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City of Manila UNIVERSIDAD DE MANILA Arroceros St.

Mehan Garden, Manila

CHAPTER I
THE PROBLEM AND ITS SETTING

Introduction Introduction The Commission on Higher Education has included in their Memorandum Order no. 14 (2009), which is the new curriculum for nursing education in the Philippines, the competency standards (Article IV, Section 5) which states that graduates of Bachelor of Science in Nursing program must be able to apply analytical and critical thinking in the nursing practice. The nurse must be competent in the following key areas of responsibility and among these is the personal and professional development. Personal and professional development facilitates learning opportunities for all university staff enabling them to achieve their potential and contribute to the provision of excellent teaching and research in their respected university. The personal or professional development plan (PDP) is a formal means by which an individual (normally working with a teacher, mentor or supervisor) sets out the goals, strategies and outcomes of learning and training. Again this is in alignment with the professional program of study and is often written to meet requirements from regulatory or statutory bodies around continuing professional development and revalidation to retain a license to practice stay on a professional register and demonstrate professional standing.

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Continuing professional development activities for nurses are planned and organized learning experiences, designed to advance personal and professional development. With the aim of improving professional and personal performance to enhance the practice of nursing, professional development is vital to the continued improvements of the nursing profession. Activities can include the attendance of workshops or conferences, reading of journal articles and the undertaking of postgraduate nursing course. Professional development may be undertaken in the form of postgraduate courses, vocational education and continuing professional development. There are many types of personal development for nurses -- workshops, conventions, seminars and educational courses. Topics vary depending on the needs of the nurse. Potential topics include public speaking, time management, work-life balance tips or a course on sleep improvement for shift work. Many nurses work varying shifts in the hospital but find sleep management difficult. A professional course provides personal and professional benefits. Offering personal development courses to nurses enhances their professional success. Nurses are busy professionals utilizing many skills in their delivery of compassionate, informed patient care. Courses focusing on the development of the nurse ultimately enhance the delivery of patient care. Well-rounded employees may also find their work stress is reduced through personal development.

City of Manila UNIVERSIDAD DE MANILA Arroceros St.Mehan Garden, Manila

The researchers come up with the study with the interest regarding the professional and personal development of the clinical instructors basically because as students, personally and professionally competent clinical instructors would provide a quality teaching that they can apply in imparting their knowledge and skills to their students as well as contributing to the success and enhancement of the skills and practice. Background of the Study The Universidad de Manila (formerly known as City College of Manila) is a public University in Manila, Philippines. It is one of the two city-funded universities of the City of Manila. It is formerly known as the City College of Manila (CCM) or Dalubhasaan ng Lungsod ng Maynila, was founded in 1995 during the term of Manila Mayor Alfredo Lim. It was then located at the old 12storey high Philippine National Bank Building within the district of Santa Cruz. The main campus of Universidad de Manila, which houses the Administration Building of the Division of City Schools-Manila, is located at the heart of the Mehan Garden adjacent to the Liwasang Bonifacio, Manila City Library and the Light Rail Transit Central Terminal. Apart from its main campus, the University maintains several satellite centers in many parts of the City of Manila such as Escolta, Recto, Del Pan, San Andres, Dapitan and Tayuman. The University's ten different colleges confer various courses from bachelor to postgraduate degree programs. Degree programs, such as Criminology, Social Work, Physical Therapy

City of Manila UNIVERSIDAD DE MANILA Arroceros St.Mehan Garden, Manila

and Nursing, are considered as the University's pilot courses. The said educational institution has gained its reputation over the past school year wherein some of the graduates made it up to the board examination with flying colors and the College of Nursing is never an exception and up until this moment, the said college is still on the process of making their place a beneficial one for educating the future nurses. The College of Nursing provides us a picturesque of a well-defined department wherein all faculty members are collaboratively doing their assigned task to give the students the education they do deserve as per with being a scholar of Manila. Some in-depth strict measures had been implemented and mostly to be found in the submission of the requirements, demerit for late submission and incentives for those who submitted on time. The study was made possible to know the extent as clinical instructors complied with the personal and professional development based on the core competency standard as mandated by Commission on Higher Education and that provided them basis to hold faculty development programs that would enhance the personal and professional aspects of the clinical instructors thus, enhancing the educational program of the college. This strategic measure can simply evaluate how the way students learn, what the rooms for improvement are and if the faculty members themselves were

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able to comply with the personal and professional development based on the core competency standard as mandated by Commission on Higher Education. Theoretical/ Conceptual Framework Patricia Benner studied clinical nursing practice in an attempt to discover and describe the knowledge embedded in nursing practice and to develop skills and understanding of patient care through educational base and a multitude of experience. This Theory is derived from practice and practice is altered or extended by theory. Benner adapted Dreyfus and Dreyfus Model of Skill Acquisition and Skill Development to clinical nursing practice. The model is situational and describes five levels of skill acquisition and development: (1) novice, (2) advanced beginner, (3) competent, (4) proficient, and (5) expert. The model assumes that changes in four aspects of performance occur in movement through the level of acquisition; (1) movement from reliance on abstract principles and rules to use of past, concrete experience; (2) shift from reliance on analytical, rule-based thinking to intuition; (3) change in the learners perception of the situation from viewing it as a compilation of equally relevant bits to viewing it as increasingly complex whole in which certain parts stand out as more or less relevant; and (4) passage from a detached observer, standing outside the situation, to one of a position of involvement, fully engaged in the situation. Benners definitions of major concepts are as followed:

