal pupils, were published as Lessons. as music, all these pieces Apart from their great importance

demonstrate the types of keyboard technique current in the first half of the eighteenth century, the period of the harpsichord. Mendelssohn's, Chopin's, Schumann's, and Liszt's
Etudes are the epitome of nineteenth-century piano technique. At the same time, they are pieces that are played and listened on account of their musical expressiveness. to with


They are concert-studies a new kind of composition, designed




to display the performer's mastery of certain aspects of as to instruct him in the acquisition thereof.

of this kind of piano study were dementi, and Cramer. They were themselves fine Czerny, Moscheles, and composers of other performers, much sought-after teachers,


early pioneers

kinds of music: sonatas, concertos, fantasies, etc.


the present




for their many day they are remembered almost exclusively volumes of piano studies, which are still in use for didactic, but not for artistic purposes. There can hardly be a pianist living who has not learned some of his art of dexterity from one or studies. The composers have other of these 'classics' of

piano be regarded primarily as pedagogues, but in inevitably their own time they were notable personalities in the musical world and were intimately connected with the great musicians of the dementi, the 'Father of the Piano and the com-





was on one occasion a close rival of poser of about sixty sonatas, Mozart's in a contest of extemporization before the Emperor
also a publisher, in which capacity Joseph II at Vienna. He was he was responsible for launching some of Beethoven's large-

scale works.

dementi's principal contribution to educational music, the Gradus ad Parnassum, is of greater interest musically than any series of studies composed by his contemporaries. It comprises a hundred pieces ranging from brilliant technical studies to move-


ments in sonata form, fugues, canons, capriccios, and scherzos. are interspersed with a few impressionistic pieces with
Scena patetica (no. 39),



(no. 95),

and the


we considered earlier in connexion with ganze (no. 94) which variations. Many of the pieces are arranged into groups of several movements resembling various types of sonata. The contents of the three volumes of the Gradus sum up
dementi's whole
art of composing for the piano,

and in addition,

some of the pianistic styles of later years. At give a pre-view of the time the collection was published, between 1817 and 1826,
the principal romantic composers were still in their boyhood. Yet the pianist of to-day who plays through the complete work
discovers intimations of the distinctive styles that these


in later to develop. Mendelssohn's anticipated posers were no. 91, a 'song without words' in which a tenor solo is perthe left hand; Schumann's, in no. 95, an essay in formed


conflicting rhythms; Chopin's,


repeated figure necessitating quick changing of a note, and in no. 60, which displays the blending

in no. 34, a study based on a of fingers on the


accompaniment of double notes in an comprising the left-hand melody, and cadenzadecoration of an eloquent

cantabile melody with an

one hand.

forestalled in no. 94,

of a later period are also brought to passages. Composers mind: Brahms, by no. 85, a presto 'Hungarian dance'; Debussy, by no. 24, in which the broken-chord figuration shot through with chromaticisms looks forward to that of the impressionistic
Jardins sous lapluie (1903) and Scriabin, by nos. 56 and 83, two movements of the romantic type which this composer cultivated

in his early Twenty-four Preludes, op. (1895). In the indivinamed and in many others of their kind dual studies just


throughout the Gradus, Clementi at the age of seventy is revealed as an amazingly forward-looking musician and a bold inventor
of new styles of piano writing. Czerny, who as a boy was a pupil of Beethoven's, was later promoted to being his amanuensis and the teacher of his

nephew Karl. In due course he numbered among his own pupils
the greatest of



later dedicated to

nineteenth-century piano virtuosi, Franz him his Grandes Etudes (1839). It

not wholly impossible that Liszt derived his passion for making transcriptions from Czerny, who himself transcribed for piano
solo a vast

compositions, the most important Beethoven's symphonies and overtures, Haydn's oratorios, and six of Mozart's symphonies. Czerny was a born teacher. His several text-books on playing

number of classical

of which are

and composing, written in dignified but impassioned style, reveal his burning zeal for his art. His as a fertility composer is
almost beyond belief. The opus-numbers of his published works run to well over nine hundred, but his enduring legacy to the pianist comprises only a few books of studies. Many of them are purely mechanical in style but are magnificently adapted to the

purpose for which they were designed.
of these collections

Among the

twenty or so

in print, the School of the Legato and Staccato, op. 355 includes among its fifty studies a few that show an unfamiliar, imaginative side of the composer's genius. Cramer studied the piano with Clementi, and eventually,

through the medium of



Eighty-four Studies,





last-named composer, closely associated with Beethoven. The who could not find time to write the piano-method he once
five Bagatelles projected (though he did make time to contribute Piano School], thought (op. 1 19, nos. 7-1 1 ) to Friedrich Starke's

very highly of Cramer's Eighty-four Studies. So highly, indeed, that he selected the twenty-one which he considered the most
suitable for players of his own compositions and annotated them in accordance with his individual views on interpretation. These

twenty-one pieces,

now known



Beethoven- Cramer

and published by J. W. Shedlock in 1893 with all Beethoven's invaluable and inimitable comments. They have secured for Cramer a place in the affections of


he might not otherwise have attained. Moscheles taught the fifteen-year-old Mendelssohn. When his famous pupil became the principal of the newly-founded Conservatorium, he appointed his former master as
pianists that


chief professor of the piano, a post he held for many years after Mendelssohn's death. Schumann had a great admiration for

a youth Moscheles, whose 'Alexander' Variations he played as influenced and whose Twenty-four Studies, op. 70 undoubtedly the keyboard style of some of his early compositions: the 'Abegg' and the Toccata. Schumann Variations, the

Impromptus, to acknowledged his indebtedness to Moscheles by dedicating him his Sonata in F minor, op. 14 (Concert sans orchestre). He

also expressed his opinion in writing that the Twenty-four Studies entitled Moscheles to be considered 'one of the leading

at the time. composers of piano music' The Studies are still in existence, but to

the present day

many music-lovers at the name of Moscheles is perhaps best known in


connexion with the Etudes he persuaded Mendelssohn, Liszt, and to write for the Methode des Methodes which he was com-


the Belgian musician J. Fetis for publication during piling with


Etudes, Mendelssohn's in

de Perfectionnement

F minor (1836), Liszt's Etude and Chopin's Trots nouvelles Etudes (1840)


is both much right interesting. which ranges high and low over the keyboard. form his op. with a soaring melody over a ceaseless accom- in semiquavers divided equally paniment of broken chords between the two hands. 104 (1836). The series of discordant on the main beats imparts to the whole intervals thus more produced a sinister The undertone: As a writer of studies. tests more of the resources in technique than do all player's He produced charming that the Mendelssohn's four studies put together.1 86 NINETEENTH-CENTURY PIANO MUSIC show at a glance the three (1839)5 tions of the species. This Etude. composers different concepMendelssohn's is a 'presto agitato in 5 5 common time. Liszt's single Etude de Perfectionnement. moto perpetuo type of study that reflect the composer's own fluent style as a pianist. likewise a moto perpetuo. are all examples of the facile. and every one of Chopin's is designed to give performers. musically and pianistically hand's pattern in quavers clashes with the left hand's foundation of broken chords in semiquavers. presto impetuoso'. Mendelssohn followed the resistance. and the first two of the three which. interesting c pianistic horizon. Of the Trois nouvelles Etudes that Chopin wrote for Moscheles. together with three Preludes. The third Etude of op. 104 in A minor. . line of least player give pieces or intricate to widen his practically nothing new. an opportunity of over- coming some particular kind of technical difficulty.

The third tude in in triple time. . It was then that. the last that Chopin wrote. the right hand maintains a continuous pulsation of chords in triplet quavers. the wellAllegretto in A flat major in duple time. after Chopin had settled in Paris. The first-fruits of this stimulating experience were The second set of Twelve Twelve Studies. In the second. 25 followed between 1832 and 1836. These particular technical problems. staccato. The made a profound impression upon violinist's feats of virtuosity him and inspired him to try to achieve parallel effects on the the keyboard. since it calls for the simultaneous blending of two kinds of touch in one hand throughout the whole piece. op. attains left-hand part. 10 (1829-31). is rhythmically straightforward. The Trois nouvelles Etudes. In the first in F minor.STUDIES. the upper being marked to be played legato and the lower. occasionally an independent melodic significance that emphasizes the flat. musical qualities engage than do the technical problems. however. op. as began compose a youth of nineteen. The left hand has its own difficulties in leaping wide distances. D Technically it is more exacting than the others. he heard Paganini play in Warsaw. Allegretto. the curving melody in the right hand runs in triplet crotchets against a left-hand accom- known The paniment in groups of four quavers. another prevailing rhythmic disparity. Throughout the Twenty-four Studies the composer maintained an even balance between satisfying inner structure. Studies. The right-hand part comprises a double line of notes. the figuration is intensified in an of a series of exciting passage composed stretches of ninths in the right hand combined with leaps that increase in width up to nearly two octaves in the left. an Andantino in common time. pale into which Chopin insignificance beside those treated in the studies to ten years earlier in 1829. are 'studies' in the their expressive the listener's attention far more closely truest sense of the word. At the culminating point. As performing pieces. proceeding steadily in duplets. AND PIECES FOR BEGINNERS 187 two are studies in conflicting rhythms.

no. where triplets of quavers in the right hand are pitted against triplets of crotchets in the left. Again. They include no. 3 in E major. ranging over and 22 in B minor respectively. 10. Figuration in opposing rhythms forms the F minor. the a piece of music that has given untold delight to players and In respect of form and listeners for more than a hundred tional and the artistic years. a Vivace assai in 12/8 time. In every study he treated a detail of performing-technique from both the funcresult in every case being standpoints. 6 in E flat minor are the only ones in even moderately slow tempo. few of the studies are architectural in character. or theme and are largely continuous. sixths. no. in major. 17 in E minor and 22 in B minor. no. 5 and no. the playing of thirds. All the others are quick. nos. minor. and no. they require extreme brilliance in performance. each with a central interlude in the tonic major differing in rhythm from that of the outer sections. which effect. Arpeggio-playing the span of the octave in both hands is exemplified in no. 14 in in no. and poetic atmosphere. 21 in G fiat major. they grow out of one figure Such are no. in C basis of no. i no. the 'Black Key Study. Some are organic. chords in both hands. but is nevertheless a magnificent study for the interpretation and phrasing of melodic lines concurrently in both hands.l88 NINETEENTH-CENTURY PIANO MUSIC surface brilliance. This study. known as the 'Butterfly Study. 19 in G sharp minor. and no. 24 in C minor. 5. a raging torrent of arpeggios. 3 in E clearly divided into balancing 24 in C A a major. 18 in G sharp minor. are dealt with in exhaustive and thrilling fashion in nos. 20 in D flat major. the twelve quavers in a in both hands are arranged in mutually differing schemes 5 . and octaves. Some of the more obvious problems of technique. no. 13 in succession of a style the studies are of several different kinds. they are sections. and over the span of the tenth in one hand only. 1 1 in E flat major. in which a placid accompanied melody gives way for time to agitated passage-work. 5 long arpeggiated A flatj consisting of a cantabile theme constantly renewed above a shimmering haze of uniform broken-chord accompaniment. is Of all the ternary in conception but nearly continuous in Twenty-four it is the least like a concert-study.

in each of which the principal melody-note or chord falls on the weaker half of the beat. known as the 'Revolutionary 5 . The independence of the left hand is cultivated in no. 5 A theme in the other hand. AND PIECES FOR BEGINNERS F major and no. 15 in studies in A minor are persistent syncopation. The perpetual legato accompaniment in semiquavers below a semi-staccato melody in the right hand not only involves the left hand in wide stretches but it to interpret a obliges melodic 'inner voice' of its own. is no. The lower strand of the two-fold right-hand part is arranged in pairs of repeated notes. chromaticisms play a prominent part in the passage-writing. no. In these four last-named studies. and Another study concerned with fifth under the third descending.. 16 in 189 of accentuation. 17 in E minor. The supreme left-hand study however. hand. has counterparts in the 'right-hand studies nos. in the contrapuntal . 15 in F major. This layout necessitates the use of the weaker fingers of A the right hand as well as the unorthodox crossing of the third of the fourth and finger over the fourth and fifth ascending. 12 in C minor. In no. 7 in C major. and to a opening lesser degree. a specialized problem of fingering is no. The chromatic scale as an in entity is treated in the most thorough and original fashion where it is combined with light chords in one no. In each case the virtuosic passages in semiquavers are merely the accompaniment to a chordal It . Studies in which the figuration is derived from a rhythmically distinctive unit include no. but it also shows many traces of Chopin's skill in designing a more contrapuntal kind of texture. the passage-work is divided fairly evenly between the two hands. the two notes of which are played alternately by the first finger and thumb. 2 in minor. character of the piano writing throughout the Twentyfour Studies is predominantly decorative. 9 in F minor. They may be found most particularly in the four-part The writing of the sprightly no. The upper strand is as jagged in outline as the lower strand is smooth. 15 in F major. 8 in F major. 23 in minor and no. 5 . but they assume overwhelming importance owing to their sheer technical brilliance.STUDIES. No. 4 in C sharp minor.

NINETEENTH-CENTURY PIANO MUSIC of no. had already written a Grande Fantaisie de Before appeared in 1832 bravour sur la Clochette (1831-2) basing theme from Paganini's later upon the Campanella Violin Concerto in B minor. the perown compositions. . influence of Paganini. Liszt. The other influenced the whole style of piano writing for many years to come. but it was neither so The direct nor so decisive as former of his was the impact of Paganini. (Actually. which he published in 1840 as Etudes d' execution transcendante d'apres Paganini and dedicated to Clara Schumann. modified his own style of compoself-imposed task. were respectively heard pieces fired with the idea of re-interpreting these dazzlingly brilliant out this In in terms of the carrying exacting keyboard. Schumann's two sets of Paganini transcriptions and 1833. who as young men in Frankfurt and Paris him play his Caprices for violin solo. added many cubits to his stature as a musician. 3 in E major harmony of the opening and closing sections and in the ardent melodic duologue of the nocturne-like no. at that time Schumann. good stead all his life. one of them sition. A few years it c 3 his own early piano studies in the of Paganini's virtuosic and issued them in 1839 as light style Grandes Etudes with a dedication to Czerny. as a performer. In translating to the keyboard a kind of music that needed considerable amplification in order his to make its full effect in the new medium. he set to work to transcribe six of Paganini's Caprices. The two composers. who had c 3 composed little of note beyond Abegg Variations and Papillons. only five are from the Caprices'. 3) is another version of the 'Campanella' theme). the sixth (no. upon Schumann and Liszt. upon Chopin as a writer of studies was highly stimulating. At about the same he re-wrote twelve of time. 19 in C sharp minor. he gained valuable experience in expressing his own musical ideas in vivid pianistic It was to stand him in style. who had early shown a marked predilection for writing fantasies on themes from works by other composers.

in tone-colour.STUDIES. musically extraordinarily interesting poser's ingenuity in spreading over the originally limited to the treble clef. With tionized the art of playing the piano. 3 (1832) Schu- mann aimed at making the transcriptions as literal as possible. op. but despite their great of them can also be difficulty many played with enjoyment by pianists of average ability who perform only in private. Liszt revolu-j these . supplied harmonies and complementary melodic parts whenever h^thought suitable and distributed the variety constantly changing its Thus he succeeded in making the studies sound like pieces of original piano music rather than arrangements. Liszt's Studies cannot be in public except for a new standard adequately performed j of the very highest attainments. The very look of them on by . Namely. AND PIECES FOR BEGINNERS IQI two publications. the printed page sight-readers. are exacting to play than the majority of Chopin's all Twenty-four or Liszt's Studies. instead. pitch to lend it Schumann had once thought of writing a Piano-School. both of which he revised^ and reissued respectively as Etudes d' execution tranextensively scendante and Grandes Etudes de Paganini in 1851. however. as In addition. Now. that they made too little use of other instruments and their peculiarities for the improvement and enrichment of their own'. they are examples of a com- whole keyboard material In the six Studies after Caprices by Paganini. . set he wrote a longish preface to his op. The following example from the sixth Study shows make the transcriptions. 3 and included a of excercises that he had composed with a view to smoothing difficulties out the technical that. He added such basses as he considered correct. violin part throughout the texture. although his interest in the relevant to each Study. may well strike terror to all but the boldest much less Schumann's Taganini' Studies. Chopin's Studies had set technical concert-performers. He stated music itself had incited him to it was also his intention to 'give solo an opportunity of removing a reproach often cast at players them. For the less expert pianists are they appallingly difficult to play.

3 in respect of its qualities as piano music. altering the structure of the Caprices when he considered the is musical result to be justified. is the most enterprising item of op. . In the second Concert d'apres set of six. 13 which Schumann was to compose a year later. while remaining basically true to its model. the any Schumann's apt transformations of characteristic violin passages into their nearest pianistic equivalents. Musicians who wish to into this go deeper fascinating subject can do so without difficulty by comparing Schumann's versions with Paganini's easily each of these two pieces the accentuation falls persistently on weak division of the beat (see example on next page) It is not more of possible in these pages to exemplify . 3. which Schumann de entitled Etudes de des Caprices Paganini. op. Much of it points style forward to the assured pianistic of the Etudes symphoniques. The following bars from the fourth Etude (Paganini's fourth Caprice) show a typically Schumannesque piece of contrapuntal figuration foreshadowing that of the fifth variation of the Etudes symphoniques and of the thumbnail sketch Taganini' in CarnavaL fin. 10. he treated some of the given material with greater freedom than previously.> op. The piano writing of this whole set far more elaborate than that of op.192 NINETEENTH-CENTURY PIANO MUSIC from six- a single-line passage Paganini's into a stretch of interesting piano writing that teenth Caprice his gift for turning preserves both the Presto letter and the spirit of the original : Pftg&riim This sixth Study.

writing is major. AND PIECES FOR BEGINNERS P&ganini 193 dim. is given at the end of this book. were discussed in the chapter on Variations. to their essentially pianistic presentation. op. In his capacity as a superlatively fine executant he had Paganini are based on a closer affinity with the phenomenally brilliant violinist than had the introspective Schumann. Schumann gave the preference to the musical Caprices that qualities of the pieces. 7. op.STUDIES. as &ri Etude fantastique in D major. a bravura concert-study in significant c 5 sonata form. A comparison between them shows the difference in the musical outlook of the two composers. whose performing technique was extremely limited. which are both based on Paganini's ninth Caprice. a year before the Abegg Variations. Schumann's most important studies. known as La Chasse. but subsequently altered it He wrote both the key and the as title. Liszt's Grandes Etudes de Schumann had already transcribed.. i. Liszt's fifth Etude in E major. Another well- Paganini's Caprices known but much the Toccata in less C example of his study. 2. no. 3. For the Caprices. example of his fondness for Varying' his The Toccata affords yet another own compositions such his we noted much Only two of earlier in connexion with remodelling of songs as sonata movements. op. reveal the respective composers' . purpose of identia table the relationship between the showing numbering of both Schumann's and Liszt's transcriptions and that of fication. Liszt. If S S if available Twenty-four i. the Etudes symphoniques. and Schumann's op.

the chordal figuration is dissolved constituent notes. Schumann a prosaic left-hand accompaniment to Paganini's light supplied Liszt left them as they are to make passages in double-stopping. In the second in to Liszt's E flat major. The hypnotic effect of the demisemiquaver tremolandos is offset by an introduction and a true postlude of rushing scales and arpeggios which Liszt. with acumen. Liszt. But Schumann's lightly arpeggiated chords catch the style of Pagafar more accurately than effects in nini's treble-stopping bowing does Liszt's melodic line which is placed in the resonant lowerwith chords above and below. sensitivity secured afmore arresting if unthrowing caution to the winds. of the middle Caprice in G minor retains tremolandos in various parts of the texture. Schumann either doubled the volatile runs heavily at the distance of two octaves below. artistic A The remaining four of Liszt's Taganini' Studies display the virtuoso in his element. 10. repeated chords in triplets Liszt's version of Paganini's sixth compass keyboard During the middle into its section. The third Study in B minor. detached from Paganini's fifth Caprice in minor and transposed into G minor for this purpose. // Lamento\ the passages are converted into miniature cadenzas later violinist's scale and light chords.NINETEENTH-CENTURY PIANO MUSIC to the finer points of keyboard style. out-distances(all the others in the width of the stretches and leaps. In the never-ceasing Schumann's op. no. or turned them into passages of sixths. conventional effect with successions of double giissandos. based on the Campanella' theme. re-interpreting the sometimes exiguous violin figuration in terms of luxuriant piano music. sixths c the decorative passages and the unparalleled use highest octave of the piano. but Liszt's is more romantic in tone-colour. The fourth in E major made is of the written on . but divided them between the two hands to reproduce their distinctive accentuation. 2 they are transformed into groups of with an added melodic counterpoint. Schumann's version thus avoids monotony of sound and fatigue in performance. their own magical effect. the persistent intricacy of in thirds. Paganini's improvisatory opening bars take on an elaborate character similar to that of the introduction much Concert-study in A flat.

beneath which he finally re-introduced the distinctive final unit of Paganini's theme to thunder out battle-cry. Paganini's double. is a distinguishing feature of most of his studies.or treble-stoppings he translated into their nearest effective equivalents.. AND PIECES FOR BEGINNERS 195 only one stave throughout and looks deceptively easy. as we have already seen. nini' Variations. finding effective means of amplifying it. In the first variation he added the theme itself contrapuntal foundation below Paganini's high-pitched arpeggios.STUDIES. He seldom developed his material rhythmically in the Beethovenian manner. Yet it requires the utmost precision in fingering if the player's freother's quently crossing and overlapping hands are not to impede each freedom of action. In the second variation he scattered the groups of four in the left hand as a semiquavers at random over the lower regions of the keyboard and in the fifth he devised an antiphonal interplay between the two hands to correspond to the violinist's alternations of high and low pitch. nor did he let it grow organically from the initial figure as did Chopin in the majority of his studies. When transferring this sparse material to the Liszt was never at a loss in piano. Liszt chose Paganini's twentya set of variations upon the theme that Brahms subsequently used as the basis of his two sets of TagaIn seven of the variations the violin part runs in single lines or octaves. often created an entire study out of a single well- . either j note-for-note or in a succession of hardly-concealed disguises. In the third. he superimposed it upon the bass. Chopin. He let the scales in thirds or tenths in the sixth variation blossom into passages in enhanced octaves running in contrary motion to scales in thirds. last itself Study. In the eighth he released the treble-stopped chords from their captivity of slurs and ties to prance in light staccato. For the sixth and fourth Caprice. Ii/the variation he obliterated the crisp broken chords and nimble arpeggios of the original in a whirlwind of passagewriting. its indomitable six-note This tendency of Liszt's to restate a theme or figure.

His concert-studies The fact that many of them have are essentially concert-pieces. * * # is * also Persistently chromatic figuration an essential feature . rhetorical cadenzas. La Leggierezza (Lightness).lg6 NINETEENTH-CENTURY PIANO MUSIC of keys. cannot escape being punctuated by the distinctive descending figure of the principal phrase. Although in it begins and ends nominally the flexible principal theme adapts itself so easily to harmonization in either the major or the minor that the moda- F minor. in Gnomenreigen (Dance of the gnomes). is the very apotheosis of chromaticism. The second Study. The theme of the sists of two phrases. In ally a set of free continuous variations first upon a strongly (// marked theme. never letting defined thematic unit which he steered through a whole circle it deviate from the figuration he had technical purpose. Waldesrauschen (Forest murmurs) one long accompanied melody which passes from the left hand is to the right. lity of the whole remains enchantingly indeterminate. but even there. Liszt took a fragment it to endless restatement with changing designed for one specific of melody and submitted styles of accompanying passages that require several kinds of touch and technique within a page or two. in the style of programme or descriptive music suggests that Liszt was more deeply interested in their tude de artistic than in their educative value. The . until the The Lamento] conStudy second of these does not come into its in it A flat own middle section. which sparkles gaily of two strongly free rondo form. each of which is virtu. it contains not a single bar without accidentals. It worked in canon for a time and its is only occasionally interrupted by predominantly melodic character it recalls Un sospiro (A sigh) the third of Liszt's Three Concert-Studies (1849). The Perfectionnetitles and are composed ment that he wrote for Moscheles was renamed Ab it reigen when its expressive style rage) in accordance with ten years later. comprises alternating panels inclusion in(jLebert is contrasted types of figuration.tone-pictures Waldesrauschen and Gnomenwere his fanciful response to a request for studies for and Stark's (In a he re-wrote irato Piano-Method.

their bold themes in progressively sets of continuous variations. Vision. Chasse neige (Snow plough). 12. Feu appropriate musical significance follets Lantern).writer but as a composer/ of toneThe first. musically the most interesting of all the composer's works in the category under discussion. Each is written in a more or less uniform pattern of notes and none bears a descriptive title. Pay sage (Landscape). The poser's other nine studies make the impression that the comto give chief aim was the creation of poetic atmosphere o' to their respective titles. The molto vivace. no. a blizzard of swirling demito and fro makes its (Jack way through semiquavers. This collection of twelve studies. no.STUDIES. is nothing but a flourish o:Tchords 6 and arpeggios covering the whole compass of the keyboard. the of the others but they offer perplexities speed and the violence of their own in the form of prolonged passages involving stretches of ninths and tenths in either or both hands. comthe final. no. Mazeppa 6 and Eroica. ii character. although the Study in F *** has come to be known as 'Appasminor. consists of a and a whirling rhythmic figure of repeated notes in quavers of detached semiquavers which eventually accompaniment staccato chords. They represent many aspects of Liszt's style. and are immeasurably quieter and more melodic in ies). 4. poems. is an intricate chromaticisms. is lambent with flickering Wilde Jagd (Furious chase). 7 present more ornate varieties of figuration and are virtually no. 10 in F minor. which is headed sionata'. no. no. Ricordanza Harmonies du soir (Evening Harmon(Recollection). mesh of cross-beat rhythms. no. definitive version of his Grandes Etudes mentioned prises earlier in this chapter. no. The restful Paysagefis the only one that can be played by an perhaps with hardly a thought of insuperable problems average pianist . 8. 9. They avoid the fiercest technical difficulties. not only as a study. 3. AND PIECES FOR BEGINNERS IQ7 of the majority of Liszt's Etudes d* execution transcendante. (the Cossack patriot). A heavy the much longer no. These two items and unite in a coda of second. 5. no. Preludio. a capriccio' in minor. 'allegro agitato molto are 5 studies according to the generally accepted meaning of the term.

in the second. His Five Studies are arrangements or other composers which amplifications of well-known pieces by a view to their use for advanced technical purhe made with He transformed the poses rather than for concert performance. he arranged Bach's Chaconne in violin as a study for the left hand alone. It is for-note transcription. In other words. but with unalloyed enjoyment of the musical content: the blending of two complementary themes into an indivisible whole. instead of below supplying the thematic substance.ig8 NINETEENTH-CENTURY PIANO MUSIC in performing-technique. He moto perpetuo' of Weber's Sonata in C major by transferring almost the whole of the brilliant right-hand part to the left hand and leaving the right hand little to do beyond the relevant harmonic basis above. . which not only gives the pianist experience in executing many different kinds of passage. F minor. he placed the given material at its correct playing. but affords him a magnificent opportunity of becoming closely acquainted with one of the masterpieces of violin literature. with the left hand. he gave it to the left hand an octave lower and wrote a fresh counterpoint above for the right hand. he turned this whole reconstituted the c movement upside down for the benefit of the first player's left hand. pitch in the right-hand part and wrote a counterpoint below for the left hand. In writing less intellectual studies Brahms followed Liszt's example as a transcriber. which 'Studies'. he himself styled as being but which the musical world considers among the finest sets of variations ever written. Brahms's contribution to the piano study was very different from that of the preceding generation of composers. 2 into a succession of much less mobile sixths and thirds. flowing right-hand part of Chopin's Study in no. D minor for solo an almost notean octave below the original pitch. op. The post- humous influence of Paganini's virtuoso style upon his own is manifest in the two colossal sets of Taganini' Variations. 25. He employed the Presto of Bach's Sonata in G minor(for violin solo as the foundation of a pair of studies in two-part In the first.

whether or no works. 25. b and c. These Fifty-one Exercises. 46. They most utilitarian kind. 4. of the fingers byf tethering designed to promote independence one or more of them to a long-sustained note or notes while the others perform all manner of convolutions in shorter notes (nos. 43. op. such as the changing of the fourth and fifth fingers at the top of one chord to the second finger or thumb at the bottom of the next without any audible break in sound are exemplified in nos. have to cross and recross the fingers perpetually Other ingenuities in fingering. 22. Nevertheless. a and b.STUDIES. 73 (1905). a. they cover every type of fingering sitions and touch likely to be found in Brahms's piano compoand they are invaluable to all pianists. 39. own. and imitates the style of that composer's studies so Grieg made only 3 Chopin leave hardly a trace of Grieg's closely as to undisguisable. AND PIECES FOR BEGINNERS (Ubungen) that Brahms wrote for the The Fifty-one Exercises purpose of developing the individual style of technique requisite devoid of musical for performing his own works. are completely are simply mechanical finger-exercises of the qualities. the Variations and the Five Studies comprise a 'Brahms Taganini' Piano-Method' in everything but name. idiom. of this kind 10-19. a and b. 44. 9. generally in- by side with the intensive production of concert-studies . The supreme examples of digital acrobatics are nos. or to the execution of two. It bears the sub-title 'Hommage a 5 of his Moods. 32. In these. b. 23. the free static thumb. # # # i^# a single addition to this branch of composition in the form of a Study in F minor which he included as no. to white. i and 18). of nos. The passing of the fourth finger over the fifth during ascending passages is the and the sliding of fingers from black notes subject of no. 28. three or even four different metrical patterns jointly Others are by the two hands (nos. they specialize in playing the composer's Some of the exercises pay special attention to the combining of two varieties of touch in one hand (nos. and 43). 43 and 45).

