You are on page 1of 174

DE-CODI-NG

BA AN
MANKONG
SPACES OF COMMUNITY FOR TRANSFORMATION
2011 M S c B u i l di n g a n d U r ba n D e s i g n i n D e v e l o pment
Develo p m e n t P l a n n i n g U n i t | U n i v e r s i t y C o l l e g e L ondon

F i e l d T r i p R epor t
SILVIA SERENA JOSUE
CHI CERVERA LEHUA JARVIS ROBLES CARABALLO

NOOR
AL GHAFARI

KATJA AZZURRA FARIDA


STARC MUZZONIGRO FARAG
AFRAA McKENZIE SEPIDE
ALI O’NEILL HAJISOLTANI

STUDENT BODY
building and urban design in development 2011

THE
DHRIN
TEAM

MAHYA MAGDALENA DHRIN


FATEMI ASSANOWICZ ANANTAMONGKOLCHAI

dpu | budd | field trip report BANGKOK i


ACRONYMS

Asian Coalition for Community Actions ACCA


Asian Coalition for Housing Rights ACHR
Asian Development Bank ADB
Baan Mankong BM
Bangkok Metropolitan Administration BMA
Building and Urban Design in Development MSc BUDD
Chang Chumchon ( Local Builders) CCC
City Development Committee CDC
City Development Fund CDF
Community Organization Development Institute CODI
Crown Property Bureau CPB
Development Planning Unit DPU
Government Housing Bank GHB
International Institute for Environment and IIED
Development
Local Development Foundation LDF
Metropolitan Waterworks Authority MWWA
National Committee on Decentralization Policy for NCDP
Provincial and Local Development
National Economic and Social Development Board NESDB
Non-Governmental Organization NGO
National Housing Authority NHA
National Rural Development Committee NRDC
National Union of Low Income Community NULICO
Organization
Rural Development Fund RDF
Tourism Authority of Thailand TAT
Urban Community Development Office UCDO
University College London UCL
Urban Development Planning MSc UDP

dpu | budd | field trip report BANGKOK iii


TABLE OF CONTENTS
Acronyms iii
Table of Contents v
Acknowledgments vii


1.1 Executive Summary viii
1.1 รายงานฉบับย่อ x
1.2 Vision xii
1.3 Introduction xiv

2.0 THEORETICAL FRAMEWORK AND


METHODOLOGY 17
2.1 Definition of Transformation 18
2.2 Transformation/ Metamorphosis 18
2.3 Decoder 22
2.4 Methodology 24

3.0 FINDINGS / ANALYSIS 27
3.1 Pressures and Drivers of Change 28
3.2 Actors 30
3.3 The 6 Case Studies 35
3.4 Diagnosis 48
3.5 Conclusion 63

4.0 STRATEGIES 65
4.1 Vision 66
4.2 Strategies and Proposals 68
4.3 Synergic Connections Between
Strategic Proposals 92
4.4 DECODING Strategic Proposals 94

5.0 REFLECTIONS 99

6.0 REFERENCES 105
6.1 List of Figures 106
6.2 Bibliography 112

A.0 ANNEXES A116

dpu | budd | field trip report BANGKOK v


ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS
LONDON BANGKOK
Presented de-CODI-ng would not take place Through highly valuable hospitability of CODI
without involvement of many significant and Somsook Boonyabancha we were exposed
personalities. to practical knowledge-sharing.

This learning experienced was facilitated and Our transformation process would not be
carried throughout by Development Planning Unit complete if not for people who eagerly helped us
staff : understand what Baan Mankong means:

Camillo Boano Dr. Nattawut Usavagovitwong


William Hunter DPU Thai alumni
Andrew Wade NESDB
Caren Levy Government Housing Bank
Cassidy Johnson LPN developers
Vanesa Castan Broto NHA
Ruth McLeod ACHR
ACCA
and all the DPU staff involved in the preparation
of this trip.

Photo by Noor Al Ghafari


With the support of communities and community Rangsit municipality
leaders we had a chance to see Bangkok from a Rangsit Nimitmai, Rattana Pathum, Sang-san
different perspective and get an overall picture of Nakorn Rangsit, Cha-reon Sin, Klong Nueng
CODI’s actions: Pattana, Klong Sawaan, Sapann Keaw, Behind
MaKro, and Lakhok Railway
Bang Khen communities
Bang Bua, Roon Mai Pattana Tai, Rumjai Bang Pu municipality
Patthana Nu, Ruamjai-Pattana Tai, Roy Krong, Klong Mai Tai, Sam Haung,Nangnoal,
Ou Tid A Nu Son, Chai Klong Bang Bua, Baan Bangsamran, Srang Ton Eang and Klong Ta Kok
Bang Khen, Sapan Mai, Warawi Wattana and
Klong Lumpai. Rattanakosin Island
Baan Bart, Pom Mahakan, Wat
Khlong Toey communities Sumtonthammatan, Jakkaphatdephong, Wang
Koh Klang Klong Pra Ka Nhong, Sang Sun Krom Phra Sommootamompan, Wat Saket, Wat
Phatana, Ruam Jai Pattana, Penang market, Rim Dusitaram, and Ta Wang.
Klong Pai Sing Tho, Rim Klong Wat Sa Parn and .
Lock 1,2,3
Working with fellow Thai students strengthened
Pasi Chaloen communities our language skills and developed cultural
Klong Lad Pha-Shi, Ra-sri, Sirapraya, Sirin and knowledge.
Friend, Witsampham, Wat Chan Ket 1 and Wat
Chan Ket 3. Cooperation with the BUDD group C and students
of UDP was a great proof of what an effective
community means.

To all of you:
SAWASDIKA and BIG KOPKUNKA !!!
สวัสดีคะ/ครับ และ ขอบคุณคะ/ครับ

dpu | budd | field trip report BANGKOK vii


1.1 EXECUTIVE SUMMARY
Based on extensive preparatory research and
informed by data collection during the fieldwork
in Bangkok, Thailand, this report represents a
processed and synthesized outcome of a four
months long learning process, undertaken by
the students of Building and Urban Design in
Development (BUDD) at University College
London (2010/2011) in collaboration with
colleagues from the Urban Development Planning
and under supervision of the Development
Planning Unit academic staff.
Aim Findings

This report has three objectives: The identification of relevant actors at different
scales along with the insights about major
First, it seeks to develop an analytical perspective pressures and drivers of change provided by
embedded in a broader theoretical discourse of field-work in six sites, has exposed the following
the social and the spatial which would help with issues as being the most influential for the
understanding transformative processes in the transformative potential of the Programme:
context of the urban, formulate a vision of a just
transformation and enable a critical evaluation of 1. The Programme is successful in mobilizing
findings and proposals. and empowering communities but the capacity to
negotiate is constrained
Second, it aims to assess the transformative
potential of The Baan Mankong Secure Housing 2. The pressures of rapid urban growth pose
Programme as envisioned and implemented by a significant challenge for land accessibility
The Community Organizations Development and affordability, which hinders the ability of
Institute in the wider context of the city of communities to participate in the Programme
Bangkok, Thailand. 3. The Programme fosters and builds on
networking and knowledge sharing, however the
Third, based on a contextualized diagnosis of the process appears to be uneven
challenges and opportunities of the Programme,
it intends to design strategic interventions meant 4. Even though the Programme’s success lies
to strengthen its transformative potential in order in collective problem solving this is not fully
to reach the envisioned goal of transformation as translated into design responses
social justice.

viii INTRODUCTION EXECUTIVE SUMMARY


Recommendations Conclusions

Informed by the analytical diagnosis four The set of actions meant to re-shape financial
strategies with detailed proposal have been policies, land and knowledge management
designed: prove to be successful to some extent, but the
assessment of the strategic proposals shows
1. Increase land accessibility and affordability that they can only reach their full transformative
through densification, intensification and higher potential if supported by the active involvement of
productivity of land the usually marginalized in the decision making
process. Building on CODI’s advocacy for people
2. Strengthen networks and capitalize design lead transformative processes, it is recognized
solutions through a knowledge sharing process that the ultimate result of the demand driven
by creating a Skills Bank, Community Resource paradigm shift is appropriation of political space
Nodes and Channels of Effective Communication that enables people to participate in the shaping
of city-wide urban transformations.
3. Decrease vulnerability of communities by
expanding accessibility to alternative funding like
Booster Funds.

4. Develop alliances among the actors to


optimize the capacity of negotiation based on the
redefinition of roles and areas of responsibility.

The added value of the individual proposals lies


in the potential of not only complementary but
synergic reinforcements between them. As such,
these connections can multiply strategic effects
over time and scale.

dpu | budd | field trip report BANGKOK ix


1.1 รายงานฉบับย่อ
รายงานฉบับนี้อ้างอิงมาจากการที่ได้ทำ�การศึกษาอย่างครอบคลุม
และได้รับการยืนยันจากการวิเคราะห์ข้อมูล ที่ได้จากงานภาคสนาม
ในกรุงเทพฯ เพื่อแสดงให้เห็นถึงขั้นตอนการดำ�เนินงานและผลลัพธ์
จากการสังเคราะห์ ภายในระยะเวลาสี่เดือนที่ทำ�การศึกษา รายงาน
ฉบับนี้จัดทำ�โดย นักศึกษาภาควิชาการออกแบบอาคารและเมืองเพื่อ
การพัฒนา มหาวิทยาลัย University College London ประจำ�ปีการ
ศึกษา 2010/2011 โดยร่วมมือกับนักศึกษาภาควิชาการวางแผนเมือง
เพื่อการพัฒนา ภายใต้การควบคุมของอาจารย์และทีมงานจาก กอง
การวางแผนเพื่อการพัฒนา

วัตถุประสงค์ ผลจากการศึกษา
วัตถุประสงค์ของรายงานฉบับนี้ประกอบไปด้วย 3 องค์ประกอบหลัก การศึกษาและแยกแยะข้อมูลที่เกี่ยวข้องเช่น องค์กรและผู้ที่เกี่ยวข้อง
- เพื่อพัฒนาและวิเคราะห์มุมมองที่เป็นส่วนหนึ่งของทฤษฎีที่ กับโครงการในแต่ละระดับ รวมไปถึงข้อมูลเชิงลึกเกี่ยวกับแรงกดดัน
เกี่ยวกับสังคมและที่ว่าง เพื่อที่จะได้ช่วยให้เข้าใจถึงขั้นตอนการปฏิรูป และแรงขับดันที่ก่อให้เกิดการเปลี่ยนแปลง ที่ได้จากการทำ�งานภาค
ภายใต้บริบทของเมือง ในขณะเดียวกันก็ สังเคราะห์ออกมาเป็นวิสัย สนามในหกพื้นที่ ได้นำ�ไปสู่ประเด็นต่างๆต่อไปนี้ซึ่งเป็นส่วนสำ�คัญที่
ทัศน์ของการปฏิรูปอย่างยุติธรรม และทำ�การประเมินองค์ความรู้เพื่อ ส่งผลกระทบต่อศักยภาพในการปฏิรูปของโครงการ
นำ�ไปสู่ข้อเสนอแนะสำ�หรับโครงการ 1. โครงการมีความสำ�เร็จในการผลักดันให้เกิดการขับเคลื่อน
- เพื่ อ ประเมิ น ศั ก ยภาพทางการปฎิ รู ป ของโครงการบ้ า น ของชุมชนและภาคี แต่ศักยภาพในการต่อรองยังถูกจำ�กัดอยู่
มั่นคง ที่ได้รับการพัฒนาและดำ�เนินการโดยสถาบันพัฒนาองค์กร 2. การขยายของเมืองก่อให้เกิดแรงกดดันไปสู่ความสามารถ
ชุมชน ในบริบทที่ซับซ้อนของกรุงเทพมหานคร ในการครอบครองที่ดิน ซึ่งสร้างข้อจำ�กัดในการเข้าร่วมโครงการบ้าน
- อ้างอิงจากการวิเคราะห์ ถึงความท้าทายและศักยภาพของ มั่นคงของชุมชน
โครงการโดยคำ�นึงถึงบริบทและสภาพแวดล้อม รายงานนี้ประสงค์ 3. ภาคีและการกระจายความรู้ถึอว่าเป็นโครงสร้างหลักของ
ที่จะออกแบบกลยุทธ์ในการดำ�เนินการ ที่จะสามารถ เสริมความ โครงการ แต่ว่าขั้นตอนดำ�เนินการยังคงไม่ทั่วถึงและไม่เสมอกันใน
แข็งแกร่งให้กับ ศักยภาพในการปฏิรูปของโครงการ เพื่อนำ�ไปสู่เป้า แต่ละพื้นที่
หมายที่วางไว้ของการพัฒนาอย่างมีความยุติธรรมทางสังคม 4. ถึงแม้ว่าความสำ�เร็จของโครงการเกิดจากการมีส่วนร่วมใน
การแก้ปัญหา แต่ว่าประเด็นนี้ยังไม่ได้รับการ ส่งเสริมอย่างเต็มที่ใน
ด้านการออกแบบเพื่อตอบสนองต่อปัญหา

x INTRODUCTION รายงานฉบับย่อ
ข้อเสนอแนะ สรุป
กลยุทธ์และรายละเอียดของแผนการดำ�เนินงานได้รับการออกแบบ แผนการดำ � เนิ น การเหล่ า นี้ ถู ก กำ � หนดขึ้ น เพื่ อ เปลี่ ย นรู ป แบบของ
จากการวิเคราะห์ข้อมูลเชิงลึก นโยบายทางการเงิน ที่ดิน และการจัดการข้อมูล ซึ่งได้รับการพิสูจน์
1. เพิ่ ม ศั ก ยภาพในการครอบครองที่ ดิ น ด้ ว ยการเพิ่ ม ความ ในระดับหนึ่งแล้วว่าประสบความสำ�เร็จ แต่จากการประเมินชี้ให้เห็น
หนาแน่นทั้งทางนอนและทางตั้ง และการเพิ่มประสิทธิภาพของที่ดิน ว่า กลยุทธิ์จะสามารถถูกใช้ได้เต็มประสิทธิภาพก็ต่อเมื่อได้รับการ
2. เพิ่มความแข็งแกร่งของภาคีและการออกแบบเพื่อเพิ่มผล สนับสนุนจากฝ่ายที่เป็นผู้ออกนโยบาย กลยุทธิ์เหล่านี้ถูกวางขึ้นจาก
ประโยชน์ ผ่านขั้นตอนการกระจายและแลกเปลี่ยนความรู้ ด้วยการ แนวคิดของสถาบันพัฒนาองค์กรชุมชน บนพื้นฐานที่เชื่อว่าผลลัพธ์
สร้าง ธนาคารทักษะความสามารถ ศูนย์รวมทรัพยากรชุมชนและ ช่อง ที่ยิ่งใหญ่ของ มุมมองที่เปลี่ยนไปสู่การขับเคลื่อนจากอุปสงค์(ชุมชน)
ทางสำ�หรับการสื่อสารอย่างมีประสิทธิภาพ นั้นเหมาะสมกับพื้นที่ทางนโยบายที่ให้โอกาสประชาชนในการมีส่วน
3. ลดความเสี่ยงโดยการขยายช่องทางในการเข้าถึงเงินทุน ร่วมในการปฏิรูปเมือง
ผ่าน โครงการกระตุ้นกองทุน
4. เสริมสร้างพันธมิตรระหว่างผู้เกี่ยวข้องเพื่อเพิ่มศักยภาพใน
การต่อรอง บนพื่นฐานของการ นิยามบทบาทและหน้าที่รับผิดชอบ
ของแต่ละฝ่ายใหม่
แผนดำ�เนินงานแต่ละแผนที่ทำ �การนำ�เสนอภายในรายงานฉบับนี้
วางอยู่บนความเป็นไปได้ที่ไม่เพียงแต่ละแผนจะสามารถครอบคลุม
ประเด็นต่างๆ แต่ละแผนยังสามารถเติมเต็มและส่งเสริมกันและกัน
ซึ่งจะช่วยขยายศักยภาพของกลยุทธิ์ให่้ก้าวผ่านระดับและช่วงเวลา
ต่างๆได้

dpu | budd | field trip report BANGKOK xi


1.2 VISION
“People Become The Solution
People Are The Scale”
-Somsook Boonyabancha

xii INTRODUCTION VISION


dpu | budd | field trip report BANGKOK xiii
1.3 INTRODUCTION
Bangkok is not necessarily a place where ‘jay have a chance to carry out necessary housing
yen yen’ (Thai phrase meaning: keep calm) is improvements along with other issues, such as:
easily applicable. Rather it is a city that never tenure security, environment, and basic access to
sleeps and constantly has a lot to offer. Streets services. This complex process requires building
full of vendors, walls flashing with colours, cables many bridges (not necessarily flyovers) between
hanging over one’s head – all these makes a the communities and other actors involved (local
promise of connectivity and efficiency. This dream authorities, NGOs, Academia and the national
is carried along with the construction of flyovers- level of politics).
overshadowing the city with their monstrous
presence they do not necessarily fulfill their Baan Mankong ideals go further than just a
purpose. It seems that always- smiling Bangkok housing programme: it is about the power of the
citizens did not allow themselves to frown people being a part of the collective exercising
thinking about the possibility and consequences freely their rights.
of the urban sprawl.
In order to assess the Baan Mankong
Launched in 2003 “Baan Mankong Collective Programme, an intensive exploration of the city of
Housing Program” carried out by CODI Bangkok was undertaken by the DPU BUDD and
(Community Organizations Development UDP MSc students. Fieldwork was carried out in
Institute- a public organization under the Ministry Bang Khen, Khlong Toey, Pasi Chaloen, Rangsit,
of Social Development and Human Security) has Bang Pu and Rattanakosin Island, all of which
a certain role within the metropolis: it supports are included in the BM programme. Furthermore,
process of ‘developing long-term, comprehensive this helped envisage the reality of the conditions
solutions to problems of land and housing’ within these communities before, during and after
affecting the poorest within the vibrant urban the programme.
structure of Bangkok (CODI website).

CODI’s methods evolve primarily around Figures below and on the following pages are
channelling governmental funds so that illustrating the final presentations held at CODI`s
communities (being a part of the program), will headquarters in Bangkok the 22nd May 2011.
Photo by Silvia Chi

Photo by Silvia Chi

Figure 1.2 Community mobilisation issue based presentation Figure 1.3 Community leaders participating in the feedback

xiv INTRODUCTION
Photo by Sepideh Hajisoltani
Figure 1.4 Somsook Boonyabancha participation in our presentations in Bangkok
Photo by Silvia Chi

Figure 1.5 Rangsit site presentation by BUDD and UDP MSc Figure 1.6 Bang Pu site presentation by BUDD and UDP Photo by Silvia Chi
students MSc students
Photo by Silvia Chi

Photo by Silvia Chi

Figure 1.7 Pasi Chaloen site presentation by BUDD and Figure 1.8 Rattanakosin Island site presentation by BUDD
UDP MSc students and UDP MSc students
dpu | budd | field trip report BANGKOK xv
Photo by Silvia Chi

“NULICO puts into practice the Baan Mankong ideals of


“information exchange” and “learning by doing”
-Diane Archer

THEORETICAL FRAMEWORK AND METHODOLOGY


THEORETICAL
FRAMEWORK AND
METHODOLOGY

dpu | budd | field trip report BANGKOK 17


2.0 THEORETICAL FRAMEWORK
AND METHODOLOGY
2.1 DEFINITION OF
TRANSFORMATION
After being exposed to Bangkok we can freely It was quickly understood that transformation is
say that it is an evolving, constantly moving an ongoing (infinite?) process, with a possibly
organism that undergoes uncontrolled processes utopian goal. Instead of meeting only the spatial
of various metamorphosis. criteria (Lefebvrian transformation definition
as “liberation time- space” understood as
Having said that, our interest was the condition reappropriation of space to fight the capitalist
of the poorest citizens living in this particular city false consciousness) or the social criteria
and being a part of the Baan Maankong project (Rawlsian distributive “ A Theory of Justice” talking
carried out by CODI. about rights and freedoms chosen by individuals
under the condition of ‘veil of ignorance’), it was
The task of this theoretical framework is to grasped that transformation definition requires a
establish a certain understanding of socio-spatial combination of both: socio-spatial components
‘transformation’ and it’s criteria within an urban in the context of time.
context. This kind of framework should be used
as a tool to see the potential ‘gaps’ for additional Result: Transformation (metamorphosis) is a
interventions that would bring about a visible long term process (time) of social and spatial
level of improvement (for us, these will be the improvement.
strategies including the vision).
This supposedly simple definition had to involve
It has to be underlined that our ‘transformation’ certain conditions. After careful assessment
definition had undergone many changes and Transformation was additionally elaborated as an
various modifications. It was understood that it action of:
has to meet three characteristics: time/scale and
space that will combine different components re-designing the structure of power relations
and criteria. by applying a knowledge-sharing scheme that
would ensure greatest possible degree of social
This discourse is embedded within an analytical justice.
thought that will enrich further discussion over
potential interventions. This discourse was led by the notion of freedom
(specifically: freedom of choice) and ways
2.2 TRANSFORMATION/ to achieve its highest possible degree in the
communal context within the structure of social
METAMORPHOSIS justice (can individual freedom be maximized
in such conditions?). This thought links directly
“Development requires the removal of with the theory of ‘Development as Freedom’
major sources of unfreedom: poverty introduced by Amartya Sen what reminds us
as well as tyranny, poor economic Somsook Boonyabencha’s work, who speaks
of Development being Freedom (a pro-active
opportunities as well as systematic social approach).
deprivation, neglect of public facilities
as well as intolerance or overactivity of
repressive states”. (Sen, 3)

18 THEORETICAL FRAMEWORK AND METHODOLOGY TRANSFORMATION


POWER RELATIONS | Re-design power KNOWLEDGE SHARING | Engage all
relations through leveraging engagement of stakeholders in efficient knowledge-sharing
stakeholders in decision making process scheme

SOCIAL JUSTICE | Ensure equal access to


rights and liberties within a democratic community
attempting to achieve highest individual freedom

POWER RELATIONS KNOWLEDGE SHARING


RE-DESIGN POWER RELATIONS ENGAGE STAKEHOLDERS IN
THROUGH LEVERAGING EFFICIENT KNOWLEDGE -SHARING
ENGAGEMENT OF STAKEHOLDERS SCHEME.
IN DECISION MAKING PROCESS.

SOCIAL JUSTICE
ENSURE EQUAL ACCESS TO RIGHTS AND
LIBERTIES WITHIN A DEMOCRATIC
COMMUNITY ATTEMPTING TO ACHEIVE
HIGHEST INDIVIDUAL FREEDOM.

TRANSFORMATION/
METAMORPHOSIS
IS A LONG TERM PROCESS OF SOCIAL AND SPATIAL IMPROVEMENT.
IT MEANS THE RE-DESIGN OF THE STRUCTURE OF POWER RELATIONS
BY APPLYING A KNOWLEDGE-SHARING SCHEME THAT WOULD ENSURE
GREATEST POSSIBLE DEGREE OF SOCIAL JUSTICE.