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Novice The novice has no practical experience and must base what they do on principles and rules. Benner states that nursing students enter a new clinical area as novices; they have little understanding of the contextual meaning of the recently learned textbook terms Advanced The advanced beginner has dealt with enough real patient care experiences to Beginner Recognizes recurring components of the situation. They are also learning to discriminate between normal and abnormal situations and establish priorities as to whats important. Competent Benner describes the competent nurse as one who has been in the same setting or working with the same population for 2 to 3 years. The competent nurse is better at projecting into the future and developing plans based on conscious, abstract, analytic

contemplation of the problem.

This promotes efficiency and

organization. Although the competent nurse has a sense of mastery and is able to cope with a number of variables, she/he still lacks the speed and flexibility of the proficient nurse. Proficient The proficient nurse perceives situations as wholes rather than aspects. The proficient nurse knows from experience what to expect in given situations and how to modify plans. Rather than having to

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analyze and calculate a plan, the plan simply presents itself. That is, due to a vast body of experience, the nurse is able to zero in on the problem with very little thought. The proficient nurses uses maxims to practice. These are degrees of a situation and Benner notes that to nurses at any of the other levels of skill attainment these maxims appear unintelligible because of their ambiguity. ExpertThe expert has an intuitive grasp of situations based on extensive experience. Rules, guidelines, and maxims are no longer necessary for dealing with familiar situations although the expert refers back to analytic methods when faced with new situations. The expert is able to zero in on the problem and performance becomes fluid, flexible, and highly proficient. The expert has a difficult time

explaining what they know and how they know it because it has become internalized. This theory changed the professions understanding of what it means to be an expert, placing this designation not on the nurse who provided the most exquisite nursing care and nursing education.

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Conceptual Paradigm

Demographic Profile

Age ; Gender; Educational Qualification; Salary Range

Compliance of personal and professional development in terms of: Learning needs; Continuing education; Professional organizational involvement; and

Professional image

Basis for proposed guidelines Figure 1. Conceptual Paradigm of the Study Figure number 1 illustrates the paradigm that has been used in this study. Box A shows the demographic profile of the respondents that includes age, gender, educational qualification, and salary range. On the other hand, Box B pertains to the competency standards under personal and professional development with the following indicators: (a) Learning needs, (b) Continuing education, (c) Professional and organizational involvement, (d) Professional image, (e) Positive attitude and

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lastly, (f) Role performance. The last box pertains to the outcome and the basis for proposed guidelines Statement of the Problem 1. What is the demographic profile of respondents in terms of: 1.1 1.2 1.3 1.4 Age; Gender; Educational Background; Salary Range;

2. To what extent do the Clinical Instructors complied with the competency

standards by CHED in terms of personal and professional development: 2.1 2.2 2.3 2.4 2.5 2.6 Learning needs; Continuing education; Professional and organizational involvement; Professional image; Positive attitude; Role performance;

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3. Is there a significant difference in the compliance of the personal and

professional development among Clinical Instructor when grouped according to their profile? 4. Based on the result of study what guidelines can be proposed?

Hypothesis There is no significant difference in the compliance of the personal and professional development among Clinical Instructor when grouped according to their profile. Significance of the Study The findings of the study would be significant to the following: To the College of Nursing Department - The findings provide a feedback as to what extent the clinical instructors complied with the personal and professional development based on the core competency standard as mandated by Commission on Higher Education and that provided them basis to hold faculty development program that would enhance the personal and professional aspects of the clinical instructors thus, enhancing the educational program of the college. To the Clinical Instructors themselves The results of this study would be vital for the clinical instructors as this would give them evaluation of their

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compliance to the said competency standards, particularly on the professional and personal development aspects, and identify areas in which they can improved through continuing development programs. To the Nursing Students This study would be important to the nursing students as they are the primary recipient of the education that the clinical instructors are providing thus, improvement of the instructors would provide quality education in the part of the students. Scope and Limitations of the Study The scope of the study deals with the compliance of personal and professional development among clinical instructors of Universidad de Manila. The respondents of this study were primarily the clinical instructors in the said university. The total number of 30 respondents were included comprising of the full-time and part-time clinical instructors teaching nursing subjects and excluding the instructors/teachers teaching general education. This study was conducted to determine the compliance with personal and professional development among clinical instructors in Universidad de Manila and evaluated using the CHED Memorandum Order (CMO) No.14, Article IV, Section 5 as basis of the constructed survey questionnaire checklist that was made by the researchers to attain information on the respondents profile and their adherence to competency standards.

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The data gathering was conducted from September 26-28, 2011.