As the title denotes. in C major.' as well as the rondo of the F major Sonatina are written in the same ingenuous style as the earliest pieces in the composer's Bagatelles which we shall study as a whole collection in the next chapter. dementi's and Beethoven's classical sonatinas. many examples of which were written during the nine- One 5 teenth century. Beethoven's three. Four of the others are in simple binary form and the second movement of the F major is a rondo. and of observing its relationship in style to some of it possesses the their large-scale production. Here. usually light in texture and easy to play. also exert an irresistible fascination over adult minds. The sonatinas written of our by the period include twelve by composers prescribed dementi and three each by Beethoven and Schumann. though written primarily for children.200 to satisfy NINETEENTH-CENTURY PIANO MUS1G advanced performers' requirements for musical with which to perfect their technique and to win material a whole literature of simple triumphs in the concert-room. This simple music also serves purposes other than those for which it was originally intended: the training of young fingers minds to musical forms. Only one of all the six movements is in sonata form: the Allegro of the G major Sonatina. it is a small-scale sonata. Many composers is of and the music thus many types and making produced we must confine our attention to that written styles. small-scale music came into being to meet the humbler needs of took part in its beginners and young players. were composed during the 17903. in use at the present by the better-known composers and still day. Moderate and 'Romance. of the most conventional types of teaching piece is the sonatina. same magic quality as do certain kinds of fairy tales which. The two little movements of the Sonatina in G major. It affords of and the accustoming young musicians an opportunity of studying the respective composers' work in miniature. they . G major and F major not to be confused with the three small-scale 'Bonn' Sonatas which he wrote at the age of thirteen are each in two movements. the most enduring of their species. Simple as are the Sonatinas as a group. Moreover.

In every one of the twelve sonatinas the central is in sonata form. 49. although they are not actually entitled sonatinas. un poco adagio'. most especially in the first Sonatina. i 2 (1796) and the Sonata in G major. 36. the longest and the most sonata-like of the three. 38. sisting sonatinas Intermediate in period and in style between these classical and Schumann's more expansive Sonatas for Young People (1853) are Mendelssohn's Six Children's Pieces. 5) piano writing recall the mercurial finales of some of the Haydn sonatas. 3 con- of sixteen bars in sparse two-part writing. nos. 37.STUDIES. 2. pieces in ternary form. pertain to that small-scale class. Entirely opposite in expressive character are the medic tative slow movement. are more diversified in structure and in the style of the piano writing than Beethoven's. The second and fourth. no. Clementi's twelve sonatinas. 37. originally published as Sonate facile. no. 36. a minuet-and-trio (op. 36. no. a pair of melodically expressive Andantes in E flat major and are similar in character to the best-known type of the . These slender compositions found successors in three of Beethoven's Thirty-two sonatas. and the central the uniform Allegretto of op. which. nos. all in major keys. D major. AND PIECES FOR BEGINNERS 201 are typically Beethovenian both in their direct manner of stating the subject-matter and in the expansive method of treating it. i). no. no. 72. a tempo di minuetto' (op. no. and a longish sonata-form Presto (op. 1-3 and op. 2). 36. nos. 1-3) are in two movements only. but the in design and style. 79 (1809) major. 36. 38. nos. a picturesque first movement movements and finales little based on a repetitive six-bar phrase that simulates yodelling. op. op. op. the remainder (op. 1-5) are each in three movements. The first five (op. minor and They are the pair of two-movement Sonatas in G G and which was op. They vary include rondos. written They were and are when the composer was in England in 1842 also known as 'Christmas Pieces'. 6. of op. throughout whose length dotted rhythm seems to denote the measured steps of a dance. i) whose buoyancy of spirit and nimble Air suisse (op. c 37. no.

and dedi5 Schumann 'sonatinas'. c . descriptive titles. respect they Indeed. crisply The vivacious no. are genuinely romantic in type and expression and are progressively more elaborate in keyboard style. sohnian scherzos sparkling with fun. No. No. The three Sonatas of his op. the contest ends with a narrow victory for the latter. But although the left hand secures this temporary advantage over the right hand. cated to his three eldest daughters respectively. The opening phrase of the piece is turned upside down and the melody on thus being translated to a more sonorous pitch gains in forcefulness of expression. In this combine attributes of the sonata and the suite. so many changes in Although frequently repeated. Unlike the two others it includes no movement in sonata form but is made up of a tuneful Allegro. the longest of all and the most enterprising in construction and in pianistic style. They are all composed in four the last two of which bear movements. . 5 in G minor is a rondo in which both episodes are composed of the same different keys. the to play. which every now and again reverse their positions with the aid of double counterpoint. first in G major. of the treble and is distinguished by the extreme independence bass parts. The with a jaunty tune that insists on being accented on the weakest G The other three pieces are typically Mendelspart of the bar. it undergoes melodic or harmonic details that it never loses its original freshness. 118. is based on a short rhythmic theme. the simplest in style and the easiest was originally planned by Schumann as Kinderscenen' (Scenes of childhood). 6 in staccato material presented in F major. It is a battle of wits between the two hands. 3. which were written for. who celebrates it with a tiny mocking arpeggio. These tactics prove most effective at the beginning of the recapitulation (bar 40). did not name his compositions in this category but 'Sonatas for Young People as distinguished from the three 'Grand Sonatas' he composed in his prime. a compact little Allegretto in G major.202 NINETEENTH-CENTURY PIANO MUSIC first is a brisk Allegro in major Songs without Words.

2O3 arid a final a Theme and Variations. 'The Poor Orphan Child'. no. alla marcia'. Into this movement in 6/8 time Schumann inserted quotations in 2/4 time from the Allegro of the first Sonata. op. 'for more advanced players'. it is the most difficult lishes a slightly exotic atmosphere which is. 16. AND PIECES FOR BEGINNERS Slumber Song'. completely the artless 'allegretto con tenerezza' of 'A Child's dispelled by Dream' which forms the Finale. the others are no. 12. 'The Horseman'. 32. 2 is less conventional. The opening and closing movements of the second and third Sonatas in D major and C major respectively are in sonata form. Yet even in the simplest pieces Schumann could not forbear 5 . 6. 38-39. 23. 'Evening Song'. is robust. The second movement of a strict but lively two-part accompanied canon at the and the third. 'Winter Time'. and the 'andante espressivo' which follows is pensive after the manner of Schumann's most reflective piano From the aspect of movement among the interpretation twelve. a 'Doll's 'Rondoletto'. the remaining twenty-five. however. 'Santa Glaus'. The third movement. no. melodic writing. as if to symbolize the affinity in between the children to whom he dedicated them. 'First Sorrow. and More- endear them to struggling players. The first. and is almost as intricate in texture. and 'Sheherazade'. estabstrong accents pieces. Such are Schumann's 'The Stranger'. over. no. no. is appropriately a babble of semiquaver figuration. 29. The movements of the third c Sonata depict strongly contrasted moods. 68 (1848) are more genuinely suitable for the beginner. all the pieces are short. a quick Bohemian Dance with and many repetitions of two-bar phrases. to name a few. spirit existing The piano writing of Schumann's second and third Sonatas indicates the fairly high standard of performing-technique already attained by the youthful players for whom they were composed. All but a few bear descriptive titles to The first eighteen are specified as 'for the young'. a piece of continuous octave. 'Children's Party'. The Finale. nos. Some of the forty-three items in the Album for the Toung.. and many possess the which we shall rediscover in Tchaikovsky's 'fairy-tale' quality Albumfor the Young (1878). no.STUDIES. no.

12. no. No. no. 34. He also Varied' no. Each is made up of a series of short repetitions of a little figure which is nearly as plaintive in character as is that of the ever-questioning Warum (Why). In minor in the right hand is straightway in the opening phrase in F major in the left. plain chords of the original. original chordal accompaniment. Thirty years later Tchaikovsky wrote the twenty-four pieces of his Album for the Toung. may be his . Gade. no. Among the movements most typical of the composer's introspective style are Theme'. no. 27 is a 'Song in Canon'. by re-writing it as 'Figured Chorale' in no. Schumann used the four-note theme Q In modo populare E GAPE GAD denoting the name of the Danish composer. 8. 41. as the basis of miniature Variations' in which he placed the theme alternately in the treble and the bass. 4. as a relaxation after he had composed opera Eugene Onegin. 9. no. 42. I'. with 'Morning Prayer' and 'In Church'. op. In 'Northern of Song: greeting to G* 5 . the melody of the doloroso section is later concealed within the 5 left-hand part of the final phrase. That the Album begins and ends on a serious note. 16 and Theme'. no. 34 and 'Chorale' in G F 'Winter time. with a flowing accompaniment instead of the major.204 NINETEENTH-CENTURY PIANO MUSIC Wild Rider . below instead of above the The 5 A presented In Tittle Folk-song . no. and a (three-part) Fugue. no. 38. Canonic imitations occur between the upper and lower parts of 'First Sorrow'. throughout which the canon is treated so skilfully that it never attracts undue attention. 40 is a 'Little Prelude' enlivened by double counterpoint. 39 under similar circumstances. major. Schumann wrote the whole of the Album for the Young in sixteen days as a recreation after the exhausting process of composing his opera Genoveva. and no. to Introduce contrapuntal devices. 3 of the Fantasiestucke op.

11. no. Tolka'. are more graphically 'fairy-tale' pieces 'Winter Morning'. 'Song of the Lark'.STUDIES. 5. AND PIECES FOR BEGINNERS 2O5 the outcome of his having been engaged at the same time upon the writing of a musical setting of the Liturgy. 2. narrates a not unduly alarming story but passes through a period of acute suspense. depicts in ever-precise. no. The titles and character of several items denote a more international outlook than Schumann's. no. 12. are little pieces is that they in effect despite the extreme squareness of undeniably poetic their rhythmic schemes. and the tune of 'The Organ-grinder'. numbing cold with its detached pairs of quiet slurred chords. 16. 'Nursery Tale'. no. 22. and 'Neapolitan Dance-tune'. 14. no. lends an agreeably primitive character. is one that Tchaikovsky heard performed by a street-singer in Florence. no. 10. except the two which depict the illness and funeral of a doll (nos. 17. and 'Russian Song'. no. no. in short spells of ascending chromatic thirds. 19. 23. throughout which the grouping of the tune into units of six beats. evokes the enchantment of spring in wide open spaces. filled with ecstatic trilling above a restful chordal foundation. no. each containing a recurrent three-note it figure. The distinctively Russian items include 'Peasant's Song'. The other pieces in the Album are predominantly gay in mood. 'Folksong: Russian dance'. and 'Soldiers' March'. no. no. The 'Mazurka'. 'German Song'. no. 'Old French Song'. all conjure up the salient features of their respective national styles. creates a sensation of descriptive. 'Italian Air'. no. 20. no. portrays Baba Yaga chasing her The imaginative quarry in determined staccato up and down the keyboard. muttering terrifying sforzando imprecations. which is written in the lively style of a trepak. 13. Every one of them runs in strips of four A remarkable feature of these or eight bars. intense. while a bell tolls relentlessly on middle C and the left hand writhes. no. light staccato texture the approaching and receding steps of a regiment of midget soldiers. 15. agonized. 18. 6 and 7). in which the alternate tonic and dominant chords represent the sounds of a harmonica. a method of construction that also underlies two . 'The Witch'.

three and four bars. The New Doll'. the Young (1878) long before the Symphonies in E minor (1888) and B minor composing (Tathetique ) (1893) and the 'Nutcracker Suite (1892). The little pieces in question were composed originally for the harmonium in response to a request made by a former pupil for advice on his work as a village organist and for musical examples in connexion therewith. A relationship of the same kind exists between some of Cesar Franck's short pieces for the keyboard and his best-known chamber. limit but breaks are expressed in a melody that never exceeds the eight-bar up in sheer rapture into one-bar units while the waltz-like accompaniment beats on imperturbably. The twelve-bar 'In Church falls opening phrase of the incense-shrouded into sub-divisions of five. and then descends in a fine chain of twittering sounds.206 others. In 'Song of the Lark'. In this instance. NINETEENTH-CENTURY PIANO MUSIC 3. gallops through seventytwo bars of never-ceasing quavers without once drawing rein. and the unyielding symsix-bar phrase prolonged by 3 3 metry of Sweet Memories'. and piano compositions. Rhythmic subtleties are not entirely lacking. orchestral. no. Franck wrote a number of movements for this purpose between 1858 and 1865 and a further series of . large-scale works. the climax. but 3 3 Tchaikovsky wrote the Album for the thumbnail sketches for piano have many points in common with the full-length orchestral works which can hardly escape the notice of musicians already familiar with them. awakens admiration and delight which . no. the miniatures were written both before and after the however. The Little Horseman 3 no. is twice softened by the overlapping of two melodic lines in canonic imitation. which begins off the main beat. scattering its song to the winds. two four-bar phrases coalesce as the lark ascends. the fitting of the duple-rhythmed melody into bars in triple time causes metrical c At displacements that increase the prevailing sense of urgency. 21. the naturally is modified by the insertion of a square rhythm of 'Mazurka a pause. 9.

Other representative features throughout the volume are sudden changes from with many sharps or fiats major to minor. fifth or sixth in the melodic outline. and the pivoting of a melody upon one note. traits of the composer's general musical Of the sixteen little movements. 9. AND PIECES FOR BEGINNERS 207 a year of his fifty-nine within death in 1890. From these two sixteen items were selected for publication as piano collections. a trait exemplified in the main themes of the the Symphonic Variations (1885) and in the fugue-subject of Chorale and Fugue. such as occurs in the slow movement and the Finale of the Symphony in D minor: as in 1 886-8). Aria and Finale. of a fourth. Although none of the individual pieces value to the practising pianist. together with two rather longer pieces originally comis posed for the piano. 14 and 16 may be considered as displaying the greatest number of typically Franckian 'fingerprints'. the artistically of any great volume forms an instructive preparation to the study of Franck's fascination as an antholonger piano works. It possesses greater logy of distinguishing style. and the use of falling intervals Prelude. nos. the choice of keys and the working of thematic material in a series of chromatic sequences. 12. music. 13.STUDIES. ( the oft-repeated theme in the first movement: Allegro nou troppo sostemito The opening of a phrase with short figures before it becomes more continuous. a characteristic of the themes of the Prelude. These include the tying of a melodynote from a weaker to a stronger beat. .

Musically. composition . 'piece for beginners'. a little piece in E major. may be accounted a genuine lente. written throughout in canon at the octave. which is more was composed in the same year as pianistic style. The former. the Symphonic Variations (1885) and is itself in variation form other. Danse The advanced in of the very simplest kind. a type of we shall study in the following chapter. (1865) in sparse two-part writing. i pieces composed originally the artless Lesplaintes d'unepoupee (The doll's complaint) 10). 7 and 1 7. bears a distinct thematic likeness to the for violin last movement of his well-known Sonata and piano (1886).208 NINETEENTH-CENTURY PIANO MUSIC Franck's partiality for writing in canon is exhibited in nos. Of the two and for the piano (nos. it is a miniature.

pieces and nature-studies by the late seventeenth-century and early eighteenth-century clavecinistes were its ancestors. and programme music. Fantasy piece. This type of small-scale composition had flourished from early times. Characteristic Pieces. musical. Miniature pieces of des- Song without criptive. Tomasek's Eclogues and Dithyrambs started to appear in 1810 and Schubert's Moments musicaux in 1823.10 Miniatures Early history and types of miniature. After the sonata and allied forms had become established during the many different kinds later eighteenth century the composition of short pieces had declined. Intermezzo. long before large-scale forms had been evolved. impressionistic. Preludes. who were largely responsible for restoring the miniature to favour. began his long series of these little movements in 1 802 . Moment Album Leaf. Capriccio. Romance. whose genius lay in the direction of expressing the essentials of a poem or a painting and of creating a definite atmosphere within the space of a few bars or a page of music. who had written two Bagatelles in 1797. Mendelssohn. . Suites. Schumann. But it was the romantic composers. piece. educational pieces we examined in the previous chapter constitute only a small proportion of the immense number of miniatures which were written by all the composers I HE little of the period from Beethoven to Grieg and which go to form one of the largest categories of nineteenth-century piano music. Humoresque. The of short pieces by the Elizabethan virginal and the delicate character-sketches. Characteristic Eclogue. Words. With their respective Songs without Words. The Bagatelle. descriptive composers. In the opening years of the nineteenth century it was revived. Chopin. Beethoven. Prelude. and Consolations.

or a Toetic tone-picture by Grieg. but the great majority are symmetrical however fantastic they may be in mood. neither does an 'Album Leaf by Tchaikovsky from a Bagatelle by Beethoven. The two classes inevitably overlap now and then. or sets of their tiny size. is without interruption down The whole collection of this small-scale music distinguished by great diversity in the type of the individual pieces.. descriptive. and those whose specific them within the sphere of programme descriptive bring music. the strong family likeness that them makes any musical rigid classification between impossible. In point of expressive style they display the same tendencies as do the large-scale compositions of the same period. and although they can be arranged into groups according to their nomenclature. are either abstract. non-committal titles series. several of Grieg's books of Lyric Pieces and Borodin's Petite Suite are compositions of this heterogeneous type. for with generic. a Prelude by Chopin. A Moment exists by Schubert does not differ fundamentally in character from an Intermezzo by Brahms or a Romance by Schumann. Notwithstanding texture current during the cenevery kind of musical form and from the strictly classical to the unrestrainedly tury. they exemplify nearly pieces. Each . pieces of both kinds were sometimes included within a single Schumann's Album Leaves. the earliest miniatures published after 1800 are Preludes by Beethoven which he improvisatory Among two 1789 at the age of nineteen composed in but did not publish until 1803. But the small dimensions which invest 5 them with their distinctive and intimate aura entitle them to consideration as a category apart. or even in design improvisatory. They blend classical They balance with romantic feeling in their own inimitable way. As far as their formal structure is concerned the miniatures might well have been included in the chapters dealing with their respective large-scale relatives. They range romantic. In the present chapter they will be sorted as far as possible into two main classes: those titles.210 NINETEENTH-CENTURY PIANO MUSIC Liszt set and an example to composers which has been followed to the present day. impressionistic.

On the other hand. Bagatelles vary in length from sixteen or bars to three or four pages. although little more than half the length of the first. 3 in E flat. One of the most mature. The divided into four groups: the two early Bagatelles. who included a sitions for the clavecin first short rondeau entitled Les Bagatelles in his second book of compoin 1716. the eleven of op. 33 (1802). is as serene in mood as the adagio sostenuto' of the 'Hammerklavier' Sonata. 119 (1820-2) and the six of op. The second. are curiosities. op. is a treasured possession of pianists of all grades. Beethoven's principal contribution to the category of miniatures. 126. In emotional intensity they twenty are comparable with movements from the composer's longer The Beethoven works. well known in recent years from its inclusion in the Myra Hess Album. goes through the modulatory procedure twice over. It even resembles this movement in the rec distribution of the melody among the weaker parts of the beat: . Not only does it number among its twenty-six items several which are suitable in calibre for the inclusion in recital programmes.MINIATURES 211 flat of these pieces passes through the whole cycle of the sharp and in the major mode keys beginning and ending in C. no. As a whole collection it may be considered a microcosm of Beethoven's art as a composer for the piano. no. 126 (1823). It represents many phases of his creative career from the time he composed the Piano Concerto. and another in F minor composed even earlier. The use of the title back at 'Bagatelle' (a trifle) for least as far as to Fran$ois a single piece dates Couperin. Beethoven was the to apply the title to published a whole series of pieces of various kinds. The music this sometimes remains in the same tonality for only one bar during rapid transit from key to key. i in C major in 1797 down to the year in which he wrote the Diabelli Variations series is c 5 and completed the Ninth Symphony (1823). the series of Bagatelles which he wrote at intervals during space of about twenty-five years. of interest to the historian rather than to the performer. These two Preludes. the seven of op.

the variation of the main theme is straightforward A D subtle. 5 of the same opus. their cantabile melodies lend themselves readily to decoration when they are restated. is one of several that purely exemplify Beethoven's technique of variation. no. etherealized version of the opening statement. In 119. In no. 33. Relentless in furious energy and unflagging rhythm. Similarity in and conventional. Others that do so more The latter.212 NINETEENTH-CENTURY PIANO MUSIC Andante cantabile e grazioso At the other extreme is the Presto in its B minor and major. which expansively are predominantly melodic in interest. nos. 33. The reprise of op. it makes the impression of being an offshoot of the Scherzo of the Ninth Symphony. 4. treated so freely. op. i others is it is more in G . op. is consists largely of chords and arpeggios and instrumental in type. Rhythmic interest is also para- mount in the Scherzo-and-Trio the explosive Presto in in C A flat. with the melody major divided between the two hands. no. the reprise is merely a contracted. 4 and 6. In the Bagatelles in major and major. major. 7. op. 2 and in op. that it is not easily recognizable. no. 1265 no. 33.

The mysterious character of this 'andante amabile con moto' is emphasized by the phrase of tonic and dominant harmonies marked presto which opens and closes the movement with headlong violence and is responsible for the general title in type are the Bagatelles in minor. op. at the age of twenty wrote a set of seven Bagatelles and (1844) as one of his earliest compositions. 2. each G major. 9 and 10. It contains a sudden. andante con moto' in C major. 6. 8. op. which figure. 'moderate cantabile'. low trill. 8. 2. op. no. in the key of A flat. and the tiny coda made of fresh material increases the an feeling that the piece is simply extemporization. delicate and witty colloquy between an imperturbable cantabile melody and a rippling accompaniment. gathers opens momentum until it ends feverishly in a spin of high demisemiquavers over a long. is a supremely opposition. Op. The principal thematic material. no. 5. Presto. no. unprepared modulation from the major chord on G to a plain octave B flat. 2. no. 7 in leisurely fashion in crotchets and quavers. 119. 126. 1 i. 119. 1 19. No. In size . Among who Impromptus the few other composers of Bagatelles was Smetana. 126. Two of them display characterimutual stics of Beethoven's expressive style which stand in No. after having first been presented in the key of E flat major. a harmonic progression comparable in its magical effect to the that on unforgettable transition from the major chord of D to B during the opening sentence of the composer's Fourth Piano c Concerto in G major. also in C major. repeated by inference rather than by direct restatement. Strongly individual op. no. 119. is one of the shortest and most intimate in expression. Five Bagatelles of op.MINIATURES 2 13 rhythm is the only link between the first and last phrases of the Bagatelle in B flat. 6 and in G an improvisation unified by a characteristic metrical in C major. nos. Still more irregular is the curious Bagatelle in is E flat. resemble some of Chopin's shorter preludes in being composed throughout in one style of figuration.

an vivace' in 'allegro lively rhythmic patterns. are remarkable among Schubert's piano being little melodic in character. The first Moment musical in C major. dances which will be discussed in the next between c. is their tempo-indications. appeared in the next year's issue of the Album musical under the flat fi inappropriate title of Les Plaintes d'un Troubadour'. the six Moments musicaux composed 1827 are th e most important and the best known. contains a typically Schubertian solos in song-melody in the interlude. The third in F minor is com- A posed in a series of strips. 1823 and chapter. one Vienna set. a deeply expressive Andante in in free rondo form. a mo to perpetuo of semiquavers except in the interlude and coda.214 NINETEENTH-CENTURY PIANO MUSIC and scope the individual pieces are not unlike Beethoven's. and no. was first published as 'Air russe' in an Album musical containing pieces by various composers including Rossini. Of the small his number apart from many of short pieces written by Schubert. Each bears a descriptive title and the style of the piano writing is mainly impressionistic. Despite the fanciful title. but harmonically more sensuous. No. The sixth Moment musical in of the best known of the in 1823 in A major. distinguish many A tiny piece by Schubert. an 'Album Leaf in G major com- . a minuet-and-trio of the type familiar in the composer's Sonata in E flat. but in character they are different. and was reprinted in a London almanac in 1831 as 'Russian Air'. the Moments musicaux are as abstract in style as are a few much less well-known pieces which he gave no names beyond musical) The second Moment flat major. however. This animated little movement. which Schubert was the first to employ and which has been to little used by later composers. all except one of which begin with a few bars over a pedal-bass. The outer sections are filled with transient modulations and alternations between the major and the minor modes such as of his compositions. 5 in F minor. 4 in C sharp minor.

. The title originated in the custom of writing such pieces for inclusion in the albums of patrons or friends. minent feature. One by Smetana. Schubert's 'Album with its lilting rhythm and two balancing phrases. 117 (1845). 99 that he published in 1851. consists of the continuous working of a melodic phrase in which the interval of a sixth is a recurrent and profalling is 'Song without Words'. He used the title again to cover twenty.however slight. 4. of these little Some Schumann never . had been discarded from that work before its publication in 1837. He composed five little pieces at intervals between 1836 and 1841 which he subsequently named Album Leaves and included as a single unit in the heterogeneous collection of fourteen pieces entitled Bunte Blatter. which he had composed between 1832 and 1845 and which he gathered together for publication as Albumblatter. in B flat minor (1848). op. for instance. the last in E flat major (1875).MINIATURES 215 posed in 1825. his compositions. similar in style to the dozens of his compositions bearing that title. movements. But 124 in 1854. three separate Album Leaves. n. lightly destroyed any of he generally found some other use for them. is a all but name. how he drew upon his youthful songs when in need of material for the slow movements of his piano sonatas. but gradually lost its meaning and came to be used for any piece of slight Leaf 3 . 15. which embody the ASGH motto of Carnaval. op. which as piano music is ungrateful to the player Of Wagner's . Schumann's conception of the species was quite different. dimensions or ephemeral character. mostly unrelated items. su k" a long stretch of accompanied in E minor and melody major. nos. The haunting refrain landler in runs in short curves of melody and accompaniment which are so often repeated that the music seems to be perpetually ebbing and flowing. belongs to a species of movements of indefinite type that were written by several nineteenth-century composers including Wagner. and 17. Beethoven's one example of the species. We saw earlier. all with names. Albumblatt fur Elise (1810) is a simple rondo in flowing triple time with light openwork texture. Mendelssohn's Album titled Leaf. op.

op.2l6 NINETEENTH-CENTURY PIANO MUSIC on account of its widely-spaced texture. however. and that of no. 12 (1867). interest as a miniature (AWiuribfatt) his collections of Lyric Pieces in haphazGrieg. The wistful type of the melody and the dotted rhythm of several bars recall the unforgettable refrain of also 'Solveig's song'. Three years earlier. The first and third (1876) are of the same light-weight salon type as the 'Album Leaf in E minor just mentioned. he had composed the first of the Four Album Leaves which he was to publish as a separate work (op. an evocation of a peasant dance in D flat major. 28) after he had composed the last two of the set in 1878. 4 in G sharp minor. The four pieces are uneven in quality. short 'Album Leaf in E minor among the descriptive and nationalist pieces in the First Book of the Lyric Pieces. includes a central section in the essentially A major. una corda'. minor in which the native idiom is discernible in the bare fifths of the bass and the downward-dropping flattened seventh in the melodic line. included a single. who compiled little ard fashion with regard for the mutual relationship of the individual items. is also composed largely upon a pedal . But while the first in A flat lacks any distinctively Norwegian touch such as characterizes the majority of Grieg's compositions. The second and the fourth 'Album Leaves' contain interludes in refreshingly Norwegian style. is nevertheless of great example of the composer's musical style. That of no. 'pianissimo. the third in a waltz. niscent of the principal theme of the Siegfried Idyll. It consists largely of the working of a leitmotive containing a and a rising-scale figure which is strongly remigrupetto (turn). 2 in G major (1874) is a meditative cadenza embodying Grieg's much-loved chord of the dominant ninth.

however. op. Each affords a striking contrast to the surrounding paragraphs which are filled with chromaticisms of an almost Wagnerian intensity. Like some of Grieg's. by being played as wholes. A . in all the major and minor keys. 47 in 1888. no. op. is pianistically more interesting than its predecessors but is equally sectional in construction. follow one another in an effective succession of which are contrasting moods. Mussorgsky's Album Leaf: Meditation (1880). Schumann's Intermezzos. 'allegretto semplice'. to titles prelude and intermezzo which were originally applied movements placed either before or midway between other movements of a suite.. 19. Another 'Album Leaf by Grieg. The opening phrase. in groups of varying number. They were then applied to shortish pieces that were neither introductory nor intermediate in their functions. acquired fresh meanings during the nine. 3 (1873) differs entirely from those by Grieg in being composed in a single span without a contrasting interlude. The uniform left-hand part runs without a break in flowing or beating quavers until within a few bars of the end.MINIATURES bass with a salient recurrent rhythmic figure 21 J ^J EFj T=jN. likewise makes a total impression of continuity. sometimes with Capricarranged cios or other pieces. a plaintive Andante that falls into clear-cut sections in the minor and the major. Tchaikovsky's 'Album Leaf in D major. op. Chopin's Preludes and Brahms's Intermezzos form series of are often played pieces from among which individual members or in groups according to their respective length and singly character. calls to mind the characteristic Russian rhythms of the brisker dance movements in the 'Nutcracker' Suite. The teenth century. op. published in the Fourth Book of the Lyric Pieces. it has a nationalist tinge. which comprises the fourfold repetition of a metrical unit and which recurs regularly throughout the piece. however. 4 are not only few of homogeneous in style as well as nearly related in key. 28. Chopin's Twenty-four Preludes. as do Brahms's Intermezzos. They gain much.

still. i in C major it is sion by throwing up Throughout the whole of no. it dances vertiginously above a trellised in intensity of expresrelegated to an inner voice but gains an echo into the voice an octave above. 8 in F sharp minor it is imprisoned between clouds of decorative notes in the treble and wide-spread chords in the bass. so to speak. and in no. 3 in major and 23 in F major. creative style of their composer. as their decorative passage-work. They are. Among them are no. reflections in Chopin's large-scale miniature of his studies and nocturnes. 18 in F minor and 22 in G minor. Some of them exploit a are romantically expressive tonesingle pianistic idea. even when the melody is closely interwoven with the accompanying texture. 12 in G sharp minor. 1 1 in B major disguises the fundamentally simple harmonic The cascading semiquavers in the treble of no. In no. whose severe chordal basis is enriched successions of pungent by accented passing-notes. 5 in D major and no. are dramatic in feeling. respectively in the left more in sharp minor lend wings to the prosaic supporting harmonies. 14 in E flat minor. which were composed between 1836 resemble the Beethoven Bagatelles in epitomizing the and 1839. are interesting melodically. Each of the three last- . accompaniment of never-ceasing quaver triplets. Slight as are most of them in The Chopin size. in conception that distinguishes they manifest the greatness works. a single pianistic idea are nos. 10 progressions.2l8 NINETEENTH-CENTURY PIANO MUSIC marked to follow them are definitely break. the other study-like preludes based on. one another without any Preludes. 19 in E flat major. The perpetually flowing figuration of both no. C Midway between these preludes of the study type and those of the nocturne type stand a few which are instrumental but not melodic in style. is infinitely interesting than the melody which it accompanies. and the turbulent nos. The majority poems. They have features in common. others and others. Among G hand and the right hand.