Figure 2.1 Envisioning the transformation definition

dpu | budd | field trip report BANGKOK 19


PARTICIPATIVE DESIGN

POWER RELATIONS
EQUALITY OF ENGAGEMENT OF ALL PARTICIPANTS
ROLE OF COMMUNITY ARCHITECT AS DESIGN ENABLER
ENFORCING NEGOTIATION
CREATE SPACE FOR NEGOTIATION

COMMUNITITY NETWORKING
SCALING -UP

TRANSPARENCY OF STAKEHOLDERS
NEEDS HEARD/LIMITS AKNOWLEDGED
SOCIAL JUSTICE

SOCIAL INCLUSION
GENDER DIVERSIFIED AGE STRUCTURE
MARGINALIZED LIVELIHOODS ENSURED
SPATIAL INCLUSION
PHYSICAL CONNECTIVITY QUALITY OF COMMUNAL SPACES
ACCESSIBILITY RESPONSIVE BUILT TYPOLOGIES
ADAPTABILITY
OF PROGRAM/POLICIES TO NEEDS

EFFECTIVE INVOLVEMENT OF ALL


OF DIFFERENT STAKEHOLDERS AT DIFFERENT STAGES
KNOWLEDGE SHARING

COOPERATIVE INTELLIGENCE
CROSS CUTTING HORIZONTALLY & VERTICALLY

GENERATION BRIDGE
ENGAGEM. OF PEOPLE OF DIFFERENT AGE GROUPS

PRECEDENT SETTING
SPREADING KNOWLEDGE ACROSS SCALES

Figure 2.2 Criteria and Indicators for our definition of transformation

20 THEORETICAL FRAMEWORK AND METHODOLOGY TRANSFORMATION


How do we then envision the transformation It should take place within a structure of
definition? community seen as a web of beings: “The
‘networked individual’ is part of a continuum,
POWER RELATIONS | Re-design power [therefore] a web of beings” (Manickam).
relations through leverage engagement of Individuals should have an opportunity to enjoy
stakeholders in decision making process their freedom through exercising their capabilities/
+ capacities and knowledge within a structure of
KNOWLEDGE SHARING | Engage all democratic community.
stakeholders in efficient knowledge-sharing
scheme. This notion could possibly target the condition
= of ‘democracy to come’ (sort of a ‘promise’)
SOCIAL JUSTICE | Ensure equal access advocated by Derrida: “ (…) idea of a democracy:
to rights and liberties within a democratic equality, freedom, freedom of speech, freedom
community attempting to achieve highest of the press - all these things are inscribed as
individual freedom. promises within democracy. That is why it is a
more historical concept of the political - it’s the
It was clear from the very beginning that the two only concept of a regime or a political organization
components of: power relations and knowledge- in which history, that is the endless process of
sharing are absolutely crucial to reach the improvement and perfectibility, is inscribed in
desirable level of social justice (the ultimate goal the concept. (…) that is why I call it ‘to-come’”
of transformation/social development). They also (Derrida, Politics of Friendship, p. 5).
go hand in hand with the Foucaldian thought of
“Space, Knowledge and Power” interlinkage: Such a discourse can be observed vividly
“Space is fundamental in any form of communal within the current transformation of Thailand’s
life, space is fundamental in any exercise of political structure struggling to establish a set
power.” ( Foucault, . 254). These two notions: of applicable norms and codes. Hopefully,
power and knowledge within spatial context are the broader implication of the ‘transformation’
inseparable, therefore, improving one means definition will bring a stronger meaning to the
improving the other ones as well. To reach the ‘democratic’ system that Thailand continuously
highest desirable outcome all of them should be works on.
at the same level (can they ever be?).

Balancing components will hopefully lead to


enhancing the importance of freedom in Sen’s
understanding achieving the ultimate goal seen
as Social Justice: “(..) exercise of people’s
freedoms, through liberty to participate in social
choice and in making of public decisions that
impel the progress of (…) opportunities” (Sen, p.
5). Development is precisely what we would like
to see within the transformation definition: shifting
human condition so that the highest possible
freedom (social justice in practice) through spatial
and social components within a societal structure
can be obtained.

dpu | budd | field trip report BANGKOK 21


2.3 DECODER
As a methodological tool to portray and assess The second one shows the extent of social and
transformational processes, we propose a spatial outcomes of investigated processes in the
hexagonal diagram, the Decoder, with three socio-spatial continuum based on a qualitative
subjects of investigation. comparison.

The first axis represents the interplay between And the last one expresses the magnitude of
the two components defined as prerequisites change across scale (community, district, city/
for social justice, power relations re-design and metropolis) and the estimated time needed to
knowledge sharing, to be measured through achieve that change as well as the on-going
appropriate criteria (participatory design, nature of it (short, mid and long term).
transparency of stakeholders, community
networking, enabled negotiation and generation
bridge, precedent setting, cooperative intelligence
accordingly). In order to assess transformational processes, the impacts
of their outcomes are to be analyzed along all of the three
axis. According to the proposed definition of transformation,
social justice is achieved when all criteria are met and social
as well as spatial improvements achieved across time and
scale.
RE
PO IONS
LA
WE
T

E
TIM
R

negotiation
g
blin
ena

networking
ter ng
m
lo
y
nit
mu
com

stakeholders
ter ium
of

m
d
y

me
enc
par

design
ns

ry
tra

ato

ter ort
cip

m
sh
ti
par

SPATIAL OUTCOME SOCIAL OUTCOME


high medium low low medium high
n ity
mu
com

dge
bri

generation
t
tric
dis

ng
setti

precedent
n
lita
tro /
me city
po

ce
gen
elli
int

cooperative
KN ARIN
LE

SH
OW G
SCA

LED
GE

Figure 2.3 DECODER: a methodological tool to assess transformational processes


DECODER:
an analytical tool to
assess transformational processess
22 THEORETICAL FRAMEWORK AND METHODOLOGY DECODER
RE
P O I ON S
LA
WE
T

E
T IM
R
negotiation

g
blin
ena
networking

ter ng
m
lo
y
nit
mu
com
stakeholders

ter ium
of

m
d
cy

me
aren
design

nsp

ry
tra

ato

ter ort
cip

m
sh
ti
par
SPATIAL OUTCOME SOCIAL OUTCOME
high medium low low medium high

y
nit
mu
com

dge
bri
t generation
tric
dis

ng
setti
precedent
n
lita
tro /
me city
po

ce
gen
elli
int
cooperative

KN ARIN
LE

SH
SCA

OW G
Figure 2.4 An example of how the DECODER works LED
GE
RE
PO IONS
LA
WE
T

E
TIM
R

negotiation
g
blin
ena

networking
ter ng
m
lo
y
nit
mu
com

stakeholders
ter ium
f
yo

m
d
me
enc
par

design
ns

or y
tra

pat

ter ort
m
tici

sh
par

SPATIAL OUTCOME SOCIAL OUTCOME


high medium low low medium high
ity
mun
com

dge
bri

generation
t
tric
dis

g n
setti

precedent
n
lita
tro /
me city
po

ce
gen
elli
int

cooperative
KN ARIN
LE

SH
SCA

OW G
LED
GE

Figure 2.5 Ideal situation: transformational processes result in social justice

dpu | budd | field trip report BANGKOK 23


2.4 METHODOLOGY
During a two- week field trip in Bangkok we had • Sites where interviews with local authorities
an opportunity to visit 6 distinct sites involved in took place: Klong Toey, Phasi Chaleon, Bang Pu,
the Baan Mankong programme. Rangsit (4 interviews)

Our methods of gathering important information • Type of the interview that occurred the most:
varied from site to site ( site visits being one of semi-structured (48 interviews) with community
the methods). Through this different modes of leaders, community comitees, Crown Property
data collect, we were able to triangulate the Bureau staff, NULICO staff.
information in order to cross-check the findings in
the sites. SITE AND HOUSE MAPPING

METHODS Site and house mapping (drawings/ sketches)


were produced to help in understanding the
1. Site visits spatial components of the sites and be a part of
2. Interviews necessary documentation.
(Inhabitants & Institutional Actors): structured/
unstructured/ semi-structures/ informal VISUAL RECORDING OF THE SITES
3. Site and house mapping
4.Visual recording of the sites (photos, videos) The whole experienced was accompanied by
5. Participative workshops a series of photos and occasionally videos
6. Final presentations to the communities. capturing what was visible within the sites.

SITE VISITS PARTICIPATIVE WORKSHOPS

Visited 6 sites ( number of communities visited Sites where PARTICIPATIVE WORKSHOPS


within the site): occurred: Bang Pu (1 workshop)
• Bang Khen (8) Sites where a different type of WORKSHOP took
• Klong Toey (8) place: Rangsit (1 workshop)
• Phasi Chaleon (6)
• Bang Pu (7) FINAL PRESENTATIONS
• Rattanakosin Island (8)
• Rangsit (8) The final presentations to the communities within
the week of the fieldwork as well as the final
INTERVIEWS presentations held at CODI`s headquarters at the
end of the fieldtrip were essential for assessing
Common system of retrieving data was a whether the initial impressions and assumptions
simple interview that involved an interviewer/ met the reality and communities expectations/
interviewee(s) and a translator(s). Interviews common knowledge. The feedback of these
consisted of a set of simple questions helping to final presentations were core in reframing and
get the overall picture of the assessed issue: adjusting the strategies that we tested in the field.

• Interviewed people were inhabitants of the The recording of the fieldwork is elaborated in a
communities occasionally accompanied by more extended way in the annex of this report.
institutional actors. Average number of (informal)
interviews per site: 10-15

24 THEORETICAL FRAMEWORK AND METHODOLOGY METHODOLOGY


Photo by Tareq Razouk

Photo by Silvia Chi


Figure 2.6 Visual recording of the sites Figure 2.7 Site visits

Photo by Silvia Chi Photo by Kade Wanida


Figure 2.8 Interviews Figure 2.9 Final presentation with the communities

dpu | budd | field trip report BANGKOK 25


Photo by McKenzie O`Neill

‘There is a gap between the people and the system, let the
people fill the gap’
-Somsook Boonyabancha

ANALYSIS
ANALYSIS

dpu | budd | field trip report BANGKOK 27


3.0 ANALYSIS
3.1 PRESSURES AND urban periphery, attempting to address the city’s
symptoms of high-density vehicular travel and
DRIVERS OF CHANGE long commute times.

As a major hub in South East Asia with a vision As a country, Thailand is experiencing a time of
of becoming a global city, Bangkok is facing great internal rift. The country’s hub, Bangkok is
increasing pressures on land. Gentrifying the setting for these conflicts and therefore one
forces in the central historical, commercial and of the focal points of our investigation. The highly
residential districts have led to an increase in real controversial political scenario in Bangkok has
estate value. These rapid urban development had a large influence and impact over the BM
pressures pose great challenges for allocating Programme’s activities and the roles of several
affordable land and securing land tenure for the actors. More importantly, it is vital to note that
urban poor. BM is a government funded programme, and
it is somewhat vulnerable to being affected by
At present, many communities are being frequent power shifts in the political arena.
excluded from the goods and services of the city
and are often forced to look for housing solutions Several of the dominant transformative actors
that are spatially and economically disconnected have experienced a greater position of power due
from the urban centre. Migration and squatting to the nature of this conflict, increasing CODI’s
have become emerging forces within Bangkok. vulnerability but also its strength in overcoming
these struggles. In the future of the Programme,
At the same time, megaprojects including this will continue to be the greatest influence that
transport expansions have greatly influenced the underlies all relationships between actors.
city’s form and the sprawling conditions at the

Photo by Silvia Chi


Figure 3.1 Megainfrastructure and housing in Koh Klang Klong Pra Ka Nhong

28 ANALYSIS PRESSURES AND DRIVERS OF CHANGE


Figure 3.2 Drivers of change and pressures on Bangkok

Photo by Silvia Chi


Photo by Silvia Chi
Figure 3.3 Touristic activities in the central area of Bangkok, Figure 3.4 Coexistence of slums, mega projects and new
Rattanakosin Island developments in Klong Toey

dpu | budd | field trip report BANGKOK 29


3.2 ACTORS Within the diagram we have illustrated how
NULICO has become the strong-hold of the
Programme in coordinating and organizing
While identifying the key actors involved in the
community activities, and acting as the
process of transformation, we recognize how
emergency generator of funding and community
several actors were involved on different levels,
driven processes.
with multiple and varying roles. In order to
represent the multi-scalar processes involved
between actors we have conceptualized the COOPERATIVE
BM Programme as a “machine.” We have
represented these complex relations through a Several actors have been allies of the
diagram — the poles represent the multi-scalar Programme. One important example is ACHR,
actors, the size of the gears relate to the power or as an organization they share similar strategies
dominance of each actor, and the “belts” between to the initiatives of CODI, but address the larger
each actor explain the quality of their relations scale. The programmes of knowledge sharing
and how closely they are working together. and regional funding opportunities of large-scale
ACHR projects have had an immense positive
This “machine” has become a critical tool for impact on the BM Programme. This has been
our analysis: it has helped us to diagnose actor particularly important on the community level.
relations and how they have evolved over time,
as well as to understand how these relationships
have changed or were clarified through our
experiences in the field (The differences between
the figure 3.6 and 3.7 point out these changes).

As illustrated through the diagram, CODI is


posited at the centre because it is a dominant
actor in distributing funds to communities and
one that has remained before and after the
fieldwork experience. However, CODI’s level of
involvement at the community scale is less visible
than originally anticipated.

The Royal Patronage


1950s of H.M. the King
1960s
NESDB
Misintry of
Finance PREM

Thailand Rural Recon-


structurction Movement Government Housing Bank
1970s
National Rural Development Community Development
Committee (NRDC) Department

Misintry of
Interior National Housing Authority (NHA)
1980s
Local Develpoment Assistance Program (LDAP)
1990s
Local Development Foundation National Committee on Decentral-
(LDF) ization Policy for Provincial and
Local Development (NCDP)

Rural Development Fund Urban Development Community


(RDF) Office (UCDO)
2000s
Misintry of
SOCIAL DEVELOPMENT
and HUMAN SECURITY

Urban Development Community


Office (UCDO)

Figure 3.5 Actor timeline Figure 3.6 Actor mapping before Bangkok

30 ANALYSIS ACTORS
MONEY (From big end to small end)

SOCIAL DEVELOPMENT
and HUMAN SECURITY
MONEY (Indirect)

GOVERNMENT
INTERNATIONAL Part of but no control over

MINISTRY OF

MINISTRY OF
NGOs(IIED, etc.)

MINISTRY OF
Coordinate

INTERIOR
FINANCE
Support
ACHR
Service (resourse and knowledge)

Negotiate

MUNICIPALITY
/BMA
NHA
GHB

CODI

LANDLORD

UNIVERSITY/
EXPERTS

CITY DEVELOPMENT
COMMITTEE
COMMUNITY NETWORK
ACHR NULICO

COMMUNITY
ARCHITECT

COMMUNITY

Figure 3.7 Actor mapping after Bangkok

dpu | budd | field trip report BANGKOK 31


Equally, NULICO has had a very strong presence exceptional, in its positive and proactive role in
in supporting CODI activities, many times filling advocating communities to join the programme
the voids where CODI cannot act. As NULICO is and establishing leasing agreements, serving the
born out of and imbedded within the communities, interest of both parties.
their involvement at the community level is
strongest and this was made evident in our field Another highly dynamic relationship is one
visits to many of the communities. between the Municipality and the community.
Several communities had a cooperative
CODI also has a good relationship among local relationship with members of the Municipality, or
and larger university networks. This relationship where NULICO was also collaborating with the
is particularly important to the design process Municipality. However, this relationship is one
of CODI projects. For example, the role of that is constantly evolving, and often times the
Universities in the design and capacity building landowner is highly disruptive of local relations.
could be beneficial for both parties and should be In many cases such as Klong Toey, this has made
further explored by CODI, especially in the case it especially difficult for communities to establish
of architects and planners. long-term collaborative relations with the local
Municipality. Further, the Municipality often
NEUTRAL perceives communities as unorganized or limited
in ability and have disregarded the needs of the
Several actors assumed to have a much community for the incentives of the landlord.
stronger relationship with the Programme as As communities continue demonstrating their
their large roles and responsibilities that have organization through their upgrading strategies
been undertaken. However, many of these this is shifting the perception, however the impact
relationships do not possess the synergies that of the landord can still be highly problematic.
we originally assumed in our analysis. This is
specific in the position of the GHB, NHA and FINANCIAL
NESDB with CODI. While we recognize there is no
conflict between these actors, their relationships CODI’s provision of funding has two-fold
have been out of necessity and under pressure limitations. One is the amount of savings a
to support CODI due to their similar ‘positions’ community is able to acquire in order to enter
within the government structures. In this sense, the programme. The other limitation is the large
the national scale of actors is primarily made up fiscal cut that the government agencies have
by these existing support roles. endured. As a result, CODI’s ability to fully
support as many communities as possible is
CONFLICTING not always sufficient. The reductions in funding
impact the very idea of transformation, potentially
There is one relationship within all scenarios that increasing vulnerabilities within communities and
is characterized by high tension: that is between limiting their ability to effectively respond.
the landlord and the communities. While many
times the relations are positive and cooperative, NULICO has been helping to establish City/
the nature of these relations are not immediate Community Development Funds at the municipal
or assumed. The role of the landlord is the most level. These funds act as a revolving fund for
dynamic of any actor as it ranges from Central communities to access, and essentially are an
Government, Local Municipality, private entities, “emergency resource generator” to act without
Royal Family lands or religious institutions. CODI.
Further, the nature of the actor also lends itself
to be dynamic in scale in the “machine.” This Other important financial relationships that
connection is therefore the most contingent communities rely on include donations from
to communities to enter the Programme as ACHR to CODI and to CDFs that have some
Upgrading or Reblocking strategies require impact in the community level. Additionally,
tenure agreements and the greatest potential the relationship between GHB and CODI was
indicator for the level of transformation collectively established as a result of the fiscal crisis, where
sought by the community. The case of CPB is GHB purchased several community loans from

32 ANALYSIS ACTORS
GOVERNMENT
MINISTRY OF
CODI. This is the primary aim of the relationship,
INTERIOR and is one in which CODI and communities
MUNICIPALITY
MINISTRY OF
FINANCE
/BMA mostly benefit.
MINISTRY OF
SOCIAL DEVELOPMENT

NHA
and HUMAN SECURITY
POWER
GHB

CODI
At the level of communities, the network of
COMMUNITY NETWORK NULICO is perhaps the most empowered of any
LANDLORD NULICO
agency in the Programme. This actor has the
Figure 3.8 Main actors in the national level most flexibility of roles and responsibilities, ability
to mobilize and influence the community directly.
In fact, this actor acts primarily to organize
MUNICIPALITY community processes. It is important to clarify
/BMA that CODI lacks any major role at this scale, and
highly relies on community self-organization.
CITY
DEVELOPMENT
COMMITTEE
While there are tense relationships in the overall
actor map, there are also several strained
relationships that are not characteristic of being
CODI
COMMUNITY NETWORK
NULICO
in direct conflict to the program’s efficiency but
LANDLORD
Figure 3.9 Main actors in the metropolitan level
rather to the extent of leveraging transformation.
Specifically, important is the role of the
Community Architect. At present, this actor has
MUNICIPALITY
not been empowered by communities or fully
/BMA integrated in CODI’s agenda of design.
UNIVERSITY/
COMMUNITY NETWORK
NULICO EXPERTS

CITY
Therefore, the community architect actor has a
DEVELOPMENT
COMMITTEE
stronger role in consulting community relations
rather than actually being a part of the design
and building process. The relationship between
CODI COMMUNITY NETWORK
NULICO actors has disempowered the role of the
ACHR Community Architect more than any within the
Figure 3.10 Main actors in the district level Programme.

The City Development Committee is a forum


MUNICIPALITY composed of members from communities,
/BMA NULICO, CODI, Academia, and Municipality.
LANDLORD
UNIVERSITY/ On site, the presence of this team was nearly
EXPERTS
imperceptible. However, while this committee
lacks power of decision-making over issues
ACHR COMMUNITY of development, it is an existing space for
ARCHITECT
negotiation and discussion within the Programme.

Figure 3.11 Main actors in the community level


COMMUNITY

MONEY (From big end to small end)

MONEY (Indirect)

Part of but no control over

Coordinate

Support

Service (resourse and knowledge)

Negotiate

dpu | budd | field trip report BANGKOK 33


34 ANALYSIS SITES
3.3 THE 6 CASE STUDIES
As part of a collective of urban practitioners, our
experiences in the field gave us the opportunity
to connect our theoretical analysis with field-
based research.

During our experiences in the field we refined


our broad understandings of transformation to
centre around four highly specific approaches:
Partnerships and infrastructure, Land and
Housing, Finance, and Community Mobilization
and Capabilities.

The aim of this approach was to filter and cluster


the dense information gathered across the six
sites and shape it into a synthesized analysis
and proposal. Further, we sought to highlight the
opportunities, concerns, and threats across sites
respectively identifying recurrent and resonant
themes throughout.

Rangsit

Ban Khen

Rattanakosin Island
Pasi Chaleon
Khlong Toey

Bang Pu

Figure 3.12 Location of the 6 sites within Bangkok region


dpu | budd | field trip report BANGKOK 35
Ma
jor
Canal

roa
ds

Communities visited

Figure 3.13 Location of the communities visited and significant elements within Bang Khen district

3.3.1 BANG KHEN


Bang Khen District known as the largest district in
Bangkok is located at the centre of the city within
proximity of the main highways, infrastructure
and transport arteries.

The communities in Bang Khen District have a


strong spatial bond with the canal. Since its one
of the pilot projects of BM Programme there is
with a well-grounded community organization
and mobilizationand also, there is a the lack
of influence from the municipality and local
authority. It was here that they pioneered the
first CDF in Bangkok setting precedent for self
sufficient and financial independence from CODI
whilst mitigating the repercussion of any future
financial instability.

Photo by Sepideh Hajisoltani


Figure 3.14 View from Bang Bua canal

36 ANALYSIS SITES
Partnerships and Infrastructure Finance Land and Housing Capabilities

•Although Bang Khen has •Originating the first CDF only for •While observing the overall •Establishing the local community
relatively strong partnerships with housing costs to constitute a self picture design aspects have been builders (CCC - 100 local
the district and local authority sufficiency and less dependency neglected. construction labor in 5 teams
there still appears to be problems acting as a support to CODI funds. •The communities with partnership )which construct the BM projects
in terms of division of equal roles •There are welfare funds available with municipality agreed on the in the district as well as broader
and relations between local which provides for elderly care, New Building Codes for govern- boundaries and setting up ‘Home
authority, municipality and the support for families facing difficul- mental projects which gives more Service Centre’ which where
communities. ties with loan payments, acts as room for maneuver in terms of looking to set up a call centre in
•Partnership with Action Aid for security for irregular incomes of design aspects and planning. future.
financially supporting the Bang community members. •‘Baan Bang Khen’ is an example •Builders network – build knowl-
Bua nursery. (only NGO) •Philanthropy: when government of more developed design aspects edge by implementing the first
•Uneven knowledge among the funding doesn’t come through, using outside architects to design phase and teaching the locals as a
communities can create misunder- communities/individuals donate mid-rise apartments and also process for knowledge transfer.
standing and fragment partner- money to neighboring communi- currently maximizing their area. (in •Their capacity as a collective
ships as one example indicates a ties. (e.g. bridge in Som Chai’s line with growth of the city) community to change New
community member employee of community) •Since 2007 there has been no building codes and be the catalyst
government opposing to BM •CDF has scaling up limitations visit from CODI architect which for further policy changes in
project due to not being aware of which self-sufficiency is a motiva- shows a disconnect between Codi government.
the project being supported by tion, but the fund is inextricably architect and community. •Using protest as a means of
government. linked to CODI for continuity. •According to design standards communication which can be
•Uneven awareness of resources •CDF is also being used to bypass the fact that the communities are related to need of capacity for
and information available in other funding from CODI (e.g. Ruamjai not adapting to changing city negotiation.
districts due to scarcity of Patthana Klang, where community landscape. •Long time to get administration
networks and partnerships. does not have collective land title) •Longevity of the buildings, quality funds and depends if you have
•Timing is another factor that of construction and design may good relations with government.
associates with communities not be desirable in the future. •Canal cleaning every month with
choosing CDF vs. CODI depend- •There has been a definite loss of borrowing the BMA boats which
ing on how much money CODI public spaces after the BM project can on the contrary indicate the
has at any given time. (e.g. acquir- which requires more design imbalance sharing of relationship
ing more from CODI in 2008, feature. and roles resulted in the communi-
immediately following the ties acting like a municipality
successful protests) which might result with over
burden of work and an isolated city
perception.