Definition of Terms Age- the particular period of life at which a person becomes naturally or conventionally qualified or disqualified for anything. In this study the, the ages of the respondents were taken and have the following ranging: 23-27 years old, 28-32 years old, 33-37 years old, 38-42 years old, 43-47 years old, 48-52 years old, 53-58 years old, and 58 years old and above. Educational Qualifications - are the degrees, diplomas, certificates, professional titles and so forth that an individual has acquired whether by full-time study, parttime study or private study, whether conferred in the home country or abroad, and whether conferred by educational authorities, special examining bodies or professional bodies. Gender is sex of a person either a male or a female. Level of education defined as educational attainment achieved by a person. Financial and Non-financial Incentives is any factor (financial or non-financial) that enables or motivates a particular course of action, or counts as a reason for preferring one choice to the alternatives.

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Core competencies in nursing- is a model for nursing management development that will help establish core competencies for nurses which will not only strengthen their practice and provide further learning and development opportunities, but will also provide the basis to focus training and professional development efforts. Safe and quality nursing care- The nurse must be able to demonstrate knowledge base and provide safety and sound decisions in the care of the client. Management of resources and environment- The nurse must maintain a safe environment for the client and utilize resources properly. Health education- assessing the educational needs of the patient and family, developing and implementing health education plans and learning materials and evaluating the outcome of education administered. Legal responsibility- The nurse must adhere to practices in accordance to the law. Ethico-moral responsibility- include respecting the rights of all individuals and groups, accepting responsibility for individual decisions and adhering to the nurses' national and international code of ethics. Personal and professional development- The nurse must be able to assess ones own learning needs and pursue growth and development in the field. The nurse must also project of professional image of the nurse. Quality improvement- The nurse must be able to identify variances and recommend solutions to the identified problems.

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Research includes gathering and analyzing research data, sharing results and applying findings to work functions. Record management defined as maintaining appropriate documentation using the appropriate system and staying within legal boundaries in the area of patient privacy. Salary - Fixed compensation for services, paid to a person on a regular basis. As used in the study, salary is ranging from 10,000php to 35,000php. Communication The nurse must be able to establish rapport with the client, clients family, and members of the health team and respond to their needs. Collaboration and Teamwork- includes core competencies of establishing beneficial working relationships with peers and colleagues and communicating care plans with health team members.

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CHAPTER II REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE AND STUDIES This chapter is composed of the present study into the context of preceding, related research. Materials were scanned from various libraries and were collated to provide understanding of the subject under discussion. The purpose of this review of literature is to analyze methods of assessing competence to practice in nursing and draw conclusions on their validity.

Related Literature A. Foreign Literature Nursing is challenged to meet the health needs of ethnic and socioculturally diverse populations. Defining a competency-based model for nursing management development will help to establish core competencies for nurses which will not only strengthen their practice and provide further learning and

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development opportunities, but will also provide the basis to focus training and professional development efforts.

Competency, as discussed in the Competency Standards Approach to Professional Education and Practice, is defined as a combination of attributes enabling performance of a range of professional tasks to the appropriate standards (Gonczi, Hager & Oliver, 2003). Competency encompasses more than just a psychomotor skill. It describes the attributes of knowledge, abilities, skills and attitudes that underlie competent performance. Nurses know that psychomotor skills are important but, performed without knowledge, they do not constitute nursing. Nursing knowledge of health and disease processes is of little use without appropriate nursing skills to implement. The abilities to plan and organize our work are of little benefit to patients or clients if the attitude that nurses value such as, caring and patience is not present. Therefore, integration of the knowledge, abilities, skills and attitudes of nursing is the essential key to understanding and performing competencies. Competence does not mean expert. There exist various levels of competence but each of these has a minimum acceptable level or standard. Beginners are rarely expert, but they can be competent. They perform a wide range of nursing activities methodically and well. According to Scott (2008) developing meaningful competency

requirements for registered muses continues to confound the profession. The

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challenge it presents for healthcare regulators is learning how to objectively measure competencies across various settings, specialties, years of experience and geographic regions. According to Oppewal et al. (2006), core competencies have been developed in different specialty areas, but even nurses' awareness and implementation of such standards vary. The National Council of State Boards of Nursing (NCSBN) has worked, through their committees of Research and Practice, Regulation, and Education, to develop a program to transition graduate nurses into the profession; this program has been a culmination of research and defines the needs of new nurses. Spector and Li (2007) discuss this ongoing research that is being completed to assess the design of this program. According to Canadian Nurse Practitioner Core Competency Framework (2010) the competency statements describe the integrated knowledge, skills, judgment and attribute that guide nurse practitioner practice. Safe, competent, ethical nurse practitioner practice requires the integration and performance of many competencies simultaneously. It may be used by nurse practitioners to support their self-reflection, self-evaluation and continuing competence, as well as to educate others about their role. Nurse practitioner educators may use it for curriculum development. And it is a useful resource for helping others including government agencies, employers, health providers and the public to understand what they can expect of nurse practitioners.