MINIATURES 2 19 displays a fresh conception of figuration in octaves. Their musical content is supremely beautiful and its presentation in terms of the piano reveals the same flawless sitions. rich in contrapuntal harmony. murmuring left-hand part strands that consistently obscure the the innate melancholy of the themes. The single layout of plain octaves in triplet quavers 'alia breve' of no. In nos. which 5 minor. 24 in D 5 Most of the other preludes come within the category of tonepoems. the gently beating accompanying chords enhance enigmatic. 28 stand apart from the reason of their extreme brevity. . 17 in A major. as well as the whole of the impassioned no. but in most instances the accompaniment that lends the pieces their chief distinction. workmanship that characterizes Chopin's much larger compoMany of these preludes consist principally of long accomit is panied melodies. 4 in E minor and 6 in B minor. 16 in B flat minor. presto con fuoco runs its headlong course largely in scale-wise passages. 13 in F sharp minor suffuses the opening and closing sections with a heart. no. 2 in minor are superimposed upon an A composed of two disparate harmonic plan until they are cut short just before the ending. serpentine basspart of no. and the B flat major. (a forerunner of Liszt's are compact of chordal texture equally dreamlike Paysage). No. 15 in D flat major) owes its soothing effect chiefly to the tranquil monotony of the incessant quaver beats below or above the plaintive melodic line. the shortest of all. No. the so-called 'Raindrop' Prelude (no. this c 3 March Sonata. The inconspicuous melodic phrases of no. while no. The short interlude of this flat Prelude. 9 in E others. 7 in A major is the only one which reminds the listener that Chopin was a composer of dance major is music. 'allegro appassionato is both meloand harmonically an exposition of the arpeggio or the dically broken chord. 20 in C minor. not is which only by unique in having melodies of equal importance in both the treble and the bass. 14 recalls that of the Finale of the 'Funeral named Prelude exactly resembles in figuration and in darkness of mood. No.warming glow. 21. is alone among . or double. and no. The remaining three preludes of op. The deep.

six . 45. as we have just seen.22O NINETEENTH-CENTURY PIANO MUSIC the preludes in consisting of plain chords without a vestige of decoration. op. op. In it to the three Preludes written at its newer sense he applied about the same time and published with three Studies as op. op. whereas Mendelssohn's can be played effectively by any pianist with nimble fingers. As subsidiary interludes within larger movements. # * # # An example of the intermezzo as a genuinely intermediate whole movement exists in Schumann's Faschingsschwank aus Wien> where a passionate Intermezzo in E flat minor separates the lively Scherzino in B flat major from the tumultuous Finale in the same key. either in key or in mood. others Mendelssohn used the title 'prelude' in its original. 13 in F The single Prelude in C sharp in design from all the by having sharp major. 104 after his death. which was comthe Twenty-four. These three Preludes do not serve a preludial purpose to the Studies. They are well- written prose. 16. and in nos. 4 (1832). As specimens of the prelude as a single piece they may be compared with those of Chopin's preludes which. Chopin's are sheer poetry. resemble studies. But with this difference: that Chopin's require a skilled and experienced performer. 2 and 3 of the Novellettes. literal sense for the six Preludes belonging to the Fugues of op. Each of them construction. shares the nocturneposed a little later than like character and even the serpentine figuration of no. op. where they form contrasting sections. 28 and in the second item of Kreisleriana. 35. pianistic minor. functions as an episode in the rondo-form When Schumann wrote his Intermezzos. intermezzos occur in the third movement of the Piano Sonata in F sharp minor. and they are in no way distinguishable from them in style. are Two such intermezzos included in the third and longest of his Three Romances. It differs introduction and coda and by being interspersed with a a brief cadenza of iridescent chromatic harmonies.

For the fourth Intermezzo he simply theme of the transformed another of his early songs. are separated from that tremendous work by an interval of fifteen years. has an avowed poetic basis. which are in the free organization and the seldom played. This whole set of pianistically interesting compositions. is romantic improvisatory style of the individual pieces. opp. They represent his style at its most fully developed. the Clarinet Trio and the Clarinet Quintet. is All the calculated virtuosity of the Variations absent from these short and their successors. he used the title 'Alternative' for the contrasting interludes in the first. were written much later. in this instance. by a quotation from Herder's collection of folk poetry. like Brahms's 'Edward' Ballade. solo since the Taganini' pieces for piano Variations. fifth and sixth. the opening lines of a Scots cradle-song. . In the second he wrote the words 'Meine Ruh' like ist hin' over the song- central section. Lady Anne BothwelPs Lament'. the year in which he composed Violin Concerto. They display a very different kind of piano writing from that of his 'middle-period' pieces 'first-period' compositions. While they retain a . 116-119. 76) in 1878. to which the music of the first four lines is c made to fit. i It is headed. op. like Schumann's no. between 1891 and 1893. 2.MINIATURES 221 pieces in ternary form. and are contemporary with two of his most mature chamber works. thus indicating a romantic conception of the music. and they are more often serious than lighthearted in character. third. Brahms was already his in middle life when he wrote the first set of these pieces (op. The Intermezzos and 76. 117. no. The succeeding four sets. Schumann originally named them Pieces fantastiand described them as 'extended Papillons*. ques Brahms's eighteen Intermezzos have several points in in the common with Schumann's. They are predominantly in ternary form and minor mode. 'Der Hirtenknabe' (The shepherd boy) into a piano solo. This is the well-known Intermezzo in E flat major. op. One of them. Brahms's first Capriccios of the eight Klavierstucke.

no. A throughout which the melody and its accompaniment change places from one hand to another every alternate bar. Not every one few representative separate entity. the simple chord distributed up and down the 7. the outstanding characteristics must serve to exemplify pieces of the works as a whole group. 1 16. but the treble line runs for long stretches in implied 3/4 time against the G and the 76. they are sometimes lyrical in between the musical of the intermezzos and the capriccios which are included styles in the first two sets these two species can be considered is expression. op. op. 118. no. 5. 3 in 3 C sharp progressions are thinned out and minor. no. As there so little essential divergence only side five of the twentyby side without differentiation. the imitation of the right-hand part by the left hand a beat later and an octave lower leads to cross-hand figuration and occasional harmonic clashes. 2 . Other examples of this procedure occur in the minor (6/8) portion of the Capriccio in D minor. keyboard. The Intermezzo in A minor. But even the apparently decorative passage-work really serves as context. irregular. There. op. 'agitato ma non troppo presto' is written in 6/8 time. Rhythmically. no. 3 passionate the accentuation is mainly direct. 1 16. can be discussed as a A is of the chief distinctions of the piano writing is that it almost entirely devoid of unessential ornamentation. The well-known Capriccio in B minor. 117. 2 owes its velvety mysteriousness primarily to the heavily-pedalled broken-chord formations of which in this it is largely composed. in the central paragraph of the Intermezzo in F minor. 116. no. In the majority of the others it is The Gapriccio in C sharp minor. no. Again. op. 117.222 strongly NINETEENTH-CENTURY PIANO MUSIC intellectual element. op. The dark-coloured Intermezzo in B flat minor. few of the pieces are straightforward. strong a harmonic purpose as it does in the piti mosso ed espresc sivo of op. minor. op. 2 is among the very few in which the texture is enlivened by a purely decorative pattern: by broken octaves that add delicate overtones to the treble part c One during the non troppo presto' section. 76. 4. op. are among those in which no. no.

three metric figures run concurrently to build up the final climax. Another kind of obscurity is sometimes due to ellipsis or understatement in the harmonic scheme. op. even though their meaning may be perfectly clear to the player. the melody is persistently witheld from sounding on the strongest beat of the bar. which in expressive style fully lives up to the though it is performing-direction grazioso e giocoso'. The cryptic utterance in the opening phrases of the Intermezzo in E major. 117. the inter-penetrating broken chords all through the piu mosso ed espressivo' of the C sharp minor. no. it contains many bars in which accentuation according to compound duple or simple triple time is inferred rather than stated and must be decided by the player. op. whose rich chordal texture in steady 3/4 time leaves no doubt whatsoever as to its Intermezzo in E harmonic intentions. Alwritten in 6/8 time. is the very opposite of the grazia major. op. i and the colliding fragments of diminishedc seventh chords in the A minor. they are in part responsible for the musical obscurity of some of the pieces. 3. i are all liable to sound confusing to the listener. The texture of its successor is exiguous in the extreme. 1 19. and during the closing bars in 6/8 time. Together with the lavish use of suspensions and accented passing-notes. 1 19. some of the harmonies are implied simply by two notes placed far apart on the keyboard. op.MINIATURES 223 clear 6/8 of the lower parts. the suspensions in the B minor. 118. A much later and far more mellow c example of this kind of irregularity is furnished by the Intermezzo in C major. 3. 116. op. no. op. When the time-signature is changed to 2/4 in the central portion. 'andante ed intimissimo sentimento'. no. In few of the pieces is the melodic outline as continuous as it is in the opening and closing sections of the cantabile Intermezzo . The overlapping arpeggios of the Intermezzo in B flat minor. 116. no. no. no. The intermediate notes exist only in the imagination. Rhythmic displacements of this kind inevitably cause harmonic complications. 6.. 4 is hardly clarified as the piece proceeds. This con feather-light little piece in lilting 6/8 rhythm.

6. no. intellectual style indeed. op. op. op. In the strongest Intermezzo in C major. it is entrusted principally of the player's right hand in the middle of the texture. op. i and 2. the ele- in plain octaves of the Intermezzo in C sharp opening theme when minor. i. no. as in the Intermezzos E in the expressive inner voices. no. no. Brahms's Capriccios stand alone among their kind. The sinewy outer between a and E minor.224 in NINETEENTH-CENTURY PIANO MUSIC flat no. ment of melody is 1 19. in A major. i and throughout the supremely major. 117. more. the 'prestissimo staccato 3 . 5 (1825). 'andante. They are different in type from those by Weber and Mendelssohn. op. rather than on the surface. i it moves to and fro of octaves. which are more his predecessors. capric- (1808) is a miniature simply by virtue of the gossamer lightness of the piano writing. 119. op. 3 takes on a new and graceful aspect it is protecting covering shrouded in richer texture at its subsequent appearances. It is a motive rather than a melody. 117. ma molto appassionato' and in E fiat minor. op. the Intermezzo tranquil intermelodic interest is concentrated mainly into the central in B minor lude and revived in the coda. nos. Closer beauties in the planning and the reveals acquaintance many workmanship of this whole variegated series of miniatures. no. 2. no. op. op. Weber's Momento tioso. but the outward severity of the music is often only a disguise thrown over fundamentally genial ideas. Mendelssohn's five Caprices: the early F sharp minor. already mensprightly to the thumb and first finger tioned. allegro non c assai. as are the main themes of the brusque Intermezzos in A minor. In their terse. 3. 1 18. extensive and more purely instrumental in keyboard style. Elsewhere. 118. In the Intermezzo in E flat major. in the character of the eighteenth-century capriccio which sometimes resembled a fantasy. As piano music the twenty-five pieces are not technically very difficult to play. in staccato chords in the latter make it the and furious outbursts most dramatic in effect of the whole collection. 118. In some. Their attractions lie beneath. The stealthy serpentine theme largo e mesto'. however. 117.

The in D major and the second in G sharp minor are headed di valse and 'tempo di minuetto ed enerrespectively 'tempo first 5 major. originated as a sketch for Papillons last and bears a thematic likeness to the All these little movement. 33 (1833-4) and one in E. which were written Grieg's soon after he had begun to draw inspiration from the folk-music original note-values of his native land. op. one of Closely allied in spirit to this kind of short movement are the and the humoresque. no. 6 (1865). 118 (1837) are of the same structural and instrumental as movepieces type right outside the category of the caprice defined as a short piece in a humorous or whimsical manner of which Tchaikovsky's Capriccio in B flat. i (1838) and a Scherzo in G minor (1841). with its tuneful 'allegretto semplice' and frisky 'allegro vivacissimo' is a more typical example. 4 of the Albumblatter. ments in his sonatas. op. miniature relatives of those 3 the Bunte Blatter. is slowed down to half its and tightened up into a stretto coda. no.. 73 (1905). op. In the Scherzo in E minor the scale-wise left-hand part in crotchets and quavers in the minor becomes the righthand part in minims and crotchets in the interlude in the major. 99. op. as are Grieg's Scherzo in E minor. op. op. no. op. no. The wayward again and subject of the Scherzo-Impromptu is worked again in different keys. e 5 . four Humoresques. an 'allegretto con grazia' and the fourth. are respectively playful and impetuous in character and are composed in the same vein as his Faschingsschwank. op.MINIATURES 225 three of op. Schumann's Scherzo in B flat major. The third in C . 19. 32. pieces are made up of contrasting sections. 5 of the Fifth Book of Lyric Pieces. 124. 54 (1891) and the Scherzo-Impromptu from Moods. They differ from Schumann's in each being based on a main theme which changes in character during the course of the piece. 'allegro alia burla' in G minor are equally irresistible as gico'. They stand scherzo by Chopin Brahms and Schumann which we studied among the romantic pieces in Chapter 8. 5. The tiny Scherzino in F (1832). are dances in all but their generic title.

a set of artless miniatures that reveal the composer's youthful allegiance to the musical ideals of Schumann. The cious' rather implication of the title humoresque. but even they do not overstep the bounds of a tenth. which denotes 'caprithan 'humorous'. Every written in 2/4 time. Though rhythmically extremely precise. seldom going beyond the confines of an octave in compass. op. frequent repetition of the short-range tunes and of the strongly-marked rhythmic patterns of their accompaniment is The one of the most striking characteristics of the whole series. 3 (1863). Those of the world-famous Humoresque in G flat major are exceptional in this respect. The melodies are narrow in span. Dvorak's eight Humoresques. and in the six little-known Poetic Tone-pictures.226 NINETEENTH-CENTURY PIANO MUSIC music for dancing. style Humoresques are among the earliest of of the strongly individual to display facets Grieg's compositions which was still only nascent in the Four Piano Pieces. sequentially or in one of Dvorak's Humoresques is distantly-related keys. either note-for-note. are made up of short themes which are many times repeated. no. and the style of the piano writing blends elegance with rustic sturdiness. vivace. op. All four are tinged with the Norwegian idiom. forms an enharmonic link with the interE flat lude in major in which the chromaticisms stand out in contrast to the surrounding diatonic paragraphs. in which a short phrase that opens with four heavilyaccented crotchet beats on the same note is stated no fewer than . like those by Grieg and Tchaikovsky. 10. op. which is a prominent feature of the opening bars and an intruder in the coda. The note D sharp. 2 (1871). it is capricious in its tonal scheme. is fully borne out in Tchai- kovsky's Humoresque > op. i The that he wrote as a young student at Leipzig in 1862. but the pieces vary in tempo from vivace to c poco lento' and they are arranged in an effective sequence of major and minor keys. It begins in E minor but plunges into G major where it stays during the remainder of the opening (and closing) section. An extreme instance occurs in the fifth Humoresque in A minor. 101 (1894).

the subtle harmonies and the startling modulations go far to counteract the prevailing repetitive style. The melodic charm and rhythmic animation of the Dvorak Humoresques are greatly enhanced by the interesting piano concurrent writing. The two overflowing chromaticized cadences in the outer sections of the eighth in B closing bars of no. Chromatic alterations are a feature of some of the cadences throughout the eight pieces.MINIATURES 227 two times and in five keys. The thirtypersistent reiteration is even intensified in effect by the stark simplicity of the harmonic scheme. The texture often comprises two or more melodic lines. The last two bars of the principal phrase of the fourth Humoresque in F major hover precariously between the major and the minor: Poco andante major and of no. In most of the other humoresques the constant fluctuation of the music between the major and the minor modes. major starts out of its basic The sixth Humoresque in B key with a poignantly beautiful harmonic progression Poco allegretto T which is restated in remote keys as one of the motto themes of the outer sections. and it is sometimes enlivened by the transference . 8 in B flat with accidentals. 3 in filled The A flat minor are to flat minor stand out prominently against the intensely diatonic background.

The pieces are in ternary form with a da capo repeat. 3 and 6). they the literature of the nineteenth-century miniature. whether they are robust or delicate in collection of ten Eclogues is now expressive character. The piece makes its effect by the memorable quality both of the melody and of the rhythis G flat mic pattern in the outer sections. the sixth Humoresque voice beneath a in B major becomes an new melody a few bars later. and by the completely con- trasted style of the interlude in the minor. They show the influence of Czech folk-music in the composer's preference i. 7). The popularity of this one movement and the neglect by pianists of the remaining may possibly be due to the homogeneity in the pianistic and expressive character of the former as compared with style the fragmentariness and diversity in the make-up of all the seven latter. expressive inner in The piano writing of the seventh Humoresque major not of this contrapuntally vital kind. reverse their positions in the ensuing bars. Of all these compositions. and for sudden from major to minor (no. Their simplicity in style changes is sometimes accentuated by the bare fifths or heavy chords for passages in thirds and sixths (nos. and all are strongly pastoral in style. Only one of these eclogues .228 NINETEENTH-CENTURY PIANO MUSIC of themes from the outer to the inner parts. and several other sets later. Kindred in rustic in spirit to the is pianistic style humoresque but simpler and more the eclogue. In the central section the treble and alto parts (in E major) of the third Humoresque. melodious and naive in Easy to play. in the left-hand part (nos. the maggiore interlude is com- and of phrases in pact of ingenious free canonic imitations The theme first announced in bar 17 of double counterpoint. i and 9) . He published his first set of six movements bearing this title in 1810. form a delightful addition to spirit. of a four-bar phrase left The eighth in B flat minor opens with the melody first in the hand and then in the right. only one easily available. a type of miniature evolved by the Czech composer Vaclav Tomasek (1774-1850). rhythmically clear-cut.

A comparison bars of this third Eclogue in G major with those of the poco e molto espressivo' sections of op. Dvorak's virtue of containing material originally used in the third of by at the same period but which which he Four composed Eclogues remained in manuscript until 1949 when they were published in of the piano writing of the four opening Prague. no. in which the trio section in triple in simple two-part writing has the easy. Liszt's . 52. The piano writing in these two pieces is G more advanced in style than Tomasek's and contains sen- is additionally interesting suously beautiful passages. entitled De 1'expression romantique. suave. minor. 4 shows tranquillo Dvorak's treatment of the same material in very different. 52. and even gives a hint of that composer's subtle art by of modulation. Moderate Poeo fcronquiilo e inolbo eapressivo from all the others of its Eclogue is distinguished in being preceded by a written explanation of its conspecies c tents: a lengthy extract.MINIATURES is 229 time: no. 4 (1880) resemble those by Tomasek both in the constant repetition of short melodic phrases and decorative figures and in the use of sustained or repeated pedal-basses. no. 5 in E flat major. An Eclogue in A flat published in the Swiss and one by Dvorak in major composed by Liszt volume (II) of his Annees in 1836 and de Pelerinage. but c the one rustic and the other. graceful lilt of a landler Schubert. op. equally effective styles.

118. and both may be purely instrumental in texture. from de Senancour's novel Obermann. which we studied in the on Variations. are the romance and the song without words. op. is vocally tuneful only in the intermezzos. istic in style. Either may be The these spirited or deeply emotional in point of expression. The third fingers execute Romance in B major. 5 (1868) consists of different kinds of musical material: an 'andante cantabile' c composed of a languorous curving melody which alternates with an allegro energico' made up of short figures. The first Romance in B flat minor. op. no. no. That the composer should have felt it necessary to prefix to this short movement a leisurely description of alpine sights and sounds which takes at least as long to read as does the piece to et play. shows how strongly sion of non-musical ideas. divided between the two hands. is more instrumental in both these pieces a soaring melody runs unstyle. op. best-known in F major consists The second and largely of a cantabile melody which is placed in the expressive middle register of the keyboard to be played by the thumb of each hand while the the murmuring accompaniment. The distinctive rhythmic pattern maintained in each section by the left hand lends the whole piece the character of a dance rather than of a song. Brahms's short Romance in F major. 28 (1839) display all three Romances of Schumann's sharp mutually contrasting characteristics. Throughout broken above a never-ceasing accompaniment in semiquavers Romance in D minor. 32.NINETEENTH-CENTURY PIANO MUSIC du ranz des vaches'. is melodious chapter . 5. a lively rondo in the narrative style of the composer's Novellettes. op. To some extent they are allied in character. like the composer's 3. he conceived the music as the expres- Among the other kinds of miniatures which bear generic titles which are not denoting a romantic conception of the music but even if they are sometimes impressionactually programmatic. The romance can be as preponderantly vocal in style as the typical 'song without words'. two Tchaikovsky's Romance in F minor.

and 41 . 34). 28. and 29). kind are several bearing the are nos. and no. 7. however. 23. 38. closing passages. 5. presto. and in the three poetic 'Venetian Boat-Songs' (nos. ludes in the same broken-chord pattern as the opening and is chordal from beginning to end. collection as a whole shows that the pieces are of four different types. 9. the most realistic example of the type. During the interlude style. Among the others. solo song'. in which the melody. 13. performing-direction 'agitato They 43. In nos. 25. many that are musically more valuable are little known. and 46. in which the melodic content vocal in character and is in any case less interesting than sarily the accompanying texture. 48 The fourth type comprises the more definitely instrumental is not neces'song without words'. 'allegro con fuoco' and no. 30) and 'Spinning-Song (no. 2. 26. 39. the second voice is only of subsidiary interest. also contains spirited interall The 'two-part song' displays its distinctive attributes in no. 10^ 17. 1 6.or five-part harmony placed between an introduction and a coda in contrasting 5 decorative style. 15. throughout which the melody flows almost continuously above an accompaniment in uniform figuration. 1 A flat. purely instrumental in The title Song without Words was invented by Mendelssohn for a kind of short piece. 40. no. even A study of the mainly The is c to practising pianists. and 42. exemplified by the so-called 'Spring Song' (no. make up a collection containing several that have become so universally popular in transcriptions for other instruments that their origin as piano music is almost forgotten. 8 in The 'chordal song' is implicit in nos. 14 and 20. and by nos. 4. 19. 6. Of this 5 . 23. 37. of which consist of paragraphs in four. Every .MINIATURES only in its 23! it is outer sections. 35. pieces bearing this title. generally in strophic (verse) form. The forty-eight which Mendelssohn composed between 1830 and 1845. 21. 'Duetto'. 36. the accompaniment and the prevailing mood of a song are expressed in terms of a piano solo. 'Folk-song . 12. No. 3 i.

24. Each of Mendelssohn's Seven Characteristic Pieces. defies exact classification. quently The Sometimes sets 'song without words' is by its very nature subjective. as in Mendelssohn's 'Venetian Boat-Songs'. 'Yearningly' might well be 'songs feeling' without words' of the more reflective type. suggest rather than a vocal origin for these two miniature tone-poems. It is a kind of piece which is romantic in conception and is sometimes even descriptive or programmatic in type. have acquired a 'period' charm which endears them to they of the days when players and listeners who like to be reminded the singing-tone of the piano was rated high above its percussive two Chants sans paroles. adagio. 8. 'Energetic and all is of them classical in and with . op. The The composite character of no. op. No. with its furious of chromatic seconds. 7 carries a written indication of the mood it depicts. No. By now. 'Gently and no. 45. are predominantly 'solo songs'. Mendelssohn's Songs without Words enjoyed enormous popubut subseafter their original publication larity for many years fell into disfavour with progressive musicians. nos. 3 and 27. 3 in F major. no. is accompaniment vibrating in a whirl one of the most original. pianistically This grouping according to type is only approximate. a second voice sings for a time in imitative canon with the soloist. 22 in F major. i. Of the others.232 NINETEENTH-CENTURY PIANO MUSIC is one of them and 47 are fairy studies moto perpetuo in effect. virtually a in quick staccato. mental piece'. Nos. Tchaikovsky's A minor and the better-known op. 2. but in each. no. it intentionally creates a poetic atmosphere. No. 3. Many of the 'Songs without Words' already referred to blend the features of two or more types. 6. 1 1 and 31 are between the 'solo song' and the 'instruintermediate in style and the strong contrasts in colour-effects extensive compass of nos. but the music of nearly form and style. 40. known respectively as an orchestral 'Hunting Song' and 'Funeral March'. The characteristic piece out to portray specific moods to which the respective title gives the clue. 6 in qualities.

with a texture as insubstantial'. 'In the salon' (an elaborate waltz). to which the title of this was a society of imaginary personages invented by opus refers. No. Serious. It would be even more were heard in its proper context. The whole set could well be performed complete. and similarly. is in miniature sonata form and is sprightly'. 'Quick and No. op. op. and of upholding the poetic The Davidsbund . and 'Pastoral scene in Bohemia'. the melodic lines being overlaid with a wealth of decorative passages. In the group of six entitled Rives (Dreams) which he wrote in 1874. the most immediately attractive of the seven. off by a coda of legatissimo broken chords in the minor mount to the very top of the keyboard and vanish into thin This fairy movement. rounded that air. 'Light and staccato e pianissimo'. or David League. fiery' . 'characteristic pieces' to the title-page of either of these two sets of pieces as he did to the eighteen miniatures of Davidsbundler. each piece bears the title of a 'Lost happiness'. however. add the qualifying epithet painting'. as we noted in Chapter 7. musical and otherwise. for the seven pieces are arranged in a sequence of nearly-related keys and are mutually effective if it well contrasted in expression. is often played as a single item. with increasing animation'. 72. Smetana conceived the 'characteristic piece' as both subjective and descriptive music. but more He did not. 'With robust movement' is in the style of a free two-part invention. 4. them as 'characteristic pieces depicting the approach and waxas expression of feeling than ing of the morning. throughout is Schumann wrote of his Four Fugues. 133. 'sempre ethereal as thistledown. 333 5.MINIATURES and no. Schumann for the purpose of combating the activities of the Philistines. 'Consolation'. or of a scene: 'At the castle'. are fugues. 'Bohemian peasant festival'. 2. and no. resembles a toccata. 7 in E major. op. that they were 'Characteristic pieces in the severe style'. which are among the most romantic of all his short pieces. 6. The piano writing mood: vivid in the Lisztian manner. of his that he conceived Gesange der Fruhe (Morning songs).

The whole collection portrays a variety of moods. is headed As all if from the distance'. No. Davidsbundler has points in common with Carnaval over and above its similar construction as a series of vivid musical impressions. In 1835 Florestan and Eusebius took their places as the subjects of portrait-sketches in Carnaval. as well as under others that concealed his identity. and they are thematically interconnected. from the pensive to the uproarious. The two compositions are centred round the same group of fictitious personages. and the latter. the last movement but one of Carnaval. Schumann appended to each piece the initial of whichever of these imaginary characters seemed the more of the music. he contributed eitschrift fur a long series of critical articles under their signatures. Despite the fact that Davidsbundler opens and closes in different keys. journal. just mentioned. which succession. the eighteen movements were evidently meant to be played in unbroken The continuity of the musical thought is the reappearance of the second movement emphasized by within the framework of the seventeenth. in music during the course of which stimulating cross-rhythms and syncopations alternate with passages of tranquil radiance. He prefaced the work appropriate to the temper of the Davidsbundler with an old saying' in verse and added descriptive comments to a few of the movements. made their first dreamy appearance in print in 'La ci darem Variations in 1831. the Neue When Schumann founded own musical Musik in 1834. seems to recollect in tran- quillity the emotional vicissitudes of the preceding pages. who respectively typify the passionate and the sides of Schumann's temperament. 3 of Davidsbundler embodies a direct quotation from Promenade. Florestan against the prosaic. It also . but hardly any of the movements is a dance in the conventional sense. and Eusebius. The second. title The edition of this work was published under the Davidsbundler-tanze. the following year they figured as the composers of the Sonata in F sharp minor and in 1837.234 NINETEENTH-CENTURY PIANO MUSIC Two of the principal characters. revised edition was published c under first his own name in 1851. 5 the article which he wrote to on Chopin's which reference was made his here in Chapter 6.

makes an


allusion to the Grossvatertanz, which occurs in the Finale of the same work ('Marche des Davidsbundler contre le$ Philistins }. Although Carnaval bears a later opus number, it was

composed two years before

Davidsbundler, in 1835.

sets of Schumann's miniatures, each with an inwere composed in response to an extra-musical title, stimulus. They are the Morning Songs (1853) j ust mentioned,

Four other


Kreisleriana, op. 16,

(1838), Nachtstiicke (Night pieces), op. 23

(1839), an d Four Marches, op. 76 (1849). The first of these works, which comprises five movements, each based on a theme that is subjected to free variations, was inspired by Friedrich Holderlin's Diotima poems. The musical style is involved and the whole work is much less compelling than Kreisleriana^ a supremely homogeneous work which represents Schumann at

the height of his powers as a composer of intimate, imaginative piano music.
eight pieces of Kreisleriana, which are all in nearly-related are filled with unforgettable melodies and vital rhythms. keys, Their structure is straightforward and generally easy to follow,


although the musical atmosphere is sometimes darkly mysterIn the slow portions of nos. 4 and 6 the music seems to ask

to find an answer. On the other questions that can never hope hand, the tumultuous energy of nos. i, 3, 5, 7, and 8 sweeps all

musical ambiguities out of the way. In no. 2, 'moderato con molto espressione', a rondo with two clear-cut episodes, the sharply-contrasted sections are blended into an indescribably

whole movement composed in Schumann's most


deeply expressive and picturesque style. The title of the work is from E.T.A. Hoffmann's book of the same name, the hero

of which, Kapellmeister Johannes Kreisler is thought to have been suggested by the eccentric personality of the German

musician Ludwig Bohner. Schumann had actually heard Bohner improvise in Leipzig in 1834, and had once toyed with the idea of sketching this strange character in words. But the
inimitable portrait he eventually painted in musical sounds




treasure that no interpretative musician


a literary portrayal,

even from Schumann's whimsical


was conceived as a Funeral Fantasy, for while Night Pieces Schumann was composing the four items he was haunted by
funerals disturbing visions of

and mourners. The




on the pieces, 'Funeral March', nally intended bestowing and 'Round, with Company', 'Nocturnal Carousal'
solo voices',

were never printed.
receive as


they been, the music

attention from performers as do might possibly the composer's other sets of pieces with imaginative individual


The opening movement marches with a splendid swing;


the strongly rhythmical refrain gains in power at every one of and the piece works up to an impressive climax
repetitions, it dies away in heart-broken sighs. The second and fourth movements, also in free rondo form with many repetitions of the


which is a scherzo with two principal themes, and the third, all resemble the Novellettes in their discursive trios, style.
of the Four Marches was stimulated by the Dresden rising in 1849 which caused Schumann to take flight from the city during the fighting. The Marches give vigorous

The composition



colourful expression to his feelings as an ardent republican. of them actually makes a fugitive reference to the Marseilto

which he had already alluded less guardedly in Faschingssckwank. The music is martial in style but its sharp outlaise,

lines are softened

by the frequent division of the beats into No. 3, 'Camp scene', is less strongly rhythmic quavers.

a 'characteristic piece', similar in type to some of the movements of the Forest scenes composed the same

than the others.

of compositions stand only on the threshold of programme music, and Papillons hardly even so near. The Finale of the latter contains an indication of a poetic basis, but the

These four

work as a whole belongs to no very exact category. It will be more appropriately discussed in the next chapter among the dance forms with which it has an artistic affinity. Carnaval, which likewise combines the attributes of programme music and



dance music, has already been discussed under the heading of







no mistaking the programmatic intentions of Fanta-

(Fantasy pieces), op. 12 (1837), Kinderscenen (Scenes of childhood), op. 15 (1839) an(i Waldscenen (Forest scenes), op. 82 (1849). Schumann admitted that he often added the titles to

had composed them, simply as a guide to performers on points of interpretation. As the titles he habipieces only after he
tually chose correspond so perfectly with the musical content of the pieces, the two have long since become indissolubly con-

nected in the minds of interpreters.