Figure 3.15 The pictures on top illustrate the problems and opportunities of the chart within Bang Khen district

dpu | budd | field trip report BANGKOK 37


Communities visited

Ma
jor
roa
ds

Port

Figure 3.16 Location of the communities visited and significant elements within Khlong Toey district

3.3.2 KHLONG TOEY

A site full of tensions, Khlong Toey district has


one of the largest and most dense slums in
Bangkok, adjacent to the nation’s main port.

Decades of eviction struggles have resulted


from clashes with the Port Authority, as the
main landowner of slums settlements and major
infrastructure projects that are planned for here.

The high pressure on the land results not only


from these external forces but also the increasing
demand for housing. For the past 30 years this
site has been a major entry point for migrants
to the city, due to its proximity to the port and
large opportunities for work. These pressures,
both internal and external have resulted in
multiple conflicts and a lack of cohesion across
communities. Figure 3.17 Khlong Toey: spatially fragmentated

38 ANALYSIS SITES
Partnerships and Infrastructure Finance Land and Housing Capabilities

Partnerships
•There are and Infrastructure
weaker network •The Port and Finance
the Market also •43 Land and Housing
registered communities •Communities Capabilities
got mobilized
linkages between non-Baan serve as important sources of squeezed in between this, some- during events, such as eviction
Mankong communities, livelihood for communities in the times on undesirable land (e.g. and fire and port authority
•There are weakerbeyond
and with communities networkthe •The
district.Port and the Market also •43
underneathregistered communities
expressways), other •Communities
evictions. got mobilized
linkages
district. between non-Baan serve as important sources of squeezed
times in between
on land targetedthis,
for some-
devel- during events,
•Livelihood such asTrash
committee, eviction
for
Mankong
•One of the communities,
best communities we livelihood for communities in the times on undesirable land (e.g.
opment. and infire
cash and port
communities authority
that were not
and withincommunities
visited beyond the
terms of infrastructure district. underneath
•Baan Mankong expressways),
does not addressother evictions.
part of BM.
district.
and housing improvements was times on landthat
communities targeted for devel-
are living in the •Livelihood
•The districtcommittee,
office isTrash
under-for
•Onethe
on of the
site best communities
of Crown we
Property opment.
most precarious situation, in areas cash in communities that were not
resourced
visited as
Land, in there
terms wasof infrastructure
an alliance •Baan Mankong
without does not
secure tenure, address
under the part ofcommunities
•The BM. were weak in
and housing
with Baan improvements was
Mankong. communities
threat of eviction.that are living in the •The
terms district office is against
of mobilizing under-
on the presence
•Strong site of Crown
of local,Property
national most precarious situation,
•Or communities that are in areas
socially resourced
evictions at first due to their suspi-
Land,
and as there NGOs,
international was anwhichalliance
are without
and secure
spatially tenure, under
fragmented, the
included •The communities
cion and trust in were weak
getting landin
with Baan support
providing Mankong. to communities threat of eviction.
migrants. terms and
tenure of negotiation.
mobilizing against
•Strong
that Baan presence
Mankong of cannot
local, national
reach •Or communities
•Families are afraid that
of are socially
investing in evictions at first due to their suspi-
and
•Theyinternational
have little NGOs,
power towhich are
negoti- and
theirspatially
homes, fragmented,
because they included
don’t cion and trust in getting land
providing
ate with support to communities
or influence the Port migrants.
know when they might need to tenure and negotiation.
that Baan Mankonghave
Consequently, cannot reach
weak •Families
leave We are
alsoafraid of investing
saw entire commu- in
•They
linkageshave little power toon
to communities negoti-
Port their
nities homes,
living inbecause they don’t
temporary-looking
ate
land.with or influence the Port know whenfor
structures theyover
might40need to
years,
Consequently, have weak leave Wethe
because alsoPortsaw entire visits
actually commu-
the
linkages to communities on Port nities living every
community in temporary-looking
year to make
land. structures
sure they don’t for overbuild 40 years,
permanent
because
structures. the Port actually visits the
community
•Global every year
City to make
Competitions
sure they don’t
demands build permanent
a certain type of
structures.
infrastructure and Development –
•Global City
conflicting vision Competitions
for the area.
demands
Land security a lease
certainthrough
type outof
infrastructure
the site. and Development –
conflicting vision for the area.
Land security lease through out
the site.

Figure 3.18 The pictures on top illustrate the problems and opportunities of the chart within Bang Khen district

dpu | budd | field trip report BANGKOK 39


Communities visited

Canal

ds
r roa
M ajo

Figure 3.19 Location of the communities visited and significant elements within Pasi Chaloen district

3.3.3 PASI CHALOEN


Located within the metropolis, Pasi Chaloen
sits on the edge of a rural past facing a rapid
development future.

Once agricultural land characterized by several


canals, urbanization is now occurring and the city
has consumed this site. Most of the communities
living here have been relocated here from other
parts of the city.

As a result, while the relationship between the


local authorities is good the network is fairly
weak due to this recent development. However,
due to the highly speculative nature of the land,
acquiring it is perhaps the largest challenge here. Photo by Azzurra Muzzonigro
Figure 3.20 The community leaders of the district plays an
important role facilitating comunication within and between
the communities

40 ANALYSIS SITES
Sirin & Friend Community Ra-sri Tum Community

Partnerships and Infrastructure Finance Land and Housing Capabilities


Photo by Azzurra Muzzonigro Photo by Azzurra Muzzonigro
Figure
•Roles 3.21
and In Sirin & Friend
Responsibilities on Community
•Cooperatives Codi funded
for welfare mecha-the Figure
•Increase3.22 In in
density Ra-Sri
an areaTum of Community
•Design couldtheplayloans through
an active role
community
environmental partly through
issue, such as loansnismsto the
withincooperative
the community (which
give the
rapid cooperative will be
urbanization could repayed
consti- to Codi @
in strengthening 4%and
spatial interest.
social
repays
waste Codi @ 2% interest
management, are not and keeps 3%toprofit
opportunity for toWelfare).
scale-up mecha- Cooperative
tute a long termwill keep
viable 3% profit
response to for Welfare.
linkages within Additionally
the communityCodi as
There
clearlyis defined,
also a subsidy that Codi
which creates nismaddresses
for widerdirectly to the
inclusion of will provide
the scarcity 2 subsidies:
of available 6.900.000
land in the well as B$ for land
between and road
the community
Community of 5.000.000
gaps of management thatB$is (of individuals
which 3.000.000B$
and groups whichto level
are construction. and 250.000 B$ forand
urban area of Bangkok housing construction
the surrounding area as
reflected
ground andon 2.000.000
the precarious
B$condi-
to build currently
road). excluded from BM •Tax incentive for vacant land •Design plays a marginal role into
tions of marginalized pockets of …don’t constitute a viable solution •Network based Land Bank BM agenda but Community
poor settlements. to overcome the gap between the •Economical constrain to acquire Architects have limited range of
•Opportunity to create partner- members of communities and the land for the Land Bank action within the existing priorities
Partnerships and Infrastructure Finance Land and Housing Capabilities
ships among communities and poorest of the poor that still can’t •Scarce design response to of BM.
with local authorities as well as access for financial difficulties. community’s needs as a conse-
with inhabitants
•Roles of other parts on
and Responsibilities of •Cooperatives for welfare mecha- quence of marginality
•Increase density in of andesign in
area of •Design could play an active role
the district affected
environmental by same
issue, suchissue.
as nisms within the community give list
rapidof BM’s priorities.could consti-
urbanization in strengthening spatial and social
waste management, are not opportunity to scale-up to mecha- tute a long term viable response to linkages within the community as
clearly defined, which creates nism for wider inclusion of the scarcity of available land in the well as between the community
gaps of management that is individuals and groups which are urban area of Bangkok and the surrounding area as
reflected on the precarious condi- currently excluded from BM •Tax incentive for vacant land •Design plays a marginal role into
tions of marginalized pockets of …don’t constitute a viable solution •Network based Land Bank BM agenda but Community
poor settlements. to overcome the gap between the •Economical constrain to acquire Architects have limited range of
•Opportunity to create partner- members of communities and the land for the Land Bank action within the existing priorities
ships among communities and poorest of the poor that still can’t •Scarce design response to of BM.
with local authorities as well as access for financial difficulties. community’s needs as a conse-
with inhabitants of other parts of quence of marginality of design in
the district affected by same issue. list of BM’s priorities.

Figure 3.23 Problems and opportunities within Pasi Chaloen district

dpu | budd | field trip report BANGKOK 41


Canal
ad
Major ro

Communities visited

Figure 3.24 Location of the communities visited and significant elements within Rangsit municipality

3.3.4 RANGSIT

Situation just outside of Bangkok, Rangsit is of


a highly suburban and disconnected nature as it
was once agricultural land dominated by irrigation
canals.

At the periphery of the city, the issues of


migration and urban sprawl collide here.
Similar to Pasi Chaloen, land speculation highly
affects communities in this region resulting in a
landscape dominated by gated communities and
empty land.

However, this community is exceptional in its


strong community network and close relationship
with the municipality. Figure 3.25 Rangsit position in Bangkok peri-urban area

42 ANALYSIS SITES
Partnerships and Infrastructure Finance Land and Housing Capabilities

Partnerships
•Potential betterand Infrastructure
relations between •More developed Finance
CDF expansion •Land Land and Housing
sharing schemes- 4 •Very Strong Capabilities
Network working in
NHA schemes and communities to to include Welfare Fund already, communities coming together to cooperation with municipality,
share facilities (daycare, etc) that but also “Occupation” training as share cost of purchasing land on NULICO, CODI etc. All on very
•Potential
they are better relations
exploring between
at city wide •More
well asdeveloped
Insurance.CDF expansion •Land
one site. sharing
“Sang Saanschemes-
community.4 •Very Strongand
good terms Network working
in strong commu- in
NHA
level.schemes and communities to to include
•Lack Welfare
of criteria, Fund
while already,
an opportu- communities coming land
•Lack of available together to
(large cooperation
nication and alliancewith on municipality,
all issues.
share facilities (daycare,
•Experimenting with etc) that
Private but
nity also “Occupation”
to completely bypasstraining as
CODI, share
amount cost
of of purchasing
private land i.e.
ownership on NULICO,
•“Knowledge CODI etc. All
Center” on very
specific to
they are exploring
contractors at city
as the market wide
is highly well
this as
canInsurance.
also be seen as danger- one
landsite. “Sang Saan community.
speculation) good
each terms
site, inandsomein strong commu-
examples is a
level.
competitive in Rangsit right now •Lack
ous inofterms
criteria, while
of lack of an
landopportu-
tenure •Lack
Lack ofofregulation
availableby land (large
municipality nication
concreteand alliance
block on all unit,
making issues.in
•Experimenting
for this and current with success
Private nity
and to completely
high risk. bypass CODI, amount
addressingof private ownership
migration i.e.
and urban •“Knowledge
others it is helpingCenter”
with specific
accounting to
contractors
however carefulas the market
not to isdetract
highly this can also be seen as danger- land speculation)
sprawl each
for thesite, in some etc.
community, examples is a
competitive
from capacityintraining
Rangsitschemes.
right now ous in terms of lack of land tenure Lack of regulation by municipality concrete
•Working block issue making unit, in
based networks
for this and lack
•Infrastructure: current success
of connectivity and high risk. addressing migration and urban others
which it is is helping with accounting
connecting canal
however careful not
of sites, especially to detract
relocation sites sprawl for the community,
communities togetheretc.specifically.
from capacity
to services astraining
land is schemes.
cheapest in •Working
•The one point issuethat based networks
the municipal-
•Infrastructure: lack of connectivity
these dis-connected areas as a which
ity is not is speaking
connectingacrosscanalthe
of sites,ofespecially
result relocation sites
private ownership and communities
province withtogether specifically.
other municipalities,
to services as land is cheapest in
partnerships. •The one point
otherwise nothatweakness
the municipal- at
these dis-connected areas as a ity is not speaking
Community across the
Network level.
result of private ownership and province with other municipalities,
partnerships. otherwise no weakness at
Community Network level.
Figure 3.28. Khlong Toey: actors

Figure 3.26 The pictures on top illustrate the problems and opportunities of the chart within Rangsit Municipality

dpu | budd | field trip report BANGKOK 43


Ma
jor
oadr

Communities visited

Figure 3.27 Location of the communities visited and significant elements within the Bang Pu municipality

3.3.5 BANG PU

Like Rangsit, Bang Pu is located outside of


Bangkok Municipality, directly on the Thai coast.
Environmental hazards in the coastal mangroves
and canals that dominate the Bang Pu have
affected land availability for communities.

A satellite of Bangkok, this site is expected to


grow as several megaprojects are planned for
the skytrain, airport expansion, and plans of the
Department of Treasury.

Bang Pu is of a peri-urban nature, with many Photo by Parvathi Nair


Figure 3.28 Floating platform used for public gathering in
community residents working in the nearby Bang Pu municipality.
factories or in shrimp and clam farming industries.

44 ANALYSIS SITES
Partnerships and Infrastructure Finance Land and Housing Capabilities

Partnerships
•Community and Infrastructure
leaders in Bang Poo •Ta Ko canal Finance
community success- •Large Land and Housing
amount of recycling Capabilities
•The community leaders across
have strong relationship with local ful cost cutting project by using material on sites that can be used Bang Poo know each other while
authorities, although transparency recycling materials - cuts 25% of for housing – cuts 25% of on the contrary the members of
•Community
of informationleaders
can beinquestioned
Bang Poo •Ta Ko canal community success-
construction •Large amount of recycling
construction •The community
community leaders
are not across
familiar with
have
at somestrong relationship
point with local
while perceived in ful cost Baht
•15000 cuttingcan
project
be savedby using by material on sites
•In the slum that canthey
formation be used
had Bang Poo know each other while
each other.
authorities,
responses although
to specific transparency
questions recycling materials
using recycled - cuts
material 25% of
– reducing for
morehousing
space, but – gotcuts lost
25% of
in the on
•As the
a contrary the leaders
tactic the members of
take
of information can be
asked in the shared meetings.questioned construction
cost of construction process as construction
process of appropriation of near community
members from are one
not community
familiar with
to
at some point
•Potential for while
futureperceived
linkagesin •15000
well as Baht can be
translating it tosaved by
financial •In the spaces
home slum formation
when theythey hadgot each other.
another.
responses to specificthrough
between communities questions
the using
assets.recycled material – reducing more space, but got lost in the
relocated. •As a tactic the leaders take
asked
exchangein the of
shared meetings.and
knowledge cost of construction
•Excluded members ofprocess
community as process of appropriation
•The houses of near
are on dirty water but members from one community to
•Potential for future
information about the BM linkages
process well as translating
not having access to it to
BMfinancial
due to home
they arespaces
still beingwhen they
rebuilt got
on the another.
between
in termscommunities
of differentthrough
forms theof assets.
affordability relocated.
same water with the idea of having
exchange and
upgrading of the
knowledge and
challenges that •Excluded
•‘Ta members
Ko canal’ of community
community is not •The houses
stronger are on dirty
foundation water but
to substitute.
information
appears duringabout the theBM process.
process not having
allowed accessany
to have to commercial
BM due to they
CODIare still being
provides rebuiltbase
the solid on the
for
in terms building
Through of different
new roadsformsand of affordability
activities in the area or lower level same water with
the house, the ideathey
however of having
are
upgrading and the
infrastructure andchallenges
megaprojects,that •‘Ta their
of Ko canal’ community
houses which is has not stronger on
located foundation
the filthyto mud
substitute.
water
appears during
communities the effected.
are directly process. allowed to have
constrains any commercial
on their livelihoods. CODI is
which provides the solid
quite hazards and base for
insani-
Through building new roads and activities
(Design fromin the area or lower level
CODI) the
tary. house, however they are
infrastructure and megaprojects, of their houses which has located on the filthy mud water
communities are directly effected. constrains on their livelihoods. which is quite hazards and insani-
(Design from CODI) tary.

Figure 3.29 The pictures on top illustrate the problems and opportunities of the chart within Bang Pu Municipality

dpu | budd | field trip report BANGKOK 45


Communities visited

Touristic node

Figure 3.30 Location of the communities visited and significant elements within Rattanakosin island

3.3.6 RATTANAKOSIN ISLAND


Formally Phra Nakon, Rattanakosin is the oldest It is this notion of culture as building and
area in Bangkok and is saturated with historical disregard for people that is the driving force
allures such as The Grand Palace and Wat Phra behind communities in Rattanakosin Island
Kaew (Emerald Buddah Temple). The largest perusing upgrading that supports culture as
landowner is the CPB who is responsible for living heritage in order to not only secure their
managing the King’s land assets. There is a tenure; but to demonstrate their capacity to set
unique rental system particular to the CPB land precedent to be outstanding responsible good
that has driven the CPB to sign a memorandum citizens and change the way they are perceived
of understanding (MOU) with CODI to upgrade by the local area and the city, as emphasised by
the communities due to preserving the character one community leader.
of the site with participatory conservation. Over
the years, there has been a multitude of plans for
the area.

These plans have had an increasingly disparaging


bearing on tenure for most of the Rattanakosin
communities as it failed to recognise the “heritage
of local people, such as a daily life landscape,
market, and shop house” excluding them from
the master plan.

46 ANALYSIS SITES
Rattanakosin Island
Rattanakosin Island
Partnerships and Infrastructure Finance Land and Housing Capabilities

•Community centre was part of •Private funding from other •Materials used can increase •Middle class contribute to savings
Partnerships proposal
infrastructure and Infrastructure
to CODI savings groupFinance
as well as interest heights.Land and Housing
(currently buildings are group to help Capabilities
others out
and therefore supported by the from investment/banking. (wat concrete on the bottom and •Part of a network of a historic
grant saket) wooden on the top) walk (between the 6 communities)
•Community
•Community centre was partwith
collaborating of •Private fundinghousing
•Started grading from grade
other
a •Materials
•By law, landused owner canowns increase
building, •Middle class contribute
– eco-tourism walk. to savings
infrastructure children’s
universities: proposal activities,
to CODI savings
and group
grade as well as
b inputting interest
their own ifheights.
they are (currently
evicted, buildings
the CPB are will group tried
•CPB to help others
to hold out session
training
andgallery.
art therefore supported by the from investment/banking.
design guidelines for quality (wat
and concrete them.
reimburse on the bottom and •Parteach
for of acommunity
network ofposition
a historic
but
grant
•Partnership with private sector in saket)
preservation. wooden
•Split in onlandtheownership
top) has split walk (between the 6 communities)
not successful.
•Community
palace: community collaborating
is able to with
use •Started
•Loan has grading
beenhousing gradebut
granted a •By law, land owner owns building,
community. – eco-tourism
•Various walk. departments
government
universities:
space children’s activities,
for community activities and grade
remains b inputting
in the their have
bank as they own if theyputs
•CPB are restrictions
evicted, theonCPB will
building •CPBtraining
hold tried to hold
for 2training
comm. session
Repre-
art gallery. of
outside working hours design
no guidelines
proposal for quality and
for plans. reimburse them.
heights. for each community
sentatives who should position
relate but
to
•Partnership
(agreement iswith privateCPB
between sector
andin preservation.
Community level comes down to •Split in land ownership
•No community space yethas split
(sitram) not
restsuccessful.
of comm.. but the skills are not
palace: community is able to use
private company) •Loan has been
whose funding, granted
receiver but
you get community.
•If you have a fighting chicken •Various government
transferable and departments
community
space for
•CODI andcommunity activities
CPB partnership remains
this in theconditions,
but with bank as they have
develop- •CPB how
farm puts can
restrictions
you liveoninbuilding
a high hold training
members not for 2 comm.
interested Repre-
anymore
outside in the
walking of alley.
working hours no proposal
ment done forforplans.
hidden agenda, heights.
rise? Thai massage how many sentatives
•Rely on who should
existing relatee.g.
asset to
(agreement
•Temple does is between
not grantCPB and
receipts Community
need to changelevelmodel
comes of down
commu- to •No
people community space yetceramics
will go upstairs, (sitram) rest of comm..
accountant butbut the skills
what if he are not
goes?
private
meaning company)
residents have no proof whose funding, receiver
nity development you and
with plan get •If
need you oven,
have ahow fighting
would chicken
you transferable
Need to build and peoples community
capacity
•CODI and CPB partnership
of occupancy this but with conditions, develop-
find sponsor. farm howthat
integrate caninyou
highlive
rise.in a high members
more. not interested anymore
walking inarchitect
•CODI the alley. warned TAT ment done for hidden agenda, rise? Thai massage how many •Rely on existing asset e.g.
•Templebedoes
should not grant
on board but receipts
worried need to change model of commu- people will go upstairs, ceramics accountant but what if he goes?
meaning
they will residents
get too have no proof
involved and nity development with plan and need oven, how would you Need to build peoples capacity
of occupancy
disrupt peoples lives and find sponsor. integrate that in high rise. more.
•CODI architect
livelihood as they want warned
to keep TAT
site
should
not be on board but worried
the people.
they
•CPB will geteducated
prefer too involved and
profession-
disrupt
als to take peoples lives
lead on tourism and
livelihood as they want to keep site
not the people.
•CPB prefer educated profession-
als to take lead on tourism

Figure 3.31 The pictures on top illustrate the problems and opportunities of the chart within Rattanakosin Island

dpu | budd | field trip report BANGKOK 47


onstrained
NegoGaGon

3.4 DIAGNOSIS
In the process of distinguishing between the
RaOanakosin
Island


symptoms and the fundamental underlying
causes of the concerns.

Challenging, the scale at which they should be


addressed and recognizing the involvement of
actors, clarifying the extent of their roles and
responsibility.

This enhanced grasp, informed our collective


clustering of these underlying triggers shifting
the initial scope to encompass these new four
overarching categories; negotiation, networking, Bang
Khen


Photo by Sepideh Hajisoltani
land and alliances with design being inherit in all Figure 3.32 Shack by the canal in Bang Khen.
of these.

3.4.1 NEGOTIATION

The BM Programme has given communities


tremendous capacity to negotiate with actors,
for instance by collecting and owning data that
enhances their power to negotiate when entering
discussions with different actors. If communities
cannot enter such dialogue with actors they
collectively default to mass demonstrations in
order to voice their demands.
Diagnosis

Lack
of
Land
Acces
Photo by Mahya Fatemi
Figure 3.33 A bridge in Bang Khen community: an
example of community mobilisation to fullfill the role of the
municipality

Photo by Silvia Chi


Figure 3.34 View from the Klong Toey District Authority building

48 ANALYSIS DIAGNOSIS
RaOanakosin
Island


While this represents an example of exercising
their freedoms it also highlights that there is
lack of space for negotiation. This was evident
in the case of Khlong Toey where the insecurity
of land and tenure, as well as the complexity of
urbanization suppressed the community from
nosis

Constrained
NegoGaGon
 being fully integrated into the decision making
process surrounding the development plans
made by the Port Authority. In order to avoid
the instrumentalisation of the community and
create a balance of power in the decision making
Bang
Khen


process the roles and responsibilities of actors
need to be clarified and redefined.
RaOanakosin
Island


Highlighting this tension between supply and
demand is the example of Bang Khen (Figure
3.33) where for four years the community
requested the local municipality to rebuild a
broken bridge that was essential for connectivity
on the site. However, even after making their
needs clear the municipality failed to acknowledge
their request.

Consequently, the community Bang
Khen




self-mobilized
and collected donations from visitors in order
to finance the construction, thus successfully
Photo by Dhrin Anantamongkolchai rebuilding the bridge. While this illustrates the
Figure 3.35 The main issue in Rattanakosin Island strength of the community to proactively respond
concerned the lack of willingness of CODI to start or help to infrastructural challenges, it raises important
facilitate negotiation with the Temple land to include the poor questions of how far these communities are
communities in the BM Programme.
being asked to mobilize and at what point they
are being asked to fulfill the responsibilities of the
Municipality.

ng
Toey


National level

Metropolitan level

District level

Community level
Photo by Silvia Chi
Figure 3.36 View of the port in Khlong Toey. The
communities have little power to negotiate with or influence Household level
the Port Authority in terms of Land Tenure and the
pressures of the Global City Competition master plan. Levels in which the problem is present

dpu | budd | field trip report BANGKOK 49


3.4.2 LAND ACCESSIBILITY AND
AFFORDABILITY RaOanakosin
Island



The rapid urban development pressures on land


pose great challenges for allocating affordable
land and securing land tenure within the city
centre.