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Nurse practitioner competencies reflect advanced nursing practice by building and expanding upon the competencies required of a registered nurse. A document expands on the competencies defined in Advanced Nursing Practice: A National Framework 4 as these competencies apply to nurse practitioners. The core competencies in this framework are organized into four categories: Professional Role, Responsibility and Accountability; Health Assessment and Diagnosis; Therapeutic Management; and Health Promotion and Prevention of Illness and Injury. The competencies were developed according to certain assumptions and terms; thus, interpretation of the competencies requires an understanding of the assumptions and the key terms found in the glossary of terms. Familiarity with the assumptions used to develop the core competencies is essential to the understanding of how these competencies may be applied to the nurse practitioner practice in all roles and settings Competency-based education has been found to be equally effective in both didactic and self-learning approaches presents hallmarks of competency-based education that make them applicable both in practice and in educational settings. These include competencies based on validation of what performance by competent practitioners actually comprises. In addition, competency assessment is based on criterion-referenced evaluation methods where the learners performance

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is evaluated against a set of criteria provided to the learner so that both the learner and the assessor are clear on what performance is required. Finally, competencybased education is learner-centered in that outcomes are specified and describe what the learner must do to demonstrate competency. The experience in converting to a competency-based curriculum has been both successful and challenging. Faculty and student experiences to date have been positive. The redesigned curriculum is viewed as responsive to the competencyoriented environment and employers believe the transition of graduates into practice settings will be more effective, efficient, and successful. This competencybased approach to education can serve as a model which offers a wide variety of applications to education and service environments.

B. Local Literature In order to be a competent nurses, a good performance must be done. Performance is what is done and how well it is done to provide health care. It is a degree to which an organization does the right things and does them well. But this is influenced strongly by its design or operation. The value in health care is appropriate good balance between good outcome and excellent care and services. There is a law (RA 7164) which is generally unheard of by registerend nurses that recognizes the nurse to function independently and encourages clinical specialization competence in nursing practice which is focused more on demonstrating and implementing rather than assessment and evaluation (Yap,

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2000). This is why there is a need for reorientation on the scope of nursing practices which revolved around nursing process, including training in such areas like assessment and evaluation. According to RA 9173 Article III Section IX, also known as the Philippine Act of 2002, An act providing for a more responsive nursing profession, repealing for the purpose Republic Act No. 7164, otherwise known as The Philippine Nursing Act of 1991 and for other purposes In 2005, the Board of Nursing created the Committee on Core Competency Standards Development in collaboration with the Commission on Higher Education Technical Committee on Nursing Education with the primary goal to develop the competency standards for nursing practice in the country. New expectations for contemporary nursing practice competencies are emerging which is heightened by the escalating complexity of globalization, the dynamincs of health science and information technology demographic changes, healthcare policy reforms, and the increasing and more exacting demands from the consumers of health care. CHED Memorandum Order No. 14, series of 2009 (CMO No.14, s. 2009) contains provisions on the BSN course, including the course specification, standard curriculum, competency standards, and other requirements. The phrase "core competencies in nursing" refers to a standard set of performance "domains" in which it is necessary to demonstrate proficiency to enter into professional practice. Core Competency Standards, as defined by Tamse

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(2004), represent the minimum knowledge, skills and attitudes necessary to provide nursing care. It reflects complex nature of nursing activities and determines the level of accountability. Graduate of the BSN program must be able to apply analytical and critical thinking in the nursing practice. The nurse must be competent in the eleven (11) core competency areas for nursing practice that were identified as follows (CMO No.14, s.2009):
1.

Safe and quality nursing care. The nurse must be able to demonstrate knowledge base and provide safety and sound decisions in the care of the client. The nurse must also utilize the nursing process and prioritization in the care of the client. The first key area of nursing responsibility focuses on providing nursing care that is safe and of high quality. Under this key area, core competencies include demonstrating knowledge about the health status and illness of a patient; making appropriate decisions when caring for patients and their families; and ensuring patient safety, privacy and comfort. Competencies also include setting appropriate priorities in patient care, working with the medical team to ensure stability of care, effectively administering medications and other treatment modalities and performing assessments and nursing services against a background of established nursing guidelines. Identifying the goals of care and evaluating progress toward those goals are also core competencies within this key area.

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2.

Management of resources and environment. Core competencies in this area include identifying tasks that need to be completed, developing financially effective programs, ensuring that equipment performs adequately and maintaining safety in the environment. The nurse must maintain a safe environment for the client and utilize resources properly.

3.

Health education. The nurse must be able to assess the clients learning needs and develop an educational plan for the client. Educational core competencies include assessing the educational needs of the patient and family, developing and implementing health education plans and learning materials and evaluating the outcome of education

administered.
4.

Legal responsibility. Core competencies in the legal key area include following legally mandated state and federal processes and procedures, such as obtaining informed consent from patients and adequately documenting all procedures performed for patients. The nurse must adhere to practices in accordance to the law.

5.

Ethico-moral responsibility. The nurse must respect the rights of the client and take responsibility for ones decisions and actions.

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In this key area that concerns morals and ethics, core competencies include respecting the rights of all individuals and groups, accepting responsibility for individual decisions and adhering to the nurses' national and international code of ethics.
6.

Personal and professional development. The professional development key area includes core competencies of identifying personal needs for education and pursuing those goals, participating in professional organizations and community activities, presenting a professional image and positive attitude as well as performing work duties in a professional manner. The nurse must be able to assess ones own learning needs and pursue growth and development in the field. The nurse must also project of professional image of the nurse.