That Schumann planned

these three compositions as indivi-

may be gathered from his having designed the last movement of each to sum up or round off the work. In Fantasy the Finale is entitled Ende vom Lied (The end of the song) pieces,

in Scenes of childhood, it is Der Dichter spricht (The poet speaks), and in Forest scenes, simply Abschied (Farewell). Nevertheless,

although Scenes of childhood is frequently performed complete, the three sets of pieces are much more often dismembered.
Aufschwung (Soaring), Warum (Why) and Grillen (Whims), op. 12, nos. 2, 3, and 4 of'Fantasy pieces are familiar to thousands who
are possibly

unaware of the

Des Abends (In the evening),
(In the night) (no. 5)
(no. 6)

existence of the sensuous, dreamlike (no. i), the passionate In der Nacht

and the vivid narratives Fdbel (Fable) and Traumes Wirren (Restless dreams) (no. 7). Two pieces from Scenes of childhood, Traumerei (Revery) (no. 7) and Am Kamin (At the fireside) (no. 8), the victims of countless universal recognition. Their eleven transcriptions, have achieved less melodic companions, which include the sensiobviously and tively-wrought Bittendes Kind (Entreating child), (no. 4)
Kind im Einschlummern (Child

life, only one, or at most two, can be reckoned as indispensable items in every the eerie Vogel als Prophet (Bird prophesying) pianist's repertory: nos. 7 and 4. They are Stelle (Haunted and

by the music-loving few. Among which suggest a coherent story of woodland

are prized falling asleep) (no. 12), the nine movements of Forest





in expression than the immeasurably more fantastic and poetic other movements, but they lose much by being plucked from
their native forest



three later Fantasy pieces, op.


In expressive


namesakes though they

(1851) have no indivithey are not dissimilar to their lack their intense conviction.


of which are Only the second in A flat major, the outer sections is instinct with the pervaded by a wistful questioning phrase,

magic of its predecessors in op.



external stimuli for his compositions. His miniatures,

was even more dependent than was Schumann upon no less

his large-scale works, bear names denoting their indebtedness to literary sources or to the inspiration of scenery, paintings


or sculpture.
all his shorter


six Consolations (1849-50),

the best



piano pieces, take their

from Sainte-Beuve's

poems, Les

Consolations (1830).


their cantabile melodies,

the Consolations are essentially 'songs without words', though the words are not far to seek. Equally vocal in character are the six
small-scale items of the ten Harmonies poetiques et religieuses (1845-52): 'Hymne de V enfant d son re'veil , no. 6, named after a

poem by Lamartine, Ave

Maria', no. 2, and Tater noster', no. the Latin words of which are printed above the melodic line.


These three pieces are transcriptions of choral works by Liszt, as we have already noted in Chapter 8. In 'Miserere', no. 8, which also has the relevant Latin words printed in the score of
the opening paragraph, the melodic outline is surrounded by a wealth of decorative broken chords. 'Andante lagrimoso', no. 9, headed by two verses of Lamartine's poem 'Une larme ou

and 'Cantique d'amour', no. same luxuriant style as the Liebestraume.


10, are

both in the

The miniature

travel-sketches in the First

Book of the Annees

de Pelerinage include three impressionistic portrayals of places visited by Liszt during his residence in Switzerland in 1835-6.


'Chapelle de Guillaume Tell




contains realistic echo-


Au Lac

de Wallenstadt', no.

2, is

based on a uniform



figure of accompaniment that evokes the lapping of the waters, and Les Cloches de Geneve', no. 9, is a nocturne in which the
bells are both simulated and implied. The two lastnamed pieces are each preceded by quotations from Byron's Childe

sounds of

Harold. In other pieces in the First

Book the



general rather than particular. 'Pastorale , no. 3, is a typical c eclogue in its simplicity of style. Au bord d'une source' (Beside a spring), no. 4, prefaced by three lines from Schiller, is a

masterpiece of delicate piano writing that evokes the 'murmuring stillness' of the spring to which the Schiller quotation alludes. 'Lemaldu pays' (Homesickness), no. 8, gives realistic to the expression despairing and hopeful moods of the exile. It

paragraphs alternating between sparse and opulent melody. In the Second Book (Italy) are the quietly ecstatic 'Sposalizio', no. i, inspired by Rafael's painting, 'The Wedding of the Virgin', and the solemn I1
consists of a series of










Giuliano de' Medici'.

mentioned date from comparatively early in from the 18303 to the 18503, when his piano writing embraced every possible sensuous and virtuosic keyboard effect. In later years he modified his exuberant style. Although he still continued to write piano music which displayed his
pieces just
Liszt's career:




Third Book

of pianistic resource, for instance, the of the Annees de Pelerinage which contains the re-

splendent jeux d'eau a la Villa d'Este', he also composed movements in which all extraneous decoration is shorn away

and the music reduced

to bare essentials.

Compositions which

exemplify less familiar aspects of Liszt's production have latterly been published for the first time in an English edition, in two volumes issued by the Liszt Society. To musicians whose confined acquaintance with the composer's piano music has been the restrained to the well-known concert-pieces and studies, of these miniatures and larger style and experimental character

may come

as a revelation.


tiny pieces in

F sharp major from

Vier Klavierstucke

(Four piano pieces) (1865-76) each comprise only four



are of the utmost simplicity in their economical its magic moment. In no. 3, the tonality cooler key of into the shifts major

texture, but each has

comparatively suddenly nine bars before the end and remains there until a deft touch restores it to the tonic for the final cadence. No. 4 culminates in
a tenuous line of thirds that


rise above a couple of light syncochords and then fall semi-staccato as the sustaining-pedal pated melts the single notes into a haze of sound. En reve: nocturne

The quietude (1885-6), too, contains startling harmonic effects. is shattered in the tenth bar when the smoothlya sixth to form an acute discord with flowing melody leaps up the left-hand part two octaves beneath. At the very end, a series
of the opening
of enigmatic, inconclusive chordal progressions leaves the music

suspended in mid


Even more daring harmonically, and tonally more mysterious,
are four pieces with descriptive





(Grey clouds) gondola (The funeral


two separate versions, 1882) and Richard Wagner which was composed after Wagner's death at Venice in

are heavy with a grief that strives for expression in fragments of melody running in severe plain octaves or desolate



unison, weird hollow-sounding chords and ominous tremolandos deep in the bass. The musical atmosphere is tense with fore-

boding as the composer seems to grope and terrible realm of sound.


way towards



interpretation of visual images and mental states in terms of the piano, the art in which Schumann and Liszt so


contemporaries Smetana, Mussorgsky, Tchaikovsky, and Dvorak, to name only those whose works in other branches of composition are of greater importance than their piano music. Dvorak wrote three books of Poetic Pictures, op. 85 (1889) which, like the Dreams of his older compatriot Smetana, depict moods and scenes. The piano writing is far more elaborate than

greatly excelled, was practised with equal fervour if with less and convincing musical results by their younger

12. are represented. Throughout the other spring'. and several are dances. 47. 7 and op. familiar and unfamiliar. 2. 'Canon'. Norwegian and otherwise. all Grieg's styles of piano few of the writing. who wrote more consistently and more sympathetically for the piano than did any of the composers last named. 54. The remainder bear descriptive titles which they fully substantiate. are of equal. 5 and 'Melody'. His most notable and enduring contribution to the literature of the piano took the form of a programmatic suite. Mussorgsky (1835-81) drew a fanciful sketch of Children's games: Puss in the corner (1859-60) portrait of The Sempstress (1871). he wrote an Intermezzo (1861) inspired by the sight of peasants crossing a snow-clad field. and Borodin. the two 'Album Leaves'. no. and the romantic 'To the 'In my native land'. op. 47. op. 12. 38. no. and 'Little bird'. Many of the passages are so awkwardly laid out for the hands that the pieces often make the effect of being transcriptions of orchestral works rather than original piano solos. no. containing the vividly descriptive 'Butterfly'. if not greater interest to the pianist. and 'Erotik'. 3. A movements such as 'Arietta'. Grieg. entitled Moods. op. nine books and the Moods there are many pieces which. Only one book of the pieces is well known as a whole: the Third. 8. The whole collection well repays exploration. at the end of this chapter. 'Scherzo'. included a number of descriptive movements in the ten books of Lyric Pieces which he composed between 1867 and 1901 and which he supplemented in 1905 with a final volume of seven pieces in the same style. composed a . 12. although little known. no. The early 'Watchman's Song'.MINIATURES 24. no. op. op. 43. In this comprehensive collection of seventy-three pieces. no. no. which we shall study. Tchaikovsky. op. i.! in the composer's Eclogues and Humoresques. with other examples of the species by Liszt. and two travel-sketches of the Crimea: cio (1880)5 and a Gurzufand Capriceach with a central section in oriental dance rhythms. 'Lonely wanderer'. op. but only a few of after the most original can be mentioned here. 3 are abstract music.

6 and Tuck'. In its insistence upon the percussive quality of the piano and in its utter dependence upon the blurring effect of the little sustaining pedal. The its native simplicity. notes that appears and re-appears in every part of a texture shot common chords at a higher pitch. no. pianissimo arpeggios and light 'Shepherd Boy'. 2. 3: and in . op. 7 of Moods. op. in by the more Evening'. 62. 71. 54. no. op. a long tune of pastoral character is 'piped' by the player's right hand without any accompaniment and is then restated above a foundation of chords that give meaning set to all its latent harmonies. 'Evening an equally telling effect by Mountains'. is built up from a little pipe-tune motive of descending 54. no. quavers. op. and 'Summer 71. 54. simulates the hum and the clangour of bells by means of a continuous succession of fifths. no. i. op. no. impressionistic study transformed by the throughout which short canonic imitations. op. which. 'March of the 'Wedding-day at Troldhaugen' (the composer's home).work. evoke echoing sustaining-pedal in the fragments of song. 5 . 6. 54. no. Another nature-study. which the magic stillness depicted by the luminous harmonies is emphasized by periodic cascades of semiquavers in quivering broken fourths. through with chromaticisms which intensify is an 'Mountaineer's Song'. Two other. more familiar aspects are manifested respectively in lively rhythmic pieces such as 'Norwegian Peasants' March Dwarfs'. this impressionistic movement may be (The submerged compared with Debussy's La Cathedrale cathedral) . is composed throughout in busy semi3 . 3. op. no. achieves different means. like the earlier 'Butterfly'. 68. 65. 'Bell-ringing'. but makes an entirely different effect percussive style of the finger. some of which are made more resonant by acciaccatura thirds. no. op. 4. no. the Night in which Grieg summons up the distinctive timbres of the drums and horns with deep. 4. 2.242 NINETEENTH-CENTURY PIANO MUSIC 3 contains an interlude headed 'Spirits of performance of Macbeth. possibly the most original of all the Lyric Pieces. no. into prolonged waves of sound. engloutie Fresh aspects of Grieg's art of musical landscape-painting are displayed in the plashing 'Brooklet op. After the brief introduction in bare octaves has the rugged scene.

and lastly in heavy chords reinforced Its as if for choir. 'Students' Serenade' and 'Folk-tune'. the Symphonic Dances for piano duet and other compositions that we shall meet in succeeding chapters. nos. herdsman's calls. 66 (1896) comnineteen tunes which he himself collected from peasant prises singers and players. Each is a little tone-poem in which the given tune is incorporated in harmonic texture that forms its five little ideal setting. . no. 17 (1870) contains twentypieces of this kind. no. Among these pieces are cradle-songs. op. the tunes of which Grieg took from a published collection of national music and harmonized in his own distinctive manner. sensitively-harmonized melodies of 'At the cradle'. 5. 6 and 4 op. op. In two sets of much less familiar pieces he made the music of over forty Norwegian folk-songs and dances available to musicians in the form of miniatures for piano solo. longest and pianistically able are 'In three verses are presented successively in four-part harmony then as a tenor solo below a right-hand accompaniment in double notes. 14. exemplifies a type of composition to which Grieg was greatly addicted: the transforming of folk- Valdres songs or dances into piano solos. 15. the Variations. nos. an 'adagio religioso'. nos. op. which is based on a genuine folk-song from the district of Norway. Norwegian Dances and Songs. no. The much later Norwegian In several of these 'songs without words' each 'verse' is treated in different pianistic styles so that the pieces resemble miniature sets of variations. Grieg based many of his now well-known original works upon Norwegian folk-melodies: the Ballade. 7. i and 8. 18. 68. 51 for two pianos. 24 for piano solo. the tune of which has subsebecome well known through having been used by quently Delius in On hearing the first cuckoo in spring (1912).MINIATURES 243 the leisurely. Tolk-tune'. and songs from many parts of Norway. and 'In the deepest thought I wander'. the most elaborate of the entire group. 17 and 19. of Moods. op. Two of the most remark- Ola dale'.

Unlike Schumann. or by being suites in the musical equivalent of a story or the expression of homosuite-like Papillons. They are intended to depict the spectator (Mussorgsky himself) as he wanders through the gallery looking at each exhibit in turn. no. whose respective dominant traits. feroce' through the longest of . the home of the witch Baba Yaga. was stronger than his feeling for pianistic style. geneous or contrasting moods. Since the music is published with written descriptions of the linked together pictures concerned: portraits. Kreisleriana and Forest Scenes. and a design for a clock. especially in the c move- ments depicting the dancing of the ungainly 'Gnome'.waggon'. Grieg did not design any of imaginative pieces items were closely inter-related in the his books of form of which the separate either in key or style. self-importance and servility. are realistically sketched in heavy octaves c and wheedling single notes. Schumann's Carnaval) Davidsbundler. Petersburg that year. no. musicians can form their how far the has succeeded in composer skill opinions as to bringing the canvasses own to life. rich and poor'. which were written between 1832 and 1849. no. and the Hut on Hen's Feet'. The pieces are by an introduction and by interludes entitled 'Promenade' based on similar thematic material. but not published until 1886. Mussorgsky's in musical characterization. i. 6. the lumbering 'Polish Ox. sorgsky's Pictures from Written in 1874. who rides in a fury of chromaticisms 'allegro con brio. As musical portraiture the work is vividly descriptive. landscapes. 9. this set often of pictures pieces conveys the composer's impressions by the Russian painter Viktor Hartmann which were shown at a memorial exhibition in St. no. found a successor many years later in a programmatic suite of an entirely original kind: Musan Exhibition. his which was highly developed by experience as a composer of operas. 4. the Two Polish Jews.244 NINETEENTH-CENTURY PIANO MUSIC of the bass. genre pictures. a layout by octaves spread upwards from the depth that suggests the effect of performance by full choir and organ.

As characteristic pieces they create the musical atmosphere defined by their respective titles. The orchestral version made by Ravel in 1922 brings out all the variations in tone-colour that the original version lacks. the light chords of the flickering 'Scherzoso'. is made up of twelve pieces descriptive of Christmas celebrations. 9. a 'Berceuse no. religious and secular. The movements are written in free narrative style. 37 (1876). such marked contrasts exist in Tchaikovsky's suite The Seasons. ln former times'. richly-harmonized style of some of the 'Consolations'. which consists of twelve movements por- No from January traying subjects and activities typical of the twelve months to December. resonant pedal-effects in 'Evening Bells'. 2. the suite It taxes the performer's skill without is less 245 successful. 5. As piano music. 'Carillon'. 10. no. op. Liszt's Christmas-tree suite. also composed in 1874. i. both of nos. and this piece is perhaps the least . of Hungarian March and the sensuous. At the same time. As some of them end indefinitely (nos. 7. compensating him by beauty or ingenuity in the keyboard writing. Only the 'Hunting Song' (September) stands out and noticeably from the others by virtue of its strident horn-calls thick octave passages. It includes settings of well-known carols and hymns. 7 and a characteristic piece. They do not form convincing whole work. a presto 'Scherzoso'. 4 and 9 8. no.MINIATURES the ten movements. . no. a brilliant Hungarian March and a Polonaise. n and 12. 8. it contains vigorous contrasts in pianistic For instance. the fierce harmonies and strong rhythms style. between the gently-rocking accompaniment of 'The Shepherds at the Manger'. no. no. c which are composed in the flowing. the suite as a whole is marked by a strong sense of unity. 9 which evoke the timbres of chiming and pealing respectively. and two little tone-poems. and 1 1) and lead with hardly a break into their successors. 3. nos. 6 and 'Evening Bells'. and the work is now generally performed in this more effective form. but they are little differentiated in length and structure and the a piano writing is uniform in style.

(March). The 'Serenade no. In the Nocturne. The effects. with a thrumming. and although all. guitar-like actualizes 5 . the movements are Some have become familiar apart from effective singly. and so on) This is Borodin's only work for the . it has idea to unify it. no. Borodin's much slighter Petite suite (1885) consists of seven brief movements. G in a very different manner beauty but because it is conceived from the simpler. The other movements are features in the 5 picturesque but each presents interesting piano writing. (November). In the Intermezzo. Lentamente in G major. 2. 7. except the tiny 'Reverie no. played 5 their c context: fireside 'Snowdrops' 5 (April). 'Clear 5 5 At the (January) and ride 'Sleigh (May). 6. Unlike the three suites just mentioned. .246 pianistic Is NINETEENTH-CENTURY PIANO MUSIC in character of all the movements. 3. is likewise graphically evocative of less its subject. no. Although the suite monotonous when performed complete. no. op. bass. more spontaneous piece of the same title. (The treble line of bars 5-10 becomes the tenor piano.. Only the first title: At the convent which it piece has a programmatic c 5 . 39 which we studied in the previous chapter. and the second of the two Mazurkas. but it is musically no central imaginative homogeneous through being composed in a simple style tinged with the characteristics of Russian folk-music. point no. and by the periodic interchanges between "them. The Nights 5 'Song of the lark claims special minor. the repetition of characteristic figures in both the melody and the accompaniment. the musical material is developed organically. 4. are composed in sections. soothing monotony is induced by the other. makes a feature of pedalboth sustained and intermittent. no. by conjuring up the sounds of bells and of processional chanting. the melodic line of the outer sections grows in significance on being passed from one hand to first Mazurka. 'andante espressivo in not only on account of its intrinsic attention. 22 of the composers Album for the Toung. 5. Pianists who know the Polovtsian Dances from his opera Prince Igor will recognize melody of the succeeding bars. a feeling of dreamlike.

It is c 3 a sequence of five pieces this sense it is a lineal composed in the early dance forms. the endings of all three sections of the second Mazurka. 40 (1884) belongs to ornamentation in the Reverie another category. They are easily discernible in the opening theme of the Intermezzo. the syncopations of the first Mazurka and the Serenade.MINIATURES In the Petite suite turns of 247 melody and rhythmic patterns which are reminiscent of the riotously brilliant orchestral pieces. a type of music to which brief reference be made in the next chapter on the music of the dance. In will descendant of the eighteenth-century suite. op. figures Grieg's suite From Hottergs time. the melodic and the repetition of short and phrases in every one of the seven movements. .

WHEN the instrumental as the to music which for centuries had served dancing and singing eventually broke accompaniment an independent art. The earliest pieces of music for the keyboard were based on the tunes of songs and dances. Composers of a later period extended its scope by adding other kinds of dances. Chopin: Waltzes. Brahms: Tchai- Smetana. The French clavecinistes also modified its constitution titles ing descriptive pieces with imaginative by introducand by increasing . Dvorak. Ldndler. Liszt: Polonaises. a triple this com- dances of Italian origin. German Dance. and were sometimes each supplemented by a single variation and prefaced by a short prelude. kovsky. Waltzes. Schumann: Nationalist Papillons. nucleus of the seventeenth-century suite. Grieg. before ficossaise. It was the grouping together of two or more pieces of this kind for the purpose of securing contrasts in rhythm and expressive style that led to the foundato develop as tion of the sixteenth-century suite.11 Origin of later dances as pieces of keyboard music. early forms and survivals. the allemande and the courante. 'Mephisto* Mazurkas. When in the course of time the two last-named were united with the sarabande and the the four movements formed the gigue. Waltzes. The Waltz. Chopin. The dignified pavan in mon time and the more robust galliard in time. it inevitably retained away the rhythmic and formal characteristics of the two arts with which it had been so closely associated. pair of to be treated in These two dances were presently superseded by another pair similarly contrasted in character. dances: Carnaval. and Polonaise Polonaises. were among the first manner.

of the individual dances have remained in being as formal types until the present day although they have undergone Some fundamental changes in speed. Some three. The minuet. was implanted in the symphony during the eighteenth century by Haydn. Sonata in D major. The suite continued to exist as an independent art-form until about the middle of the eighteenth-century. varied the construction and the style of eighteenth-century suite in several ways. was an even more rare movement in the piano sonata. have developed into the most recondite of all compositions in variation form.DANCE FORMS the 249 lished of the suites or ordres pubby Frangois Couperin between 1713 and 1730 comprise as many as ten or fifteen pieces. At the same first time. 2 (1898) style such as Grieg's and Ravel's Menuet antique (1895). both of whom were influenced by the work of the clavecinistes. Beethoven into the fast-moving scherzo. in which guise it became an integral movement in many of his sonatas and symphonies as well as in those of his contemporaries and successors. after which time it could no longer hold its Bach and Handel. its original tempo and precise style were preserved. The polonaise. its who quickened its pace and It was later transformed by lightened stately character. The chaconne and the passacaglia. no. K. by Handel of stately fugues and variations. mood and expression. the most notable being the addition by Bach of long preludial movements. op. 68. in the minuets for piano solo composed singly or in groups by Beethoven and Schubert. the longest contains twenty- number of movements. 284 As an independent piano solo furnishes a well-known example. The Polonaise en rondeau in Mozart's . The trochaic metre of the gigue persists in the light-hearted finales of many sonatas and symphonies. and own against the sonata. which were originally Spanish or Italian dances with music built on a ground-bass. a rare movement in the eighteenth-century suite. a rustic French dance which found its way into the suite during the seventeenth century. and then throughout the closing years of the nineteenth century in characteristic pieces in archaic Grandmothers Minuet.

Gavotte. Liszt. Instances At the dawn of the nineteenth century the suite was virtually extinct. Pavane (Quelques Danses. In the new context the two compact eight-bar . Its successors. and Wagner before it was re- created as a tone-poem by Chopin. which we studied in the previous chapter. the haunting. in his Suite could be multiplied indefinitely. A few isolated pieces in the style of the early dance forms were written by well-known nineteenth-century composers. which not consider these four begins of the minor. Beethoven. The forlane. Schumann. 32. They include a gigue each by Schumann (op. 1880). the Moliere suites. were derived from the French ordres rather than from the Bach Grieg's suite From Holbergs time: Prelude. passepied. however. no. op. was reborn in a maze of chromati- cisms in Ravel's suite Le Tombeau de Couperin (1914-17). Schubert. 88 in 1882 he incorporated the material in the central movement. designed to recapture the musical spirit of the Baroque period. Debussy resuscitated the lively Breton dance. 1896) and later in Ravel's rondo-form Pavane pour une Infante defunte (1899). a conscious imitation of the Bach suite. 1838-9) and by Dvorak (op. little pieces worthy of print in their he kept one of them in mind for close on thirty original version. and others. Bergamasque (1890). modally-inflected Sarabande in A. which was also revived by Chausson in the set of dances just mentioned. 2. an Italian dance (from Friuli). the sets of short pieces with fanciful titles by Schumann. c of the North' and a contemporary of Bach's. Air and Rigaudon. 52. written in 1884 to celebrate Sarabande. the bi-centenary of the birth of Ludvig Holberg. and two pairs of saraband es and gigues (1855) written by Brahms at the age of twenty-two as essays in the 'severe' style but not published until 1938. The long-neglected pavan first in Chausson's acquired a new expressive significance. While Brahms himself did 3. years. was.250 NINETEENTH-CENTURY PIANO MUSIC or duet the dance underwent extremely diverse treatment at the hands successively of Wilhelm Friedemann Bach. no. Weber.. and ends in the major although it bears the key-signature When he came to write his String Quintet in F major.

not of the older type of allemande familiar in as they the eighteenth-century suite. The bulk of it was tion was Of the who sought to strengthen the nationalist aspira- of their fellow-countrymen by idealizing their native music. and Bavaria. Six ficossaises which are the equivalent of (1802) and the Twelve Allemandes German dances. the second performs original the end of this combined balancing function only once towards slow movement and scherzo. formance at the masked balls held in the Redoutensaal Beethoven also wrote music for other kinds of dances: the native to Austria and Ldndler. early composers composed pieces by were published for the piano. thrice-recurrent 25! now detached and re-distributed. distinctive of pieces embodying the rhythms and evoking the and international. charming .DANCE FORMS phrases of the Sarabande. of instrucountries and in the sphere mental music. This atmosphere of specific dances. As music for playing. only a very small proporcomposers for use in the ballroom. who wrote waltzes in Vienna. a more homely type of waltz German Dance in slow waltz time. Some of for orchestra but Beethoven were these had become popular before the were Haydn. and Beethoven. first forms the basis of the its main section. # # # # The dance that awakened the waltz. Among for perdementi. Weber's dances. The were transposed into G sharp. the Deutscher or the iZcossaise. a species of contredanse in quick 2/4 time. produced multitude It comprises a composed for purely artistic purposes. It its the ballrooms of many both in greatest enthusiasm. and tions of dance music written by the principal large quantity of the nineteenth century. Mozart. in which form they are still extant. they lack the grace and the tunefulness of Weber's dance movements: his Waltzes (1812). national kind of music includes many works by composers who cultivated the traditional melodies and rhythms peculiar to their respective homelands. was the turn of the century.

and paniment to dancing: Joseph Lanner. which begin and end in C major and are interspersed with movements in the major keys of G. in profusion. The artistic is century for the dance music written during the early part of the most part slight in dimensions. which are distinguished by irresicompositions stible rhythmic flow. Compositions which represent this type and show E flat major two groups of Landrische Tanze in D major consisting respectively of six and seven movements with a coda. The dances that engendered it were usually composed in two balancing sections of eight bars. They Dvorak's Waltzes about forty and fifty years after his death. Schubert composed an immense quantity of dance music. The more satisfying musical effect a wider range in produced by tonality is exemplified in Beethoven's Six Minuets.252 NINETEENTH-CENTURY PIANO MUSIC behind Schubert's in spontaneity and diversity. manifest in a large number of his compositions of all kinds. He was a born composer of dance with the rhythms of the dance is music. are. Similar in planning are Schubert's Eight Landler in B flat major and Five its limitations include Beethoven's Six Ecossaises in his and flat major. Only by stringing together several of these sections could composers secure any musical continuity. exercised a powerful influence upon the waltzes his natural affinity specialized written by those of his contemporaries and successors who the production of music as the accomexclusively in the Strauss family. His in dance forms. Both Beethoven and Schubert wrote sets of dances in which all the individual items are in the same key: an arrangement that inevitably accentuates the monotony of the uniform rhythmic scheme. B ficossaises in A . and were the inspiration of Ravel's Valses nobles et sentimentales com- posed in 1911. E flat. also determined the style of Brahms's and Joseph Gung'l. stand far and most of all. much of which he wrote for piano solo and for performance by dances given at the houses of his himself at the small private friends in and around Vienna. singing melodies. and deeply expressive harmonies.

which is alter- nately light-hearted and wistful. sharp random. The planning of this set in recur- have suggested to Liszt the idea of from the Schubert dances into groups arranging selected items the manner already described in Chapter 8 among tranin may possibly Soirees de Vienne) scriptions (the . all variety in tonality. 171 another in A flat major by one in E major. in different keys. (the Seventeen Landler) and vice German Dances. op. The such series of keys in varies with every set as the Six which Schubert arranged his dances and follows no fixed plan. 49). thirty sets of and a Cotillion.DANCE FORMS' flat 253 and D. The only flat keys are used. By placing dances Schubert effected many in distantly-related keys side by side in tonality. The set of Eight ficossaises in seven keys (1815) is unique in the manner in which it holds a balance between continuity and The dances are arranged in four pairs. Unexpected successions of keys occur in A flat minor is followed by one in B major. A set that starts in a sharp key may end in a flat one versa (Galop and ficossaises. stimulating contrasts in the Twelve Landler. Minuets. Galops. The most striking contrasts in key occur between the outer sections rent sections of each group. Twelve German Dances and several other sets are entirely in and flat keys follow one another at sharp keys. Elsewhere. it Although the music is not to play technically difficult includes a large number of dif- . As the first dance of each pair is except one after the second has been played. In a few sets. dances: Landler. The with of Schubert's dances accords perfectly pianistic style the simplicity of their expressive character. The musical interest of this complete set is also enhanced by many variations in the : style of the piano writing as well as by chains of transient modulations and by the starting of several of the dances out of the basic key. and in the great majority of Schubert's more than ficossaises. the set is extended to repeated twelve movements which are distributed into four groups of three. a dance op. Waltzes.