Land owners are not willing to negotiate on the


price of land to accommodate the urban poor and
the price of land is the result of its centrality to the
goods and services of the urban centre.
Photo by Dhrin Anantamongkolchai
Additionally, there are a lot of interstitial spaces Figure 3.38 Different communities in Rattanakosin Island are
that are not being fully utilized. Therefore, there facing the same problems in terms of the tourist and master
is a need for land readjustment on these unfilled, plan; however they have no forum to discuss for collective
open space fragments in order to establish Rangsit
 solutions. ( for more information refer to Annex page 141)
greater productivity and connectivity, particularly
within the superblocks.

There have been emerging symptoms of


gentrification and densification in Khlong Toey
due to the intense pressures on the central
business district, forcing residents to cluster on
undesirable land, such as spaces underneath
expressways or land that is earmarked for
development. These communities are priced out
of decent land as there is greater return and profit
to be made by landowners, as a consequence of
this, private developers negating the possibility of
negotiation.

Photo by McKenzie O`Neill


Figure 3.37 Land speculation spurred by the majority of
private ownership in Rangsit with plans to develop private
residential units restricted negotiation for the price of land.

Photo by Silvia Chi


Figure 3.39 Interstitial spaces in the city

50 ANALYSIS DIAGNOSIS
Bang
Poo

3.4.3 UNEVEN KNOWLEDGE SHARING &
NETWORKING
Bang
Poo

Changing the space but not changing the
slum values



Weak
Knowledge
Sharing
Process
 Knowledge sharing within communities proved


to be strong, however, there was a weak
correlation of knowledge transfer between certain
communities regardless of their status with the
BM Programme. This is a missed opportunity as
information regarding the BM Programme and the
Photo by Parvathi Nair lessons learned by communities, the resources
Figure 3.40 Bang Pu Community workshop Lack of and skills that they possess that could build their
networking within Bang Pu as community members capacity are not capitalized on.
were not acquainted with one another and one of the
community was not aware of the different strategies that Rangsit represents a highly organized community
BM Programme offers to address their housing problem in where they efficiently utilized their network of
terms of upgrading.( Refer to Annex page 154 for further community’s skills of building construction and
detail on community workshops held in Bang Pu) Bang
Poo

design in order to inform their design process.
However, Rangsit networking strength raises the
Island

 important question of why this is not happening
elsewhere and how come there are so many
projects being developed in the scale of the
community without knowledge sharing taking
place in the scale of the district, losing the
opportunity to strengthen the network within the
district and the city.

In the same district, there is a strong presence


of CDF´s that has emerged as an alternative and
autonomous finance mechanism to CODI’s loan
in the districts where it is implemented. However,
Photo by McKenzie O`Neill this initiative presents the risk of being itself
Figure 3.41 Rangsit Community building counterproductive as communities are obtaining
CDF financing to build/ upgrade their homes
regardless of land title, that can lead to potentially
recreate ‘slums’-maintaining and multiply an
angsit
 insecure land tenure settlement. Considering this
risk, the production of knowledge is central for a
community that is managing CDF`s funds.

Photo by McKenzie O`Neill


Figure 3.42 Rangsit community homes in progress

dpu | budd | field trip report BANGKOK 51


3.4.4 LIMITED DESIGN RESPONSE

“Planning for communities but design for


individuals” Klong
Toey

Pasi
Chalen

When land is allocated and the communities begin
the building process there is an overemphasis
on the planning and design of individual plots.
The BM Programme’s success originates from
its value of collective problem solving, where
Diagnosis

Limited

consensual decision-making is an integral aspect
of each project. However, the housing typology
within communities is detached housing.

There is a need for more community input in


the design process in order to develop housing
strategies that would represent the local Photo by Azzurra Muzzonigro
vernacular and could accommodate changes Figure 3.43 Walkway through Pasi Chaleon
in household needs over time. Equally, on the
larger scale land plots are not being designed
as cohesive spaces with appropriated areas
for recreation, places of gathering and social
enterprise. Additionally, there is a need for design
strategies that would improve the productivity
of the site through utilizing ecological services
such as the reclamation of water or the onsite
production of food. Also, the community architect
could be a vehicle to promote greater knowledge
sharing within the community and between
communities.

The longevity of buildings, quality of construction


Diag
and design may not be on par in the future, Photo by Azzurra Muzzonigro
due to the forward thinking design motto of the Figure 3.44 Pasi Chaloen housing design Land is a limited
resource however the ineffective configuration of housing
community that captures what they can afford at plots does not allow the community to capitalise on the full
the given timeframe. This incremental built form Klong
Toey

potential of their space; this can be addressed through an
will be stark contrast to the rest of the competing efficient design response. (Refer to Annex page 136)
city skyline that has plans leveraging vertical Pasi
Chalen

scenarios.

Photo by Silvia Chi


Figure 3.45 Khlong Toey open spaces The prevalence of
interstitial spaces in Khlong Toey presented for a fragmented
urban fabric where there were disjointed pockets of unused
space

52 ANALYSIS DIAGNOSIS
3.4.5 DISTILLING THE DIAGNOSIS: A
GRAPHIC INTERPRETATION

As a graphic synthesis of our diagnosis, we


develop these diagrams to compare the problems
and opportunities across the six sites and identify
the common denominators throughout. Thus
clustering them according to the nature of the
problem relating to: design, access, partnership,
roles and relationships knowledge network and
resource. Stacking these cubes adjacently,
each being a representative of an issue makes
it easier to compare the sites and see visually
the density of each problem according to not only
the site but to the overall distribution. Following a
Figure 3.46 Key for the cubes in the graphic synthesis of thorough analysis, we identified four entry points
problems and opportunities across the six sites to address this array of issues.

Figure 3.47 Graphic synthesis of problems and opportunities


about NETWORKS across the six sites

dpu | budd | field trip report BANGKOK 53


Figure 3.48 Graphic synthesis of problems and opportunities
about ACCESS across the six sites (explanatory chart in the
next page)

Figure 3.49 Graphic synthesis of problems and


opportunities about RESOURCES across the six sites

54 ANALYSIS DIAGNOSIS
Bang Khen Khliong Toey Pasi Chaloen Rangsit Bang Pu Rattanakosin Island

•Originating the first CDF only •Baan Man Kong does not •Cooperatives for welfare •Infrastructure: lack of connec- •Excluded members of
for housing costs to constitute address communities that are mechanisms within the tivity of sites, especially reloca- community not having access
a self-sufficiency and less living in the most precarious community give the opportu- tion sites to services as land is to BM due to affordability.
dependency acting as a situation, in areas without nity to scale-up to mechanism cheapest in these
support to CODI funds. secure tenure, under the threat for wider inclusion of individu- dis-connected areas as a
of eviction. als and groups which are result of private ownership and

ACCESS
•There are welfare funds currently being excluded from partnerships.
available which provides for •Communities that are socially BM do not constitute a viable
elderly care, support for and spatially fragmented solution to overcome the gap •More developed CDF expan-
families facing difficulties with including migrants. between the members of sion to include welfare fund
loan payments, and acts as communities and the poorest already, but also “Occupation”
security for irregular incomes of the poor that still cannot training as well as Insurance.
of community members. access for financial difficulties.
•Land sharing schemes- 4
•Timing is another factor that •Economical constrain to communities coming together
associates with communities acquire land for the Land Bank. to share cost of purchasing
choosing CDF vs. CODI land on one site. “Sang Saan
depending on how much community. “
money CODI has at any given
time (e.g. acquiring more from •Lack of available land (large
CODI in 2008, immediately amount of private ownership
following the successful i.e. land speculation)
protests)

dpu | budd | field trip report BANGKOK


55
Figure 3.50 Graphic synthesis of problems and opportunities Figure 3.51 Graphic synthesis of problems and
about KNOWLEDGE SHARING across the six sites opportunities about DESIGN across the six sites
(explanatory chart in the next page)

Figure 3.52 Graphic synthesis of problems and


opportunities about ROLES AND NEGOTIATION across
the six sites

56 ANALYSIS DIAGNOSIS
Bang Khen Khliong Toey Pasi Chaloen Rangsit Bang Pu Rattanakosin Island

•CDF is also being used to •Global City Competitions •Increase density in an area of •Lack of regulation by munici- •‘Ta Ko canal’ community is not •Started grading housing grade
bypass funding from CODI demands a certain type of rapid urbanization could pality addressing migration allowed to have any commer- a and grade b inputting their
(e.g. Ruamjai Patthana Klang, infrastructure and Develop- constitute a long term viable and urban sprawl. cial activities in the area or own design guidelines for
where community does not ment – conflicting vision for the response to the scarcity of lower level of their houses quality and preservation.
have collective land title) area. Land security lease available land in the urban •Lack of regulation by munici- which has constrains on their

DESIGN
Design throughout the site. area of Bangkok. pality addressing migration livelihoods. (Design from •Loan has been granted but
and urban sprawl. CODI) remains in the bank as they
•While observing the overall •Scarce design response to have no proposal for plans.
picture design aspects have community’s needs as a •In the slum formation they had
been neglected. consequence of marginality of more space, but got lost in the •Materials used can increase
design in list of BM’s priorities. process of appropriation of heights (currently buildings are
•‘Baan Bang Khen’ is an near home spaces when they concrete on the bottom and
example of more developed •Design could play an active got relocated. wooden on the top)
design aspects using outside role in strengthening spatial
architects to design mid-rise and social linkages within the •The houses are on dirty water •Split in land ownership has
apartments and also currently community as well as between but they are still being rebuilt split community
maximizing their area (in line the community and the on the same water with the
with growth of the city) surrounding area. idea of having stronger founda- •CPB puts restrictions on
tion to substitute. CODI building heights.
•According to design standards •Design plays a marginal role provides the solid base for the
the fact that the communities into BM agenda but Commu- house, however they are •No community space yet
are not adapting to changing nity Architects have limited located on the filthy mud water (Sitram).
city landscape. range of action within the which is quite hazards and
existing priorities of BM. insanitary.
•Longevity of the buildings,
quality of construction and
design may not be desirable in
the future.

•There has been a definite loss


of public spaces after the BM
project which requires more
design feature.

•Using protest as a means of


communication which can be
related to need of capacity for
negotiation .

dpu | budd | field trip report BANGKOK


57
Figure 3.53 Graphic synthesis of problems and
opportunities about PARTNERSHIPS AND
INFRASTRUCTURE across the six sites (explanatory
chart in the next page)

Figure 3.54 Summary of problems and opportunities across the six sites

58 ANALYSIS DIAGNOSIS
Bang Khen Khliong Toey Pasi Chaloen Rangsit Bang Pu Rattanakosin Island

•Using protest as a means of •One of the best communities •Roles and Responsibilities on •Potential better relations •Community leaders in Bang •Community collaborating with
communication which can be we visited in terms of environmental issue, such as between NHA schemes and Poo have strong relationship universities: children’s
related to need of capacity for infrastructure and housing waste management, are not communities to share facilities with local authorities, although activities, art gallery.
negotiation. improvements was on the site clearly defined, which creates (daycare, etc.) that they are transparency of information
of Crown Property Land, as gaps of management that is exploring at city wide level. can be questioned at some •Partnership with private sector
•Since 2007 there has been no there was an alliance with reflected on the precarious point while perceived in in palace: community is able to
visit from CODI architect which Baan Man Kong. conditions of marginalized •Experimenting with Private responses to specific use space for community
shows a disconnect between pockets of poor settlements. contractors as the market is questions asked in the shared activities outside of working
CODI architect and commu- •They have little power to Therefore this give opportunity highly competitive in Rangsit meetings. hours. (agreement is between
nity. negotiate with or influence the to create partnerships among right now for this and current CPB and private company)
Port Consequently, have weak communities and with local success however careful not to •Due to having one community
•The communities with partner- linkages to communities on authorities as well as with detract from capacity training architect for the whole of Bang- •Temple does not grant
ship with municipality agreed Port land. inhabitants of other parts of the schemes. kok and lack of professionals receipts meaning residents
on the New Building Codes for district affected by same issue. such as architects the commu- have no proof of occupancy.
governmental projects which •Strong presence of local, •Very Strong Network working nity people are misguided and
gives more room for maneuver national and international in cooperation with municipal- are not fully informed about the •CODI architect and CPB?
in terms of design aspects and NGOs, which are providing ity, NULICO, CODI etc. All on effects and consequences of Warn TAT should be on board
planning. support to communities that very good terms and in strong having new developments. but worried they will get too
Baan Man Kong cannot reach. communication and alliance on involved and disrupt people’s
•CDF has scaling up limita- all issues. lives and livelihood as they
tions which self-sufficiency is a want to keep site not the
motivation, but the fund is •Working issue based people.
inextricably linked to CODI for networks which are connecting
continuity. canal communities together •Community level comes down
specifically. to whose funding, receiver you
•Uneven awareness of get this but with conditions,
resources and information development done for hidden
available in other districts due agenda, need to change model
to scarcity of networks and of community Development
partnerships. with plan and find sponsor.

•Partnership with Action Aid for •Middle class contribute to


financially supporting the Bang savings group to help others
Bua nursery. (only NGO) out.

PARTNERSHIP & INFRASTRUCTURE

dpu | budd | field trip report BANGKOK


59
NATIONAL/CODI
Scarce design Longevity of the
response to buildings, quality of
communities needs as construction and
a consequence of design may not be
marginality of design desirable in the future
in list of BM priorities
priorities
In
the slum
Ta-Ko canal” formation they had
community is not more space, but lost in
allowed to have any the process of appropria-
commercial activities in tion of near home
the area or lower level of BM does not spaces when they Increase density
their houses which has address communities get relocated in an area of rapid
constrains on their that are living in the most
urbanization could
livelihoods precarious situation, in
constitute a long term
areas without secure
viable response to the
tenure, under the threat
scarcity of available land
CITY of eviction
in the urban area of
Bangkok
Lack of
r e g u l a ti o n
by the municipality
addressing migration
and urban sprawl

C o m m u n i ti e s
squeezed into and in
between undesirable
land such as underneath
expressways, other times
on land earmarked for
development

MUNICIPALITY within the community give opportu-


nity to scale-up to mechanism for wider Global city
DISTRICT inclusion of individuals and groups which are
Families are afraid
competition demands
a certain type of
NETWORK currently excluded from BM …don’t constitute
a viable solution to overcome the gap
of investing in their infrastructure and develop-
homes, insecurity over ment- conflicting vision for
between the members of communities and
eviction, entire communities the area. Land security
the poorest of the poor that cant access
CDF living in temporary- looking lease throughout
for financial difficulty
is also being structures for over 40years, the site
used to bypass because the port actually visits
funding from CODI (e.g. the community every year to
Ruamjai Patthana Klang), make sure they don’t build
where community does permanent structures
not have collective
land title Started grading Excluded
housing grade a and members of
grade b inputting their community not
own design guidelines having access to BM
for quality and due to affordability
p r e s e r v a ti o n

COMMUNITY

FINANCE LAND AND HOUSING CONSTRUCTION


Figure 3.55 Multi scalar entry points of analysis diagram ( see next page for key and explanation)

60 ANALYSIS DIAGNOSIS
Little power to Design in CODI
negotiate with or could play an active role
influence the Port in strengthening spatial
consequently, have and social linkages within
weak linkages to the community as well as
community on between the community
Port land and the surrounding
Design in CODI
One architect for areas
could play an active
the whole of Bangkok role in strengthening
and lack of professionals spatial and social linkages
means the community can be within the community as
misguided and are not fully CPB prefer to well as between the
informed about the effects have profession- community and the
and consequences of having als take the lead surrounding areas
certain developments on tourism

The municipal-
Infrastructure lack of ity is not communi-
connectivity of sites, especially cating across the
relocation sites to services as province with other
municipalities Imbalance of roles
land is cheapest in these
and relationships, canal
disconnected areas as a
cleaning every month with
result of private
borrowing the BMA boats which
ownership and
can on the contrary indicate the
partnerships
imbalance sharing of relationship and
roles resulted in the communities
acting like a municipality which
might result with over burden
of work and an isolated city
p e r c e p ti o n

Little power to
negotiate with or The district
U n e v e n influence the Port Uneven knowledge office is under
awareness of consequently, have between the communities resourced
resources and informa- weak linkages to can create misunderstanding
tion available in other community on and fragmented partnerships as
districts due to scarcity Port land one example indicates a commu-
of networks and nity member employee of govern- The community
Various government
partnerships ment opposing to BM project leaders such as in
departments holdtraining
due to not being aware of the for communities with two Bang Poo know each
project being supported representatives from each elected other well whilst the
Roles and responsibili- by government to attend, however they are communities are not
There are ties on environmental issues, expected to relate to the rest of the as familiar with
weaker network such as waste management, are group; but the skills they are taught each other
linkages between BM not clearly defined, which creates are not easily transferable at times
and non BM communi- gaps of management that is reflected on irrelevant, thus the community
ties and those the precarious conditions of marginalized has lost interest in this
beyond the pockets of poor settlements. Therefore opportunity
district this gives opportunity to create partner-
ships among communities and with
CPB
local authorities as well as with
attempted for Using protest as
habitants of other parts of the
two years to get a means of commu-
district affected by the
different communities nication which can be
same issue
to network, however related to need of
this top down capacity and space
approach has been for negotiation
Potential for unsuccessful
future linkages between C o m m u n i ti e s
communities through the squeezed into and in
exchange of knowledge and between undesirable
information about BM land such as underneath
process in terms of upgrad- expressways, other times
ing and the challenges on land earmarked for
that appears during development
the process

PARTNERSHIPS AND INFRASTRUCTURE COMMUNITY MOBILIZATION AND CAPACITY BUILDING

dpu | budd | field trip report BANGKOK 61


MULTI SCALAR ENTRY POINTS DIAGRAM
EXPLANATION

Comparing the different stacks of density that


reflect the opportunities and problems, we
were able to identify the entry points that would
address these problems. For example, in Roles
and Partnerships the lack of concession and
cooperation between the actors is partly due to
the fact that roles and responsibilities are not
clearly defined. Therefore we see negotiation can
be the entry point towards solving these factors,
as people can understand their responsibilities
and be able to reach agreements for their needs
by making partnerships and alliances and better
delimit the space for negotiation.

On the horizontal axis is the initial lens through Figure 3.56 Key of the Multi scalar entry points of analysis
which we analysed the sites. The vertical axis diagram ( previous figure, page 60)
indicates the scale at which the problems could
be addressed according to where the relevant
actors are positioned, and additionally require a
multi-scalar response. The spheres are colour
coded according to the entry point by which
they could be resolved. The different sizes of
the spheres reflect the importance of issues
with regard to the horizontal axis, large being a
dominant factor, medium size being significant
and small being dormant.

Here, the common denominators of opportunities


and constraints across the sites have been
identified and classify the resonant issues. It
is important to challenge the scale at which
they should be addressed and recognize the
involvement of the actors and clarify the extent
of their roles and responsibility. This enhanced
grasp, informed our collective clustering of
these underlying triggers, shifting the initial
scope to encompass these new four overarching
categories: Negotiation, Networking, Land
Access and Alliances with design being inherit in
all of these.

62 ANALYSIS DIAGNOSIS
3.5 CONCLUSION
Through our exposure to the work of CODI we Since housing design regulations are made
have seen how Soomsook Boonyabancha to fit the middle class, CODI is using political
promotes a “paradigm shift in housing negotiation to redefine standards to better suit
development by people building new local poor communities. This is conflicting to BM
partnerships.” This process of transformation practices as there is a limited design response on
emphasises the change from supply to demand CODI’s behalf. Communities are given an option
driven housing development by the community. from a catalogue of housing design, neglecting
However, in order to ensure the long-term success the full capacity of community architects, focusing
of this project there needs to be more room for transformation on prioritising the social attributes
manoeuvre, spaces for negotiation and a clearer of the programme and overlooking the power of
definition of the roles and responsibilities of design as a means to reinforce the social aspect
actors. This will be essential in order to increase of it.
accountability and promote good governance of
citywide responsibilities. A recurrent matter in all this issues arose, the
need of a more effective knowledge-sharing
The rules of the formal game exclude many scheme that is crucial for the communities to
options presented by informal solutions. open opportunities for negotiation and make
“In summary – the urban poor rely, for their informed decisions about design, land acquisition,
survival, on their capacity to break the rules, and manage various financing systems that
whilst the state relies for its success on they are actively engaged in. The outcomes of
enforcement of the rules. Neither side succeeds these analyses will inform the strategies in the
in solving the problem and other players such as next chapter, building upon the strengths and
formal financial institutions remain on the outside opportunities whilst effectively addressing the
not knowing how, why and where they can fit in. problems and issues at a multi-scalar level and
No one wins”. (McLeod & Mullard, Bridging the with the inclusion of the relevant actors.
Finance Gap in Housing & Infrastructure, 2006)

dpu | budd | field trip report BANGKOK 63


Translation: “Economically Sustainable Community”, Photo by McKenzie O’Neill

“ Networks have power, they are visible unlike individuals


who are invisible.”
-Somsook Boonyabancha

STRATEGIES
STRATEGIES

dpu | budd | field trip report BANGKOK 65


4.0 STRATEGIES
4.1 VISION

In this report we have sought to identify the In order to achieve this vision, we propose the
main issues of the BM Programme in the wide following strategies for community development:
context of the city of Bangkok. Our analysis also
appraised the opportunities and challenges of the • Increase land accessibility and affordability
Programme.
• Strengthen networks and capitalize design
Among the latter, we identify: land accessibility solutions through a knowledge sharing
and affordability, spaces of negotiation, roles process
and responsibilities of the various actors, limited
design responses, and production of knowledge. • Decrease vulnerability of communities by
All these challenges are vitally connected to expanding accessibility to alternative funding
various financial systems being the main driver
for further possibility of development. • Develop alliances among the actors to
optimise the capacity of negotiation and to
Therefore, our vision is to build a strong redefine responsibilities
network of communities able to negotiate their
spaces of participation in a political arena. This Within these strategies, we develop eight
should happen through an effective process of proposals to address the different challenges
knowledge-sharing which would also ensure in the variety of scales of the urban processes:
better design responses with impacts on different community, district and city. Some of our
scales – from community, through district and proposals present a synergy among them and are
finally a city level. crosscutting through several of the challenges we
identify in the diagnosis.

66 STRATEGIES VISION
d
finance

lan
nce
a l l i a

e
w l edg
kn o

dpu | budd | field trip report BANGKOK


Figure 4.1 Strategic Vision:
“Build a strong network of communities able to negotiate their spaces of participation in a political arena”

67
4.2 STRATEGIES AND
PROPOSALS

4.2.1 INCREASE LAND


ACCESSIBILITY AND AFFORDABILITY
In Bangkok, the urban-rural interface is a highly With this being said, there is a great willingness
dynamic space, affected by multiple forces, both amongst communities for alternative building
human and environmental. The urban footprint typologies. In our interviews with the Bang Pu
is expanding outwards impacting surrounding communities there was a positive response to our
territories while a constant influx of rural migrants proposed ideas of housing typologies that would
are drawn inwards towards the city centre. The offer more flexibility and higher density,
combination of these two opposing forces has
resulted in the urbanisation of agriculture. The
pressures between sprawl and migration place GOAL OF OUR STRATEGY
demands on land, so there is a great need to
develop mechanisms that could accommodate
Based on observations of the multiple realities
growing urban populations.
in Bangkok that affect its markets and people,
the acknowledged necessity to address not
Due to restricted accessibility of land plots,
only permanent residents but also temporary
communities are forced to live in isolated areas
ones and the challenges, current limitations and
with insufficient infrastructure. This social and
possibilities of the BM Programme, we propose
spatial disconnection consequently results in
three actions oriented towards densification,
difficulty accessing economic opportunities. Even
intensification and increased productivity of land.
though some communities, such as Rangsit,
They would not only result in improved affordability
listed a set of criteria for livelihood, including
and accessibility of land for communities, but
proximity to their original site and accessibility to
aim to have positive implications in the social,
children’s schools, in most instances the deciding
economic, spatial and environmental spheres at
factor was the price of the land. As large portions
the citywide level.
of land are developed over time this could lead
to an increase in urban sprawl and a lack of
productivity within communities.