7.

Quality improvement. The nurse must be able to identify variances and recommend solutions to the identified problems. It includes identifying areas for improvement, participating in nursing rounds and audits, staying aware of variances in treatment and recommending solutions to improve quality.

8.

Research. Core competencies in the research key area include gathering and analyzing research data, sharing results and applying findings to work

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functions. The nurse must participate in research studies and utilize the research findings. 9. Record management. The records management key area includes core competencies of maintaining appropriate documentation using the appropriate system and staying within legal boundaries in the area of patient privacy. The nurse must maintain accurate and updated documentation of client care. 10. Communication. In this key area, core competencies include establishing

communication with the patient and treatment team, learning to read verbal and nonverbal cues, using visual aids and other resources when necessary, responding to patient and group needs and effectively using technology to facilitate communication. The nurse must be able to establish rapport with the client, clients family, and members of the health team and respond to their needs.
11.

Collaboration and Teamwork. The teamwork and collaboration key area includes core

competencies of establishing beneficial working relationships with peers and colleagues and communicating care plans with health team members. The nurse must establish collaborative relationship with members of the health team and plan a collaborative care for the client.

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According to Tamse (2004), the Core Competency Standards serve as a framework for program development and also serve as a tool for performance evaluation. Implementation of the standards will facilitate progress towards the highest level of education attainable in a country or region, assure equitable and appropriate placement of nurses in health-care roles and, potentially, simplify recruitment practices throughout the world (WHO, 2009). The goal of the global standards is to establish educational criteria and assure outcomes that: a. b. c. are based on evidence and competency promote the progressive nature of education and lifelong learning; ensure the employment of practitioners who are competent and who,

by providing quality care, promote positive health outcomes in the populations they serve. Bellosillo et al (2008) postulated that due to the foregoing, new expectations for contemporary nursing practice, competencies are emerging, which is heightened by the escalating complexity of globalization, the dynamics of health science and information technology, demographic changes, health care policy reforms and the increasing and more exacting demands from the consumers of health care. Moreover, the surge of overseas employment opportunities for Filipino nurses creates depletion in the reservoir of competent professional to serve the health needs of the country. These changes are spawned by the multitudes of forces

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converging in the national as well as international levels, which impact on the quality of nursing practice in the country. Accordingly, the Board of Nursing had created a committee which is responsible for developing competency standards for nursing practice in the country and this is called: Committee on Core Competency Standards Development (CCCSD) together with collaboration in the Commission on Higher Education Technical Committee on Nursing Education (CHED-TCNED). Furthermore, Bellosillo et al (2008) elaborated that the Committee was composed of leaders from nursing education, nursing practice and nursing regulation. The whole gamut of developing the standards were made possible through the participation of representatives of professional nursing organizations, consumers of nursing practice such as doctors, administrators and patients, senior nursing students and in consultation with nurse executives from regulatory authorities in three countries. Most health care providers begin their health profession education expecting to acquire the knowledge and skills needed to provide high-quality care. However, as they advance through their education and begin their careers, they discover that health care systems are exceedingly complex, with a myriad of system issues that often make the provision of high-quality care difficult. In addition, Bates et al (2005) discussed that nurses are uniquely positioned to serve as change agents within health systems. By partnering with other health care providers who share their vision for improving care and by linking with

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institutional quality professionals, the impact of nursing improvement efforts is heightened. As health care systems increasingly recognize the value of this work, nurses find that their contributions to care improvement lead not only to a sense of personal reward, but may lead to professional advancement. Investment in the development of skills in quality improvement provides a means for nurses to improve the lives of patients, build their own careers, and improve the joy they derive from their work.

Related Studies A. Foreign Studies A considerable number of researches repeatedly have shown that SocioDemographic Profile is linked to a range of indicators of nurses career development. (Beauvais & Jensen, 2003) A study by Yearta (2005) showed that age does not affect work performance, thus it contradicts with what have been revealed by Smedley and Whitten (2006), who suggested that difference of age could be also a potential factor for career development. This is in tandem with a study by Shultz and Adam (2007) which indicated that there were significant differences between age groups concerning career development. Kujala et al. (2005) emphasized that younger people are poor on work performance but this is opposed by a study by Birren and Schaie (2001).

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In terms of relationship on gender, previous studies (Crawford and Nonis,, 2007. and Shaiful Anuar, et al. 2009) reported that gender did not have a significant impact on career development. However, a study done by Benggtson et al. (2005) noted that women were found to have better career development compared to their counterpart. There are some inconsistencies found where study done by Lynn et al. (2006) found that mens performance increased with career stage measured as professional tenure, but they did not find a corresponding effect among women. Similarly, Larwood and Guket (2009) argued that theories of the career development of men do not fit womens career development. They stated that the model of mens career is simple and can be seen as continuous development whereas the career development of women is characterized as disjointed. Income is indeed an important motivator for work performance.