127 and the ingenious cross-hand trio and in the ninth Waltz of op.. op. 18. Of numerous interesting features. Dance movements of a more expansive kind began to appear in the first two decades of the century. fascinating details. They developed side by side with the simpler types and eventually culminated in the highly-organized forms exemplified c by Chopin's Polonaise-Fantasy and Liszt's Mephisto' Waltzes. In a few of the goes beyond dances the native Austrian style is expressed in imitations of the Original Dances. the principal theme in polonaise Beethoven's Polonaise in C piano solo in .254 NINETEENTH-CENTURY PIANO MUSIC ferent types of piano writing. passages in the attached accentuation in the sixth Waltz of the persistently syncopated same opus and in no. sparseness of the harmonic basis of of no. 3 and 4 like quality of nos. and of nos. op. even pianistically decorative movements such as Chopin's and Dvorak's waltzes and mazurkas. combines elements of medium-length both ternary and rondo forms. the sudden changes in pitch in the first Waltz of op. 1815) which opens in D minor and closes in F of the Seventeen Landler. particularly the confines of tonic and dominant. and the extreme some of the Twenty Waltzes. 5 and 8 of the same series. 9 which. 1 1 of the Twelve Landler. Early examples are provided by Beethoven's and Weber's Polonaises. After an opening paragraph of scales and rushing arpeggios. together with its trio. The dark colouring of the ficossaise (composed 21 February. Many of them will be recognized with the minuet-and-trio by pianists who are already familiar movements of Schubert's sonatas and with some of the Moments musicaux. the dreammajor. his only dance form. 19 and 28 of and in several of the tion of this whole A thorough exploraof compositions reveals a wealth of body Gratzer Waltzer. 89 (1814). The the sectional construction which characterizes every one of little number pieces so far discussed also underlies a very large of the dances composed during the nineteenth century. 91. hardly op. only a few can be mentioned here. major. 9 yodelling: in nos. op. 18. 127.

Weber's large-scale Polonaises. but the succeeding energetic to form the coda. statement of the refrain instead of in the centre of the movement. is in strongly dotted rhythm. which is still occasionin public. Wilhelm Friedemann Bach. shows an entirely different ally performed conception of the polonaise from that of Beethoven's predecessor sixty years earlier. which had been preceded by the 'polacca' Finale of his Variations on Vien qua Dorina bella' e in 1807. op. The bold principal op. The Polacca brillante in E major. in the original key as the interludes. is founded on this ever-resilient tune. but the first episode consists largely of a development of the tune of the refrain. E flat. The clear-cut form of the whole approximates to alla c older rondo. These two effective polonaises of Weber's are far surpassed in interest and renown by his Invitation to the dance^ op. The coda. 21 (1808) is preluded by a dramatic Largo in the minor mode in duple time based upon a dactylic figure native to the polonaise after which (j J"3 J~3) The Grande Polonaise in ? the polacca' opens in 3/4 time with a dashing theme in dotted notes. This distincdactylic figure on every beat tive paragraph is and heavily-accented theme reappears not heard again. and it also supplies the material of the extensive coda. are nearly similar to Beethoven's in dimensions and construction but are more consistently florid in their pianistic style. like that of the Grande Polonaise. 65 composed in 1819. His twelve short Polonaises in various tempi subsequently makes three appearances well as one in A major after the longest of It and to the deeply meditative. theme. too. Only the second episode in G major supplies any strongly-marked contrast. are all in expressive styles ranging from the brisk composed in symmetrical binary form. The work may be considered epoch-making. The interlude is placed unusually. but the second subject flows in graceful curves of triplet after the first semiquavers. since it was the a full-length composition to embody the waltz in the forerunner of Chopin's music and was piece of piano first .DANCE FORMS rhythm is 255 announced. This extremely high-spirited piece. 72 (1819) is in modern rondo form. the It opens with a sustained cantabile air underlaid with in the middle voice..

to 1847. a rearrangement of the sections or by by new developments in the material. and although it soon returns to the tonic it never resumes its normal course but runs without a break into a decorative coda. have never lost their original attraction for pianists. although they too have been transferred to the sphere of the orchestra to form the accompaniment to a ballet. op. The Chopin Waltzes. Their rhythmic verve. two years before his death. in the Waltz in flat. For instance. either in public or in private. vary to a concomposed ternary form. or languor have exercised an music-lovers. Some that he composed in early manhood and later. Others of the Waltzes proceed in a series of . their power to evoke well-defined moods and to re-create the atmosphere of excitement. The shimmering tone-colours of the bril- liant orchestral transcriptions made successively by Berlioz and Weingartner have unfortunately robbed the original version of its native charm. In others. 34 and 64. the year he settled in Paris. Here. nostalgia. but a few include a conventional da only capo repeat. the music makes a sudden excursion into an un- The formal outlines of the individual dances opening section either A expected key. 64. . but did not publish. no. were printed posthumously. 18 and in A flat. 3. op. They include his finest and best-known works in this genre: the Waltzes in E flat.256 waltzes. ious and effective interweaving of the seven or eight different thematic fragments into a kind of continuous rondo which is endowed with a rhythm rare unity of style by the predominating of the waltz. Those that he himself published date from 1831. 42 and the three Waltzes each of opp. the siderable extent. their wealth of melody. NINETEENTH-CENTURY PIANO MUSIC the introduction The programmatic connotations of and coda to this piece have already been referred to in the it remains to note the ingenchapter on Romantic Music. Several are in is heightened in interest on its reappearance. irresistible fascination upon generations of Chopin began to write waltzes in his boyhood. op.

op. op. They work up to a climax and are rounded off with a coda in accelerated tempo which emphasizes salient features of the musical material and the whole movement. The Waltzes. which is made of quicksilvery passage-work. the E minor. display the same ingenious rondo design as Weber's Invitation to the dance. the two in A flat. 42. Despite the different tempi and contrasted pianistic styles of the three component sections. It contains a central interlude in the major. no. each identical in every respect except that the second omits the repeat of the opening twenty bars. i and op. especially to the duple-rhythmed principal section. mutually so different. flat. i. 69. In the Waltz in minor. no. which is in older rondo form. but the second section of the outer panels. with few exceptions. The Waltz in G sharp minor is an unusual amalgam of rondo and ternary forms. each of the regular sequence. six different musical ideas alternate in ir- A flat. 2. both precedes and follows the interlude as well as taking its rightful place in the reprise. 70. op. Of this type are the Waltz in E sums up 34. op. which comprises two statements of the same stretch of material. but equally convincing in expression. These two Waltzes. some of which recur periodically. op. 19 (1834) with its overlapping the aspect of is interesting from phrases in irregular bar-lengths The composition A . this waltz does not increase in intensity of expression as do some of the longer waltzes. the F major. Far less subtle in build and less vivid in character are the Waltz in A flat. In the Waltz in well-defined paragraphs is from the next by a purely separated ornamental passage of sixteen bars which runs like a ritornello A through the piece and forms a strong contrast to all the other thematic material. and of which are prefaced with introductory sections varying in length and in forcefulness of expression. all of dances other than those inspired by the music of his native Poland did not call forth Chopin's highest creative powers. notably the minor. no. 42.DANCE FORMS 357 clear-cut sections. and the F minor. plaintive The Bolero in C major. display only the more facile side of his genius.

nos.258 NINETEENTH-CENTURY PIANO MUSIC Tarantella in A flat. and Chopin did not use actual folk-tunes in his compositions an instance except upon the rarest occasions. both show that the melodies and rhythms of Polish national music fired his imagination and exerted a decisive influence upon his whole musical style. The short ficosrepresents saises that he wrote at the age of sixteen are exquisitely light in texture. such as no. though in harmonic interest they do not compare with Schubert's. . to movements in in dimensions The mazurkas range extended form. 4. or the thematic units are welded into a highly organized structure. nos. either the several sections are arranged in irregular succession. and design from short pieces in simple ternary form. musical material. He composed about in practical sixty mazurkas. 26 in Among sharp minor. Movements of the latter type are characterized by the re-introduction in fresh keys of portions of the manner. with the principal section recurring from time to time. and at the same time both national in style and international in appeal. moderate and slow tempi which are distinctive of three different kinds of mazurka: the oberek (obertas). He assimilated the distinctive and transmuted them into a kind of music which is profoundly personal. op. They include movements in the forming lively. In these. the ma^ur^ and the features of the folk-idiom kujawiak. 38 in F sharp minor and 39 in B major are representative. or free. 15 resembles a scherzo with two trios. no. but neither of these pieces is cumulatively the composer at his most typical. 4 in E flat minor which flashes past in the twinkling of an eye. 17 in F minor. when he was only fifteen. which Chopin the Rondo a la Mazur sketched Mazurka in A minor. Intermediate in size and pattern are many mazurkas in different types of rondo or ternary form. 43 (1841) rhythm. The swirling presto brilliant in effect. 27 and 28 are in arch' c C form. first the composed a year later. On the other hand. fifty-one of which are printed pereditions. 1 7. (We came across in the first Scherzo in B minor). respectively. No. op. or by the development of themes in symphonic numerous examples. strict.

although it peneof the keyboard. not only in Chopin's own production. 27 in E minor D accompaniment. Brilliant passage-work music seldom ventures to the higher octaves. chordal progressions that become expression in quiet in their intensity. every one of these features Mazurka may be op.DANCE FORMS 359 In studying Chopin's Rondo a la Mazur in Chapter 7 we found that this early piece was tinged with the characteristics of Polish folk-music. and of two rhythmic traits movement inseparable from the mazurka: the accenting of either the second or the third beat of the bar and the ending of a phrase on the second beat. 23 of an eight-bar tune with a sturdy itself in endless repetitions The melancholy inherent in no. The exuberant gaiety of no. The Chopin mazurkas owe their unique expressive quality to the perceptive integration of primitive material and highlydeveloped musical art. polychromatic harmonies. 34 in C major. 7. 3. observed. The piano writing itself is more waltzes. and then by a series of that chase one another up and down in canon at scale-passages peasant humour is portrayed first the octave. and tireless rhythms into a contrapuntally vital texture makes these pieces a highlight. In addition. robust passionate finds by the tying of a repetitive artless melody to heavy tonic chords. The blending of the modally-flavoured themes. the repetition of short figures and phrases and the introduction of at triplets significant points. In the seventh no. The prevailing moods of the individual mazurkas are reflected in many different styles of piano in major manifests writing. often with telling effect. and the depths In some of the light-hearted movements the melodies are clearly . Among other melodic idiosyncrasies in the mazurkas which may be regarded as deriving from the same source are the hovering of a tune around one note. In no. trates to the restrained in style than in the finds no place in it. the contains examples of a characteristic type of accompaniment: the drone bass. but in the dance music of the whole nineteenth century. in F minor.

contain some of the most effective. as well as some of the most in the whole collection. 5 affords a texture in which they however. the separating of insertion of a series of purely decorative chords over a pedalbass or of colour-washes of frictionless quavers between paraand the interpolation of recitativegraphs of more solid texture. ceremonial character of the traditional dance than did inspired him to compose music in a more majestic style metrical figure the light steps of the mazurka. Another is the great variety of colour-effects which are produced by simple means. closely-wrought contrapuntal writing is one of the of the left-hand The melodic parts significance salient points of the pianistic layout. The typical (/"73 j) lent itself to a kind of treatment that added a martial it But tinge to the compositions. changes in mood involve The pensive no. the the two hands by wide differences in pitch. the modally-flavoured and 35 nos. in single melodic lines or plain octaves. More often flat. they form an integral part of in the upper. 33 in B major accompaniments. They include the plentiful use of ornaments (acciaccature and trills). They afford the pianist of average attainments unrivalled opportunities of acquiring familiarity with the composer's most intimate style. The well-known in C minor which are distinguished by many changes in tonality.260 NINETEENTH-CENTURY PIANO MUSIC from their distinguished Mazurka in B a typical example. neither do they require to be played at excessive speed. middle or lower voices. (mesto). no. In some of the longer mazurkas the many as many changes in the figuration. The Polonaises reveal another aspect of Chopin's musical art. as The mazurkas The processional. the spreading of light or heavy chords by the left hand. They contain almost no wide stretches or intricate passages. 26 and 32 in C sharp minor and nos. like passages a whole are distinguished among all the comparatively few technical Chopin's collections of works by difficulties they offer in performance. was Chopin's own conception . 25 in E minor. varying appear alternately character according to their importance in the in expressive musical argument.

which forms the long introduction to the Polonaise was composed about four unrelated to it. earliest The examples now in general circulation are the three dating from 1827 to 1830. Between this group of relatively unimportant examples of the species and the series of six Polonaises and the Polonaise-Fantasy which Chopin composed between 1834 and 1846 and which are universally known and loved. a virtuoso piece for piano and orchestra that can also be played as a solo. ineno mosso first The Andante spianato in the style of a nocturne.DANCE FORMS 261 of the polonaise. although they are of no great op. intrinsic interest. and the hopes of his native that determined the dimensions and the heroic country. 22 (1830). contains a similar preponderance of decora- . but neither this immature piece nor the other polonaises that he wrote to his up seventeenth year are printed in current practical editions. They were published posthumously as op. op. 71 and are seldom played in public. manner of the Chopin large splendid. but the assured style of the piano writing and It is some daring harmonic clashes compel admiration. Compared with its magnificent successors it is lacking in depth. as a tone-poem which should portray the the departed glories. wrote his first Polonaise in minor at the G age of seven. An acutely tutti is dissonant passage which occurs just before the particularly noteworthy. the important repay study as forerunners of works that followed. came the Grande Polonaise brillante in E flat. The first in contemporary with the glittering D minor (1827). despair. which 'La is c alla polacca' of the ci darem' Variations. It was published at the time (1817). colourful works of his maturity. years later and is musically The three Polonaises of 71.

Throughout this picturesque movement the rhythm of the dance is immanent. 26. but the accompanying chords beat more firmly and the whole movement is resolute rather than in the resigned in feeling. minor. The Polonaises in E i ' flat A major. end in characteristic poloprincipal phrases and paragraphs naise fashion on the third beat of the bar. The a spacious eight-bar purposeful opening theme relapses into above a dominant pedal. exultant. The former smoulders with pent-up emotion and sometimes bursts into flames. the melodic substance is divided between the two hands. op. op. op. All are in clear-cut in a closely-related key ternary form with a central interlude a da capo repeat. after the first explosive phrases. The style of the cantabile theme of this Polonaise in line in dotted notes at the F minor inter- and the melodic lude in very end of the A flat faintly anticipate Polonaise in C sharp minor. 2 (1834-5) anc* in (1838) are alike in their insistence on the element of rhythm but are utterly dissimilar in expression. a short ornamental phrase passage links the section of energetic figuration to the returning principal theme. no. and later. the rhythmically more diversified. 2 (1838-9) is equally serious in expressive character though it occasionally breaks impatiently into passages of rebellious semiquavers. but it is not strongly in evidence in the musical substance which. the features of the succeeding first of the 'idealized' polonaises which Chopin began to compose in 1834. The second in B flat in F minor (1829) are progressively the main secemphasized by the tripartite division of each of tions.262 NINETEENTH-CENTURY PIANO MUSIC major (1828) and the third more melodic in style and In every one of the three. With their rich chordal texture and the extensive use they make of the heights and the depths of the keyboard. The Polonaise in G C sharp minor Polonaise. As chords. no. op. unconquerable. the latter is perpetually martial. 26. but the sharp outlines of the third are softened. consists chiefly of impassioned melodies accompanied by heavily-beating minor. 40. no. 40. Their prevailing formal angularity is and tive figuration. these two pieces convey an impression of greater weight than do the .

which is fewer than four times during the course of the piece. highly-developed type of form in which the many and varied thematic units are brought into close mutual rela- The work opens with a prelude based on a four-note that later acquires fresh significance. Chopin created a new. They die away eventually in fragments as the four-note figure of the prelude steals in pianissimo in longer notes in the bass. With the Polonaise in F sharp minor. The twice in gentle mazurka. 44 (1840-1). with only passing The movement is domiand reference to captivity oppression. The inter- . The structural plan of the four movements just mentioned is almost identical. and after having recapitulated salient musical material. nated by the exhilarating theme in after A flat is an introductory paragraph and announced no repeated. the third time varied. The da capo repeat in the C minor Polonaise is shorn of two-thirds of its but length. It tells a tale of victory. its own key. Thereafter. doppio movimento'. op. Its eight-bar pendant in B flat minor appears tionship. is composed of two themes that alternate with one another in a succession of keys and at different pitches. the movement re-opens with the the prelude in its original form. as well as once in C sharp minor in the centre of the turbulent passage. The Polonaise in A flat. The eighteen-bar figure principal section in F sharp minor is presented three times. whose lilting rhythm forms an effective contrast to the martial tread of the that leads up to the core of c the movement. inspiriting message deep bars. complete. 53 (1842) is shorter and far less is no less its convincing predecessor but highly-organized than in expressive power. a tempo di mazurka.DANCE FORMS 263 Polonaises In C sharp minor and C minor. fades out in a coda. In the last few its the scale-figure of the principal section re-affirms in the bass. but the Polonaise in E flat minor is longer than the others and is rounded off with a brief but dramatic coda. opens the more expressively by retaining in the treble part of the first four bars a melodic figure from the last bar of the preceding interlude. op.

op. major. An antithesis in expressive the untramelled freedom of the is styles perceptible between two themes in A flat and E major and the feeling of hopelessness the Polonaise in conveyed by the long passages following the interlude. the dreaming arpeggios. Instead. Polonaise-Fantasy. rhapsodic already foreshadowed . during which the semiquavers try in vain to escape from the narrow confines of upper and lower pedal-points. which is equally stimulating cumulative force from the hundredfold repetition of a short figure of accompaniment in staccato octaves in the left hand.264 lude In derives NINETEENTH-CENTURY PIANO MUSIC E its in character. The song-like principal theme in A flat. The musical material lacks A any striking constrast in mood such as is created in F sharp minor by the incorporation of the graceful mazurka within its more robust framework. the large-scale works create a deeper and more lasting impression by the continuing tension maintained between their many constituent parts. He no longer on the repetition of whole sections as one of the chief means of building up the musical structure. The Polonaise-Fantasy character that differentiates is endowed with a from all symphonic the other compositions in this group. picturesque all and brilliant his achieved in the Polonaise in F sharp minor and in the great relied Fantasy in F minor composed at the same period. In this The work. one of the most mature of he blended the narrative style of the compositions. 26 and 40 make an immediate effect with their successive panels of strongly-contrasted subject-matter. a figure that recurs momentarily in the coda to escort the theme in flat to its sforzando close. Ballades with the plasticity of form which he had already long. The peremptory opening chords. he concentrated all his skill upon thematic development. and the ever-shifting tonality of the opening parait graph immediately establish the poetic atmosphere that surrounds this alternately meditative and movement. Whereas the Polonaises of opp. 61 (1845-6) forms the climax of Chopin's production of music inspired by the dance.

their elaborate material. naturally out of the preceding melodic curve and gains in intenas it increases from an alternation of sity of expression single an almost overwhelmingly vibrant chordal After this shattering outburst the fateful tremolo. are carried along in triumph by a train of pulsating section. In the first in C minor.DANCE FORMS in the introduction. While they of the polonaise they take no preserve the rhythmic features account of liant piano its character. and their showy cadenzas they gory of the concert-study. hardly penetrate its surface. opens out into a more expansive paragraph that culminates in a pianistic effect unparalleled in Chopin's A long trill above a dominant pedal grows compositions. the curving theme in A flat and the tranquil melody from the interlude. spreads 365 its flowing lines across the first few pages together with its more lively attendant theme and they both undergo extensive development. The unique keenly if quality of Chopin's polonaises is realized more these works are compared with the two composed by Liszt in 1851. types of figuration. and the fastidious workmanship throughout this noble movement display Chopin's harmonic mastery and his art of writing for the piano at their very finest. now transposed into A flat. to chords and single-line arpeggios return to prelude the final During the closing pages. which begins in B major with a melody of narrow span over a rocking accompaniment. chords that completely transforms their original expressive The wide extent of the tonality. pianissimo. With their brildignified ceremonial variation of the thematic writing. the contrasting . plumb the depths of musical the virtuoso productions of a cosmopolitan who feeling. The interlude. Liszt's. cultivated the dance-forms of several nationalities with indis- criminate fervour.. Chopin's. opening notes. come within the cate- In point of formal construction each polonaise consists of a series of episodes which are arranged in markedly different order in the two pieces. which give passionate expression to an exile's burning love for his country. the many different qualities.

'Mephisto' Waltz (1881) and the Fourth (1885) contrast sensuous by pieces of music which seem at the outset to promise untold harmonic luxuriance. a transcription for stically . it takes the decorative interpolation. polonaises are shallow rather Csdrdds macabre and the Third and Fourth 'Mephisto* Waltzes strike an altogether different note.266 NINETEENTH-CENTURY PIANO MUSIC interlude in the relative major that follows the opening section tonic major and is succeeded by a is later recapitulated in the material. for all their many changes of key. E major Polonaise it is a purely whereas in the G minor. 'lento. In the consists in passing the melody from one hand to the other in the centre of a four-part texture. frequent restatement and elaboration of alluring phrases which. never bring the musical argument to a decisive climax. By virtue of the elusive tonal basis and subtle the music is realitantalize the listener by their rhythm Mephistophelean in character. The gruesome atmosphere of the dance of death which surrounds the Csdrdds macabre is evoked crude by chords in bare less fifths. The manner comprising a meditation on the preceding of varying the subject-matter. In this sense it is a logical continuation of the First 'Mephisto' Waltz. changes in the E major Polonaise to the stretching of the melodic thread to the utmost limit of its flexibility. phrases. not referred to again until the The cadenza in each piece. Liszt did not exploit the of the piano as was his wont in earlier years. The corresponding interlude in the long section of new second Polonaise in E major is coda. # Liszt's # # # His than stirring in effect. As they they The Third are proceed. but by an unusual economy of means he produced novel effects in tone-colour which vividly conjure up the dance-scenes brilliant more qualities indicated by the titles. which in the last-named work serves a different purpose. by by countless repetitions of grim. improvisata' material. and then only briefly. form of a longish episode. In these three longish pieces composed in his old age. expressioneerie passages in single-line staccato notes and double octaves that touch the very lowest by a final descent in note of the keyboard. too. quasi cadenza.

The Fourth major and minor modes and between keys a semi-tone apart. a seventeenth-century tune which symbolizes the conclusion of the ball. Papillons and CarnavaL The twelve little movements of Papillons bear no titles. (the Third and Fourth 'Mephisto' Waltzes and the Csardas macabre] differ from the . romantic miniatures. majority of Liszt's longer piano pieces by their relative freedom from severe technical difficulties in performance. It is an astoundmodern colour-effect. evades the issue of established tonality even more persistently by hovering between the fifths sounding doubled of the Csardas macabre. Schumann's contribution to the literature of dance music for piano solo is specialized and extremely individual in character. but their character as dance music is unmistakable. which is less than half the length of the Third. Like the miniatures of his later years which we studied in the previous simplified his style of chapter. for the prevailing The culminarhythms are those of the waltz and the polonaise. one of two episodes from Lenau's 5 The Third 'Mephisto Waltz begins and ends harping on an unforgettable chord made up of a third and two permajor spread out in single or double notes and shaped into and descending curves which are merged into a cloud ascending of evanescent sound by the sustaining-pedal. tion of the series in the Grossvatertanz. While Beethoven and Schubert wrote sets of short dances that could be used for either practical or artistic purposes and Chopin movements of longer poetized the rhythms of national dances in Schumann enshrined the spirit of the dance in two sets of span. are graphic touches that round . as is also the long succession of hollo wingly fect fourths proceeding by semitone at the opening 'Mephisto' Waltz. These three sinister dance-poems. It finally dies away in a phrase of plain octaves that owes no allegiance to a definite key-centre and leaves the listener in suspense. and the striking of the clock as the dancers disperse.DANCE FORMS piano Faust. they show how drastically he piano writing as he grew older. 267 made by Liszt piece The scene in the twenty years earlier of his own orchestral village inn.

The enveloped in the atmosphere both artistically and musically an indivisible whole. op. were all from Carnaval.268 NINETEENTH-CENTURY PIANO MUSIC is off a composition that and through with pervaded through the spirit of revelry. The ultimate development of Carnaval as a sequence of free variations upon a four-note motto theme was referred to in Chapter 6. 39. Schumann's manuscript sketches reveal that Carnavalwas originally conceived on Schubert's Sehnsuchtswalzer (Le desir). no. then as a set of variations. 32. D manner of the composer's 3. no. Among Schumann's few detached dance movements for piano solo. op. the portrait-sketches outnumber the dance movements. 15 and 4 of the Albumblatter. sound in perforSpontaneous though both these compositions is is mance. op. and a Landler in D major. 10 is curiously heavy by comparison. a charming piece of piano writing. no. A A rejected but they breathe the poetic spirit of that work. * The Brahms Waltzes. op. and even complete paragraphs from the Eight Polonaises for piano duet which he had written a few years previously. These Polonaises. nos. is robbed of its native lilt by a series of wayward syncopations. In Carnaval. In composing and n. op. which date from 1865. one is well known as the third of the Five Album Leaves in Bunte Blatter. and every single item of the work as it now stands underwent revision or fundamental alteration before reaching its final state. Of the three remaining dances. This graceful Waltz in flat. op. one variation of which survived to become the opening only section of the Preambule. were . a Waltz in E flat. 5 of the same opus. but the whole work of the masquerade. will be referred to in the next chapter with other music for four hands. together with another in the same key and one in minor. The Fantasy Dance. presto in E minor. the earliest nos. 99. 124. 7. they came into being in laborious fashion. every item of which has a title. Schumann borrowed phrases. despite its extreme brevity. 5 of his piano compositions now readily available in print. is passionately expressive after the Romance in minor. Papillons was designed first as a as a set of variations group of waltzes. 124. no. 124.