68 STRATEGIES LAND
Photo by Noor Al Ghafari
Figure 4.2a Community over water in Bang Pu

Photo by Jennifer Cirne


Figure 4.2b Land to be developed in Pasi Chaloen

Photo by Noor Al Ghafari


Figure 4.2c Canal community in Bang Bua

dpu | budd | field trip report BANGKOK 69


PROPOSAL 1. DENSITY

Increasing density for better affordability and


accessibility

Where there is scarcity of land, like in Pathum would be achieved with the active involvement of
Thani and Pasi Chaloen, the potential of the community in the design process and a re-
increasing density for better affordability and definition of the role of the community architect.
accessibility needs to be explored. More
communities can join together to acquire land The main actors involved in the implementation
similar to several communities in Rangsit (See of this strategy are the municipality, local
Figure 4.4, note this image does not depict authorities, CODI and the community architects.
Rangsit). However, instead of opting for an area This neighbourhood design proposal at the
that would have normally been used, they can community scale needs to be incorporated in and
choose a smaller plot, possibly in a more central facilitated by a densification policy framework
area (applicable also for individual communities), at the metropolitan level as a coordinated work
and a design solution that allows for higher among the several municipalities that form
density(See Figure 4.3). Bangkok city. We recognize that the mitigation
of urban sprawl requires cooperation between
However, these re-densification schemes can local and district authorities following a national
only be successful if they accommodate the strategy for sustainable urban development.
community’s social and livelihood needs. This

Figure 4.3 Illustration of how half the amount of money can be used to purchase land by increasing density.

70 STRATEGIES LAND
Figure 4.4 Representation of how densification can provide housing, social and livelihood responses in restricted land
availability or more opportunities of land for various communities.

dpu | budd | field trip report BANGKOK 71


PROPOSAL 2. INTENSITY

Increasing productivity of interstitial spaces

Interstitial space, meaning “in between” In the city scale, they function as cohesive
characterizes many of Bangkok’s urban transitions between landscapes, which results
landscape. There is an opportunity for land in a better integration of urban fabric. They
readjustment on these unfilled, open space have been created with the fragmentation of
fragments that would offer greater flexibility of infrastructure in Bangkok and could work towards
spatial uses in the city centre. Exploring strategies reconnecting it again; in the district scale, they
for possible community usage is highly attractive represent the opportunity of bridging communities
for various reasons — the potential of the land, as together; in the community scale, they dissolve
seen by the landowner, has already been fulfilled. the strong boundaries between the different
They have been subjected to market forces and communities and open up communities to each
the estimated profit has already been achieved other. The actors involved in this process are
therefore interest in further investment is lost. the communities, public and private landowners,
municipalities and district authorities.
They do however remain under-developed,
forgotten and unrecognizable as places Interstitial Spaces: Figure 4.5 demonstrates a possible use
of the abandoned space under the raised homes that are
suitable for additional, alternative use. As such, built above water. Some people use this space for storage
they represent an opportunity for adjacent or garbage disposal, which was observed on site in Bang
communities to appropriate or negotiate with the Pu. This interstitial space can be used in many ways that
landowner. Recognizing the risks of pollution and best fits the community, such as communal meeting space,
and/or children’s play area. It can also be used for individual
traffic, the opportunity of these sites lies in the family use, such as dining area, living area, and/or storage.
paradox of their centrality contrasting with their Figure 4.6 demonstrates another type of interstitial spaces
state of oblivion. Increasing the intensity of these adjacent to communities that have no specific use, as
spaces by incorporating them for community use observed in some communities in Khlong Toey. This can
be used as space for community social activities, art
has positive implications on various scales. performances, and commercial market activities.

Figure 4.5 Interstitial space under raised houses used as community space.

72 STRATEGIES LAND
dpu | budd | field trip report BANGKOK
Figure 4.6 Land adjacent to communities used for community activities.

73
PROPOSAL 3. PRODUCTIVITY

Rental schemes as social enterprise

Many individuals do not have the capability or scheme is further developed so that it could be
willingness to enter the BM Programme. There is expanded and applied to communities in urban
a lack of opportunities for temporary immigrants areas.
or migrants to rent a house, and as a result
they are squatting in the central areas of the Initially investing money in building rental facilities
city. Others are reluctant to join the Programme and later collecting the revenue represents an
because they are afraid of getting into debt option for communities to reduce its debt to CODI.
without having another means of increasing their This proposal is also suitable for areas with high
incomes. migration rates such as Rangsit and Bang Pu.
It would not only provide housing opportunities,
At the community level, this could be solved but facilitate social integration of migrants as
through rental schemes in the form of an well. We do however recognize that this process
ongoing social enterprise as demonstrated in cannot only be community driven — there is a
Figures 4.8 and 4.9. Recently there was a new need for a migrant policy at the city level or at
scheme developed in the Programme that was least at municipal level in most affected areas
established in the rural Chom Pare community in such as Rangsit and Bang Pu.
Khonkaen Province. It will be important that this

Photo by Silvia Chi


Figure 4.7 Existing rental units overlooking the Khlong Toey market demonstrate a rental demand in the Bangkok metropolis

74 STRATEGIES LAND
Figure 4.8 Rental Schemes
The diagram shows that by
communities investing together in
potential rental locations within the
site, the return can be used towards
community based activities or
maintenance costs.

SERVICES SERVICES
LOAN LOAN LOAN
WELFARE WELFARE
BUSSINESS FUND

Figure 4.9 Intensifying Rental Schemes:


As the community enterprise grows it can improve the social and spatial conditions of the community

dpu | budd | field trip report BANGKOK 75


4.2.2 STRENGTHEN NETWORKS
THROUGH KNOWLEDGE SHARING
PROCESS

In order to empower communities and individuals,


knowledge has to be communicated and
exchanged in a transparent and effective manner.
Communities can take advantage of their existing
assets, thus providing community members with
the opportunity to learn from past experiences,
Photo by Noor Al Ghafari
knowledge, skills, and capabilities (See Figure Figure 4.10a
4.11). Although many of the communities we
visited have adopted a highly effective means for
knowledge sharing (See Figure 4.10), there is still
a demand for a more efficient scheme that would
provide better distribution of problem solving
approaches and issue based information.

The main actors involved in the implementation of


the following proposals would be the community
and NULICO. Most of these proposals would be
implemented at the community level. NULICO
aims to connect various communities who are
in process of undergoing the BM Programme. Photo by Noor Al Ghafari
Further, NULICO has initiated a forum on their site Figure 4.10b
to exchange information between communities.
These strategies aim to enhance networking at
different scales as well as the upgrading process
at large.

Figure 4.10a- 4.10d Community members and leaders in


Bang Pu participating in issue based meetings and design
workshops with regional community leaders and MSc BUDD
and UDP students.

Photo by Noor Al Ghafari


Figure 4.10c

Photo by Noor Al Ghafari


Figure 4.10d

76 STRATEGIES KNOWLEDGE
Figure 4.11 Networks at Scale
Diagram representing the community networks at different scales. Working from community to
community, community to metropolitan scale of Bangkok, and to the national scale reaching
Thailand.

dpu | budd | field trip report BANGKOK 77


PROPOSAL 1. SKILL BANK

In examining a number of communities excluded from the services provided by the city.
undergoing the BM Programme, there is a great In a time where traditional crafts are diminishing,
variety in their level of organization. Some of it is more important than ever to find ways to
them have been successful in sharing knowledge safeguard communities from turning away
and collectively improving their communities. from ancient skills and sacred traditions. The
Through community collective action, this Skills Bank presents the opportunity to share
scheme illustrates how people can work together knowledge across communities and generations.
and invest time and effort in exchange for a
greater benefit. However, in some communities
there is an abundance of skills, but a lack of
community networking among members. This
has resulted in a lack of productivity within the
community and has isolated them from creating
collaborative relations and knowledge sharing
with other communities.

Skills Bank is a strategy designed to pool


resources where communities have access to the
services they need and in exchange offer a skill of
their own such as gardening, cooking, or building. Figure 4.12 Diagram of each participant in the skills bank
This exchange is done through a mediator that
connects participants together based on their
demands and capabilities. Every individual in the
community is registered with what they can offer,
as well as what they need in terms of skills and
services; tangible and intangible. A community
credit system is also adopted. Through the
mediator, a skill holder is linked with the recipient
based on whatever service that can be provided
and on that basis earns credit with the Skills Bank
(Lets link UK, 1991). The participant can then use
earned credit on a skill or service that is offered in
that scheme.

Figure 4.12 diagrams how people connect with Figure 4.13 Diagram of each community skills bank hub
each other through their skills. One side of the linking to other skills bank hubs from other communities
box illustrates their desired skill or service, while
the other illustrates what they can offer. The
skill holder connects on one side with the skill
receiver, while on the other side connects with
another desired skill as shown in figure 4.14,
which also illustrates how different skills banks
from different communities can connect for a
wide pool or resources.

Bringing this proposal on a larger scale, mediators


of each community Skills Bank can connect their
pool of resources together and link individual
needs and capacities across communities. These
networks could eventually extend beyond BM
communities to address vulnerabilities of those Figure 4.14 Illustration of individual participants in
relationship to each other

78 STRATEGIES KNOWLEDGE
Figure 4.15 Sharing skills: Bow tie making

Figure 4.16 Sharing skills: Carpenter Figure 4.17 Sharing skills: Belt making

dpu | budd | field trip report BANGKOK 79


PROPOSAL 2. COMMUNITY RESOURCE
NODE

Through the observation and evidence gathered many of the communities visited are already
from the field, it is demonstrated that capacity experts on efficient use of space. These design
of design to act as a tool to improve the living recommendations take these capabilities to
conditions of these communities is not being another level, where people can utilize the
fully explored. This is where the community space for community meetings, markets, and
architect could be part of a process of production community theatres.
of knowledge that engaged the community in the
process of design. For example, in our fieldwork, Implementation on site
in the Khlong Mai Tai community, a workshop
was conducted to share information about the Community Resource Nodes would arise from
logistics of a survey that proved that the cost of the recognition and improvement of existing
construction could be reduced by 50,000 Baht if informal and fragmented practices of knowledge
recycled materials were used. sharing already in place. The existence of such
practices partly relies on the activity of NULICO
The proposal network of communities and partly on the figure
of community architects.
The Community Resource Node is a structure
composed of a team of practitioners, community The scaling-up of these scattered practices
architects, and academia that gives technical into a formal hub for the creation and sharing
support to communities on the most pressing of knowledge on technical matters would
issues they identify. The practitioners also occur with the inclusion of universities, through
facilitate the communication within each specific educative programmes for the training of
community as well as among the members of young community architects, financial advisers,
different communities from different districts. agriculturalists and so on, as well as through
more advanced research programs. CODI would
Furthermore, these practitioners act as facilitators also play a role, mainly in the initial phase, in
in the decision making process by giving informed terms of facilitating the connection between the
advices on specific matters, such as design actors, but may drop out once the network is
solutions, finance, agriculture, environmental strong and able to rely on itself.
issues, recycling options, etc.

The Community Resource Node would be


initiated at the community scale. Each node
would then connect with the others and create a
wider pool of resources: a network of Community
Resource Nodes would be created at the
district and metropolitan level, allowing room
for communities to share successful as well as
unsuccessful practices of how singular cases
faced and eventually solved particular issues
they had to deal with, in order to be able to adopt
a solution that best fits community’s conditions
and collective needs.

This proposal gives the opportunity for people


to express their physical housing problems and
discuss design solutions. Figures 4.19, 4.20
and 4.21 illustrates the type of suggestions or
informed design solutions that are discussed in
those community resource nodes. Use of space Figure 4.18 Community architect facilitating informed
is a wide issue, for example, since people in knowledge sharing on design solutions

80 STRATEGIES KNOWLEDGE
Figure 4.19
Optimising the use
of communal spaces
within community for
group meetings

Figure 4.20
Optimising the use
of communal spaces
within community for
commercial and market
activities

Figure 4.21
Optimising the use
of communal spaces
within community for
community theatre and
arts activities

dpu | budd | field trip report BANGKOK 81


PROPOSAL 3. CREATION OF CHANNELS
OF EFFECTIVE COMMUNICATION

The following strategy proposes to enhance who don’t know much about BM and how to
networking at different scales, resource connect with other communities.
management and finally to address the
documentation and dissemination of information The main actors in this process would be
related not only to the upgrading, but other NULICO, who has interest in the information
lessons learnt among the communities. The latter exchange and who represents the wider scale,
will be implemented through a multimedia library and the community who represent issue based
where communities will have access. This would groups at the micro scale. Other actors such
work as a hub where they can see what other as, the media, local authorities, ACHR, and
communities have been doing and what issues academia are already documenting a large
they had faced to learn from them and to identify amount of sites, which could set a precedent for
solutions or potential improvements to their this scheme. As community residents who have
community, through channels of communications. already completed upgrading and know best what
the experience entails, they are better placed
Figure 4.23 represents a proposed community to inform their counterparts than government
library where archives of different communities bureaucrats who view things from afar.”(Archer,
are stored through different medias for easy 2010)
access by all people. Figure 4.22 illustrates the
‘information hubs’ within the districts and the The process will primarily start within the district
exchange of resources and knowledge on the and branch out to the wider city scale. The
wider city scale addressing issues and lessons use of mix-media such as video, cartoons and
learned throughout the different communities recordings will help deliver the message to all
undergoing or have already undergone BM members of community in terms of addressing
Programme. These hubs are accessible by all members with illiteracy or other disabilities.
people and can also offer information to people

Figure 4.22 Diagram illustrating different community libraries connecting together on a wider city scale

82 STRATEGIES KNOWLEDGE
dpu | budd | field trip report BANGKOK
Figure 4.23 Community library where archives are stored through different medias

83
4.2.3 DECREASE VULNERABILITY “The GHB finances CODI to provide loans
OF COMMUNITIES BY EXPANDING for low-income communities gathered under
ACCESSIBILITY TO ALTERNATIVE savings groups. These are the borrowers
and CODI evaluates their ability to repay
FUNDING in the long term. CODI charges a two per
Cooperatives form the basis of the BM
cent interest to the groups and they charge
Programme. In order for communities to join a six per cent to the individuals interested
the Programme, they must form savings groups on taking loans. The margin is used by the
beforehand. In 2008 when CODI’s funds dried saving groups mainly to develop a welfare
up and there was no money to loan out to new system within the communities.
projects, communities saw the importance
of having CDFs in order to establish financial The main difficulty is that cheap funds can
independence as well as help others in need. only come from the government basically
from tax money. The market is not able to do
that because the operational costs and risks
are too high. Then, the main issue is to use
tax money wisely as CODI is doing.”

-Kitti Patpong-pibul, Chairman of the


Housing Finance Association in Thailand

As shown in the photos in Figure 4.24 demonstrate how Baan


Mankong communities are organising and administering funds
within the savings groups.

Photo by Sepideh Hajisoltani Photo by Silvia Chi


Figure 4.24 Savings across communities

84 STRATEGIES FINANCE
Photo by Elian Pena

Photo by Elian Pena

Photo by Farida Farag Photo by Noor al Ghafari

Photo by Farida Farag

Photo by Noor al Ghafari

dpu | budd | field trip report BANGKOK 85


PROPOSAL 1. BOOSTER FUNDS

The Booster Fund is a community collective fund interest margin the community earns on CODI
that enables the poor of the poor to access the housing loans (we borrow from CODI at 2% but
BM Programme through a form of welfare in order on- lend to families at 6%), and this added margin
to reach the 10 % of the total amount they need supports most of our community activities, adds
to join. The residents of the community would funds to our welfare program, and provides a
pool together their resources to help excluded buffer fund to take care of repayments in cases
households to join the Programme. In return, where individual members have problems
these members would have to offer a service repaying.” (ACHR, 2008) SRJ is an important
to the community, rather than having a 4 % reference as to how community savings groups
interest per annum, as in the CDFs. The Booster are addressing reoccurring financial challenges
Fund would expand upon the existing CDFs as from an effective and new position.
alternative sources of funding. This would act as
a mechanism to empower the communities, by The main actors involved in the implementation
reducing their vulnerability and integrating them of this process would be the community and
into the larger collective network. NULICO. The criteria of this strategy requires
that households be in close proximity to the
As illustrated in figure 4.25, in order to support community being upgraded and that their own
marginalized community members, the sponsors savings groups should be formed to contribute
(i.e other community members) may at their own an affordable amount and to demonstrate their
discretion give more money to the savings groups ability to self-organize.
to allow those marginalized to be part of the
upgrading scheme with the rest of the community. The first stage of the process depends on the
Through the joint input of the community, those length of time it takes to raise enough money to
who are excluded are given the chance to join reach the 10 % needed to join the BM Programme.
BM Programme, as illustrated in figure 4.26. In These members will continue to be supported
return, those financially supported members will by welfare, until their debts are paid, but are still
offer a service to their community in return, for expected to contribute whatever they can, as
example gardening, to pay off that “loan”. well as provide a service to the community that
is supporting them. NULICO will act as an agent
A similar example was conducted in the to spread this practice across the communities to
Samki Ruam Jai (SRJ) Community. “The have a simultaneous development.
community savings group in SRJ has a welfare
program, which was financed partly by member
contributions (in which each member puts in 1
Baht every day) and partly from a portion of the

Figure 4.25
Illustration of marginalized
community member in relationship
to the rest of community in terms
of booster loans or services.

86 STRATEGIES FINANCE
dpu | budd | field trip report BANGKOK
Figure 4.26 Illustration of before and after effect of the Booster Fund proposal

87
4.2.4 DEVELOP ALLIANCES “Citizens ‘should be able to choose freely
AMONG THE ACTORS TO the conditions of their own association’
OPTIMISE THE CAPACITY OF and determine the ‘form and direction of
their polity’. This implies certain rights and
NEGOTIATION AND TO REDEFINE obligations from the side of citizens and ‘a
RESPONSIBILITIES common structure of political action’ that is
‘a “neutral” basis of relations and institutions
The basis of the BM Programme is a community
driven process addressing specific social, which can be regarded as impartial of even-
physical and financial needs. This approach is handed with respect to their personal ends,
effective in its nature and the fact that they are hopes and aspirations’”. (Held, 1995: 153-6)
providing their own services can help build the (Patomaki, 2003: 349)
community’s capacity and ability to self-organize,
as well as open a space for participation in the
decision making process. However, this also
represents a risk of instrumentalisation of the
communities, so there needs to be a balance
of power between the local authorities and the
communities.

The city planning and the development of


mega-projects that have a major impact across
different scales and actors also requires a
further engagement of all of this actors that are
being impacted, in a new definition of their roles
in the decision making process. Figure 4.27
exhibits actors across scales and roles within
communities and influencing communities in
transformation.

Figure 4.27 Space for Negotiation: Community Members and Leaders across Bangkok

88 STRATEGIES ALLIANCE
dpu | budd | field trip report BANGKOK 89
PROPOSAL 1. REDEFINITION OF ROLES
AND AREAS OF RESPONSIBILITY

In order to address these concerns, the role of the universities and experts, creates space for
stakeholders must be redefined to have a more negotiation and acts as a neutral third party while
responsive system of governance. The aim of the still maintaining the insight given by the different
initiative is to include the communities affected by actors involved (See Figure 4.28).
the city planning in the decision making process.
This proposal will help to bridge the gap between The role of the CDC needs to be redefined and
top-down and bottom-up strategies through the their responsibilities expanded. Furthermore,
effective transfer of knowledge and information. involving other actors depending on the nature
of the situation can also increase the capacity
Furthermore, this would re-involve the state of this committee. A methodology to monitor and
and others actor to participate in community evaluate the community governance system can
mobilization and capacity building. The local be created with the help of the CDC.
authorities must enhance their own capacity to
provide effective solutions and basic services to Additionally, within the Committee, communities
the communities. In order to ensure the future and local authority can negotiate and
success of this initiative, it will be important to balance areas of responsibility, priorities and
create a platform that monitors and evaluates the implementation of strategies and visions from
community governance system. the community to citywide level. Finally, with this
strengthened partnership, the community could
At the city level, the City Development Committee be able to negotiate and find alternative solutions
(CDC), which is comprised of representatives for multi-scalar conflicts at the national level.
from the municipality, the community, CODI,

Figure 4.28 Bridging mechanics which connect Top Down (Blue) and Bottom Up (Orange) Agendas and Governance.

90 STRATEGIES ALLIANCE
Figure 4.29 Combining top down plans with community input in Rattanakosin Island within national level conservation planning

dpu | budd | field trip report BANGKOK 91


4.3 SYNERGIC
CONNECTIONS BETWEEN
STRATEGIC PROPOSALS
The added value of the individual proposals
tackling land mechanisms, network knowledge
management, funding issues and possible
alliances at city level, lies in the potential of not
only complementary but synergic reinforcements
between them. As such, these connections can
multiply strategic effects over time and scale:

Rental scheme as social enterprise (Land) - Alliance - Land


Booster Fund (Finance)
Providing the space to discuss the role of actors
The rental schemes will provide revenue to by involving the community in the planning
reduce its debt to CODI, which will strengthen the process can support negotiation for the use of
capacity to access land and housing. Moreover, interstitial spaces and institutionalize bottom-up
the capital going back to the community savings densification schemes.
groups will reinforce the booster fund.
Knowledge Network to Alliances - Alliances
Community Resource Node (Knowledge to Knowledge Network
Network) - Land
The Node can use the Multimedia Library as a
The Node can help provide technical support repository of individual skills at local community
for land strategies, i.e. advise how communities and district level to distribute innovation,
could shift their approach for housing towards intervention and experiences city-wide. The
densification to fit with the urban grain, suggest cooperation of the Node and CDC (a platform
ideas to increase the productivity of interstitial that involves professional and academic experts
spaces or help develop skills to manage the as well as authorities representatives) will
rental scheme. provide a dynamic mechanism that can distribute
knowledge between all levels.
Multimedia Library (Knowledge Network) -
Land Also, involvement in the Node activities is a
way to expand CDC’s role and responsibilities
Document all the land negotiation methods to in balancing community tasks. Through
distribute them to other communities. multidimensional networking, this three-partite
system will enhance horizontal as well as vertical
knowledge sharing.

92 STRATEGIES SYNERGIES
METROPOL

N
DISTRICT
COMMU

A
Expanding the role>>> <<Network of Knowledge>><<

TION
<<<<<<<<

<<<<<Space for negotiation+Decision making

AL LEV
NITY

ITAN >>
<<<Inc

E
<<<<<<<<

L
>><<Network of Knowl
>><<Ne

<<<Add specialist asse


rease c
Incre

DocumentResource inpu
<<<<<<<v
ase c

twork o
apital>
a
pital>

fK

and distrib
>>
nowledg

Addres

STRATEGY
>

t to the node
>>>>

edge>><<

s
ed issu
e>><<

ute
>>>>

e
DENSITY:
Increasing density for better
affordability and accessibility

PRODUCTIVITY:
Rental schemes as social enterprise

INTENSITY:
Increasing productivity of
LAND interstitial spaces

Creations of Channels of
Effective Communication

Bank of skills
COMMUNITY
KNOWLEDGE Resource NODE

Redefinition of roles and


ALLIANCE areas of responsibility

FINANCE BOOSTER FUNDS

STRATEGY PROPOSAL
dpu | budd | field trip report BANGKOK 93
RE
PO IONS
LAT

E
WE

TIM
R
4.4 DE-CODI-NG STRATEGIC
PROPOSALS
To evaluate if the strategies here proposed are SPATIAL SOCIAL
OUTCOME OUTCOME
reaching the predefined transformation goal of
social justice, the interventions’ social and spatial
outcomes need to be tested against a set of
criteria assessing changes in power relations and
improved knowledge sharing over scale and time.