Level of education was also found not to influence career development (Linz, 2002). Beside this, McBey and Karakowsky (2001) found that there is likelihood a causal relationship between education level and career development. Ariss and Timmins (2003) indicated that education somewhat affect career development. The lower the education level, the less likely people would have better work performance. A study done by Dieleman et al. (2003) showed that career development is influenced by both financial and non-financial incentives. The main motivating factors were appreciation by colleagues and the community, a stable job and income and training. The main discouraging factors were related to low salaries

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and difficult working conditions. Study done by Dieleman et al. (2003) was then supported by a study completed by Azman et al. (2009) where money acts as a moderating variable in the relationship between income distribution and pay satisfaction in the studied organization thus it will drive to better work performance. Assessment of clinical competency in professional roles especially in crucial situations can improve the nursing profession. A qualitative research was conducted by Vanaki et. al ( 2009) to determine the process of acquiring clinical competency by nurses in its cultural context and within the health care delivery system in Iran. This study, using grounded theory methodology, took place in universities and hospitals in Tehran. Three categories emerged: (a) personal characteristics such as philanthropy, strong conscience, being attentive, accepting responsibility, being committed to and respecting self and others; (b) care environment including appropriate management systems, in-service training provision, employment laws, and control mechanisms, suitable and adequate equipment; and (c) provision of productive work practices including love of the profession, critical thinking, nursing knowledge, and professional expertise. Professional ethics has emerged as the core variable that embodies concepts such as commitment, responsibility, and accountability. Professional ethics guarantees clinical competency and leads to the application of specialized knowledge and skill by nurses. The results can be used to form the basis of guiding the process of acquiring clinical competency by nurses using a systematic process.

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Nursing practice is dynamic, and the competencies will change over time in response to population health needs, evolving practice and health-care environments (Canadian Nurse Practitioner Core Competency Framework, 2010). Nursing competencies encompass the skills, knowledge and abilities required to practice nursing. Differentiation exists in competencies among practicing nurses at various levels and settings. B. Local Studies According to Armento (2008) a lack of qualified nursing educators and an increasing workload in colleges may exacerbate problems in Personal and Professional Development of Nurses. A related study conducted in Colegio de Dagupan, Dagupan City assess the effectiveness of the new curriculum based on the CHED Memorandum Order (CMO) No. 14, series of 2009 (RA No.9173). Using the Core Competency Standards as an evaluation tool, the study will determine if the new curriculum CMO 14, s.2009 is effective in improving the level of competency of Colegio de Dagupan nursing students and as well as the faculty itself. From the study conducted, the researchers are able to extract the information that nursing students and faculty are expected to be knowledgeable and be able to develop competencies in the 11 Core Competency areas. Statements from several sources, such as CHED, PNA, and BON, suggest that they support the implementation of the new curriculum. These sources have

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enumerated the strengths of the new curriculum and emphasized the relevance of incorporating the Core Competencies in the new curriculum. SYNTHESIS Competent performance by health care professionals is expected throughout society. However, defining what it is and how to perform it competently faces many challenges. The article by Redman et. al (2005) provides a brief overview of the contemporary focus on competency assessment in nursing education. The redesigned nursing curriculum at the University of Colorado is presented as an exemplar of a practice-oriented model that requires competent performance among students. Assessment of nursing core competency on the said study focuses on outcome orientation. It supported our study that core competency goal is to provide for the effective application of knowledge and skill in the practice setting. It dealt with competency assessment techniques that address psychomotor, cognitive, and affective domains. Beside this, a study conducted by Pilay in 2010 uses a generated 51 competency items to identify the competencies important for

effective nursing management in the public and private health sectors. A total of 420 senior nursing managers in South Africa were surveyed using a selfadministered questionnaire. Most valuable competencies obtained from the study were self-management, controlling, health/clinical, organizing, people

management, planning and ethical/legal competencies These findings reflect the

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reality of the nursing milieu and will be useful in the design and delivery of management development programmes aimed at enhancing nursing management capacity. Similarly, a study conducted in Colegio de Dagupan determines the extent of the four key core competencies integrated by clinical instructor to the nursing standards in an institution. In contrast with our study, the core competency evaluated was limited only to the following; enabling, enhancing, empowering, patient care competency. It denotes that there is no significant relationship between the perceive extent of integration of four key core competencies by clinical instructor and the clinical performance of nursing student in selected institution. The Core Competency Standards, developed by the Board of Nursing (BON) with the Technical Committee on Nursing Education (TCNE) of the Commission on Higher Education (CHED), served as a basis in the curriculum reform. By focusing on the Eleven (11) Core Competencies, the new curriculum will ensure quality education. CMO No. 14 mandates the implementation of the new nursing curriculum. It contains the standard curriculum and syllabi of the nursing subjects. This memorandum was developed to improve the competency of Filipino nurses and produce highly qualified nurses. Under the criteria of the core competencies, Development. the researchers will evaluate Personal and Professional

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CHAPTER III RESEARCH METHODOLOGY This chapter dealt with the research procedure, the instruments to be used, the sample and sampling technique, the data gathering procedure, and the statistical treatment of data, which provided the framework in answering the questions posed in the study. The Research Design The study used the descriptive method of research which dealt with how the clinical instructors of Universidad De Manila have complied with the personal and professional development as mandated by the Commission on Higher Education (CHED). Sample and Sampling Technique