The last two waltzes differ in character from all the others. No. who was Viennese by recapture the atmosof the ballroom are not intended as the phere although they residence. the third being varied. and middle voices of the first eight bars exchange the in upper their functions during the succeeding phrase. The well-known no. in others. The 9 in c D vivace in C sharp major has affinities with the sprightly no. 2. in no. but the majority avoid rhythmic squareness by means of expansions and contractions in the phrase-lengths. 12 in E major. 7 in C sharp minor. it never recurs note-for-note. 3 in G sharp minor and A harmonic major display most clearly characteristics of the waltz as one of the principal it is most generally . 16 C sharp minor makes a feature of double counterpoint. Brahms. in the sparse no. The Brahms of the meditative Intermezzos may be perceived in the grazioso no. Taking Schubert as his model he produced a series of short movements whose intimate style recalls that of the Landler and German dances by his Viennese-born predecessor. but they are much better known and more frequently performed in public in the version for piano solo made by the composer. poco piii andante'. 13 sharp minor emanate G from the same musical climate Dances. 6. no. 15 in as the composer's Hungarian Of the others. 5 in E major. in B major and 14 in 1 1 in B minor. The waltzes as a group exhibit a considerable range of musical and expressive styles. 2 in E major. A few are made up conventionally of three to eight-bar phrases. minor and the deep-pitched no. 76. flat nos. the material is imitated or developed in other keys from the first double-bar onwards.DANCE FORMS 269 written originally for piano duet. op. Instead. the dashing. Capriccio in B minor. In some of the waltzes the opening phrase returns conclude the movement. paid no heed to the example set composing longish pieces of music that by Chopin in accompaniment to waltzing. however. without. 15 in Aflat major is a miniature rondo with three repetitions of the refrain. The sixteen Brahms Waltzes are more diversified in structure than are Schubert's. disturbing the natural flow of the music. vigorous nos.

includes picturesque colour-effects. especially towards the endings of the movements. By virtue of their derivation from Brahms waltzes stand on the borderline of nationalist music. 54 (1880) hold a midway position. 3. 42 in major. landler. but the waltzes are expansive pieces of music in which the style of the piano writing and the thematic content claim equal consideration. which incorporate native folk-tunes. is poetized by chromatic alterations and by the dwelling upon a yearning discord: Allegro rit. cluded by a purely ornamental passage. come more definitely within that category. & PP\ fcdktt-tljtfi The major is fascinatingly the frequent repetition of the delayed by falling leading-note above a long-held tonic pedal: final cadence of the fourth in D flat . although the Austrian the the wealth of pianistic decoration that surrounds the tunes almost destroys their artless character. Their melodies and rhythmic patterns show the influence of Czech folk-music. interpolated. Dvorak's Waltzes. and 7. 2.NINETEENTH-CENTURY PIANO MUSIC known: the basing of the three beats of each bar upon notes of the same chord. They resemble those by Chopin in being made up of several longish recurrent sections in different and conkeys. The coda of the sixth The piano Waltz in F major. which ing to the player. a series of tonic and sub-dominant harmonies. The fifth Waltz in its op. and in sometimes being preluded. eight op. Chopin's metric pattern of combined 3/4 and 6/8 time G minor recalls in A flat is constantly varied and is interestwriting. as are nos. Smetana's Polkas and Czech Dances.

op. 13 in major in the Album for A minor. 24 and the di valse' variations in the di menuetto' and 'tempo paragraphs pianos. Grieg's finest permeated by the idiom of Norwegian dances. a long succession of dances: miniature waltzes. op. 72 written five years before his death. i and 'Once upon a time'. op. characteristic pieces based on dance dances conceived both as original and 5 rhythms. 7. preserve the primiexotic elements of Russian folk-music. such as the Andantino in no. Norwegian and as transcriptions. no. no. 57. 10.DANCE FORMS AtiogVo vivace 271 I \dini>. but his Russian dances. are nationalist music in the truest sense. op. op. which are G tive and deeply his native folk-music. 'From early years'. op. dance rhythms into a number of his other piano menuetto' movement of the Sonata in E minor. and the Toung. op. 28. op. he produced Slatter. no. op. and into some of the Lyric Pieces such as 'Vanished days' and 'Homesickness'. and polkas are almost entirely lacking in national colouring. the movements of the 'Holberg Suite. into the central interludes of the third and fourth of type Album Leaves. . Between the The little Mazurka. i. 65. he inserted sections in works: the op. which he composed as a nineteen- and the collection of seventeen year old student in Leipzig. In compositions 'alia addition. .those that show little or no trace of the influence of Norwegian folk-music are in the minority. Romance for two He also introduced Of these many compositions. no. mazurkas. 71. Tchaikovsky's several waltzes. i and 6. 3. nos. 'tempo this the 'alia burla' variation in the Ballade. from early till writing of dance music interested Grieg late in his career and his compositions in this category exemplify many aspects of his musical and pianistic styles. i. 51. 40.

and the characteristic pieces She dances. The occurrence of the sharpened fourth his In degree of the scale in the melody. i. was responsible for the introduction of chromatic discords which add a distinctive fla- vour to those movements that are otherwise simply harmonized. and in E minor op. treatment of folk-songs Grieg sometimes drew heavily the resources of chromatic harmony. 5 and False melancolique. op. 3. op. It continues with several examples of his own conception of the Hailing and the Springdans. 38. no. Include the 'Holberg' Suite. and culminates in the Slatter. 7. which contains intervals Impromptu. 72. no. 57. 18. 6. 7. i. no. 47. an intentional pastiche.NINETEENTH-CENTURY PIANO MUSIC They facile Waltzes in no. intervening of Grieg's Norwegian dances begins with those included in two collections of transcriptions: six in the twentyseries The five and Norwegian Dances and Songs. the simple accompaniment of twangtypical of folk-music. 2. 68. was ideally qualified to Grieg re-interpret the native dance tunes in his mote own musical language. in which Grieg's transcription appears at its art of most daring. and variance with it in mode and ing chords which is frequently at an effect of harmonic crudity that combine to tonality. When upon composing or transcribing dances. 20). 12. 38. 17 (nos. Midway in style between this artificial type of salon the dances in distinctively Norwegian style music and comes the Valse The melody. 47 71). op. Fourth and Ninth Books of the Lyric Pieces (opp. i. The discreet piano writing passages reconciles the two opposing styles. He spent much time in reof Norway where he had unrivalled parts opportunities of . produce looks backwards to primitive music and forwards to modern in the bi-tonality. op. a characteristic trait of Norwegian as well as of Polish folk-music. the A minor. no. op. he tended to employ a more diatonic type of chordal progression. and nos. 5. and 5 of the Six Mountain Melodies (without opus number). in the and Second. 3. op.

an energetic dance in brisk 2/4 time and the gangar. either rhythmically or it offers the performer a melodically. When he technique adapted their music to the keyboard he knew how to evoke the timbre danger fiddle. which moves at a more stately pace in 6/8 time. instinctively of the strident chords and florid ornamentation. in pitch and cross-hand passages requiring extreme agility. The uniformity in design is which dislargely offset. which greatly enhances its character. when it is written in 6/8 time. sudden changes number of problems in negotiating wide skips.. as it is occasionally in the Slatter. and how to indicate the subtle vagaries in rhythm by which it is characterized.DANCE FORMS becoming familiar with the peasant dances that 373 still survived in their natural setting and of hearing music played on native instruments. All his life he cultivated friendships and maintained close contacts with notable performers on the traditional Har- From them he acquired inside knowledge of the of their instrument. plays the material in a series of increasingly its rhythmic peculiarities. and More in sustaining a steady rhythm despite these many technical . The hailing. The last-named is marked by the alternation of compound duple with simple triple time. which Grieg sometimes re-interpreted by using both concurrently. which runs smoothly in triple time. too. * * * * Three kinds of dances claimed Grieg's attention almost exclusively: the springdans (leaping dance). The maintains a high level of interest and is endlessly piano writing Even at its very simplest it rarely fascinating to the player. exhibits the irregularity. already invigorating Most of Grieg's national dances consist of one or more varia- same rhythmic tions upon either a single melody. or upon two or sometimes three alternating melodies within the framework of a short introduction and a longer coda. consists only of a melody with conventional accompaniment. and by strong emphasis upon made up of several strands usually it comprises a texture which lead an independent existence. both by the ever-changing figuration effective settings. At its most complicated. the hailing.

Lyric Pieces. Among D pieces production.274 distractions. notable for fidelity to the given material as it is for imaginative realism in the transferring to the piano of music written for the two-centuries-old stringed instrument. op. Knur Lurasens Hailing II Ped. He then exactly as possible to transform them into adventurous individual piano proceeded music which even today astonishes by the audacity of its harThe entire collection of pieces is as monic and pianistic styles. 4* major. and of pedal-basses which often persist at a time. 47. . The set of seventeen any kind of native Norwegian instrument). op. comparison of the A versions by Halvorsen and by Grieg shows with what great kind of string understanding Grieg interpreted this very unusual music in terms of the keyboard. Grieg arranged for the Norwegian violinist Johan Halvorsen to take down the dance tunes as in notation for the ordinary violin. 72 (1902) occupy a unique position to dance tunes played on (Slat is the name given kind of traditional Hardanger fiddler to save this particular music from extinction. once for a whole dance: the Hailing in periods no. was the outcome of a request made to him by a renowned in Grieg's TheSlatter. NINETEENTH-CENTURY PIANO MUSIC noticeable features that recur particularly are the lavish use of every kind of the dances again and again in for long ornament.

The piano writing in the Marches Slatter The well-known 'The Bridal Procession passes Scenes from Folk Life. for playing at weddings was. spirit .DANCE FORMS 275 The whole work furnishes a parallel to Schumann's transcription for piano of Paganini's for violin. but Caprices Grieg's task was the more difficult as it was undertaken in the interests of folk-culture as well as of instrumental music. and still is. The style of this thirty years piece recalls that of Grieg's how deeply Grieg had already penetrated the goes to prove of his country's folk-music so many years earlier. include a few Bridal Marches. one of the most important activities of the Hardanger fiddlers. op. 19 which he had composed by' from of descriptive music before.

Later compositions for two harpsichords include a Sonata in two movements by the Italian composer Bernardo Pasquini (1637 ful titles 1710) and an Allemande. Dvorak. His sonatas. whose principal works in this category were written between 1772 and 1791. S. dementi's and Dussek's piano duets which. and the two Fantasies originally anical organ. 1 HE literature of the piano duet. are the works of this composed for a mech- only period that hold a per- duettist's repertory. Music written for two players at one or two keyboard instruments is known to date back to the sixteenth century. and pieces with fanciincluded by Francois Couperin in his Limes de Clavecin between 1713 and 1730. the piano duet starts with Mozart. fugues. Grieg. Schumann. variations and to historians. Charles Burney. Weber. as music. Brahms. A Fancy by Thomas Tomkins and Giles Farnaby's Alman for two virginals. and by Dr. Duets for two pianos: by Beethoven. Johann Christoff Friedrich and Johann Christian. Brahms. cannot be compared with manent place in the . Tchaikovsky. one piano Grieg. Chopin. These compositions are of interest principally For practical musicians.Duets for four hands on one piano and Schubert. first came into existence during the latter part of the eighteenth century. for four hands on Origins and early history. Bach's sons. by Mendelssohn. a few musettes. Among the earliest examples of printed music for two performers at one piano are some sonatas by J. some of the earliest compositions in this medium being a piece by Nicholas Carlton for organ or virginal. which attained vast dimen- sions during the nineteenth century. Bizet. 'Duets Schumann.

great number of original compositions for two pianists at either one or two keyboards was increased beyond all reckoning The throughout the century. For instance. a type of duet that does not come within the scope of the In the second place. scriptions and in general. easily available it would probably be greatly enjoyed by practising duettists. they include examples of all the kinds of composition we have studied in these many pages. Brahms 's transformations of his Liebeslieder and Neue Liebeslieder for vocal quartet with piano duet accompaniment into pieces for duet alone. did not lend two performers. With the exception of the very few compositions written on two pianos. The like that of history of the nineteenth-century piano duet. but if it were more players. which will be disoriginally for performance cussed in two consecutive paragraphs. many other works of this kind that enjoy equal status with their respective alternative versions. and other music made for the purpose of study. which composers made of their own works. with the one exception of the concert-study which.DUETS 277 Mozart's although they are not without pianistic interest. Ad nos. as it had been designed player's sion between first and foremost to demonstrate the individual itself to divi- command of the keyboard. comprises a series of echo-effects between the two It is now known only to specialists. have fallen into oblivion. Indeed. Haydn's only composition for duet. Liszt's four-hand arrangement of his organ piano Fantasy and Fugue. The duets that were written in varying numbers by almost every one of the principal nineteenth-century composers of piano music extend far beyond the few types cultivated during the previous century. a set of variations for 'master and pupil' published in 1781. In the first place. all the compositions now to be referred to are piano duets in the commonly accepted sense: for four hands on one piano. by the alternative versions present survey. ad salutarem undam. chamber. . Grieg's tran- for orchestra of his Symphonic Dances for piano duet. by transcriptions of orchestral.

The six Variations in passage. the antiphonal ex- and the alternations of recitative and plosions in the fourth on the Finale. His eight Variations on a Theme by Count Waldstein (1792) are nearly cons Es war einmal ein temporary with the solo set on Dittersdorf but are less elaborate in pianistic style. and a third collection of longer pieces which are less closely inter-related. The three Marches. begins just before a set of variations and a sonata by Beethoven. contain typically Beethovenian touches in the precipitate scales in contrary motion in the second variation. 6. All are rhythmically inspiriting. Some of resemble the simplest and most tuneful of the Bagatelles.278 NINETEENTH-CENTURY PIANO MUSIC the turn of the century with piano solo music. They alter Mann 5 { 3 . The Sonata in D major. op. op. 3 . The first of these in the long D song Ich denke dein' (1800) are pianistically uneventful but the individual variations melodically more gracious. either among his own compositions or in duet literature as a whole. op. is altogether in calibre than that romantically-coloured work. both musically and in their relationship to the composer's other works. It slighter consists of two short movements an Allegro in exiguous sonata as the solo Sonata in : form and a simple rondo which displays not a vestige of the subtlety and elegance that distinguish the poco allegretto e grazioso' Finale of the Sonata in E flat. op. e The pieces themselves are of relatively little importance. They comprise two sets of short pieces which in construction and style display attributes of both the sonata and the suite. 7 (1796). which Beethoven composed in the same year E flat. especially the second and third. His entire production of only four small works does not betoken any great enthusiasm on his part for the duet as a medium of expression. Six petites pikes fadles. After 1802 Beethoven wrote no more duets. in which the style of the piano writing vividly suggests drum-rolls and trumpet fanfares. composed in 1802 show Beethoven in a more characteristic mood. Weber's three compositions for piano duet are of another kind. 45.

Each set with a movement in miniature sonata form and ends begins with a rondo. open and close in the same key and are composed of items so slight in dimensions that can hardly be performed as they single units. 10. and dances. 3. links and the cross-bar rhythm of the moto perpetuo'. brilliant and delicate such as distinguish his most important compositions figuration for piano solo are all manifest in these short works. 4 he plays the theme in the centre of the keyboard during the first variaout of tion. with an eight-bar . arrangement in the two sets. is equally vivacious and light on the wing. presto like those of the sonatas. and in many instances. waltzes. For musiare unfamiliar with Weber's principal works for piano solo. no 3. a large interest. more substantial and better adapted performance individually. variations. in the second he performs as soloist in twelve bars sixteen. the compositions are almost equally pleasurable to Secondo is allotted attractive figures of accomboth partners. share of the musical paniment. op. include dances. the duets form an admirable introduction to his musical style. slow in ternary form and a march. it is. which differ in type and movements op. Six pieces. op. The alternately leisurely and impassioned Adagio in A flat. op. down cians who in accordance with their slender proportions. 10. cipatory c and the dance movements resemble those in the 'Schone Minka' and Castor and Pollux' Variations. 60. variations. but scaled Glowing melodies. no. this whole series of duets occupies a special position among his piano works. The Menuetto in B flat. op. 3. As Weber wrote no miniatures for piano solo other than a few and German dances. As duets. the intervening pieces. op.DUETS 279 (1801). no 5 recalls the Adagio in F of the First Sonata. 10 (1809). 8. The eight pieces of 60 (1818-19) for are longer. and the second. He opens the Mazurka. Within its limited range it embodies prominent features of his art. concise as op. c the long antidisplays the same mosaic-like construction. 4. ecossaises ebullient rhythms. The Rondo in B flat. they possess an intrinsic fascination in being diminutive replicas of the composer's full-scale sonata- movements. In the 'andante con variazioni'. no. In addition. no.

rambling fantasies which are now of interest specimens of his youthful production. The duet sonatas are few compared with those for piano solo: three. 3. . as the basis of three op. proportions and style and is unparalleled either in Schubert's own production or in the duets of any other comin. no. They variation of op. were selected by Hindemith to a c of his four Symphonic Metamorphoses on Themes by Weber (1943). too.the duets are many that have no counterpart in Schubert's works for piano solo: the overtures. variations. marches and pieces of other kinds which add up to a total of some thirty works. 60. the Andantino. The dances. in which context they shine in all the variegated splendour of modern orchestral colouring. no. are seventeen in number and and most varied class of all. rondos. 10. op. he and primo exchange functions as soloist and accompanist meet on equal terms in the during successive paragraphs. as against twenty-one. higher musical rank. several of them divided into groups of two. three. which count only one among the solos. A only as few years later he began to write the overtures. and the March. the divertissements and the fugue. op.280 solo. they which together make up a rich tissue of sounds. no. representative form the largest The marches. Among . 60. 7. parts In recent times three of the Weber duets have been promoted variatO) alla zingara'). Most important of all is the Grand Duo which. 60. The Allegro (originally no. although it is structurally a sonata. comprise a relatively small group. 6. no. 4. dances. sonatas. NINETEENTH-CENTURY PIANO MUSIC and in the picturesque Allegro in A minor. op. or six items. the polonaises. 10. is sym- phonic poser. As a boy of thirteen in 1810 he composed the first of three long. In the Tema sparsely-textured third both play interesting independent op. no 4. Before Weber had completed the writing of his last book of duets in 1819 Schubert had already embarked upon the composition of the great body of works that forms the largest and 'most important single contribution to the whole literature of the duet. 60. 2.

most particularly the Grand Duo and the Fantasy in F minor. the whole collection affords the players endless interest and enjoyment. or which represent aspects of Schubert's pianistic art that are in his solo compositions. composed is . It is not impossible that the duets of this type were conceived for orchestra. ideally suited for musical recreation. Franz Lachner at the Cistercian Abbey of in June. such as the overtures. are much in character than the lighter majority of the solos. and that they were written for four hands only because no opportunities occurred for their performance as originally intended. the rondos and the shorter marches. op. A large number are orchestral in feelsiderably of ing. Tragic and dramatic elements predominate in the Grande marche funebre and the Grande marche hero'ique] the lyrical element is supreme in the Grand Rondeau and in the Variations in A flat.. the picturesque and the severe. 140. other-worldly beauty. one of which is pervaded by an indefinable. but the in most of piano writing the others presents few difficulties. the polonaises. tuneful pieces. both in their intricate texture and in the employment colour-effects that need the distinctive timbres of orchestral instruments to bring them to life. They are not altogether easy to perform. which include the well-known Marches militaires. Discussion must be limited to a few which are either of special interest musically. Musically. not E minor which was exemplified The Grand Duo in C in 1824 major. are illustrated respectively in the long Divertissement a la hongroise and in the little Fugue in written for the organ and was originally in this form by Schubert and his friend the composer first played and conductor. Heiligenkreuz the day after it was composed The large number of the duets makes detailed examination of their individual qualities impossible here. Opposite extremes in Schubert's style. Some of the duets. 1828. Others are deeply serious in mood and expression.DUETS 28l In some aspects of style and expression the duets differ confrom the solos. They show the influence of Rossini and are easy-going.

with a phrase in plain octaves. 76. as do several of Schubert's solo sonatas. This tonal range is extensive. is rhythmically similar to the principal subject. which is now lost. It by Schubert of one of his orchestral works the first place by Joseph has several times been orchestrated (in Joachim). major and recapitulated in the tonic minor. is of the same serenely lyrical type as tus.282 NINETEENTH-CENTURY PIANO MUSIC Its status as it surrounded by an aura of mystery. but the sweeping melodic curve of the Trio recalls the Schubert of the Impromplittle The abrupt Grand Duo is staccato theme in the bass of the Scherzo of the weirdly syncopated accompaniment is unique in his piano music of any kind. as we noticed in Chapter 4. is Contrapuntally it is richer. throughout which the divided between the players fairly C than in any other of the composer's duets. in many of which. these two outer movements present a contrast to some of Schubert's sonatas for piano solo. G major. an Andante in flat major in 3/8 time. a duet has been may questioned by historians. The slow movement. The musical content not only . Duettists are not anything other than a sonata for piano work of unprecedented it as an original unjustified in regarding importance. is in four movements. and there is who think be a transcription as a it is symphony. In the concise thematic material and the symphonic style of development. The the Finale. The opening allegro moderate' begins. major ('Reliquie'). The A the slow movements of the 'Fantasy or Sonata' in and the 'unfinished' Sonata in G op. but less so than in movement opens in a foreign key and hovers it during the coda between G sharp minor and D flat major before swings back to the tonic for the closing section. Melodically it is so little differentiated that the movement makes the impression of being mono thematic. but periodically performed no documentary evidence of its having been intended as duet. This large-scale sonata in thematic substance c is more major. The second first announced by secondo in the unusual key of A flat subject. typical of the composer. the copious subject-matter is leisurely and expansive in character and does not lend itself to develop- ment.

The other. and in a A flat major. op. The flat second. The movement is compact of beautifully flowing contrapuntal harmony which is enhanced in effectiveness by periodic interchanges of melodic between the two players. op. no. 30. It is composed in three sections. but each of the three accompanying voices is itself melodically significant. The Divertissement a la hongroise dates from 1824. a long haunttheme in five-bar phrases which Schubert heard sung at ing G Zseliz and which he made the basis of the whole first section. consists of three shortish Schubert's two other. summer at Zseliz in Hungary with the Esterhazy family. composed in 1818. op. op. is followed by an Allegretto with a Trio in A G this last section originally for piano solo on the 22nd of Septemthis ber 1824. op. ing a central 'andante con moto' in written c. 2. op. ^ s made up of three longer pieces that were originally published D not even now is This sonata under two separate opus-numbers and are printed in practical editions as a complete work. The work opens in minor. 84. movements. made up of the Divertissement en forme d'une marche brillante et raisonnee in E i. the Andantino vane in B minor. andante. a short March in C minor minor. less in style important duet sonatas are different and build. 1825. As music for piano duet. One. 35. op. minor. the first and last of which are of considerable length and are sub-divided into self-contained paragraphs in various keys. French themes. a Grande sonate in B flat. op. both from each other and from the Grand Duo. the surface. two in sonata form flank- minor. m which year ' Schubert spent the. 63. . op. but it was not published in form until over a hundred years later. the Variations in E the Rondeau. and the Grand Rondeau. 10. In musical and interest the three pieces stand far behind the others in pianistic their respective categories: the Divertissement a la hongroise. it fragments is profoundly satisfying. 107. with a Hungarian folk-tune. as the Finale.DUETS 083 supremely tuneful on. minor. 54. Schubert wrote in major. 138. no and the Rondo brillant in E minor on 84.

and owing to their elaborate pianisattain the status of whole style they independent pieces. the fifth is a double variation and the seventh is extended to include an anticipatory link long tempo di marcia' the original outline and shape of the theme are lost in a riot of decorative passagework.. Different as it is in structure from the it no. 4. this to the eighth. and during the last-named. style piano music. In c The Variations on an original Theme in A flat (1824) ma ke an entirely opposite effect. the variatic length. At the third variation the key-signature changes to C major and the music makes an excursion into E flat major. with little interSecondly. fragments of the theme are introduced in A flat major and minor. The work is cumulative in expression. The first four variations follow the theme exactly. resembles that rhapsodic solo in point both of its and colouring and of its extreme effectiveness Impromptu in F minor. The former. 'Reposez vous. was composed in 1818 and was dedicated to Beethoven who played it with his nephew Karl. and by swirling cadenzas of scales in demisemiquavers for performance byfrimo. each con- are mutually contrasted in scope and sisting of eight variations. as Hungarian op. style. it soon expands in tonality. First. The dotted rhythms of Hungarian dances play a prominent material. The piano writing is enlivened by part in the musical the colour-effects of the Hungarian cimbalom passages in which are reproduced by tremolandos. the fifth and the eighth are in E major. The fifth variation. repeated notes and ornaments divided evenly between the players. The sixth variation is in C sharp minor.284 NINETEENTH-CENTURY PIANO MUSIC The musical style of the Divertissement is vivid and picturesque. bon chevalier'. which is based on an old French song. because by being composed on a theme twice as long as that of the set in E minor. Although it starts in simple fashion with diatonic harmonies. The sets of Variations in E minor and A flat major. 142. pianis- . because the basic tonality tions are double the persists mission throughout the entire work.

Truhlingsglaube' (Gretchen (Faith in spring) and others whose accompaniments flow In notes. quest of new harmonic advennever reaching a definite ending. and tures. is in the minor mode. not only by virtue of apart from but because the Trio its inevitably solemn expressive character. which was seldom used by Schubert. Through- out their whole length the duettists carry on a conversation in a type of music which though symmetrical and well-balanced seems to have neither beginning nor end but to exist in a spacetime continuum. which is engaged in playof accompaniment in the centre of the keyboard. It is an exquisitely quiet piece patterns of quickly-moving of music. This type of layout. op. bears the signature of four flats and opens in F minor. and marked to be played stretches at a time. the expressive climax of the work and an unforgettable piece of music. seldom rising to a forte. ing figures The longer Grand Rondeau in major. it sets Although it periodically finds sanctuary in a forth again in cadence. 138. closes with the theme divided between the two players in octaves in the heights of the treble. From the very first bar the music proceeds in a series of transient modulations. placid compositions. The seventh. stands the composer's many marches. More than any other of the rondo form is A duets it lyrical recalls the style of the Schubert songs such as 'Wohin' Spinnrade' am (Whither). The . 'Gretchen at the spinning-wheel).DUETS 285 simo and mysteriously dark in colouring. pianissimo for long Grande marche funebre d'Alexandre /. sub-titled 'Notre amitie est invariable (1818). 'Liebesbotschaft' (Love's messenger). it is ostensibly yet perpetually elusive in tonality. eventually merging without a break into the Finale. 107 (1828) in modern in character. op. The Rondeau in D major. The two rondos are discursive. necessitates the crossing of seconders right hand over primo's left. 55 (1825). The piercingly beautiful harmonies vibrate in the player's memory long after they are silent. composed in older rondo 5 form. op.

march is eight-year-old child. And indeed. who had asked for the composition so that she might play it with him on In striking contrast is the Children's March in Schubert composed in 1827 f r an G major that her husband's name-day. a coronation march for the Czar Nicholas I. The Fantasy in F minor.286 NINETEENTH-CENTURY PIANO MUSIC constitutes a piece of tone-painting such as does not exist in any other of the duets. In the duet to the sending boy's mother. it is not dominated by a single . secondo the playing of six quavers in a bar by prime against four by the whole of the trio section cannot have been throughout altogether easy for the young performer. Unlike the 'Wanderer'. The Grande marche herolque (1826). however. Schubert wrote that he did not feel he was 'exactly made for this kind of composition'. seven months before Schubert's death. In the vigorous style of the piano writing the as heroic as its title. completed in April 1828. symbolizes the pomp and the variegated splendour of the occa- sion in a long piece distinguished by a multiplicity of rhythmical within the signature of common time. bears comparison with the 'Wanderer' Fantasy for solo in piano being composed in four well-defined sections. Faust Pachler. It is divided into designs sections in different keys and modes and has two trios as well as an extensive coda which forms an anthology of the principal themes. It is a graphic representation of the unceasing sounds of muffled drums. the last of which is fugal in character. interpreted in seconded part by uni- form figuration in tremolandos and quickly-repeated notes: Andante soskenuto r=ft? Prime's chordal progressions are characterized by the dotted metrical pattern native to the funeral march.

but the Among the works with a classical basis are a few for two style. Rondo in C major. Works with a sets classical composed. where it preludes the sudden wrenching of the tonality from F major pianissimo to F sharp minor fortissimo for the Largo movement. but this time by means of an enharmonic modulation. After Schubert's death the piano duet entered basis upon a new phase. at the end of the flowing. The Fantasy sums up many of the expressive and pianistic of the most important of Schubert's duets: the broad qualities melodic outlines. the ton- ality undergoes another fundamental change: from F sharp minor to F minor. the rhythmic independence of the players.DUETS motto theme. Yet restatement of the it is 287 ance in some extent unified by the periodic phrase in F minor and by the reappearthe fugue of another theme in F minor first heard in the to initial bass in the opening section (beginning at bar 48). the sharp contrasts in mood and in key. is a decorative composition with hardly a trace of the composer's well-known pianistic Schumann's Andante and Variations in B flat. Again. and others still are nationalist in character. written in 1828 (originally for piano solo) and published posthumously as op. op. the variety of figuration. classical elements predominate over majority of the works are composed in established forms. 46 . and the give and take between the In the Schubert duets the the romantic. chiefly dances with national colouring. rondo-like central movement in triple time. Others show leanings towards the freer The musical structures favoured by the romantic composers. 73. two parts. Schumann. principally the form of programme music or greater number of duets took of dances. Chopin's pianos by Chopin. without a single intervening chord to soften the abrupt transition. The latter theme is presented in longer notes in the major mode at the end of the opening Allegro. and Grieg. Brahms. were still of variations.

although it was played in this more attractive version during his lifetime. however. and the Sonata in F minor an earlier version of the Piano published until Quintet. it is based on a Norwegian folk-song. and is still occasionally heard in public. The variations of the Andante embellish the theme with great effect but they shed very little new light upon it. for his only composition in this medium. 51 (1891). The work was written in the of chamber music with the accompanifirst place as a piece and a horn. Without the distinctive timbres of the string and wind instruments to lend it colour. 34. is an original composition two pianos. op. Schumann had rewritten it more practicably for the two pianos alone. the set of Variations on a Theme by Haydn is an alternative version of the orchestral work. even though it also exists in an orchestral arrangement made by the composer nearly ten years later. but the piano writing is more florid and far less inVariations y for timate in expression than that of sixteen years earlier. even before it was first perment of two cellos his earlier years: the formed by Clara Schumann and Mendelssohn.288 NINETEENTH-CENTURY PIANO MUSIC is art of variation which (1843) shows few evidences of the subtle in the variations for piano solo composed during exemplified Impromptus. Grieg's Old Norwegian melody with op. however. 24 for piano solo. a set of Variations in F major which he wrote in 1826 as a boy of sixteen. Chopin's is the smallest of all. op. but. That he composed no piano duets in his maturity may perhaps . its poetic forerunner written The contributions of the romantic composers to the literature of original works for four hands on one piano vary greatly in number and style. Although they are not the exclusive property of duettists they are greatly prized by them and are not infrequently performed in public. was never published. the slow movement of the Sonata in F minor and the Etudes symphoniques. The original was not many years after Schumann's death. Like the Ballade. the Andante lacks an ingredient essential to its effectiveness in performance. Of Brahms's works for two pianos.