Clearly, none of the proposals alone can and is


meant to address the full transformation process.

KN ARIN
LE

SH
They were however envisioned to tackle most

SCA

OW G
LED
pertinent issues (as identified in the diagnosis)

GE
at different scales. Only the combination of all
proposals can possibly ensure the fulfilment of the Combined Land
Schemes
development goal.

As shown in the de-codified representation of


the proposals’ assessment, even though the set
of actions meant to re-shape financial policies,
land and knowledge management are successful
to some extent, they can only reach their full
transformative potential if supported by the active
RE
PO IONS
LAT

involvement of the usually marginalized in the

E
WE

TIM
R

decision making process. The appropriation of


political space is the ultimate result of the demand
driven paradigm shift.

SPATIAL SOCIAL
OUTCOME OUTCOME

this page
Figure 4.30 Assessment of proposals:
top to bottom
Combination of Land strategy proposals
Combination of Knowledge proposals
KN ARIN
LE

SH
SCA

OW G
LED

next page
GE

Figure 4.31 Assesment of Land proposals


top to bottom Combined Knowledge
Increasing density for better affordability and accessibility proposals
Increasing intensity of interstitial spaces
Increasing productivity: Rental schemes as social enterprise

Figure 4.32 Assessment of Knowledge proposals:


top to bottom
Skills Bank
Community Resource Node
Channels of Effective Communication Figure 4.30 Combined Assessment of proposals

94 STRATEGIES DECODING PROPOSALS


RE

RE
PO IONS

PO IONS
LAT

LAT
E
WE

E
WE
TIM

TIM
R

R
SPATIAL SOCIAL SPATIAL SOCIAL
OUTCOME OUTCOME OUTCOME OUTCOME

density
KN ARIN
LE

KN ARIN
LE
SH

SH
SCA

SCA
OW G

OW G
LED

LED
Density Skills Bank
GE

GE
RE

RE
PO IONS

PO IONS
LAT

LAT
E
WE

E
WE
TIM

TIM
R

R
SPATIAL SOCIAL SPATIAL SOCIAL
OUTCOME OUTCOME OUTCOME OUTCOME
KN ARIN
LE

KN ARIN
LE
SH

SH
SCA

productivity
OW G

SCA

OW G
LED

Productivity Community
LED
GE

GE

Resource Node
RE
RE

PO IONS
PO IONS

LAT
LAT

E
WE
E
WE

TIM
TIM

R
R

SPATIAL SOCIAL SPATIAL SOCIAL


OUTCOME OUTCOME OUTCOME OUTCOME
KN ARIN
KN ARIN

LE
LE

SH
SH

intensity
SCA
SCA

OW G
OW G

LED
LED

Intensity Channels of
GE
GE

Communication
Figure 4.31 Assessment of Land proposals Figure 4.32 Assessment of Knowledge proposals

dpu | budd | field trip report BANGKOK 95


RE
PO IONS
LAT

E
WE

TIM
R
RE
PO IONS
LAT

E
WE

TIM
finance
R
SPATIAL SOCIAL
OUTCOME OUTCOME

finance
SPATIAL SOCIAL
OUTCOME OUTCOME

KN ARIN
LE

SH
SCA

OW G
LED

Booster Fund Figure 4.33 Assessment of Finance proposals:


GE
RE

KN ARIN
LE
PO IONS

SH
LAT
SCA

OW G
E
WE

TIM
LED
R

GE
RE
PO IONS
LAT

E
WE

TIM
R

SPATIAL SOCIAL
OUTCOME OUTCOME
alliances
SPATIAL SOCIAL
OUTCOME OUTCOME
alliances
KN ARIN
LE

SH
SCA

OW G
LED
GE
RE

KN ARIN
LE
PO IONS

SH
LAT

SCA

EOW G
WE

TIM
LED
R

Figure 4.34 Assessment of Alliance proposals


Redefining Roles
GE
RE
PO IONS
LAT

E
WE

TIM

this page
R

top
Figure 4.33 Assessment of Finance proposals:
Booster Fund
SPATIAL SOCIAL
OUTCOME OUTCOME
bottom
Figure 4.34 Assessment of Alliance proposals:
Redefining Roles
SPATIAL SOCIAL
OUTCOME OUTCOME

combination of all strategies


96 STRATEGIES DECODING PROPOSALS
KN ARIN
LE

SH
SCA

OW G
LED
GE
NG
DG
E
RE
PO IONS
LAT

E
WE

TIM
R

SPATIAL SOCIAL
OUTCOME OUTCOME

KN ARIN
LE

SH
SCA

OW G
LED
G E

Figure 4.35 Assessment of Proposals:


Combination of all proposals: Land, Knowledge, Finance, and Alliance Strategies

dpu | budd | field trip report BANGKOK 97


Photo by Sepideh Hajisoltani

“Slum is not in the people, it is in the system”


-Somsook Boonyabancha

REFLECTIONS
REFLECTIONS

dpu | budd | field trip report BANGKOK 99


5.0 REFLECTIONS
We came to Bangkok as a collective of urban perspective shifted from a more spatial analysis
practioners, aiming to connect our theoretical to recognizing how communities organize and
analysis with a field based understanding of knowledge production is an underlying driver of
urban transformation. Our time in the field sustained change.
led us to learn of extraordinary examples of
social mobilisation, where communities joined On the community level, it became clear that in
together to build an entire house in one night, order to create effective change, whether that
or exhibited such dedication to building their is through our proposals for alternative housing
community network that they would travel typologies or participatory planning practice it
for days just to be included in the NULICO is important to develop interventions that are
meetings. part of a continuous process of change. We
recognize that the Baan Mankong Programme
is an ongoing process and our proposed
Our ideas of transformation were greatly intervention is addressing one specific moment
influenced by our time spent in the field. We in time.
saw that design is part of a collective process
of promoting urban change across actors and In the field, our design responses led us to
scales. Visiting communities in various stages consider the various challenges of urban
of the Baan Mankong Programme, allowed us practitioners such as — how are we meant to
to see how communities change before, during shift our spatial strategies to better respond
and after their involvement in the Programme. to more embryonic programmes, versus
programmes that are much more mature and
We saw that design cannot stand alone, have been part of urban processes for many
it must be linked with both top-down and years? And, how is it possible to be part of
bottom-up processes that are working to propelling long-term sustainable change if
address urban inequalities. For example, the design intervention is only taking place
even the most inspired design strategies must in a specific moment in time? In response
be supplemented by municipal policies that to these questions our interventions aimed
expose obstacles and address vulnerabilities, to be catalytic in nature, seeking to leverage
at the local and metropolitan level. But, community based initiatives and link our design
perhaps more importantly we learned that strategies with ongoing community goals. By
social mobilisation and space are profoundly relating spatial strategies with participatory
interrelated. For the case of the Baan processes of local knowledge production, we
Mankong Programme, the establishment of seek to promote initiatives that would become
community networks is an integral aspect embedded in wider movements of change.
of reaching scale. In our time in the field our

100 REFLECTIONS
As urban practitioners we recognize that the To conclude, our field-based study of urban
challenge of promoting change on small and change had a transformative effect on our
large scales calls for a responsiveness that is outlook as practitioners. Our fieldwork
currently not possible in many existing legal, in Bangkok was both provocative and
political and economic frameworks. These transformative — it left us changed, but it
systemic and political limitations make it also left us with larger curiosities and bigger
difficult for spatial strategies to be implemented questions. We saw that the roles of the
and sustained over time. In Bangkok, we urban practioner and the community are
found that the points of insertion and the evolving. These changes in both the outlook
room of maneuver for spatial interventions to of the practitioner and the participation of the
be significantly influential and involved in the community are placing bottom-up pressures
continuous process of urban transformation on existing frameworks and normative
are highly limited. development practice.

Further, it is difficult to determine how it is In examining the future planning of Bangkok,


possible for the participation of architects, not only in terms of space but also in terms
landscape architects and urban designers to of cultural identity and economic livelihood
be fully embedded in the processes of urban it would be interesting to consider the larger
change. While we acknowledge that limitations implications of bottom-up movements and
within current frameworks are significant, we informal productivity. We found that self-
recommend that the greater empowerment motivated productivity creates a dynamic
of design is not only essential for urban quality to the city, giving a temporal identity
livelihood and organizational purposes, but to each space where movement and change
because design thinking teaches people to is the only constant. This seems to be an
reinterpret existing problems and develop integral aspect of the culture of Bangkok and
solutions that were previously inconceivable. an essential element in promoting urban
Like the multiplier effect created through social livelihoods. In looking to the future we would
mobilisation and the production of knowledge be interested in better understanding the larger
— we recognize that design thinking could re- implications of informal productivity and how
shape normative ideas of knowledge shareing this could relate to the process of reaching
or how spatial transformations are being scale.
approached.

dpu | budd | field trip report BANGKOK 101


TOP
PRODUCTION OF
KNOWLEDGE
TRANSFORMATION

POWER RELATIONS

SOCIAL JUSTICE

SPATIAL
SOCIAL

BMK

BOTTOM
Figure 5.1 Our view of Transformation before Site Analysis

TOP

SPATIAL
SOCIAL

BMK PRODUCTION OF
KNOWLEDGE POWER RELATIONS

SOCIAL JUSTICE

TRANSFORMATION
BOTTOM
Figure 5.2 Our Paradigm Shift of Transformation post Site Analysis

102 REFLECTIONS SHIFT IN TRANSFORMATION


TOP
SPATIAL

SOCIAL

dpu | budd | field trip report BANGKOK


103
Figure 5.3 On Site Transformation
BOTTOM
Photo by Silvia Chi

REFERENCES
REFERENCES

dpu | budd | field trip report BANGKOK 105


6.0 REFERENCES
6.1 LIST OF FIGURES
Figure 1.1 Envisioning transformation
Figure 1.2 Community mobilisation issue based presentation (photo by Silvia Chi)
Figure 1.3 Community leaders participating in the feedback (photo by Silvia Chi)
Figure 1.4 Figure 1.3. Somsook Boonyabancha participation in our presentations in Bangkok
Figure 1.5 Rangsit site presentation by BUDD and UDP MSc students (photo by Silvia Chi)
Figure 1.6 Bang Pu site presentation by BUDD and UDP MSc students (photo by Silvia Chi)
Figure 1.7 Pasi Chaloen site presentation by BUDD and UDP MSc students (photo by Silvia Chi)
Figure 1.8 Rattanakosin Island site presentation by BUDD and UDP MSc students

Figure 2.1 Envisioning the transformation definition


Figure 2.2 Criteria and Indicators for our definition of transformation
Figure 2.3 DECODER: a methodological tool to assess transformational processes
Figure 2.4 An example of how the DECODER works
Figure 2.5 Ideal situation: transformational processes result in social justice
Figure 2.6 Visual recording of the sites
Figure 2.7 Site visits
Figure 2.8 Interviews
Figure 2.9 Final presentation with the communities

Figure 3.1 Megainfrastructure and housing in Koh Klang Klong Pra Ka Nhong
Figure 3.2 Drivers of change and pressures on Bangkok
Figure 3.3 Touristic activities in the central area of Bangkok, Rattanakosin Island
Figure 3.4 Coexistence of slums, mega projects and new developments in Klong Toey
Figure 3.5 Actor timeline
Figure 3.6 Actor mapping before Bangkok
Figure 3.7 Actor mapping after Bangkok
Figure 3.8 Main actors in the national level
Figure 3.9 Main actors in the metropolitan level
Figure 3.10 Main actors in the district level
Figure 3.11 Main actors in the community level
Figure 3.12 Location of the 6 sites within Bangkok region
Figure 3.13 Location of the communities visited and significant elements within Bang Khen district
Figure 3.14 View from Bang Bua canal (photo by Sepideh Hajisoltani)
Figure 3.15 The pictures on top illustrate the problems and opportunities of the chart within Bang
Khen district
Figure 3.16 Location of the communities visited and significant elements within Khlong Toey
district
Figure 3.17 Khlong Toey: spatially fragmentated
Figure 3.18 The pictures on top illustrate the problems and opportunities of the chart within Bang
Khen district
Figure 3.19 Location of the communities visited and significant elements within Pasi Chaloen
district
Figure 3.20 The community leaders of the district plays an important role facilitating comunication
within and between the communities

106 REFERENCES FIGURES INDEX


Figure 3.21 Funding Mechanism of Sirin and Friend Community in Pasi Chaloen
(photo by Azzurra Muzzonigro)

Figure 3.22 Funding Mechanism of Ra-Sri Tum Community in Pasi Chaloen
(photo by Azzurra Muzzonigro)
Figure 3.23 Problems and opportunities within Pasi Chaloen district
Figure 3.24 Location of the communities visited and significant elements within Rangsit
municipality
Figure 3.25 Rangsit position in Bangkok peri-urban area
Figure 3.26 The pictures on top illustrate the problems and opportunities of the chart within Rangsit
Municipality
Figure 3.27 Location of the communities visited and significant elements within the Bang Pu
municipality
Figure 3.28 Floating platform used for public gathering in Bang Pu municipality.
(photo by Parvathi Nair)
Figure 3.29 The pictures on top illustrate the problems and opportunities of the chart within Bang
Pu Municipality
Figure 3.30 Location of the communities visited and significant elements within Rattanakosin
island
Figure 3.31 The pictures on top illustrate the problems and opportunities of the chart within
Rattanakosin Island
Figure 3.32 Shack by the canal in Bang Khen. (photo by Sepideh Hajisoltani)
Figure 3.33 A bridge in Bang Khen community: an example of community mobilisation to fullfil the
role of the municipality (photo by Mayha Fatemi)
Figure 3.34 View from the Klong Toey District Authority building
Figure 3.35 The main issue in Rattanakosin Island concerned the lack of willingness of CODI to
start or help facilitate negotiation with the Temple land to include the poor communities
in the BM programme. (photo by Dhrin Anantamongkolchai)
Figure 3.36 View of the port in Khlong Toey. The communities have little power to negotiate with or
influence the Port Authority in terms of Land Tenure and the pressures of the Global
City Competition master plan (photo by Silvia Chi)
Figure 3.37 Land speculation spurred by the majority of private ownership in Rangsit with plans
to develop private residential units restricted negotiation for the price of land (photo by
McKenzie O’Neill)
Figure 3.38 Different communities in Rattanakosin Island are facing the same problems in terms
of the tourist and master plan; however they have no forum to discuss for collective
solutions. ( for more information refer to Annex page 141) 9Photo by Dhrin
Anantamongkolchai)
Figure 3.39 Interstitial spaces in the city (photo by Silvia Chi)
Figure 3.40 Bang Pu Community workshop Lack of networking within Bang Pu as community
members were not acquainted with one another and one of the community was not
aware of the different strategies that BM Programme offers to address their housing
problem in terms of upgrading.( Refer to Annex page 154 for further detail on
community workshops held in Bang Pu)
Figure 3.41 Rangsit community building. (photo by McKenzie O’Neill)

dpu | budd | field trip report BANGKOK 107


Figure 3.42 Rangsit community homes in progress. (photo by McKenzie O’Neill)
Figure 3.43 Walkway through Pasi Chaleon (photo by Azzurra Muzzonigro)
Figure 3.44 Pasi Chaloen housing design can be addressed through an efficient design response.
(Refer to Annex page 136) (photo by Azzurra Muzzonigro)
Figure 3.45 Khlong Toey open spaces The prevalence of interstitial spaces in Khlong Toey
presented for a fragmented urban fabric where there were disjointed pockets of
unused space (photo by Silvia Chi)
Figure 3.46 Key for the cubes in the graphic synthesis of problems and opportunities across the
six sites
Figure 3.47 Graphic synthesis of problems and opportunities about NETWORKS across the six
sites
Figure 3.48 Graphic synthesis of problems and opportunities about ACCESS across the six sites
Figure 3.49 Graphic synthesis of problems and opportunities about RESOURCES across the six
sites
Figure 3.50 Graphic synthesis of problems and opportunities about KNOWLEDGE SHARING
across the six sites
Figure 3.51 Graphic synthesis of problems and opportunities about DESIGN across the six
Figure 3.52 Graphic synthesis of problems and opportunities about ROLES AND NEGOTIATION
across the six sites
Figure 3.53 Graphic synthesis of problems and opportunities about PARTNERSHIPS AND
INFRASTRUCTURE across the six sites (explanatory chart in the next page)
Figure 3.54 Summary of problems and opportunities across the six sites
Figure 3.55 Multi scalar entry points of analysis diagram ( see next page for key and explanation)
Figure 3.56 Key of the Multi scalar entry points of analysis diagram ( previous figure, page 60)

Figure 4.1 Strategic Vision: “Build a strong network of communities able to negotiate their spaces
of participation in a political arena”
Figure 4.2a Community over water in Bang Pu (photo by Noor Al Ghafari)
Figure 4.2b Land to be developed in Pasi Chaloen (photo by Jennifer Cirne)
Figure 4.2c Canal community in Bang Bua (photo by Noor Al Ghafari)
Figure 4.3 Illustration of how half the amount of money can be used to purchase land by
increasing density.
Figure 4.4 Representation of how density can provide housing, social and livelihood responses
in restricted land availability or more opportunities of land for various communities.
Figure 4.5 Interstitial space under raised houses used as community space.
Figure 4.6 Land adjacent to communities used for community activities.
Figure 4.7 Existing rental units overlooking the Khlong Toey market demonstrate a rental demand
in the Bangkok metropolis (photo by Silvia Chi)
Figure 4.8 Rental Schemes: The diagram shows that by communities investing together in
potential rental locations within the site, the return can be used towards community
based activities or maintenance costs.
Figure 4.9 Intensifying Rental Schemes: As the community enterprise grows it can improve the
social and spatial conditions of the community
Figure 4.10 Community members and leaders in Bang Pu participating in issue based meetings
and design workshops with regional community leaders and MSc BUDD and UDP
students.
Figure 4.11 Networks at Scale: Diagram representing the community networks at different scales.
Working from community to community, community to metropolitan scale of Bangkok,
and to the national scale reaching Thailand
Figure 4.12 Diagram of each participant in the skills bank
Figure 4.13 Diagram of each community skills bank hub linking to other skills bank hubs from
other communities
Figure 4.14 Illustration of individual participants in relationship to each other

108 REFERENCES FIGURES INDEX


Figure 4.15 Sharing skills: Bow tie making
Figure 4.16 Sharing skills: Carpenter
Figure 4.17 Sharing skills: Belt making
Figure 4.18 Community architect facilitating informed knowledge sharing on design solutions
Figure 4.19 Optimizing the use of communal spaces within community for group meetings
Figure 4.20 Optimizing the use of communal spaces within community for commercial and market
activities
Figure 4.21 Optimizing the use of communal spaces within community for community theatre and
arts activities
Figure 4.22 Diagram illustrating different community libraries connecting together on a wider city
scale
Figure 4.23 Community library where archives are stored through different medias
Figure 4.24 Baan Mankong communities are organising and administering funds within the
savings groups
Figure 4.25 Illustration of marginalized community member in relationship to the rest of community
in terms of booster loans or services
Figure 4.26 Illustration of before and after effect of the Booster Fund proposal
Figure 4.27 Space for Negotiation: Community Members and Leaders across Bangkok
Figure 4.28 Bridging mechanics which connect Top Down and Bottom Up Agendas and
Governance
Figure 4.29 Combining top down plans with community input in Rattanakosin Island within national
level conservation planning
Figure 4.30 Combined Assessment of proposals
Figure 4.31 Assessment of Land proposals
Figure 4.32 Assessment of Knowledge proposals
Figure 4.33 Assessment of Finance proposals
Figure 4.34 Assessment of Alliance proposals
Figure 4.35 Assessment of Proposals: Combination of all proposals

Figure 5.1 Our view of Transformation before Site Analysis


Figure 5.2 Our Paradigm Shift of Transformation post Site Analysis
Figure 5.3 On Site Transformation

Figure A1.1 Interview at Baan Ban Khen Community (photo by Sepideh Hajisoltani)
Figure A1.2 Skilled female construction workers on U tid a nusorn community
(photo by Sepideh Hajisoltani)
Figure A1.3 Interview at Bang Bua Community Centre (photo by Sepideh Hajisoltani)
Figure A1.4 Building material survey on Krong Lumpai community
Figure A1.5 Mapping the process of reblocking on Krong Lumpai community
Figure A1.6 Group Presentation for Krong Lumpai Brief
Figure A1.7 A barber shop attached to a house before upgrading in Sapan Mai Community
(photo by Sepideh Hajisoltani)
Figure A1.8 Use of space in a house before upgrading in Sapan Mai Community
(photo by Sepideh Hajisoltani)
Figure A1.9 Use of space in a house before upgrading in Sapan Mai Community
(photo by Sepideh Hajisoltani)
Figure A1.10 Sketch of the use of space in the same house
Figure A1.11 Nursery and Bang Bua Community Centre (photo by Sepideh Hajisoltani)
Figure A1.12 Bang Bua Community Centre
Figure A1.13 Ongoing constrcution work in Krong Lumpai Community (photo by Sepideh Hajisoltani)
Figure A1.14 Plan of the new BM Programme house in Krong Lumpai Community

dpu | budd | field trip report BANGKOK 109


Figure A2.1 Movement of people through the Khlong Toey Market (Sketch by Sadiqa Jabbar)
Figure A2.2 Koh Klong Pra Ka Nhong Community ( photo by Farida Farag)
Figure A2.3 Klong Toey Market 24/7 (photo by Silvia Chi)
Figure A2.4 Ruam Jai Pattana Community (photo by Silvia Chi)
Figure A2.5 Communities under the railway ( photo by Farida Farag)
Figure A2.6 Family cleaning fish in Penang community, where livelihoods are focused around
market activities (photo by Silvia Chi)
Figure A2.7 Interview in community member’s home discussing how design of the house affects
the temperature within the home. (photo by Silvia Chi)
Figure A2.8 Drawing showing community how ventilation can work better in a community home
(sketch by Silvia Chi)
Figure A2.9 Koh Klang Klong Pra Ka Nhong community interview
(photo by Silvia Chi)

Figure A3.1 Sirin and friend community (photo by Azzurra Muzzonigro)


Figure A3.2 NHA programme (photo by Azzurra Muzzonigro)
Figure A3.3 Design proposals
Figure A3.4 Policy advisor for Klong Lad Pha-Shi community
Figure A3.5 DPU meeting the community
Figure A3.6 NHA programme (photo by Azzurra Muzzonigro)
Figure A3.7 Notes on Baan Mankong and NHA
Figure A3.8 Design principles
Figure A3.9 Design principles
Figure A3.10 Notes on Klong Lad Pha-Shi community

Figure A4.1 Nimit Mae Community (photo by McKenzie O’Neill)


Figure A4.2 Chareon Sin community Children (photo by Katja Starc)
Figure A4.3 Community leader describing the pressures of the metropolis on Rangsit
(photo by McKenzie O’Neill)
Figure A4.4 Sketch of existing Chareon Sin community and relationships
Figure A4.5 Slum behind Macro moving in 3 stages, community member sketching
(photo by McKenzie O’Neill)
Figure A4.6 Sang San Communty Housing Construction in progress (photo by McKenzie O’Neill)
Figure A4.7 View form Khlong sawaan Canal Communty (photo by Katja Starc)

Figure A5.1 Design participatory workshop


Figure A5.2 Space between houses (photo by Parvathi Nair)
Figure A5.3 Design principle workshop (photo by Parvathi Nair)
Figure A5.4 Design principle workshop (photo by Noor Al Ghafari)
Figure A5.5 Design principle workshop (photo by Elian Peña)
Figure A5.6 Recyclable construction material workshop (photo by Parvathi Nair)
Figure A5.7 Recyclable construction material workshop (photo by Elian Peña)
Figure A5.8 Recyclable construction material workshop (photo by Parvathi Nair)
Figure A5.9 Ta-bae ka mai second hand woodshop (photo by Josue Robles)
Figure A5.10 Ta-bae ka mai second hand woodshop (photo by Josue Robles)
Figure A5.11 Diagram of built form and usage
Figure A5.12 Diagram of built form and usage
Figure A5.13 Diagram of built form and usage
Figure A5.14 Survey of recyclable materials
Figure A5.15 Second hand market value

110 REFERENCES FIGURES INDEX


Figure A6.1 Contrast between slum, mid-class, and temple/tourism (photo by Jose Di Girolamo)
Figure A6.2 Narrow pathway in community (photo by Su-Ann Tan)
Figure A6.3 Self-designed houses (photo by Jose Di Girolamo)
Figure A6.4 Community by river
Figure A6.5 Detailing of existing house
Figure A6.6 Contrast between slum and palace (photo by Jose Di Girolamo)
Figure A6.7 Improvised kitchen at historic wall (photo by Su-Ann Tan)
Figure A6.8 Wall between community and city (photo by Dhrin Anantamongkolchai)

dpu | budd | field trip report BANGKOK 111


6.2 BIBLIOGRAPHY
• Angel, Shlomo & Somsook Boonyabancha. ‘Land Sharing as an Alternative to Eviction:
The Bangkok Experience’, in Third World Planning Review, Vol. 10, No. 2, May 1988,
pp, 107-127. (http://web.mit.edu/urbanupgrading/upgrading/issues-tools/tools/Reg-of-land.
html) Accessed 10 January 2010

• Archer, D.A. (2010) Empowering the Urban Poor. ISOCARP Congress. P. 1-11. Available
from: [www.isocarp.net/Data/case_studies/1648.pdf]

• ACHR (2011) The Asian Coalition for Housing Rights [online]. Available from: http://www.
achr.net/ [Accessed: 6th June 2011]

• Asian Coalition for Housing Rights, ACHR. (2008). A Conversation About Upgrading at Bang
Bua. ACHR [online](September). P. 1-10. Available from [http://pubs.iied.org/G02376.html]

• Asian Coalition for Community Action (ACCA). ‘Third ACCA Program Committee
Meeting’, Surabaya, Indonesia, 24-26 October 2009.