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The subjects of the study included the qualified clinical instructors of Universidad De Manila including part-time and full-time faculties of the said college. List of the clinical instructors was taken from the college secretary and come up with 30 respondents that were included in the study. Research Instrumentation The main instrument used in the study prepared by the researchers was a structured questionnaire in the form of a checklist based on the core competency standards under Article IV Section 5 of CHED Memorandum Order no. 14. Demographic data of the respondents were also included in the instrument tool such as gender, age, educational qualifications, and salary range Data Gathering Procedure A written letter was sent to the Dean of College of Nursing of Universidad De Manila through the College Secretary, which explained the purpose of the study and requested permission to conduct such. The researchers have gone to different hospitals which the school is affiliated to seek for the respondents of the study and let them answer the questionnaire with all honesty. The respondents were assured that their responses would not be used to compare any of them against each other nor shall the results affect their performance evaluation.

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Data gathering took 3 days to complete the number of responses needed. Statistical Treatment of Data The data was treated statistically using the following formula: 1. To determine the extent of compliance of the clinical instructors with the professional and personal development, the frequency of responses of the respondents to each item were tallied; the weighted means were determined by multiplying the frequency of responses to each item by the unit weight and dividing the sum by the total number of respondents. The following Formula was used: Wm = N Where: Wm = Weighted Mean fw = sum of the frequency and the unit weight N = Total Number of responses. A. Likert five-point scale with the following interpretations will be provided to guide the respondents perception as follows: Weighted Mean Interval 4.5-5.0

Unit Weight 5

Verbal Interpretation Fully Complied

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4 3 2 1

3.5-4.49 2.5-3.49 1.5-2.49 1.0-1.49

Highly Complied Moderately Complied Seldom Complied Non- Compliance

2. To determine if there is any difference in the compliance of the personal and professional development among Clinical Instructor when grouped according to their profile, the Anova formula was used: F = mean square between groups Mean square within groups The value of F test was interpreted at 0.05 level.

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CHAPTER IV PRESENTATION, ANALYSIS AND INTERPRETATION OF DATA This chapter presents, analyzes and interprets data gathered and gives implication in sequence to the problems raised in Chapter I. Part I focused on the respondents profile in terms of gender, age, salary range and educational qualification.

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Part II dealt with the extent do the Clinical Instructors complied with the competency standards mandated by CHED in terms of personal and professional development such as Learning needs; Continuing education; Professional and organizational involvement; Professional image; Positive attitude; and Role performance. Part III consisted of finding out whether there was a significant difference in the compliance of the personal and professional development among Clinical Instructor when grouped according to their profile. Part IV presented the proposed guidelines that could be help for the personal and professional development among Clinical Instructors of Universidad de Manila based on the result of the study. Problem Number 1: The demographic profile in terms of:

TABLE I Demographic profile of the Respondents

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Gender F Male 10

Age 23-27 y/o 28-32 y/o 33-37 y/o 38-42 y/o 43-47 y/o 48-52 y/o 53-57 y/o 58 and above Total

F 7 3 6 7 2 2 3 0 30

Salary range F Educational Qualification Php 10,000 15,000 Php 16,000 20,000 Php 21,000 25,000 Php 26,000 30,000 Php 31,000 35,000 Total 4 1 4 5 3 3 3 0
Highest Educational Qualification

F 18 8 2 2 0 0

Feamale 20

BSN Grad MA Units MAN Grad Ph.D Units Ph.D Grad Ed.D Units Ed.D Grad

Total

30

Total

30

Legend: F= Frequency

Table number 1 shows the demographic profile of the clinical instructors which are included in this study. Profile that were considered are; (a) gender, which comprises 10 males and 20 females with a total of 30 respondents; (b) age, that portrays most of the respondents were from the age brackets of 23-27 years old and 38-42 years old having 7 respondents each. There were no clinical instructor that ages 58 and above as shown in the table; (c) salary range, which mostly among the respondents have the salary ranging from 16,000php-20,000php with a total of 14 respondents; (d) highest educational qualification with the majority of the respondents were having their units in masters degree in nursing and only two among the respondents have Ph.D units and Ph.D graduates.

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Problem Number 2: To what extent do the Clinical Instructors complied with the competency standards mandated by CHED in terms of personal and professional development: Identifies own learning needs Table II illustrates the results that have been gathered from the respondents to identify compliance of clinical instructors in the core competency 1 which is identifying own learning needs. A weighted mean of 4.67 signifying full compliance to core competency 1 shows that clinical instructors in Universidad De Manila have identified their strengths and weaknesses as well as their limitations. Identifying such strengths and weaknesses will enable them further improve their strengths and to focus more on their weaknesses. They have also determined their personal and professional goals and aspirations which is an important part of learning process.