Two of the new variations are composed entirely preserved in part of the Andante preceding which remains practically the same. identical in both sets and the second is moved nearly forward to become the seventh. on this theme by four Russian composers. the long Finale. The fourth finds an echo in the Only two are and the fifth is sixth. 83a. 3. but it is extended by four bars the variations are increased in number from five to eight. B 6. Cesar Franck's Duo on God save the Queen' (1841). Andante and Variations. the whole variation semiquavers on the off-beats marked staccato and vivace. 4. allegro. The op. interest for Mendelssohn's contribution. scudding accompaniment overtones upon seconders melodic primo superimposes delicate and harmonic foundation. and a single variation on the 'Chopsticks' theme (1880) written for inclusion in a set of little between two Liszt's two players. and in no. secondo adds a tuneful outline. of his Variations in studied in Chapter variant. The alterations in the piano writing are as drastic as those in the structure. is not simply an arrangement 83 for piano solo which we op. The eighth. tofrimo's being either set written in the minor mode. and Mussorgsky's Allegro and Scherzo of a Sonata in C major have hardly crossed the frontier no longer in of his country. possesses genuine players. is is equally unserviceable. both musically and pianistically.DUETS be ascribed to the fact that disinclined his 289 gifts supreme as a solo performer him to divide the pianistic texture of his compositions pieces. are of value to practical duettists: a Pestpolonaise composed in 1876 on the occasion of a royal wedding. small as it is. Wagner's Polonaise in D (1831) circulation. composed in his early pieces c youth. neither of them easily available. abounds in fragtwo players. mentary canonic imitations between the which is . In the fifth variation. and It is an enlarged and much enhanced the same. flat. the only one in in fluent demisemiquaver figuration: in no. The theme is first is The closely related to those of the solo version. the parts for are laid out in scintillating rhythmic patterns of both players the bar in the left hand and eight demieight semiquavers to in the right.

op. The brilliant piano and in some of the variations of op. Schumann greatly admired Schubert. Allegro brillante. but when he started to compose Papillons the followduets for thematic material. lish they eventually saw the light of print in 1933 they provided duettists with a set of pieces that are refreshing and en- When joyable to play. The main subject is a fleet-footed scherzando melody which. Schumann started his career as a composer for the piano with a set of Eight Polonaises which he composed for. together with its accomin broken chords. as well as in the rhythmic vigour of the Polonaises and the lyrical character of the Trio sections. his brothers in 1828 when he was eighteen. 75 written c.. to put strong accents on weak beats and to make extensive use of syncopation. his tendencies to present the musical ideas in two-bar or four-bar units.NINETEENTH-CENTURY PIANO MUSIC Mendelssohn's one other duet. Representative examples of his more contrapuntal pianistic style occur in the . ing'year he drew heavily upon the The Polonaises remained unpublished for over a hundred years. has many affinities among the individual pieces of the Songs without Words. 92 (1841). In A major. exemplifies aspects op. and dedicated to. a movement in irregular sonata form. He did not pub- them. 1825 undoubtedly his and stimulated the writing of his own Eight Polonaises. whose Six Polonaises. writing in this composition than does 8sa. combine two or more rhythmic patterns simultaneously and to to devise canonic imitations in the part-writing. 6 1 and Four Polonaises. For instance. they gave musicians in general a new opportunity of gaining insight into Schumann's early style methods of composing. In addition. Typical features of Schumann's well-known later style are already discernible in these early pieces. The two pieces well repay study. op. comparison of the two composers' works in this class reveals many similarities in the metrical A figures and the irregular phrase- lengths. two familiar paniment of his musical style. calls for quicker and more precise finger-work that in the majority of the piano duets written at this period.

but to have given musical expression to the underlying thought and to have re-created the oriental atmothe narrative style of the Novellettes but sphere. op. op. the long piece in D major which precedes the Finale. Throughout the whole opus the musical material is divided between the players in more inter- . The Polonaises had no successors for twenty years. were spontaneous of Schumann's The written in 1849 in response to his publisher's request for a group of pieces similar in scope to the Album for the Toung which he had twelve items. is there any ideas between the players. the most later four-hand compositions. 85. the most interesting in connexion with the Perhaps point Eight Polonaises is their relationship to Papillons. He did its not claim to have written music descriptive of actual scenes this work. secondo comes into own. which vary in length produced that year. give and take of significant musical secondo has either to keep in step withprimo. owes man from inspiration to Schumann's reading of Ruckert's Gertranslation from the Arabic of Harari's Makamen. gave imaginative douleur. are characteristic pieces in and Schumann's happiest vein. 66. the shortest and most intimate merely for his as his piano accompanist. As in nos. the forerunner of no. The music is in lacks their rhythmic vitality. The Bilder aus Osten (Oriental pictures). or to act Elsewhere. 5. In Schumann's next composition duet. etc. Twelve Duets for children. 1 1 of Papillons. sub-titled Six Impromptus. the restful movement in B flat with a particularly expressive left-hand part. Musicians familiar titles in French. young and old. and the whole set makes an imfact that pression of monotony which is emphasized by the movement is written in duple or quadruple every duets. 2 and in expression. a set of twelve little pieces. such as La with the latter will recognize in the third and fourth Polonaises the sources of no. The which all bear descriptive titles. and in the Trio of the seventh Polon- aise. In 1848 Schumann wrote the first of four sets of short compositions which are of a different type from their predecessors. they offer few attractions to performers.DUETS Trios. Only 4. Uaimable. time. expressive little movements to which Schumann.

In this primo's coruscating finger-work is piece supported by secondo' & hum- . a demiseniiquaver apart in time: a pattern that effectively conveys the lulling sound of cascading waters. except in the brisk 'Hun- garian Dance no. is made up of seven dance movements placed between a Treambule' and a 'Promenade'. and crotchets. Schumann's two later sets of duets are Ballscemn (Ball scenes). the parts for the duettists are on a level. secondo (the senior bear) . n. 4. Nine op. As in the Oriental pictures. 2. marked In the outer sections of this aqueous sketch in 3/8 to be played as quickly as possible'. In 'Bear dance no. Six Easy Dance Movements. primo's melody. the entire chordal foundation 'Evening-song'. which is pianistically the highlight of the whole time. no. military secondo. 4. 5 is chained growling to a barrier of tonic chords while primo (the In 'Croatian cub) executes a frisky pas seul in semiquavers.. for series. . even though it possesses attractions of its own in the varied rhythms and contrasted styles of piano writing in the several movements. primo & part comprises all the instruments of the 5 9 . 6 and in parts of Ghost story'. 9.. In the other pieces the style of the parts for the two in the central interlude of players is little differentiated except no. is chiefly in quavers In the final scurrying semiquavers. The recalls Carnaval^ secondary in Characteristic Pieces. At the fountain. march no. band except the Throughout 'Grief. the layout c both partners is composed of six semiquavers in each hand. Five of the items are particularly notable for the ex- treme independence of the two parts. the most graphic and imaginative of all. 109 (1851).NINETEENTH-CENTURY PIANO MUSIC fashion than in any other of the composer's collections esting of duets. 130 (1853). In Kinderball (Children's Ball) . By comparison with interest. seconders no. 3 op. j&rima's and secondo's parts are consistently differentiated in style. most of all in Jzcossaise. ground-plan but Ballscenen lacks the romance and the sparkle of its inimitable forerunner. in which each player retains his own identity in no uncertain fashion. 5. which is allotted to percussion. secondo supplies below the tenuous melodic line played by primo's right hand counterpointed by alone. c no. this vivid and entertaining series of miniatures.

As music that is designed either for performance by young people. and the work mounts . 22. alone. unfinished composition for piano solo. same 23. softfooted. It is a sequence of twelve pieces descriptive of traditional nursery pastimes. or simply for their entertainment. 'allegro non troppo'. 6. minor mode. to which reference was ter 6. Kinderball passed in charm by a work in the same vein but is far sur- pianistically more fanciful written d'enfants about twenty years later: Bizet's Jeux (Children's games). time of the theme are restored for the sixth and key and duple seventh variations. lilting movement in the relatively bright key of B major which forms a contrast to all the preceding and succeeding variations The basic by being written in compound triple time. 'andante molto moderate' with three decorative variasets Opening tions in the tonic it in the major and one in sparse harmonies to quicken in pace in the fifth variation.DUETS 293 and the players unite In striking the pairs of heavy chords that punctuate the movement. In 'Round dance no. picturesque composition which possesses attractions for players of any age and which and on gramophone records. op. op. is easily available both in print Brahms's contribution to the piano duet represents two extremes in style. secondo's busy accompaniment is placed so low on the bass 3 drum . however. His first work in this category was a set of ten Variations on a Theme by Schu- mann. keyboard that it completely overweights prime's solo. the classical and the popular. The great difference in the character of the theme. made in Chap- These 'Schumann Variations. begins a quiet. a witty. the long theme in E flat major in 2/4 time that had formed the basis of Schumann's own very last. The 'Schumann' Variamany kinds of effective. colourful piano writing and the composition as a whole gathers strength as it proceeds. tions contain the two works apart. but in point of year 5 the technique and expression they diverge considerably from monumental solo. were written in the as the 'Handel' Variations (1861).

Their racy tunefulness and rhythmic verve exercised a great fascination over Brahms from his early years onwards and even influenced the style of some of his in- strumental compositions. sympathetically much Tchaikovsky's Fifty Russian Folk-songs (1868-9) are likewise of which the transcriptions of national tunes. Each performer takes an active but not unduly arduous in part presenting it in an unending variety of harmonic and and in an exotic rhythmic guises creating atmosphere by means of vivid colour-effects. is full of interest for the players. But perhaps none of these transcripgives so versions so tions satisfaction to the players as do the original devised for the duettists. many used in his original works. we studied in the previous chapter. It ends solemnly with an 'alia marcia in the tempo and style of a funeral march and is rounded off by a condensed statement of the theme above secondo's accompaniment of muffled drums which continue to roll or to beat ominously until the very last 5 bar. 17-21) were orchestrated by Dvorak. composed between c. The piano writing of the Hungarian Dances. Brahms arranged ten of the dances for piano solo and five (nos. the Hungarian Dances are not original compositions. serious work are Brahms's duets in dance forms: the Waltzes. as also that of the 'Schumann' Variations. 24 of Peters Edition as 'Russian in the Album Song for the Young. We have already met no. and the four sets of Hungarian Dances. popular native composers.294 NINETEENTH-CENTURY PIANO MUSIC c 5 by way of the eighth in G minor. which. 39. Completely antithetic in style to this deeply-felt. Unlike the Waltzes. twenty-one in all. 1858 and 1880. but are arrangements of melodies by known. because they are more generally performed as solos. op. They belong almost equally to the literatures of the piano duet 5 composer . poco piu vivo to a tremendous climax in the ninth variation in C minor in common time. Brahms's own mastery as an executant declares itself in the effective distribution of the musical material over the whole keyboard. Dvorak's Slavonic Dances are entirely original compositions.

Serbian. The first dance in the second collec- a 'molto vivace' in B major and minor. An essential musical characteristic of the dances. 41 (1877) which is unknown to practical duettists. both jointly compositions. which is reflected in the style of the piano writing. The harmonic style touches extremes of diatonicism in nos. texture and vitally interesting pianistic constitute a never-failing source of enjoyment to They form a and severally. ful Allegretto in E major and minor which gives no hint of the violent change in expressive character that it was later to undergo. 59 (1881). op. appeared in 1878 and was succeeded in 1886 by the eight New Slavonic Dances. a gracetion. C E back to D flat of the other dances the tonality is comparatively equable. 72. Polish. 1 2. The latter. His two remaining and From the four-hand Legends. . is the great abundance of counter-melodies. They comprise examples of the dances of several nationalities. whereas every one of the Hungarian Dances is in 2/4 time. After being wrenched major at the last possible moment. begins hesitantly in E flat minor. 46. 15). tonally volatile movement. which bears the signature of D flat major and ends flat in that key. The first set of eight Slavonic Dances. and Slovakian. is a reworking of the last of the Four Eclogues mentioned in Chapter 10. op.DUETS 295 versions con- and the orchestra. continues in major and minor and contains a section that hovers between A major and other keys. Moreover. they are written in different time-signatures. they range from the graceful Bohemian sousedskd in slow waltz time (nos. it is finally clinched by a superlatively chromatic plagal cadence. for Dvorak composed both temporaneously. In most sharp minor. and of chromaticism in no. 4 and 16) to the impetuous Serbian kolo (chain-dance) in presto 2/4 (no. op. In type. Bohemian. The Slavonic Dances as a whole group are much more varied than Brahms's Hungarian Dances. Even the few dances which are written in one key-signature throughout are animated by chains of shimmering transient modulations. the players. Ukrainian. 3. op. 7 and 8. Dvorak also wrote a set of Scottish Dances. though it is never lacking in unexpected fluctuations.

Legend C harmonic clashes electrifying tion musically but which add which seem pungency to have justificato the dark-huecl sub- no 8 in F major. D Grieg's piano duets differ as a whole collection from those one of by all the other them exists in an nineteenth-century composers. Legends D Forest. is distinguished lilting 6/8 rhythm. 2. More romantically expressive are On the dark lake'. op. No. in The the greatest variety of sharp minor contains the most independent part for secondo and a series of figuration. in is. of varying length. comprises the slow movement and Scherzo of a in C minor which wrote at the Symphony Grieg . 'In troublous times'. 9 in major is unique among the in its extreme conciseness and monothcmatic style. The earliest. No. from all the others by its quasi andantino'. rhythms pieces the dance are little in evidence but the rhythmic clement is which the strong in the first. and the disjointed the watch'. sixth of the piano writing which interesting in point less exuberant than in the Slavonic Dances. in the are clear-cut The ten pieces Legends of which the rhythms of marches and dances. 14. and c Silent woods'. are more the main. no. 'Witches' Sabbath' and the sixth. In the spinning room'. no. are generally familiar but they have never achieved the popularity of the Slavonic Dances. 5. ln the spinning room' even contains a written indication that the repeated octave in seconders part on the last page represents the striking of twelve o'clock. Two Symphonic Pieces. quick or majority are immanent.296 Bohemian NINETEENTH-CENTURY PIANO MUSIC Forest. Others composed in the narrative style graceful. and again in the third. To both the latter. 4 so restlessly watchful that it only reluctantly admits a tune six c On towards the end.wheel. an expansively melodic 'allegretto ject-matter. op. paragraphs of dotted beats c or galloping triplet quavers impart a march-like rhythm. Every alternative version made by the composer himself either for orchestra or for piano solo. throughout In the six of From the Bohemian the of piano writing simulates the whirring of the spinning. no. 68 (1884). All the c movements are programme music.

17 more 66). which is also in D major. are based princi. with one exception are of the c are all in ternary 297 age of twenty-one on the suggestion of the Danish composer W. It is based on the solo song 'Autumn storm op. 4. u major. Gade in 1864 but which he never published in its original orchestral form. In the fourth Norwegian Dance in minor is founded entirely upon and in the third Symphonic Dance. In Autumn. Each contains halling' type in 2/4 time. and the much later four Symphonic Dances. op. a contrasting interlude in the opposite mode and usually in a different tempo and expressive style. but they are of larger dimensions and are highly developed in musical style. demonstrate his manner of employing folk-tunes as material for symphonic development. The material of this central section is sometimes derived from that of the outer panels. published as a Fantasy for four hands in 5 1867 and did not take its final orchestral shape until twenty years later. The individual dances which. The fourth Symphonic and Dance. The four Norwegian Dances. the same pair of *springdans' and melodies is used in the major and the minor and in different rhythmic patterns throughout every section of the movement. the episode in the the theme of the introduction. 23 and 24 of op. was written as a concert-overture for orchestra in 1866. 64 (1898) which he arranged for orchestra either before or after writing them for piano duet. n. op. no. which is composed of the two melodies that Grieg had already transcribed with extreme simplicity as nos. The work shows few traces of the composer's typically Norwegian style. but it is a new. pally upon Norwegian folk. 18. separate introduction embodying a theme prefaced by that recurs later in the piece and has an entirely different ending. They are transcriptions in the same sense as are his two sets of folk-tunes for piano solo (opp. Niels op. 35. first It was. which Grieg also published for piano solo. D . a the only one in triple time. The next duet composition. however. which was then only gradually evolving but which by the time he came to write the Norwegian Dances in 1 88 1 had grown to maturity. 17. which Grieg had composed the previous year.

augmentation (doubled later presented tranquillo in note-values) in the minor. the two Valses-caprices. up and down the keyboard in Throughout these two sets technical device known to him of dances Grieg employed every for enhancing the musical and of the native songs and dance tunes that expressive qualities formed their basis. At the climax. a bracing northern blast blows through these folk-music may be recogpolished salon pieces. inspired Grieg to write a page of music which. and in the dark-coloured outer sections of the second in E minor. The episode Dance draws in A major substance from a phrase in the opening section which is translated into the relative minor. he worked with a very different kind of material and treated it in more conventional fashion* Nevertheless. which he also arranged as piano solos. op. solo or duet. Throughout nine successive phrases. is unequalled in any trio (in In the E of his other works for piano. a four-note figure seven times. moderato alia marcia'. the vigorous principal phrase as well as in is transc formed rhythmically lento' interlude. in the first Symphonic Dance. another feature derived from Norwegian folk-melody. major) of the latter. for harmonic originality and sensuous beauty. Again. is its accelerated in pace and tossed reckless fashion. the hovering of a tune around two notes. Elements of nized in the frequent flattening of the leading-note as well as its downward first progression by leap in the presto episode of the Valse-caprice in C sharp minor. G major. the melody . as if to mode and tempo is in the piu reiterated fate that has befallen of the chromatic emphasize the extremity of the second Norwegian it. In his only other work written originally for four hands. 37 (1883).298 NINETEENTH-CENTURY PIANO MUSIC of the third Norwegian is The opening theme 'allegro Dance in G major. its melodic outline gaining in significance likewise in by being placed above changing chromatic harmonies. With the utmost economy of means he created a kaleidoscopic musical effect. each consisting of two contrasted units at different pitches.

sometimes with every bar or beat. It is one of the most striking in the whole literature of the later nineteenth-century piano duet. . the music never loses The rhythmic shapely contour or its sense of direction. The chordal foundation shifts with every phrase. uniformity of the component phrases assures it of its a homogeneity in character which the harmonic vagaries are but have no power to destroy. touching many points of the harmonic compass.DUETS In every phrase except the last comprises only 299 two notes. Yet despite the many chromatic deviations. The passage qualified to enhance must be heard to be believed. a semitone apart.

Similarly. the year in which Brahms was composing the Taganini' Variations. to the yet who are by general consent regarded as the first belonging . When a survey of the piano music of the whole twentieth century eventually comes to be written. romantic character of some of the ten of Beethoven's sonatas. which include the Tathetique'. the two books of Preludes (1910 and 1913) and the twdvefitudes (1915). who the nineteenth century. who were born long before 1 900. first The turbulent. should nevertheless have become one before 1900. It is lived of the dominating personalities in the music of the later century. all of which are landmarks in twentiethcentury piano music.EPILOGUE Summing-up and a Glance Forwards DURING the course of this survey of nineteenth-century music we have spent much time in studying the works of a comwas bora thirty years before 1800. historians will need to turn back to the later years of the nineteenth century to study beginnings of the careers of at least three composers of piano music. besides Debussy. makes it equally difficult to realize that the composer was born as long ago as 1862. and that Debussy. Estampes (1903). the advanced style of Debussy's later the two sets of Images (1905 and piano pieces. but we have paid poser who no attention to the works of one who was born many years a curious anomaly of musical history that more of his life in the eighteenth than in Beethoven. should be concentury and only eighteen in sidered a twentieth-century composer far excellence. makes it difficult to realize that these epoch-making compositions were written only a few years after Mozart's death and while Haydn was still living. who lived thirty-eight years in the nineteenth -the twentieth. 1907).

Ravel's Menuet antique (1895) and Pavane pour une Infante defunte (1899). and Grieg. and Ravel had Consideration of the early works by all these composers has to be omitted from the volume because their main present least falls outside the period under survey.SUMMING-UP AND A GLANCE FORWARDS 30! twentieth century: Sibelius (1865). Brahms to inspiration: Mendelssohn and Schumann Beethoven and Schubert. some of the composers pressive styles. Suite Bergamasque (1890). All these composers played their part in of them. Liszt in his turn to lay the foundations of twentieth-century music. Early nineteenth-century composers accepted established musical forms without question. Others habitually looked towards the future: Chopin. -many of Scriabin's sets of Preludes and the first three of his sonatas during the iSgos. both in 1893. It was they who began Chopin's the sustaining-pedal for evoking poetic tone-colouring influenced Liszt in the direction of polytonality and impressionism. The piano music of the present age fundamentally of the classico-romantic nineteenth century. Yet the changes in the nature of the keyboard music of the successive centuries did not take place rapidly. but we may at remind ourselves that several well-known compositions of theirs were written before 1900. determining the pianistic styles of their successors. Dvorak. Each most especially Chopin and Grieg. Debussy's Deux Arabesques production (iSSS). They only of romantic piano music occasionally looked backwards for to Bach. Liszt. the Sarabande (1896) later included in the suite Pour le Piano (1902)5 and the Petite Suite for piano duet (1888). advanced chromaticism and his imaginative use of widened Dvorak's and Grieg's harmonic out- look and lent them new spheres artistic support in their explorations into of tonality. Sibelius's Six Impromptus and Sonata in F. Scriabin (1872). also made a valuable con- tribution towards the truer appreciation of the folk-music of . just as is the latter from the harpsichord music of the preceding period. different in character is commonly held to be and expression from that gradually remoulded them in accordance with new modes of thought while at the same time cultivating new exAs the century advanced.

effect an achievement that has not been without upon succeeding generations of composers.302 his NINETEENTH-CENTURY PIANO MUSIC respective native land. treasury. piano music is not even yet a spent it still remains an inexhaustible playing. nineteenth-century force. . As a formative influence upon the piano music of the present As music for era.

in Music. A Hundred Tears of Music (second edition). . 1928. Rosamond E. E. J.: Schubert: a Documentary Biography. Dale. J. Dent. Peter: Brahms. Dickinson. Joan: Schumann. ensalza. 1912-16. Latham. Eric: The Romance of Everyman's Dictionary of Music. Oxford University Press. no. 1949. M. E. Oxford University Press. ed. Dent. 1946. J. 1947. Foulis. Cramer) Pioneers ofpianoin Music Review. Oxford University Press. forte playing.: Mussorgsky. Schubert. : Dessauer. Gerald: Design 1949. Galvocoressi. Macmillan. Fuller-Maitland. Schumann in the respective volumes of the Symposium series. O. Dent. F. Hipkins. I927- Hedley. Dent. Heinrich: John Field. 1948. 1947. 3. 1939. The Three C's (dementi. Harding. Joseph Williams. E. 1946.: Tchaikovsky: the piano music (in Tchaikovsky: a Symposium). H. in How Macpherson.: the Pianoforte. Kathleen: Essays on the piano music of Grieg.BIBLIOGRAPHY Abraham. 1930. D. Lang- Deutsch. A. 1948. 1945.: The Piano-forte. the Piano. of Music. 1912* sein Leben und seine Werke. A. (Ed. Oxford University Press. Novello. 1937.: The Growth Colles. Stewart: Form Music. Duckworth. A. Chissell. 1948-52. C. Cambridge University Press.) Grove's Dictionary of Music and Musicians (fourth edition). Its history traced the Great Exhibition to of i8jr. H.: Description and History of 1896. 1927. Czerny. Arthur: Chopin. Chopin's Musical Style. 1940. Dent. Oxford University Press. Dent. Hipkins. Blom. Dent. 1945. Oxford University Press. Chopin Played. Gerald Abraham. VoL VI.: Schumann's Pianoforte Works (Musical Pilgrim Series).

London. Robert: Gesammelte 4 vols. Florence: 1948. New translation. Musical Articles Encyclopedia Britannica. October.: The Structure of Music. 1854. Oxford University Press. Oxford University from the Press. William: Weber.. O. selection in F. Dent. Robertson. 1940. Musical Analysis. . Beethoven. Saunders. 1944.. 1947. Oxford Uni- Oxford University Press. Donald Essays University Press. 1954. versity Press. Oxford University Press. Frank: SalvatorRosa and Music in Walker. London. 6 vols..304 NINETEENTH-CENTURY PIANO MUSIC Life of May. Brahms (second edition). Monthly Musical Record. Oxford University Press. 2 vols.: Tovey. Essays in Musical Analysis: Chamber Music. Alec: Dvorak. 1944. Essays and Lectures on Music. Leipzig.. 1949. William Reeves. Oxford 1877. Scott. Dent. Percy: The Oxford Companion to Music (ninth edition). English translation. Dent. 1934. 1945. Morris.: Beethoven. Marion M. 1944. Schriften fiber Musik und Musiker. 1935-9. Schumann. 1949. in i vol. R. Scholes.

Schubert: Sonata in E minor. PIANO DUETS Bizet: Jem United d'Enfants. Hinrichsen.2. British & Continental Music Agencies. 2. London. Liszt: Late miniatures..APPENDIX I Particulars of Recently Published or Unfamiliar Works PIANO SOLOS Balakirev: Islamey: Oriental Fantasy. 19. Trauermarsch. Augener. 1952. Vol. London. W.. etc. Smetana: Album Leaf. Schott. in F major. 6. Gigues. Schumann: Variations on an Original first Theme (Schumann's last published in 1939). Brahms: Sarabandes and Augener. 1938. 1938. composition. Liszt Society's Publications. Bernard Wilson. Music Publishers. Dvorak: Four Eclogues. Tomasek: Ten Eclogues. Hampstead. Tchaikovsky: Variations I950. London. Csdrdds macabre. Borodin: Petite Suite . 1948. Hansen. Liszt Society's Publications. Richard Schauer. Hudebni Matice. no.. . Augener. London. Third Mephisto Waltz. Augener. Durand et Cie (1950) .. Impromptus. I. op. Paris. 1949. Franck: Short Piano Pieces. Vol. Studies (Shedlock). Prague. Fourth Mephisto Waltz. W. Copen- hagen. 1942. Hinrichsen. Peters. Schott. Cramer: The Cramer-Beethoven Grieg: Six Mountain Melodies (Sex norske fjeldmelodier). Hinrichsen.C. published in Contemporaries of Schumann. Hinrichsen.

Universal Edition. 24 Great Pul- teney Street. Schirmcr. New York. 1933. Peters. 1940.306 NINETEENTH-CENTURY PIANO MUSIC compositions. W. Mendelssohn: Original don.i. ... Lon- Schumann: Eight Polonaises. Chappell. Tchaikovsky: Russian Folksongs.

APPENDIX and II Table of the Numbering of Schumann's Liszt's 'Paganini' Studies SCHUMANN Studies after Caprices PAGANINI Caprices. i 2 No. 5 6 17 r J 2 4 5 9 6 24 . i No. op. 3 No. 10 No. i by Paganini. 5 9 ri 2 3 4 5 13 X 6 jStudes de concert d'apres 9 16 des Caprices de Paganini^ op. op. i Preludio\ fitude No. 12 6 I0 3 4 5 6 LISZT Grandes Etudes de Paganini 4 2 3 No.

Bax. 18551899 17601842 18101849 17521832 16681733 17711 858 * 79 s-" 285 7 16941772 18621918 18621934 I Karl Ditters von 739~ I 799 Dowland. Frederic dementi. Ernest 17261814 1543-1623 early sixteenth century Cherubim. John 1833-1887 1 833 1897 1563-1628 Burney. Bach. Bach. Frederick Dittersdorf. Muzio Couperin. William Sterndale Bizet. Ernst Christoph 15631626 17341779 1 Dussek. Charles Byrd. Giovanni Battisto Borodin. John Dressier. Arnold Beethoven. Mily Alexeivitch Bartok Bela. Johann Baptist Czerny. William Carlton. Ludwig van Bennett. Francois Cramer.APPENDIX III Table of Composers* Dates Carl Philipp Ernamiel Johann Christian Johann Christoph Friedrlch Johann Sebastian Balakirev. Louis Claude Debussy. Alexander 1714-1788 735-1 782 1 732-1 795 1685-1750 1837-1910 1881-1945 1883-1953 1770-1827 1816-1875 1838-1875 1 1672-? 1755 Brahms. Jan Ladislav 760 1 812 Dvorak. Luigi Chopin. Antonin 18411904 . Bach. Johannes Bull. Karl Daquin. Claude Delius. Georges Bononcini. Bach. Nicholas Chausson.

Jean Philippe Ravel. Ignaz Mozart. 1600 John Franck. Paul Hiittenbrenner. Alessandro Prokofiev. Anselm 1782-1837 1822-1890 1817-1890 1843-1907 1810-1889 1685-1759 1732-1809 b. Kodaly. Vincenzo Rosa. Giacomo Moscheles. Felix Meyerbeer. Sergei Purcell. Sergei Rameau. c. Giles Field. Edvard Gung'l.TABLE OF COMPOSERS' DATES Farnaby. Modest Paganini. Niels W. Franz Schumann. Georg Frideric Haydn. Cesar Gade. Zoltan 1882 Kuhnau. Salvator Rossini. Grieg. Karl 1660-1722 1801-1843 1811-1886 Mehul. Maurice 1796-1869 1763-1817 1809-1847 1791-1864 1794-1870 1756-1791 1839-1881 1782-1840 1637-1710 ? -1683 1891-1953 1659-1695 1873-1943 1683-1764 1834-1858 1756-1812 1615-1673 1792-1868 1660-1725 1685-1757 1797-1828 1810-1856 Reubke. 1560-^. Wolfgang Amadeus Mussorgsky. Julius Righini. Bernardo Poglietti. Joseph Handel. Johann Liszt. fitienne Mendelssohn. Alessandro Domenico Schubert. 1895 1794-1868 b. Lanner. Joseph Franz Loewe. Scarlatti. Niccolo Pasquini. Gioacchino Scarlatti. Henry Rachmaninov. Robert . Joseph Hindemith.

Richard Tchaikovsky. Carl Maria von c. Johann Johann Joseph (the elder) (the younger) Eduard Strauss.3IO NINETEENTH-CENTURY PIANO MUSIC Scriabin. Jean Smetana. Peter Ilyitch Tippett. 1865 Strauss. Antonio Wagner. Strauss. Bedfich Sibelius. Jan Vaclav Tomkins. 1824-1884 1804-1849 1825-1899 1827-1870 1835-1916 1864-1949 1840-1893 1905 1 7 74. Alexander 1872-1915 b. 1573-1656 1675-1741 1813-1883 1786-1826 . Richard Weber. Thomas Vivaldi. Michael b.1850 Tomasek. Strauss. Strauss.

no. Knut Lurasens Hailing. 3. 94 Bach. Sonata in A flat major. 7. 132 Carnaval. 3. 'Die Post'. 193 Franck. Mozart. Bagatelle in E flat major. 33 flat major.Index of Musical Illustrations Bach. 28 in D major. 216 Weber. 192. 204 'Bach' Fugues. 93. Symphony in Schubert. 261 1 158 E flat tude in minor. 49 Fantasy in C major. op. 274 Liszt. op. op. 35 Chopin. 34 in E flat major. 6 in F major. 227 Waltz. Song: 'The Bridegroom'. 193 Diabelli. 229 Eclogue in G minor. Ballade in Polonaise in A flat major. no. 27. in G Song: 'Die Post') major. 53 ('Wald- stein'). 4 in D flat major. Chopin. Schubert. Caprices. no. Grande marche funebre. 'Pastoral' Symphony. Eclogue in G major. 286 Song. 227 Humorcsque. 229 Humoresque. 173 Beethoven. no. 270 Field. D 207 Grieg. Organ Fantasy and (see Fugue. 274 Wagner. 82 Taganini* Studies. no. in in G E Grand Concert Solo. Albumblatt. no. op. Album for the Young. 172 Sonata Sonata Sonata Sonata 35 Sonata major. II. Organ Fantasy and Fugue in G minor. 271 Waltz. major. Waltz) Schumann. no. 212 'Pastoral' Halvorsen. 192. 6 in B major. 180 Mendelssohn. 'The Bridegroom'. i. 4 in F major. minor. op. Beethoven. 49 . 76 Paganini. 10. Don Giovanni. Reverie-Nocturne. 174 (see Diabelli. Knut Lursaens Hailing. 76 Song. Waltz in G major. 92 Sonata in B minor. 106 Dvorak. Symphony. A 1 86 Fugue in E Sonata in C minor. 2. II. 147 minor. 129 Mozart. Don Giovanni'.