• Asian Coalition for Housing Rights (ACHR). ‘Evictions in Seoul, South Korea’, in
Environment & Urbanization, Vol. 1, No. 1, April 1989, pp. 89-94.

• Asian Coalition for Housing Rights (ACHR). ‘Housing by People in Asia: Community
Funds’, No. 14, February 2002, 32 pages.
(http://www.achr.net/ACHR%20newsletter%2014%20with%20photos.pdf)

• Asian Coalition for Housing Rights (ACHR). ‘Housing by People in Asia’, No. 13, June
2001, 36 pages.
(http://www.achr.net/ACHR%20Newsletter%20No%2013%20with%20photos.pdf)

• Asian Coalition for Housing Rights (ACHR). ‘Negotiating the Right to Stay in the City’, in
Environment and Urbanization, Vol. 16, No. 1, April 2004, pp. 9-26.

• Boonyabancha, Somsook. ‘Baan Mankong: Going to Scale with “Slum” and Squatter
Upgrading in Thailand’, in Environment and Urbanization, Vol. 17, No. 1, April 2005, pp.
21-46.

• Boonyabancha, Somsook for UN-HABITAT. ‘Community Development Fund in


Thailand: A Tool for Poverty Reduction and Affordable Housing’, Nairobi, 2009.
(http://www.unhabitat.org/pmss/getElectronicVersion.asp?nr=2782&alt=1) Accessed 31
January 2011.

• Boonyabancha, Somsook. ‘How Upgrading of Thailand’s Informal Settlements is Spear


Heading a Community-Driven, City-Wide, Integrated Social Development Process’, a paper
presented at the Arusha Conference, New Frontiers of Social Policy, Arusha, Tanzania, 12-
15 December 2005.
• Boonyabancha, Somsook. ‘Land for Housing the Poor – by the Poor: Experiences from
the Baan Mankong Nationwide Slum Upgrading Programme in Thailand’, in Environment
and Urbanization, Vol. 21, No. 2, October 2009, pp. 309-329.

• Boonyabancha, Somsook. ‘Scaling Up Slums and Squatter Settlements Upgrading in


Thailand Leading to Community-Driven Integrated Social Development at City-Wide
Level’, a paper presented at the Arusha Conference, New Frontiers of Social Policy,

112 REFERENCES BIBLIOGRAPHY


Arusha, Tanzania, 12-15 December 2005.
(http://siteresources.worldbank.org/INTRANETSOCIALDEVELOPMENT/Resources/
Boonyabanchapaper.rev.1.pdf) Accessed 31 January 2011.

• Boonyabancha, Somsook, ‘The Causes and Effects of Slum Eviction in Bangkok’, in Shlomo
Angel, Raymon W. Archer, Sidhijai Tanphiphat and Emiel A. Wegelin (Editors), Land for
Housing the Poor, Select Publications, Singapore, 1983, pp. 254-283.

• Boonyabancha, Somsook. ‘Upgrading Thailand’s Urban Settlements: A Community-


Driven Process of Social Development’, in Caroline O. N. Moser, Caroline Moser & Anis
A. Dani (Editors), Assets, Livelihoods, and Social Policy, World Bank Publications 2007,
pp. 195-214, available online (http://books.google.co.uk/books?id=bia-
DERFf6IC&printsec=frontcover&source=gbs_v2_summary_r&cad=0#v=onepage&q=&f=fal
se) (Enter page 195) Accessed 31 January 2011.

• Boonyabancha, Somsook. ‘The Urban Community Environmental Activities Project and


its Environment Fund in Thailand’, in Environment and Urbanization, Vol. 11, No. 1,
April 1999, pp. 101-115.

• Bruneau, Michael. “Mode of Production and Spatial Organization in Thailand: Process


and Trends”, in Antipode, Volume 14, Issue 1, April 1982, pp. 1–10.
(http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/j.1467-8330.1982.tb00014.x/pdf) Accessed
03 February 2011

• CODI (2011) Baan Mankong Collective Housing [online]. Available from: http://www.codi.
or.th/housing/ [Accessed: 5th June 2011]

• Daniere, Amrita & Lois M. Takahashi. ‘Poverty and Access: Differences and
Commonalities across Slum Communities in Bangkok’, in Habitat International, Vol. 23,
No. 2, 1999, pp. 271-288.

• Derrida, J. (1997). The Politics of Friendship. Verso: London

• Foucault, M. ( 1995) Discipline and Punish: The Birth of the Prison. Vintage

• Held, David (1995). Democracy and the Global Order: From the Modern State to Cosmopolitan
Governance. Oxford: Polity Press.

• Jenks, Mike. ‘Above and Below the Line: Globalization and Urban Form in Bangkok’, in The
Annals of Regional Science, Vol. 37, No. 3, 2003, pp. 547-557.

• Khan, Shahed Anwer. ‘Attributes of Slums Affecting their Vulnerability to Eviction: A


Study of Bangkok’s Informal Settlements’, Environment and Urbanization, Vol. 6, No. 1,
April 1994, pages 25-39

• King, Ross. ‘Bangkok Space, and Conditions of Possibility’, in Environment and Planning D:
Society and Space, Vol. 26, 2008, pp. 315-337.

• Kungsawanich, U. (2001). Cash for Trash. Bangkokpost. [Online]. 13th March. Availabe
from: http://www.bangkokpost.com/outlookwecare/130301_Outlook01.html.
[Accessed: 5th June 2011]
dpu | budd | field trip report BANGKOK 113
• Lets Link UK. (1991). UK Local Exchange Trading and Complementary Currencies
Development Agency [Online]. Available from: http://www.letslinkuk.net/index.htm.
[Accessed: 5th June 2011]

• Lefebvre, H. (2003). The Urban Revolution University of Minnesota Press: Minneapolis/


London

• Manickam, Nadarajah. ‘Meditations on Culture, Cosmology and Sustainability in Asia’, in


Are We Up to the Challenge?: Current Crises and the Asian Intellectual Community, The
Nippon Foundation 2008, pp. 238-250.

• Mcleaod, R (2011). “Humpty Dumpty “, lecture notes distributed in the topic BENVGBU4.
University College London, Building on 28 February.

• Mitlin, Diana. ‘Civil Society and Urban Poverty – Examining Complexity’, in Environment
and Urbanization, Vol. 13, No. 2, October 2001, pp. 151-173.

• Mitlin, Diana and David Satterthwaite. ‘Strategies for Grassroots Control of International
Aid’, in Environment and Urbanization, Vol. 19, No. 2, 2007, pp. 483-500.

• Mitlin, Diana & David Satterthwaite. ‘The Role of Local and Extra-Local Organisation’, in
Diana Mitlain and David Satterthwaite (editors), Empowering Squatter Citizen: Local
Government, Civil Society and Urban Poverty Reduction, Earthscan, London 2004, pp. 278-
306.

• Nathalang, Sowatree. ‘Rangsit in Transition: Urbanisation and Cultural Adaptation in


Central Thailand’, a paper distilled from the PhD thesis, Macquarie University, Sydney
1999.
(http://std.cpc.ku.ac.th/delta/conf/Acrobat/Papers_Eng/Volume%202/Sowatree.pdf)
Accessed 31 January 2011

• NESDB (2011) National Economic and Social Development Board. [online] Available from:
http://www.nesdb.go.th/ [Accessed: 8th May 2011]

• Patomaki H. (2003). Problem of Democratizing Global Governance: Time, Space and the
Emancipatory Process, European Journal of International Relations. Vol.9(3): pp. 347-376.

• Rabinow, P. (1984). The Foucault Reader. Penguin Books: London

• Ranciere, J. (2010). Dissensus. Continuum: New York

• Rawls, J. ( 1999) A Theory of Justice. Belknap Press of Harvard University Press

• Sintusingha, Sidh. ‘Sustainability and Urban Sprawl: Alternative Scenarios for a


Bangkok Superblock’, in Urban Design International, Vol. 11, 2006, pp. 151-172.

• Sirisrisak, Tiamsoon. ‘Conservation of Bangkok Old Town’, in Habitat International, Vol.


33, 2009, pp. 405-411.

114 REFERENCES BIBLIOGRAPHY


• Sen, A. (1999). Development as Freedom. Oxford University Press: Oxford

• API Fellows (2005-2006). Are We Up to the Challenge?: Current Crises and the Asian
Intellectual Community. [Online] Available from: http://www.api-fellowships.org/body/
international_ws_proceedings/year5.pdf#page=264 [Accessed: 31st January 2011]

dpu | budd | field trip report BANGKOK 115


MOCK-UP IMAGE
Figure A1.0 A view of the Bang Bua Canal
(photo by Sepideh Hajisoltani)
A1.0 BANG KHEN
annex

dpu | budd | field trip report BANGKOK A116


annex BANG KHEN

BANG KHEN: Interviews • The Sky Train Project is a threat for one of the
communities it is the main reason for eviction of
about 45 houses. They are fully aware of the
INTERVIEW 1: GROUP project so they are considering relocation as an
Community leaders of the six sites within option but still trying to negotiate with developers
Bang Khen district (16 women and 15 men): because the last station would occupy their land
so they are still hopeful to be able of changing it.
• We believe that BM programme is not about
They are still fighting for it.
building your own house but it is about helping
• In this district there are two leaders for each
others to have a house as well. We do our best to
community: one as community leader and the
manage our time and contribute to the programme
other one as BM programme leader. Although
as much as it is required. We all know that each
in most cases these two leaders work perfectly
of us have to sacrifice something to be a part of
together there are some cases where there is
this programme but we are fine with this because
after all what makes a sense of community are conflict between the two leaders.
these sacrifices by the members. Some of us work
nearby so we can come to the community centre if
they need us during the day. Some others who own INTERVIEW 2:
a business like a shop ask their family members A female Community Leader
like their spouse or their children to take care of
the shop while they are here. So far we have never • In the past some families who did not have access
had problem with time and volunteer work issue. to water used to collect water when it rained. They
• Most of the members of this district are government even used the water from the canal for drinking.
employees, cleaners, waitresses, construction They used to boil it first and it was considered to
workers and owners of small stores. be clean.
• The highest income within this district is about • 13 years ago they paid to have access to water
50,000 TBH and in the lowest is about 10,000 TBH. through water line system. They had to pay for
• The ones who work for the government are more their own pipes and taps. Not all of them were
secure in terms of paying their loan because they directly connected to the water line.
have a secure job and they can count on the total • 3 years ago the government announced that if the
income in advance. monthly water consumption of a family is less than
• They formed the network of Bang Bua Canal in 80 units they would be exempted from paying the
1999. At first only 6 communities were involved in water bills but this community could not benefit
this network but now this network is active beyond from this scheme.
• Instead of having access to the main water line
this canal.
a family had the main access and 3 or 4 other
• After they cleaned the canal they recycled the
families were connected to the main connection
trash that they had removed from the canal and
so actually 4-5
then they sold the trash and managed to buy a
• families were using the main access and therefore
boat for the community with the profit
their monthly consumption was more than the
• They applied for their own city fund not from CODI
announced amount. Collectively all these families
because they criticize the procedure of applying
had to pay about 1000 Baht to the family who
• For CODI fund as it is rigid and they don’t want to
owned the main access.
have lots of paper work. They are demanding a
• Before the waste water used to be directly poured
more flexible process. City Fund can act as a short
into the canal but after the BM programme they
cut for communities. In some cases the CODI
installed water waste tanks and they use grease
funding is not enough for finishing the house and
filter to collect the waste oil and they sell it to the
there are people in this community who could not
military for production of Bio Fuel.
manage to finish their houses.

ANNEXES BANG KHEN


INTERVIEW 3:
A female Ban Mankong progarmme leader

• If some community members do not join the


program because they are worried of being in debt
or do not have enough saving we try to help them by
the welfare fund so they can also join but in cases
when they don’t trust the program, if they are not
acting as an obstacle to the process of upgrading
we will just ignore them and sometimes they join
later when they see the tangible outcomes of the
program. In cases when they have the money but
will not join and are an obstacle in the process
they the community will put pressure on them and
if they are land owners sometimes we even take
them to court.

INTERVIEW 4: GROUP
A young Ban Mankong leader & young social
entrepreneurs sponsored by Unltd

• We are aiming to set up a construction company


and a home service center that gives maintenance
and repair service to the communities with a
cheaper price they want to share constrcution
knowledge within the communities to reduce the
costs as well. We have being cheated enough by
engineers. the workers employed by this center
would be all local.
• We want to build this portfolio within these
communities and then scale up this in other projects
like NHA. So far there are 100 local builders and 5
teams of these builders have been active beyond
the boundry of Bang Bua.

INTERVIEW 5: GROUP
A female Community Leader

• we have been living on this land for more than


70 years. We had to negotiate our land with the
treasury department. After getting the land we did
a survey and found out that the mentioned land
is too small for these number of households. So
people decided to build a high rise building. As
CODI was not sure about going vertical we used
the bridge funding of CDF to start the project.
We think that they hesitated because they were
worried that people cannot pay the debt as it would
be more expensive to build a high rise.
• When it came to allocation of different floors to
different families the community decide to have
the first floor for handicapped, elderly and shops.
• and then the rest of the families chose the rest. As
there would be no lift available for the building the
higher flats would be cheaper.
• They are building studio flats and families who do
not fit into one studio flat must save for two studios
next to each other. They are building 44 studios
in this 4 storey high rise. They know that they had
some other options when it comes to design they
could not afford the other alternatives.
• During the process one family decided to resign
Figure A1.1 Baan Ban Khen Community describing the plan of the
high rise building (photo by Sepideh Hajisoltani)
dpu | budd | field trip report BANGKOK A118
from the programme. The community members
decided to pay a bit more on behalf to have a shop
instead and then benefit collectively from the shop
when the construction is over.

INTERVIEW 5: GROUP
A thai architect student on the site

• I have never been in a slum before and had no idea


about the scale of BM programme. As an architect
I am not fond of working as a community architect.
I prefer to work for a consulting firm where I can
work on architectural projects.
• I think generally reconsideration of the building
code and having exceptional building codes for
these communities who are in the BM programme
is not fair for others who are not involved with this
programme because after all it is a project by the
government and others are still stuck with the
existing strict building codes.

INTERVIEW 6: GROUP
An old lady in his BM programme house

• The whole process of construction for the new


house lasted for a month. Chang Chumchon
assisted them in construction of this decently
spacious house.
• The amount of repayment is fine for this family. An
extended family lives in the new house as they
were living together before upgrading.
• Before upgrading whenever it rained their house
would be flooded due to the rise in the water of
the canal.
• There is not a public space in this community but
as the community has been living on this land for a
long time they know each other quite well and the
door of the houses are always open and people
interact with each other quite easily. What they
demand is a play ground for children within the
community.

INTERVIEW 7: GROUP
Local Authority

• Local authorities have monthly meeting for flood


prevention but there is no budget specifically al-
located for disasters. They have a prevention plan
and the police is another actor when it comes to
flooding.
• 5,000 TBH is given to the community by the local
authority per month for administration cost.
• 2.000 TBH is given to the community for garbage
collection by the local authority

INTERVIEW 8: GROUP
Local University

• Rajabhat Phranakhon University is directly in


touch with BM programme community leader. It is
an informal collaboration between the community
Figure A1.2 Skilled female construction workers on U tid a nusorn
community working on a row house project (photo by Sepideh
Hajisoltani)
ANNEXES BANG KHEN
and the university. Their communication is through
meetings with the communities
• This university is running a cultural centre built by
Chang Chumchon.
• The university design training courses after
receiving community requests. They send their
trainers to the community if needed.

INTERVIEW 9: GROUP
Sapan Mai Community members

• They had a wooden bridge that used to act as the


main entrance to this community that is located
alongside the canal. They asked the government to
replace this bridge but it took 4 years and nothing
happened and the community decided to start
collecting donation by the community members,
visitors and even other communities to build a new
bridge. The bridge is under construction.
• They would like to have the first floating market in
the area.

BANG KHEN: Brief


Presentation
Based on the brief given by community leaders in Bang
Khen we were asked to look for alternative options for
reducing the cost of construction within this district.
This community is seeking for methods to reduce the
cost of construction or alternative funding for housing
loans. In order to do so we had to work in Krong Lump-
ai community. On this site there was a house under
construction where we had the opportunity to talk to
the builders and also the owner.
The group mapped the re blocking process on this site
and did a survey for listing the construction materials
before and during the upgrading.

Considering the data that we gathered on the site , the


group had the following suggestions that were simply
presented to the community the next day in simple
sketches:

1. Cost saving by reusing the construction materials:


Background: Materials costs are more than half of the
cost of the projects. Reusing some materials have
assisted some families to reduce the cost of
construction and keep the overall costs below the loan
amount.
Idea:
• Organizing a categorized material yard as a
material bank
• Selling recycled materials through the network-
sUtilizing the networks or other organizations
(CODI, NHA, Chang Chumchon) to buy materi-
als when opportunities are present
2. Incremental construction
idea:
based on the rise and fall of material costs the
construction can take place in different phases.
You can build when material is cheaper or when
materials are present in the material bank.
Figure A1.3 Sample model in Bang Bua Community Centre used in
explaining the design phase (photo by Sepideh Hajisoltani)

dpu | budd | field trip report BANGKOK A120


3. Bulk buying
Background:
Bulk Buying allows the communities to minimize
the costs
Idea:
Buying in bulk through the existing networks and
keeping the materials with the suppliers to collect
them later when you need them on site
4. Knowledge sharing
Background :
one family saved 80,000 THB by using a new
material called Shera. They learned about it by
chance
Idea:
Looking for alternative materials and partnerships
related to materials ( e.g. Architecture and Civil
engineering departments at universities)
5. Integration with the spatial transformation
process
Background:
Though CODI as monthly visits the last time CODI
architects visited the site was in 2007, the same
design of 2006 is being used today on this site and
there are challenges in implementing that design
Idea:
• Community apprentice can start working
with CODI architects to gain experience and
carrying the process through
• Reassessment before every phase of
construction (design, material, cost )

Figure A1.4 Sketch of building material survey on Krong Lumpai


community

Figure A1.5 Mapping the process of re blocking on Krong Lumpai


community

ANNEXES BANG KHEN


Figure A1.6 Sketches used in Group Presentation for Krong Lumpai
Brief
dpu | budd | field trip report BANGKOK A122
Figure A1.7 A barber shop attached to a house before upgrading in Figure A1.8 Use of space in a house before upgrading in Sapan Mai
Sapan Mai Community (photo by Sepideh Hajisoltani) Community (photo by Sepideh Hajisoltani)

ANNEXES BANG KHEN


BANG KHEN: Use of Space
Use of Space

During the site visit of Sapan Mai community we had


a chance to go inside some of the house that were
a part of BM programme but were not yet upgraded.
Figure ? shows the use of space within this household.
The family livelihood is based on a barbershop that is
located inside their house without any wall or partition
separating it from their living space. Having similar
shops attached to houses is quite common in this
district.

BANG KHEN: Videos


Visiting Bang Khen communities this group has
recorded some videos that can be accessed through
the following links:

• Bang Bua Canal 1:


http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=XkUGdUhYVlg

• Bang Bua Canal 2:


http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=UCzLuhstRSs

• Singing at Bang Bua Community center:


http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Fu55j54NBDo

• Walking in Krong Lumpai Community:


http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=aZGuHmCqcDs

Figure A1.9 Sketch of the use of space in the same house Figure A1.10 Use of space in a house before upgrading in Sapan
Mai Community (photo by Sepideh Hajisoltani)
dpu | budd | field trip report BANGKOK A124
BANG KHEN: Bang Bua Community
Centre

This building is being used by the communities in


Bang Khen for several activities. We mapped out the
following activities:

• Meetings of the communities, committees and


other subgroups like housewives groups
• Kitchen for the catering service of the housewives
• Nursery funded by ActionAid
• Administration office for the community and BM
programme leaders
• Accommodation for visitors
• Sports – there are some sport facilities in the open
space
• A place for selling the community products like
T-shirts, perfumes and washing liquids
• Community Celebrations
• Informal gathering of the community for singing or
even watching TV together
• Training courses for the community

Figure A1.11 Nursery and Bang Bua Community Centre run by Figure A1.12 Sketch of Bang Bua Community Centre
ActionAid (photo by Sepideh Hajisoltani)

ANNEXES BANG KHEN


BANG KHEN: Krong Lumpai
visiting an ongoing construction

Project information:

• Scale of household: 5
• Number of workers required: 5
• Project time: 1 month/ 8 hrs per day
• Number of floors: 2
• Number of Bedrooms: 2
• Structure: Concrete
• Distance with the canal edge: 40 minutes
• Recycled items that have been used: wooden
frames for doors and windows
• Amount of load: 150,000 TBH
• Additional fund required for finishing the
house: 24,000 TBH
• Last visit of CODI architects: 2007
• Contractor: CCC

Figure A1.13 Ongoing construction work in Krong Lumpai Figure A1.14 Plan of the new BM programme house in Krong
Community (photo by Sepideh Hajisoltani) Lumpai Community

dpu | budd | field trip report BANGKOK A126


Figure A2.0 Khlong Toy (photo by Silvia Chi)
A2.0 KLONG TOEY
annex

dpu | budd | field trip report BANGKOK A128


annex KLONG TOEY

KLONG TOEY: Interviews and use it. Also, the community is still in debt after
upgrading their homes, and so they cannot be
relocated.
INTERVIEW 1: GROUP
Sang Sun Phatana community Q: What was the impact of relocation on people’s
livelihoods?
Q: How did your community reach consensus and
negotiate land tenure? • It helped them be in a better living environment
and motivated them to do something for the
• Some people decided to stay and refused to community.
relocate to this plot (the current one) and kept • Earlier people didn’t have bills or loans to pay.
negotiating with the port to get an alternative land. When they started BM programme, more people
Each one we picked, the port did not grant us. This had to get jobs, including women who opened
current land was offered because it used to be shops selling food or merchandise.
where a private company stored its containers. As
the contract with the private company had expired Q: What is the relationship between this community
the port gave us the land. and the adjacent one, which is not part of BM?
• They gave us a 30 year rent to be renewed every • They had a very bad relationship at first, because
3 years. But if the port wants the land back, we will while this community was upgrading their ground
have to get relocated again. level raised and that affected flooding in the
adjacent community, which is next to the canal.
Q: Is the community worried about this possible threat Water stayed on their side and flooded their homes.
of eviction? Later on that community asked municipality for
• No. the area is still registered as a residential a wall to be built by the canal to keep their part
zone, so technically the port cannot take it back

Figure A2.1 Movement of people through the Khlong Toey Market (Sketch by Sadiqa Jabbar)

ANNEXES KLONG TOEY


of land from flooding. Even though this affected
community is not supported by CODI, they still
managed to get that wall/barrier built.