TABLE II Core Competency 1: Identifies own learning needs Indicators 1. Identify ones strengths, weaknesses and limitations 2. Determine personal and professional goals and aspirations TOTAL WEIGHTED MEAN
Legend: Wm = Weighted Mean

Wm 4.67 4.67 4.67

V.Int FULLY COMPLIED FULLY COMPLIED FULLY COMPLIED

V.Int = Verbal Interpretation

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Pursues continuing education As shown in Table III which tackles about the pursuance of the clinical instructors in continuous education, results have shown that the respondents have fully complied in this matter with the total weighted mean of 4.74. Clinical instructors have involved themselves in both formal and non-formal education as a part of developing their personal and professional development also, the information that they acquire from this formal and non-formal education were all applied in the process of improving care with a weighted mean of 4.65 and 4.83 respectively. TABLE III Core Competency 2: Pursues continuing education
Legend: Wm = Weighted Mean V.Int = Verbal Interpretation

Indicators 1. Participates in formal and non-formal education 2. Applies learned information for the improvement of care TOTAL WEIGHTED MEAN

Wm 4.65 4.83 4.74

V.Int FULLY COMPLIED FULLY COMPLIED FULLY COMPLIED

Involvement in professional organizations and civic studies Results and discussion of core competency 3 of personal and professional development were shown in Table IV which is the involvement of clinical instructors in professional organizations and civic studies. There are lots of

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professional organizations that Filipino nurses can be involved in and the most famous among them is the Philippine Nurses Association (PNA) which conducts seminars and updates trends in nursing, clinically or educationally, which can help the instructors in their career path. A weighted mean of 4.65 was on the supporting of the clinical instructors in activities related to nursing and health issues weighted mean of 4.57 was given to the part of involvement of the respondents to professional organizations like PNA. They have also participated actively in professional, social, civic and religious activities with a weighted mean of 4.52. All of the indicators involved in the competency number 3 have expressed a full compliance of the clinical instructors.

TABLE IV Core Competency 3: Gets involved in professional organizations and Civic Studies Indicators 1. Participates actively in professional, social, civic and religious activities 2. Maintains membership to professional organizations 3. Support activities related to nursing and health issues TOTAL WEIGHTED MEAN
Legend: Wm = Weighted Mean

Wm 4.52 4.57 4.65 4.58

V.Int FULLY COMPLIED FULLY COMPLIED FULLY COMPLIED FULLY COMPLIED

V.Int = Verbal Interpretation

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Projects a professional image of the nurse Four indicators were included in the projection of professional image of a nurse and results were tallied and shown in Table V. The outcome suggested that the clinical instructors have fully complied with each items on core competency 4 with a total weighted mean of 4.59. Dressed properly, showed good manners and right conducts at all times as well as demonstrated congruence of words and actions have come up with the weighted mean of 4.61 which indicated that the respondents were projecting a professional image whenever having their class or in front of their colleagues. The clinical instructors also behave accordingly at all times.

TABLE V Core Competency 4: Projects a professional image of the nurse Indicators 1. Demonstrates good manner and right conduct at all times 2. Dresses properly 3. Demonstrates congruence of words and actions 4. Behaves appropriately at all times TOTAL WEIGHTED MEAN Wm 4.61 4.61 4.61 4.52 4.59 V.Int FULLY COMPLIED FULLY COMPLIED FULLY COMPLIED FULLY COMPLIED FULLY COMPLIED

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Legend: Wm = Weighted Mean

V.Int = Verbal Interpretation

Possesses positive attitude towards change and criticism

Table VI demonstrated core competency 5 that talked about the positive attitude of clinical instructors towards change and criticism. Since nursing is continuously developing, nurses must be optimistic towards these changes that may occur and they must also know how to cope up with criticisms and use these as a basis for improvement. The respondents have come up to a weighted mean of 4.61 as they listen to suggestions and willing to adapt to certain changes that may occur in their field of profession. A weighted mean of 4.57 implied to the clinical instructors use of new strategies or approaches in their means of teaching.

TABLE VI Core Competency 5: Possesses positive attitude towards change and criticism Legend: Wm = Weighted Mean Indicators 1. Listen to suggestions and recommendations 2. Tries new strategies or approaches 3. Adapts to change willingly TOTAL WEIGHTED MEAN 4.61 4.60 V.Int = Verbal Interpretation Wm V.Int 4.61 4.57 FULLY COMPLIED FULLY COMPLIED FULLY COMPLIED FULLY COMPLIED

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Performs functions according to professional standards In terms of performance of functions and responsibilities according to professional standards, the respondents have fully complied with it to a total weighted mean of 4.67. Table VII further discussed the indicators underscored in this core competency with the highest compliance on setting of attainable objectives in enhancing their skills and knowledge with a weighted mean of 4.70. Assessment of own performance against standards of practice and explaining current nursing practices both have a weighted mean of 4.66. Assessing performance of standards of practice will facilitate evaluation of ones capabilities and adherence to such standards set within the profession.

TABLE VII Core Competency 6: Performs functions according to professional standards Legend: Wm = Weighted Mean Indicators 1. Assesses own performance against standards of practice 2. Sets attainable objectives to enhance nursing knowledge and skills 3. Explains current nursing practices, as the situation arises TOTAL WEIGHTED MEAN V.Int = Verbal Interpretation Wm V.Int 4.66 4.70 4.66 4.67 FULLY COMPLIED FULLY COMPLIED FULLY COMPLIED FULLY COMPLIED

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