27. 2.. 172 no.33 capriccio. 31. 23. a n Piano Concerto. 28 no. 37 no. 2ui no. 123 Rondo in major.32. 30-3-2 passim. 31. 22. 98. 22. 2. 130 i. 3. 109. t G 28. 13-16. 26. 40. 102 March by Dressier. as a whole. 2 C" Moonlight'*) 20. 22. 54. 14 Bach. 3 '2 no. 8ia ( Lebe\vohP). 182 Italian Concerto. m/ G . 20. i. 13 (Tathetique\). sx. 40 no. 278 on an Original Thome in major. 2(>. 17. 36. 2 1 Beethoven Albumblatt fur 5 Bagatelles. 6 for piano duet. 10..57. 26-28 passim. 2. 22. 210-11 Prometheus . 22. 27 no. 40 op. 3. J. 25. I. 18. 118 Capriccio on the departure of a beloved brother. 126. 2. i. J. 15 no. 23. 25. 25. 7 Sonatas. 22. 77 op. 2. 123-4 Sonatas. 17. 17. 79. 99. 29. 36 op. Sonatas for two pianos. 1 06. 10. 200 op. 103 on an Original Theme in C minor (Thirty-two). 28. 25-28 passim. 7. no. 123 Op. i. Brandenburg Concerto. 110. 34. 39. 39 op. no. 3 ('Eroica*). 135 Clavier "Obung. 35> 57. 29. no. 57 op. ('Hammerklavier'). 159-50. 19. 30. 57. 20. 130 Cantata: Weinen. 27. 40.Index of Composers and Works (Where works are discussed in Bach. 27. 140-1. 21. i o i . 13. 1 34 300 1 8. 37 op. Sonatinas. 41 '2 no. 7. 3. no. 29. 22-23. 277-8 Fantasy. W. 25. i. 57. E. 38. 5. 4. 276 Bach. 27*29 passim. 6 ('Pastoral'). i . 32. 12. ia6. Sonata. no. 305 BartcSk. 165 Elise. 23. 21. 35 3^ 57* 6? 4 % 122. IT. 17. 22. /a/5 op. op. 104-fr 121 op. 278 Piano Concerto. F. 137 Marches for piano duet. 2. 15. 9. i>/. 22. '-278 op. 213 Polonaise. 22. G. 53 ('Waldstc'in'). 198 172-3 op. 1 98 Chromatic Fantasy and Fugue. 8. 22 no. op. 91 Fantasy in G minor.//. J. 33. 102. 29. 9i no. 26.22. 38 Sonata. 27. 254-5 Preludes. 29. no. 26. xfi-so. 34. 57 xoa op. 57 ('Appassionata'). C. 102. 36. 28. 23. 37. 3ti. 49. 182 'Goldberg' Variations. F. 28 ("Pastoral'). 27. 29. 27. 17. 29. 182 Partitas. 201 Bach. 3. 185. 182 Six Preludes and Fugues for organ. 200-201 Symphony. 7 Sonatas for two pianos. no. 182 minor. 14.90*21. 15. 39 op. 31. 98. G. 15. 126 ('Funeral March ). 12 op. 12 Bax Sonatas. 15. 27. 212 n G Rondo a 32. 19. 27. 39. 7^ *23 3<> 32.. 41. 1 26 op. 181 Polonaises. Fantasy and Fugue in op. 103 Rondo in C major. 137. 3 1 . 164 Chaconne for violin solo. detail the page references are op. 209. 20. 39 no. 29 op. Variations on a (36). 35 op. 137 French Overture. no. 276 Bach. 153 Sonatas. 36. 29* 3 35-37 MWI. op. S. 20. Klagen. 211. 1*04 no. 211 Dances. 40. i. 2. op. 1 70 Violin Sonata in G. italicized) Sonata. 252 Duets. 255 Balakirev 'Islamey* Fantasy. 31. 8. 26. 35. x. no. ss. 27. P. 39 no. at) op. 26-28. no. 39. 211-13 'Bonn' Sonatas. pp. 29. 78. 8. 35.

116-17. 97 Borodin Petite suite. 77 Romance in F. 157 G Fantasy-Impromptu.INDEX OF COMPOSERS AND WORKS Beethoven cont. 75-8 passim . 12. 103 Violin Concerto. C. 217. on an Original op* 34. 250 Cherubini Fugue. 287 Scherzos. on a Waltz by Diabclli (Thirtythree) . 221-4. Dr. 69. 250. 258 fitude in F minor. 169. 137. 187-90 Etudes. 260-5 Polonaise-Fantasy. 69. Nicholas Piece for virginal. 116-18. 74-7 passim Sonata in B flat minor ('Funeral March'). op. 257 Duet. 103 willst du ruhig schlafen'. 99. 165 Bolero. 221 Liebeslieder Waltzes. 199 Five Studies. 152 in E flat major. op. 258 Sonata in C minor. 134. E. 305 Grande Polonaise Impromptus. 1^5-6". 169 Bennett. 252. 88. 277 Piano Quintet in F minor. 25. 17^137. 124 Rondo a la Mazur. 35. 294 /-Intermezzos. 305 Prince Igor. 268-70. 113-16. no. Brahms Ballades. 84-9 passim. see Chopin. 288 by Paganini. 254. la stessissima'. 156-60 Barcarolle. 68. 'Edward . 25. 288 fScossaises. 187-90 fitudes. 68. 261 Ballades. 198 Hungarian Dances. 293-4 Violin Concerto. Sonata in 114 in C F sharp minor. 269 Quelques Danses. 164 Lachrymae Pavane. 12. 148. 103-4. 147. op. 294 Bull. 221-4. 114 in F minor. 269 Klavierstiicke. 127 Funeral March in C minor. 102-3 on a Theme from 'Das Waldmadchen'. 114-15 on a Theme by Righini. 155. on an Original Theme E flat ('Eroica'). 84-9 passim in F minor for two pianos. 246-7. 137 Fifty-one Exercises. 258-60 major. 84-9 passim. op. W. 198. 276 Chausson. 185-7 Fantasy in F minor. 276 Byrd. op. 121 Nocturnes. 198 Ubungen. 1 03-6 passim. z6b-j. 97 Burney. 288 Rhapsody in B minor. 254. 126. 150 brillante. 72. 101. 140 Fugue. on a Theme by 278 103. 258. 115 D major. 124-5. Cour ante: Jewel. 2. I2 6 on a Theme by Count Waldstein for piano duet. 155. 293. Sterndale Sonatas. 139-40. 278 piano on 'Kind. 211 dein' for on 'Ich denke duet. i. on a Theme by Handel. 288 String Quintet in F. Trois npuvelles. op. 250-1 Transcriptions. 103 by Schumann for piano duet. 1 53 spianato. 70 Bizet Jeux d'Enfants. 269. 198 in C minor. 148 Polonaises. 230 Sarabandes and Gigues. 150-2. 69. 210. see Fifty-one Exercises Variations on a Hungarian Theme. op. 217. 300 by Schumann for piano solo. 305 Battle Piece. 1 52 in minor. 259 Rondo for two pianos.J. 164. on 'La stessa. 180. 199. 17. 103 on 'Tandeln und Scherzen'. 103-4 313 Theme in F in on an Original Theme in major. 76. 1 27> 293 by Haydn. no. 221. 97 The Carman's Whistle. no. 264-5 Preludes. Sonatas for two pianos. 165-6 Berceuse. 10. 221 Waltzes. 221 Capriccios. 100. 160-2 5 Ballade. 176 Etudes. 217. 22 1 Clarinet Trio. 140. 221 Fantasies. 152 Mazurkas. 169 Sellenger's Round. 99. 218-20 Rondos. 261 Scherzo. 278 Dittersdorf. 246 Carlton. Fugue Chopin Andante Clarinet Quintet.

i<9j. 182-4 School of the Legato and Staccato. in. 300 fitudes. 1 68 In Autumn. Overture. 216-7. 256-7.INDEX OF COMPOSERS AND WORKS Chopin cont. xso Waltzes. 101. op. 164 Reverie-nocturne. 1^9-50. March. 7 Jardins sous la pluie. 210. 251 Farnaby. 207 Deux Arabesques.. 182 Les Bagatelles. 295-6 Tarantella. 14 Sonatas. 101. 294-5 Variations in A flat. J. 258 Variations brillantes. 175-6 Studies. 184 Daquin.. 7. 261 mano 5 . 14. 250 Delius. 208 Beethoven-Cramer Studies. 182-5 Eighty-four Studies. 207 Short piano pieces. 295-6 Poetic pictures. Gluck.. 247. Estampes. G. 254. ' 278 Dowland. 67. 305 Legends. 184-5 Concertos. 226-<8. 169 Dressier.r 165 Sonatas. 9-70. 06 pieces. J. 276 Eight Preludes. T. L. M. and other pieces for two harpsichords. 2 1 1 Les petits rnoulins a vent. 148 Duets. 97 Lachrymae Pavanc. 371 Moods. 234. rj^ 207 Prelude. 1 64 Les Tricoteuses. 301 Pour le Piano. 68. 182. 305 From the Bohemian Forest. 1 84 Transcriptions. 99. 102 Humoresques. 252. 208 Symphonic Variations. see Etudes Dussek. a 1 6. 296-9 On hearing the first cuckoo in spring. Ludovico di Twelve Sonatas for the Giznbalo. 295 Gradus ad Parnassum. 169 Field. 241-$ passim . . 271 Ballade. B. E. 143-5 Franck. 122. J. 1407 300 Images. Le Coucou. 217. 147. 843. 13-15 passim Sonatas for piano duct. 17. C. Lachrymae. 1 83 Sonata. 300 Suite Bergamasque. 276 Dvorak Eclogues. 200-1 Stravaganze. 301 Preludes. 75-8 passim Songs. 300 Petite Suite. 208 Prelude. 241-3. 305 Czerny. Album Leaves. 229. Aria and Finale.271-4? Dittersdorf. 149 major. 182-3 Bizarria. 68. 144-5 Divertimenti. 997 Lyric Pieces. 183 Waltzes.. 108-9 Variations on *La ci darem la 108-9. 199. $06-8$ 305 Sonata for violin and piano. Four piano Waltz. 271 'Holberg* Suite. 1241 Waltzes. 164 Debussy. Couperin. 241. 170. 276 A Toye. 164 Ordres. 2574 Mazurka. K. 276 Impromptu Impromptu in in G G minor. 'Es war einmal ein alter Mann*. 249. 289 Les plaintes d'une poupc. C&ar 1 46 Danse lente. Alrnan. 300 Duet. 148. 180 Grieg. i. F. 270 Clementi. 269. K. C. A. Didone abbandonata. 145 Nocturnes. B8 Canon. 7. 120-1. 271-9. 249 Cramer. 226. G. F. rjj. C. Slavonic Dances. 271. 240-1 Scottish Dances. Gigue. 1 68. Chorale and Fugue.. Sonatas. 143-7* 148 Nocturne caractcristiquc: Le Midi. D minor. 13-1 5 passim. J. 183 Caprices. 1 Diabelli. Sonata in B minor. 250 Humoresques. 68 Duets. 144 Sonatinas. 184. 225-6 Improvisata on Norwegian folk-tunes. 183-4 Scena patetica. Allemande. 300 Symphony 301 Giustini.. Gavotte in A. 10 Concerto. 8.

Scherzos. suite. 177 Pcnsieroso. 15. 197 2. 216 Sonnetti del Petrarca. Gnomenreigen. 5. 197 *** 10.297-8 Two Symphonic Pieces. 169 Passacaglia in G minor. 167-8. 196 Concert-Studies. Preludio. 147 Norwegian Dances. 196 3. 245 Concerto patetico. 90. xg flat major. 201 Sonata in G minor. Eroica. 51. 190. 239 Sonata. 182 Csardas macabre. no. 197 9. 271-3. Old Norwegian melody Scenes from Folk Life. op. 108 KuhnaUj J. 229-30 Gondolicra. 238 Eclogue. 15-1^. II Au Lac Norwegian Folksongs. 137 'Harmonious Blacksmith'. 194. 7. 197 7. 197-8. 155. 68. Waltzes. 197-8 1. 168 Grand Concert Solo. Un Sospiro. 91-2 Grande fantaisie de bravour sur la Clochette. 239 Orage. La Lcggierezza. op. 191. 388 see Le mal du Romance Poetic Tone-pictures. 66.^ Capriccio in Duet. 122. 219 4. 116.95-^.INDEX OF COMPOSERS AND WORKS Griegcont. Three: 1. String Quartet. Wilde Jagd. 238 Canzone. see fitudes d'ex<cu- tion transcendante Grandes tudes de Paganini. . Vision. 166 Venezia e Napoli. 139 Duets. J. 267. 243-4 Old Norwegian melody with variations. 'Dante' Sonata see Grandes fitudes. 169 Oboe Concerto. 274-5 \Solveig's Song'. 225 275 1 66. piano duet. 243. 298-9 Gimg'l. 243. 8 Sonata in E Hindemith. 01-2. 197 3. P.9-60 Christmas Tree. 184. 305 Slatter. op. 168 Haydn. 296-7 Valscs-Gaprices. 190 ment Anne'es de Pelerinage. . 252 Valise d'Obermann. 272. 167. see fitude de perfectionne- Fantasy and Fugue: Ad nos. 185. 196 Consolations. 169 Suites. op. Apres une lecture de Dante. 3. 98 Pastor Fido. 199 Symphonic Dances. 32 Symphonic Metamorphoses on Themes by Weber. 137. 238 Handel Chaccmnes. Chasse neige. de Wailenstadt. Harmonies du soir. 197 Fantaisie romantique sur deux melodies suisses. 169 Organ Concerto in D minor. 169 Sposalizio. J. 6. see Grand Concert Solo Concertos. 166 Pastorale. 8. 252 Liszt Ab irato. 169. Au bord d'une source. 1 76 Ghapelle de Guillaume Tell. 240. Two: 1. Waltzes. (A minor). Paysage. 243. 239 Les jeux d'eau a la Villa d'Este. 1472 op. 280 Huttenbrenner. 239 Six mountain melodies. 271 Songs. 177 Ballades. 90 Concert-Studies. 197 11. 239 pays. 297-8 Norwegian Dances and Songs. 277. 98 Fantasy In C. 69. 277 Glanes de Woronince. 271. Ricordanza. 226 for two pianos. 197 5. 197 12. 177 Canzonetta del Salvator Rosa. 315 Nocturne. 239 Les cloches de Geneve. II Lamento. 305 Etude de perfectipnnement. Mazeppa. (F minor). 99 Lesson in D minor. 289 En rOve: nocturne. Waldesrauschen. 239 307 . 168. Bible Sonatas. A. 141. 197 8. 17. 196 Etudes d'ex^cution transcendante. 197 6. 297 Study. Feuxfollets. 196 2. 277 G major. 305 'Dante' Sonata. 190. 164 Lanner. 124 Sonatas. 196 2. J. Sonatas.

for two harpsichords. 185 Twenty-four Studies. 276 A. 494. 305 240. N. op. 108. 155 Transcriptions. S. $8. 305 Album Leaf: Meditation. 89. in. 1241 Crimean Duels. Variations on 'Weinen. 72 Sonata in B flat major. see Etudes Variations in in E ilat.. 240. poe-tiques et religieuses: 169. 187. 305 Loewe. Fune" railles. 190 Caprices. 238 Hungarian Rhapsodies. E. Sonatas. 169. 130. 137. 717-9. 13. 20 1-2 232-3. in 306 Ground Gamut. Mehul. Six Children's Pieces. 134-51 169 Moschcles. Francis of Paula walking on the Sonata in G minor. 190. 240. 83a. /% "Alexander" Variations. 238 Fantasy in F sharp minor. 153-5.. is Purcell. 170-80 Trauermarsch. 1 79-80 Richard Wagner Sinistre. . 289. 185 Mozart Don Giovanni* 1 79 Duets. 1 Variations serieuses. 1 op. 137. 169. S. H. 305 Fourth. 77 Sonata in K major. 14 Reminiscences de Don Juan. 241 sketches. 305 Nuages gris. 167 5. Pater noster. 2 53 Soirees musicales. 305 Six chants polonaises. B. 266-7 Third. 240. 305 Legends: St. 239-40. 92-4. <j<jo Studies. 130 'Midsummer-night's Dream': Overture. 137 name 1 L& ci darem la mano. 8u% 10-1 1 no-i i B flat. 366-7. i2iio 238 Preludes and Fugues. 3. 265-6 Prelude and Fugue on the 'Bach'. 167 Ave Maria. 167 8. K. 1*17 Children's games. Miserere d'apres Palestrina. 119. 179 Rondo in A minor. Sonatas. 180. Mendelssohn. Aria Allemagna. op.w Fantasy in F sharp minor Songs without Words. Variations waves. Pens6e des morts. 194 La lugubre gondola. 249 Sonata in F major.. Invocation.. 71 Benediction de Dieu dans la solitude. 98 i Caprices. 2/6-7 Fantasy in C major.*. K. 83. 1 77 Sonata in B minor. 238 5 'Mephisto Waltzes: First. 124 Scherzos. Cantique d'amour. 69. s66-7. 139 Harmonies 2. 185-6 Rachmaninov.90-5. Preludes. 68. INDEX OF COMPOSERS AND WORKS cont. Venezia. 1 66 Liebestraume. 289 Intermezzo. 244-5 118-19 Vier Klavierstiicke. i^j Fugues. F. Klagen'. Fantasies.. 238 10. 127. op. sgo t 306 Andante and Variations. 38 Symphonies. 284. 238 9. . 104. 151-2 Seven Characteristic Pieces. 116.. Andante lagrimoso.. 1 123 Sonata in D major. M. 137. 224-5 Etudes. 7:. 139 Spanish Rhapsody. 129. Joseph.7 Sonate ccossuise. 169.>7-:. 100 Prokofiev. 122. Karl Sonatas. 98 Mussorgsky. Taganini* Rhapsody.316 Liszt 1. 10 Meyerbeer. 177-9. 305 Polonaises. Album Leaf. 75 Soirees de Vienne. 241. brillantes we Chopin. 238 6. 1 84 Variations.'. 167 4. (5(i. Cu5. 190 Pasquini. 241 Pictures from an Exhibition. 70 Paganini. 154 Rakoczy March. 154 La Campanella. 7. 215 Allegro brillante. Francis of Assisi preaching to the birds. 105 Sonata Poglietti. 1 68 Carnaval de Pesth. 307 Violin Concerto in B' minor. 154-5 Heroide elgiaque. 1. i8v!. 166 St. *'-* n Rondo capriccio. I. Hymne de 1'enfant a son reveil. x6 .

56. 60-3 passim E minor. 225. 64. 250. 84. 101-2. in. 6 1. 106. op. 56. Fiirhlingsnacht. 149 Impromptu. 55. 63. Andantino vane. 122. 305 see Waldscenen Four Marches. 182 Schubert. 106-7 Menuet antique. 174 Fughettas. 281. 268 B flat. defunte. Album Leaf. 285 B 'Trout Quintet. 285-6 Grande marehe heroique. 78. 63. op. as a whole. 79 Anclante with variations. 89. 79. 203-4 Allegro in B minor. r 37 Faschingsschwank aus Wien. 55. 283. 66 5 Mcnuut en rondeau. 163. E minor for piano duet. 282 Sonata in E major (1815). 131. op. 149 op. 149. 286 Blumenstiick.. 252-4. Robert 'Abegg' Variations. 210. 56. 281-3 Grand Rondeau.282 minor. 285 Grande marche funebre. La Foulc. Qtello. 283. 215. 281. 284-5 108. op. Impromptus. ) . 42. 30. 127. 66. 54. 301 de Couperin. 63. 64. 1 73-4. 90. /7$-9.220 Rondeau. 164 in in in in E flat B major. 57. 169 Suites. 3 in 225. J. 66 flat op. 81. Fran/. 63-5 passim (Fantasy). 237 Fantasiestiicke. 66. 234~5y 236. 142. 124. 283 Clhildren's March. 301 Pavane pour une Infante in D major. 283 Sonatas. 280. $14. see Sonata in Fugue in E minor. 283. 286-7 major Fantasy. op. 383-4 Divertissement in G . op. op. 292 131. 285 Fantasiestiicke. 12. 143. as a whole. 56. 288 290 107. Schumann. symphoniques. Tom beau ReubkeJ. 65. 63. 125 op. 1 1 Scarlatti. 17.. 185. Alessandro 06 Toccatas. 269 Divertissement & la hongroisc. 292 Children's Ball. 54. 14. 282 65. Pieces Pit-res tie 65. 215. G en concert. Domenico Variations in F major. 131. 292 Bilder aus Osten. 65. 182 A minor. 55-^. 66 major. 268 Album for the Young. 66 in in Valses nobles et sentimcntales. op.291. 169 Ravel. 32. 56. Sonata. 79. 'Wanderer' Fantasy. 84. 108 A Sonatas. 137-9. 286 123. 10. 112. major ('Unfinished. 307 Davidsbiindler. 238 Fantasy in C. 244 fitudes Moments musicaux. 68. 95 Rossini. 178. 178. 133-4 . 57. 17. 235-6 Forest Scenes. 283 Duets. 61 Variations on a Waltz by Diabelli. 284. 162. 56-8 passim. 62. 55. 1*14-15 in in A flat major for piano duet. io6-83 no. posth. j&9. 164. 281. posth. 280-7 Fantasy in F minor. Bunte Blatter. 284 Marches militaires. op. 177 major. 111-12. op. 233-5. 56. 204. 283. 106-8 in minor. 112-13. 59. 249. 286 Dances. 66 Impromptus. 113. 56. 125 Ballscenen. op. 275. no. 58. 89 in in in A minor. Rondo brillant. 66 182 clavecin. G major (J 56. 62. 123. 254 Polonaises. 281 148 Carnaval. 59-61 A major. 209. 57. 283 Grande Senate. 131. 287-8 Arabesque. 17. 61.. 281 177 Songs. 8i3. 66 Songs. 3 and op. op. 56. 4 in F minor. 55 in B major in five movements. 68. 190-4. 190 Albumblatter. Maurice In in A minor. 164 Les Tourbillons. 56-8 passim. 250 1252 56-9 passim. 244. 131. 267-8. 120. 114. 258. 281 Grand Duo. 281. P. A major. 149. 60.INDEX OF COMPOSERS AND WORKS Rameau. posth. see Kinderball Concert-Studies after Paganini. in 64. 215. 46. op. 83. 181 Scarlatti. K minor. op.

yoG. 32. U'-i". 43 Grande Polonaise. ^7-50 D minor ^Demoniac'). 355 Rondo brillante. 225. Dithyrambs. Friihe. no 6 in B minor ('Path1 Nachtstiicke. 84. 105. 114. I3i'3. Jean Six Impromptus. 44. Toma&k. 237-8. ion. 64. 267-8. 279 on a^Theme jfrom *Jaseph\ 105-6 on a Theme from *Samori'. Dances. 250 Humoresque.3*8 INDEX OF COMPOSERS AND WORKS cont. 270 RSves. 220. 131-2 Wagner. Robert Tchaikovsky. 3. 147-8 'Nutcracker' Suite. A.^-6^ Fugues. aofJ Seasons. -232 Gesange der Gigue. 49. 236. 12 Papillons. a in no. 220. 185 Twelve Duets Variations on a Original Theme Duets. 270 44?5'-5. i in (I major. 79. op. 95 Symphony. 305 Bagatelles and Impromptus. 9 I0 Polkas. 290-1. no. 184. 131. 21*4 Polacca brillante. 80-81. ^94. 5 in E minor. 2113-4 Czech Dances. A. 268 Tomkins. 217 Capriccio in B flat. 127. Violin Concertos. 162-4. -J45-(> Variations. op. no. iGf) Variations on a Original Theme. 28. 235 2. 185. 215. 2 3> etiquc ). 288 123. 79-81. Impromptus. 112. 305 290-1 D 306 op. 244 Sibelius. 83. 20. 220-1 Kinderball. 131-2 Sonata in F sharp minor. 301 flat. 165. 69. 103. 109. 301 Smetana. 201-3 Studies for pedal piano. 291-2 Toccata. 288 Sonatas for young people. 220. 209 Eclogues. A Fancy. 220. 131. Richard Album Weber Leaf. 105. T. 236. -279 Dance movements. 235-6. V. 217-18. 78. Michael Sonatas. Album 50-1 no. 230. 100 on a Theme from *Castor and Pollux*. 225 Sketches for pedal piano.5 109 . Chants sans paroles. 230 see Scenes of Childhood. 1489 G Siegfried Idyll. 148. 169 Romances. Preludes. 88. '2 6 Intermezzos. Polonaises. uiy Romance in F minor. 72. P. op. 124 Sonata no. 255 Invitation to the dance. 112. no. 68. ail> Concertstiirk.4 Leaf. 268. op. 209. 169 in F minor. Richard Don Quixote. 12. 44. 306 Humoresque. 148. 134 Genoveva. 190. 106. 147. 79. 555-6. 3 in Sonata. 252 Strauss. 305 The i 291 Oriental Pictures. Romance in minor. 4 in ^ r Leaf. 293-2 Kinderscenen. 133-4. 235-6 Novellettes. 233. 240 Strauss family Waltzes. 45 251. 278-80 Fughettas. 23? Kreisleriana. sfe Gesange cler Nocturnes. 301 Scriabin. 215-16 Polonaise. 1 05* on *Sch6ne Minka*. 169. 79. 244. sjoG Symphony. 271 Eugene Onegin 204. see Concert-Studies for children. 68. 233. 301 Sonatas. 185. 1 . L Young. see Bilder aus Osten 112. 44. 20. "6. 32. 125-6" 99. E Moinento capriccioso. 276 Vivaldi. 293. 204 Album Album for the 271. 79-81. 234 in minor. 244 Morning Friihe songs. 2 33 Fugues on the name 'Bach'. Studies. 1/9. 305 Waldscenen. Bed rich A flat major. no. Fifty Russian Folk-songs. ss8. scenen Kinder- Scherzos. E minor ('Programme*). in in. Schumann. Tippctt. 230 Sonatas. 68. 109/279 on *Vien qu^ Dorina bcila .

128-9. 295 Lachner.. J. B. JL. 239 Mickiewicz. F6tis. 155 Minuet.. 155.. 89. Kreisleriana. 98. 249 Characteristic piece. 220 Chaconne. 249 179 t . 277 Kodaly. 1414-15 Allemuntlc. 210. 33 Double variation. 167. W. Fugue.. 274 Anna Magdalrna.. oo Clavichord. 182. 143 Divisions. 234 and Euscbius*. 282 i King's Hunting Jigg. 273 Halvorsen. 153 Kolo. 204. 169 Forlane. Julius. 144 Byron. 251 Allgemeine Musik'/. 225-6 F. 143 Novellette.eitung. i. 6 Concert-study. 144 Herder. 108 Augmentation. 130 Capriccio. 148. G* B. Folk poetry. 244 Harty. 248.Accented passing-note. 28 Album Leaf. 98 Benedict. 297 Galliard.. 250 s Cancrizans. 102 Eclogue. 51 BerUox.> Moment Neue 234 musical. 236 Marx. 17. 221 Hoffmann. A.jH. 217. 248 Gangar. de Harmonies podtiques et 238 Liindler. 211 Ballade. 181 Bagatelle. s Impromptu. 1256 Binary form. Hdldcrlin. Hamilton. 9 Joachim. Lord Chitde Harold.. A.. H>. 6. E. 155 Baroque period. 235 Holberg. von. 1133 Deutschcr. 148 . &e8 co&taise 351 fitudc. A. x Nocturne. 258 Michelangelo. Piano-Method^ 196 Lenau. A. 185 Fitzwilliam Virginal Book. 281 Lamartine. 176 Biilow. -.. 170. 273 Gigue. 6-8 passim Hartmann. 235 Hugo. 273-5 Bdhner. L. 7 Da capo aria> 1 1 religieuses. 232 Cimbalom. Faust 267 Liszt Society. 251 Lebert and Stark. 13. Gade.. 305 9 CourantCj 348 Cristofori. 182 Fantasy. 235 Bouoncini. 248 Ground-bass. J G. 284 Classical period. Z. 14*2. 90 Humoresque. DavkLsbuncl. 148-50 Intermezzo. 167. B. T. O. 64. 210. J. N. 210 Methods des Mtthodts. V.. 98. 160. 35 Bach. 9 Classicism. Marseillaise. 210. H. H 79. Victor. 250 Basso ostinato.. 250 'Florestan Myra Hess Album. 1 8 Hardanger fiddle. 251 Diminution. Hector. F. von. 249 Hailing. 8a.. 211 Zeitschrift fur Musik. E. 45 Mazurka. 35 Divertimento. N. 166. 239. 83. . 224 *Diotima poems. 99 Double counterpoint.439 Harpsichord.

10 P>5 Suite. ^78 Waltz. 210.. Sal va tor. de. 249 Schiller. 29 Petofi. Schreibcr. 148. 150-1. 165. 230 Romanticism. D. BH . 217 Programme music.. 225. Count. 152 Romance. L> 7 4 Sonata form. Pavan. 185 Silbermann. 304 Transcriptions.. F. 249 Passepied. Rondo. loo.320 Operatic fantasy. 250 78. Clara.. J. j. 11 \V. 18 Tovcy.. 238 Sarabande. 249 Prelude.. Partita 3 13 Passacaglia. 98.. A. 176 Riickert. F. 1256 Wieck. 148. E.\ Sousedska. see Harari's Makamen. 1247-50 Symphonic po( in k 1-^3 Romantic period. 1 8. Obermtinn. 190. 63. 210 Polonaise. 291 Sainte-Beuve.. G.. y^o-i Rhapsody. F. 164 Rafael. 248 S'dutmann. v>M Shedlock. 210. 1 GENERAL INDEX 79 Schlegel. A. F. P. 273 Starkc. 168 lernary form. 141 Rosa. 67 Romantic piano music. 167 Poetic tone-picture. 239 Zuccalmaglio. CJ. S. 239 Sequence. 7 Slit. 168-80 Waldstein. ( i(i(>. 9. 248 Pedal-point. 150. Scherzo. 251 Weingartncr... A. F. Clara. 812 Schumann. 19-20 Song without wrd. Consolations. Piano-^clwo!\ i U<HJ. S. ^95 Springdaiis. F.. it**". 63 Senancour..








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