INTERVIEW 2: GROUP
Rim Klong Wat Sapan community ( not part
of Baan Mankong)

Q: Why can this community not join BM?


• They can’t because they don’t have secure tenure
because the port owns the land and is not willing
to negotiate.
• The port knows they are living in that land and
is trying to be blind about it, as they don’t have
function for it at the moment. But every year they
go to this community and remind them that they
will be evicted whenever the port demands the
land.
• The port wont allow them to be part of BM because
it’s a permanent long term process
• Some households don’t want to join BM at all
because it will make them reorganize plot size, so
some might end up with smaller plots. Others just
don’t want to be in debt and have to repay loans.

Q: How did the upgrading of the adjacent community


(part of BM) affect this community?
• They kids now use the public space and playground
of the upgraded community as well as hold events
there and meetings together.

INTERVIEW 3: GROUP
Interview with Ruam jai pattana community

Q: Who designed the houses and what was the role of


the architect?
• The architects were involved in dividing the
plots. CODI architects gave the design and the
community agreed to it. In reality when they started
building them, everybody did their own thing and
only one house actually followed that model.
• Observation: houses had limited design response
and were not in favor of the community. People did
not follow any design guidelines or building codes.
The port allowed them to do that.
• They did not use CODI money but used their own
savings and external funding. The loans they got
from CODI was used for infrastructure only.
Q: How did the community change after BM
programme?
• They had a better moral but it is still hard to get the
people involved. The number of people employed
is still the same and has not changed after the
upgrading.
INTERVIEW 4: GROUP
Meeting at the District office:

Q: What is the vision for the Klong Toey district?


• Because the director is new in the district office,
the personal vision is no just to build for the people
but it is important to get people to participate and
do it themselves. People would be much stronger t

dpu | budd | field trip report BANGKOK 114


due to their strong networks and experience with
gaining the knowledge they need. In terms of
physical upgrading, the port in the future would
be collaborating with the district in favor of the
people’s wellbeing.

Q: What are the problems and opportunities faced?


• The biggest problem is the communities on the port
land. It’s hard to do any physical changes because
port has more power and controls decisions.
• The district office wants to be part of the
environmental change: providing more public
spaces while having more participation from the
people.

Q: What is the status of the port’s Mega Project and


how does it work?
• They think it would be hard to implement. It’s still a
plan and it depends on the government. This might
change depending on the next government. There
are also some plans on making the district green
and many organizations are proposing parks to the
area.

Q: How do you see the decentralization movement?


What capacity do they have?
Some duties have been transferred to them form
ministries. They are in charge of taking care of welfare
now, as well as education and quality control. The
ministries wanted to send more people to work but the
people don’t want to work in the district office and so
they’re moving around to avoid working with the district.

What about housing and land?

• City planning development of the BMA is being


taken care of here at district office. BMA releases
the zones and the district office builds and takes
control. There’s a city planning department controlling
development projects small in scale. If the scale is too
big, the BMA takes control of it.

Q: How are they dealing with the challenge of slums of


the Klong Toey district?
• The big issue is that people don’t want to move and
there’s nothing they can do but be in the middle
supporting the people and improving current
conditions. But overall they have to listen to the
port. Eviction is still on.
Q: What has been the experience of the district office
in dealing with eviction?
• People used to relocate on private land and got
evicted. They district office helped people in the
process and negotiated land by NHA but it’s far
away by the airport, which people refused to
relocate to.

Figure A2.3 Klong Toey Market 24/7 ( photo by Silvia Chi)

ANNEXES KLONG TOEY


Figure A2.4 Ruam Jai Pattana Community ( photo by Silvia Chi) Figure A2.5 Communities under the railway ( photo by Farida Farag)

dpu | budd | field trip report BANGKOK 116


Q: What is the role of the district office in that process?
• Quality control, send garbage collectors in the
green spaces in the city, and use the fresh garbage
for compost.
• It is part of the policy of the BMA to make more
green spaces. Bangkok is growing and they think
improving health is a priority and so green spaces
are very important. Earlier, people used to travel
outside of Bangkok to use green open spaces.

INTERVIEW 5: GROUP
Meeting with the leader of the market union
Klong Toey Market (biggest market in
Bangkok, 24/7)

• The owner of the land is the port who has given the
concession of the land to a private investor. The
private investor rents to the vendors the “space”
for their stalls. An area of 2x2 (4sqm) cost about
60,000 Baht per year. The vendors also pay for
garbage collection 50Bath per day. There are
5000 registered stalls.
• The area of the market is an attractive point for
migration, because the job opportunities and the
exchange and delivery of goods from all Thailand
and some adjacent countries. Therefore, the area
has a strong present of rooms for rentals.
• There is a high concentration of livelihoods in the
market, and its specialization ( there are products
from all the country, organized by provinces) is
an allure for many restaurants and hotels of all
Bangkok.
• Even when the market has been there for 14
years, there is a risk of eviction because the port
has a development plan for the area, but as in
other areas of Klong Toey, this risk has been there
since the beginning of the market.
• The surrounding area also has a political
connotation, is where the bigger demonstrations
take place.

Figure A2.6 Family cleaning fish in Penang community, where


livelihoods are focused around market activities (photo by Silvia Chi)

ANNEXES KLONG TOEY


Figure A2.7 Interview in community member’s home discussing how design of the house affects the temperature within the home.
(photo by Silvia Chi)

Figure A2.8 Drawing showing community how ventilation can work Figure A2.9 Koh Klang Klong Pra Ka Nhong community interview
better in a community home (sketch by Silvia Chi) (photo by Silvia Chi)
dpu | budd | field trip report BANGKOK 118
Figure A3.0 Sirin and friend community
( photo by Azzura Muzzonigro)
A3.0PASICHALOEN
annex

dpu | budd | field trip report BANGKOK 120


annex PASI CHALOEN

PASI CHALOEN: Interviews dropped out of the savings group because they could
no longer afford the payments.
Q: How long have you been saving?
INTERVIEWS DAY 2: By Amrita Koonar
A: 8 months
Q: Do you want to move?
INTERVIEW 1: Name Pranee (f) Age 52
A: I like living here
Q: Do you know other people that are moving to the
[There are 4 people in the household and 3 of them
new site?
work; there will be work for them at the new site]
A: Yes, there are some others moving
She has lived in the area for 20 years, she is moving
Q: Have you visited the relocation site?
to the new site because her current landlord has given
A: Yes I have visited the site
her notice to leave the house which she rents; he has
Q: How did you get there?
allowed her to stay until the Ban Mankong project is
A: I travelled by car
complete and she is able to move to the new house.
Q: How was the monthly installments amount decided
A:The payment was decided by the committee and
Q: How was the monthly payment for the savings
CODI
group decided at 3000bt per month?
Q: Do you ever meet with the savings group and if so
A: The amount was calculated before she joined the
what do you discuss?
savings group
A: Yes we meet once a month to talk about the project
Q: Were people unable to join the savings group due
and what will happen.
to the amount of monthly payment?
A: Yes, some people could not join, and 5 people

Figure A3.1 DPU meeting the community

ANNEXES PASI CHALOEN


INTERVIEW 2: (M) Occupation – Taxi Driver

Q: How long have you lived in this house?


A: 3 years, but I don’t own the house. It is rented from
the owner. He does not live in the area anymore.
Q: How much rent do you pay each month?
A: 4000bt per month. I also pay for my own electricity
and water.Q: What do you like and dislike about living
here?
A: I like living here because I know everyone, I am
happy to live here but it’s too quiet.

Additional:
The owners tend to work most of the day and just come
back here at night to sleep.
In general the community is for low to middle income
people. The people in the community have come here
from different areas/ provinces.

INTERVIEW 3: (F) 18 years old

Q: How long have you lived here?


A: I was born here and have lived here all my life
Q: Do you go to school?
A: No, I am not educated
Q: What do you do in the day?
A: Nothing much.
Q: How many people live in your house?
A: There are 2 people
Q: How many bedrooms are there in your house?
A: There are 2 but it’s flexible
Q: Do you go out of the community?
A: Yes, I go around the site but I don’t really leave the
area.
Q: Is there a hospital nearby?
A: Yes there is a clinic but its private. I go to the
government hospital which is free.
Q: How do you travel outside of the community?
A: I walk or ride a motorcycle.

INTERVIEW 4: (F)Home owner


Runs general shop from front of the house

Q: How long have you been living here?


A: I have been here for 2 years, but the project started
5 years ago.
Q: Why did you move here?
A: There was a fire at my old house and I was moved
here by the government.
Q: Did you know anyone else when you moved here?
A: No, I was the first from my old community to move
here and I didn’t know anyone. Now more people from
the old community have followed.
Q: Was this shop here when you moved, or did you
open it yourself?
A: I made this shop to earn money; I also sell sea food
from here in the evening. Before I moved here I was a
trainee pharmacist.
Q: Did you get permission from the local authority to
open the shop?
A: No I didn’t get permission from them but I pay 900bt
a year in tax.
Figure A3.2 NHA programme ( photo by Azzura Muzzonigro)

dpu | budd | field trip report BANGKOK 122


Figure A3.3 Design proposals

Figure A3.4 Policy advisor for Klong Lad Pha-Shi community

ANNEXES PASI CHALOEN


INTERVIEW: Community Leader at Site 4

• Recycling project – people sell their garbage at


a market every Sunday, they are not given any
money, but useful items such as a broom.
• Not many people have joined the savings group
yet but they are advertising through posters and
trying to get people to join. The group is open for
anyone in the district with a problem to join
• They are relocating from Temple land to Temple
land 20 km away. The yearly lease will be 200bt
per household.
• Livelihoods will be established at the new site
through markets, sewing workshops etc…
• There are currently 80 people in the savings group.
1080 people in the community.
• They haven’t yet negotiated housing design with
the L.A yet.
• They are not able to make changes to the house/
extend… if they need a bigger house they will have
to buy a bigger one elsewhere.
• Some people are being evicted from their current
residences- also temple land and some people are
choosing to move so they can have larger homes
which they will own.
• Outside space has been factored in to the design,
they have a large plot of land to allow for communal
areas , livelihoods, kindergarten.
• They are allowed to run businesses from home,
selling food, laundry services etc…
• Savings group – they save 3000bt per month, this
can be done through installments, throughout the
month.
• 250,000bt for building the house including
decoration – of that 65,000 goes to the contractors
(labour)
• If people have trouble saving money – there is a
penalty fee, although this is never enforced. 5
people have left due to being unable to pay.

Figure A3.5 NHA programme ( photo by Azzura Muzzonigro)

dpu | budd | field trip report BANGKOK 124


Top Figure A3.6 Notes on Baan Mankong and NHA Bottom Figure A3.7 Design principles

ANNEXES PASI CHALOEN


Top Figure A3.8 Design principles Bottom Figure A3.10 Notes on Klong Lad Pha-Shi community

dpu | budd | field trip report BANGKOK 126


Figure A4.0 A view from Chareon Sin, a canal community in Rangsit
(photo by Katja Starc)
A4.0 RANGSIT
annex

dpu | budd | field trip report BANGKOK 128


annex RANGSIT

RANGSIT: Interviews
INTERVIEW 1: PANEL
Municipality Meeting

The main issues identified at the meeting are:

• Local authorities don’t communicate between


each other horizontally
• No policy to deal with migrants
• Large scale infrastructure coming from the
provincial level, indicates that it is very top down
• Land speculation and majority private ownership
• No program for the CDF in municipality
• Political pressure on municipality- low income
on the media campaigning against eviction has
caused some issues on specific sites
• Land tenure and insecurity
• Municipal Pawn Shop as a mechanism for
payments at Low interest rates is of high interest
• Sustainability program; question whether
municipality or community driven
• They implement the Creative “city” as a strategy
for creative “economy”

INTERVIEW 2: GROUP
Nimit Mae

• Nearby site relocated as a result of a fire.


• Middle low income community has several
community members also working for the
municipality.
• They chose the land layout themselves and the
plots are detached or semi-detached
• housing units.
• There is a large community area in the center that
is utilized by some local craftsman
• Many plots have only a small of amount of
construction that has been left. This is a result of
a community policy that if no development occurs
within the year, the land will revert back to the
community.
• The mayor helped knock down the price of the
land for the community and the municipality
contributed to the infrastructure. The land was
previously private land that was purchased with
the assistance of CODI.

Figure A4.1 Nimit Mae Community (photo by McKenzie O’Neill)

ANNEXES RANGSIT
INTERVIEW 3: GROUP
Rattana Pathum

• There are 82 households in this community that is • The sanitation will be maintained by the community
currently in “phase 2” of its nearby relocation. after construction.
• Currently located above a linear drainage canal, • The design of the homes itself also considered
this community has purchased land immediately frequent flooding on side- with raised foundations
adjacent to the site. as well as a flexible design for a shop in the front
• The plan includes having a community area in the of the home.
middle of the site for laundry like activities.
• While the site is extremely close to the existing site,
but not located close to any other communities or
amenities.
• The construction underway will be 8 months
in total. As the market is currently favorable for
those building in the community, they have hired a
private contractor to carry out the construction with
a community member on site to supervise.
• The contract also has flexibility in their payments
and is backed by CODI.

Figure A4.2 Chareon Sin community Children (photo by Katja Starc)

dpu | budd | field trip report BANGKOK 130


INTERVIEW 4: GROUP
Sang Saan

• This community was unique as it is a nearby


relocation of 4 communities pulling together to
purchase the land.
• The land used to be agricultural land before the
community began building. First savings group
started in 2003, and building began in 2008.
• CODI funding is going towards the site’s community
center.
• As it was four communities merging into one, there
were different saving levels before BM programme
started and therefore flexible repayment.
• The homes are being built on a 15 year mortgage,
with 2500 Baht per month for the entire community
land payment. Solid waste is managed by the
community.
• As a community they are currently sharing
expertise with outside construction workers and
making their own concrete block for construction.
• Additionally they want to access the adjacent NHA
land housing to share their daycare facilities.
• The housing typologies onsite are detached,
semi-detached or 3-in-a-row houses. Like other
sites for relocation, their criteria for site selection
was 4 elements: proximity to original site and job,
proximity to schools, price and access.

INTERVIEW 5: GROUP
Site Workshop with Chareon Sin Community

• 65 households live in this canal community located


on Department of Irrigation and school land.
• The community wished to start onsite upgrading
but has been struggling to coordinate the savings
groups of all households in the community.
• This particular community is very dense on 5 RAI2
and has been living there for 75-100 years.
• Many community members are families.
• The focused issues of the community are the risk
of flooding, sanitation concerns with the canal, and
lack of access into the site.
• They are hoping to negotiate with the landlord by
taking care of the canal in exchange for tenure.
• Currently the landowner doesn’t desire developing
the land, however this relationship is subject to
change.
• They wish to raise their houses to deal with the
flooding issues.
• Canal is no longer a viable connection to the
greater community as dams have blocked off their
use and access.
• Other issues related to this site are why their
previous involvement in the programme began in
2004 and then stopped in 2006.

INTERVIEW 6 GROUP
Slum behind Macro site

• The largest slum in Rangsit, this community of


Figure A4.3 Community leader describing the pressures of the me-
tropolis on Rangsit (photo by McKenzie O’Neill)
ANNEXES RANGSIT
over 400 residents has lived here for over 20 years
and entered the BM Programme in 2005.
• The landlord on this site notified residents in 2009
that they would be developing this central site into
private residential units and have until the end of
2011 to move.
• Due to its size, residents have been relocating in 3
“phased” savings groups, some to the Sang Saan
community.
• The relationships with the landlord on this site,
while tense has been facilitated by the building of
a “negotiation” facility on-site to allow households
to meet with the landowner.
• The landlord has marked the homes with a number
in 3 colours to indicate: blue (negotiated) red(not
move) or white (empty).
• NULICO and local government officials have
• become involved to help persuade other houses to
join the programme and assist in relocating.
• Local NGO’s have been working on this site with
youth programmes as well.
• Very small community centers and a few shops
are located within the site for gathering.
• Loudspeakers placed throughout the community
as well helped organize the community and
activities.
• Once residents have relocated, their plots are
completely demolished and marked to prevent
other residents or migrants from taking over their
sites.
• In the BM scheme, they are saving 200Baht a
month per household in order to relocate.

INTERVIEW 7 GROUP
Train Community

• There were 117 households under threat of


eviction notified in October 2010 by a large banner
placed on the site telling residents to move.
• State railways hired private consultants to negotiate
with the community, as it has existed for 20 years.
• The community had already joined BM in 2008
at the encouragement of local authorities to start
• funding.
• Four Regions NGO, geared towards railway
squatter communities, has been assisting 15
households to date in the community.
• They have been working with CODI as the NGO
has land to accommodate 40 households.
• Recycling activities are the main source of income,
and stable for most community members.

INTERVIEW 8 GROUP
Fahmaisival Community

• This community has a cooperative relationship with


the municipality who is asking them to relocate as
part of a canal beautification system.
• They are relocating nearby to a community being
built on treasury land.
• The community started saving a year a
Figure A4.4 Sketch of existing Chareon Sin community and rela-
tionships
dpu | budd | field trip report BANGKOK 132
Figure A4.5 Slum behind Macro moving in 3 stages, community member sketching (photo by McKenzie O’Neill)

• go 600Baht/month per household.


INTERVIEW 9 GROUP
• The housing are being constructed by the
Khlong Sawaan Community
municipality, they had no say in the design on the
site and two choices offered.
• The land is owned by the Department of Irrigation
• They can make changes to the inside to a certain
and the community is struggling with their existing
extent- as it is limited by cost.
lease agreement.
• While before the landowner agreement was
• As a community, they are responsible for paying for
acknowledged, as more migrants came into the
the infrastructure on site, which they are connecting
community, and greatly increased the size of the
directly to the municipal provided infrastructure for
community, the Department of irrigation will no
the other portion of the site, and they are the first
longer acknowledge the agreement.
community that will relocate there.
• The community has done some basic upgrading,
• Community members felt the process was too
but not been able to get funding from CODI as
slow, and too much bureaucracy. Most community
their tenure is not secure.
members are content with the houses being built.
• They are also hesitant to pursue tenure agreements
• There is a programme within the community to
with the landowner now as becoming officially
train member in different skills and trades.
recognized also puts them at risk.
• There is a successful programme for Thai massage
• Generally, the elders on side are included in the
training that many women in the community have
social welfare program of the municipality and are
participated in.
very attached to the land has they have been there
for many years.

ANNEXES RANGSIT
• Younger generations seem to lack interest in the
site and are not as attached as the older community
members.
• The community is unique in that is says it is not
part of any network unlike most other communities
visited.

Figure A4.6 Sang San Communty Housing Construction in progress Figure A4.7 View form Khlong sawaan Canal Communty
(photo by McKenzie O’Neill) (photo by Katja Starc)

dpu | budd | field trip report BANGKOK 134


Figure A5.0 Design participatory workshop (photo by Elian Peña)
A5.0 BANGannex
PU

dpu | budd | field trip report BANGKOK 136


annex BANG PU

BANG PU: Interviews INTERVIEW 3: Lady with 4 children

INTERVIEWS DAY 1: By Felipe Larach • Her daughter has the right and they will go live with
INTERVIEW 1 her.
• They have lived there for 35 years. She move
• They are living there since 50 years. there when she got married.
• Main occupation is fishing, selling of food and • The first problem was this eviction. The rest is ‘just
factories. fine’
• They are not immigrants • She has been involved in BM although she cannot
• One year ago the treasury department told them join the programme.
that they have to leave and they began the saving • She doesn’t believe in BM because is just starting.
group. Maybe later....
• They have to save 10% • Minimal activities of BM yet.
• They have a verbal agreement with treasury • Her husband worked renting a truck.
department but cannot sign the agreement until • The whole family has to save 2.000 B. They parent
they get into BM put 1.000 while the daughter put the other 1.000 B.
• When they were notified the network approached • The BM reduced their monthly budget. It’s not that
them and that is because they knew that the they are working more.
eviction was affecting the communities around. • Not a lot of participation yet in planning of BM
• There were people who didn’t want to join BM so because it is in a previous stage.
they will move the day that they will be evicted.
• 50 households and 200 people in 5 sub-groups. INTERVIEW 4: Couple of factory workers.
• Only 3 poor households couldn’t join the BM
because they • They have 3 children
• The proposal was made by the CODI-NETWORK • Their parents built the house there because there
to present the cooperative to the authorities. was vacant land.
• 2 design of 3 offered were selected by community. • They save 500-700 monthly to saving group.
• The layout of the new community was not yet in • Both of them together earn around 10.000 B
production. The first to reach 10% choose the • They relations with neighbourhood is relatives,
first house. But if someone has less than 10% family or cousins.
and other has more, while they have the 10% as • They don’t have relation with other communities.
community they are ok. Only with other relatives.
• They have to join BM because they didn’t have
INTERVIEW 2: Old couple that are not in BM another choice.
• They involved in BM in march2010
• They have lived there all their life, namely natives. • They believed in BM because they went to visit
• They have 4 children other communities and saw that was real and
• Their job was daily workers, but now they don’t possible.
work and their children support them. • They still don’t participate a lot in the process
• They were very afraid with the eviction because because it has not started yet. Just saving.
they didn’t know where to move. • The feel rural people.
• They knew that was real when some official came • They would prefer stay where they are. Not move.
to measure the site. • Municipality is very supportive of them.
• Their children will join the programme and they • They buy food from the market or from the truck
will go to live with them. They are the one who that comes every day. They have electricity and
participate in the programme. water with meters.

ANNEXES BANG PU
INTERVIEW 5: Lady in the shop
• She lives there since 10 years
• Works every day from 6am to 8pm
• She has two children. One finished the school
and is a driver and the other didn’t and works in
a factory.
• She the best member of the community because
she saves more than the rest. The earns around
12.000 monthly, where 10.000 is profit. 2.000 to
saving group and the rest to the bank.
• She assist to all the meeting (every Sunday)
• She has a lot of relations with other people because
the sells products.
• Municipality support them. CODI only known
because the loan.
• She feels urban not rural.
• She would prefer to stay there and not move.

INTERVIEW 5: GROUP

• CODI is quite new for them


• Before this eviction that have suffered from
eviction of landowners and authorities. But nothing
serious. • The help each other with this network
of communities (NULICO)
• They know each other due to community network.
• Men are not in NULICO because they are in charge
of the income which WOMEN manage.
• Women make BM possible
• They know each other due to community network.
• Men are not in NULICO because they are in charge
of the income which WOMEN manage.
• They have reduced their budget to be able to save.
They use the BOOK KEEPING from CODI.
• Community for them is: Brotherhood, participation,
help, support among community members, sense
of unity, work side by side.
• In the participation they were offered a lot of
templates but at the end only three of them fit the
requirements of land and space.
• If they need infrastructure they go to the municipality
to ask for it.

INTERVIEWS DAY 3 By Felipe Larach

INTERVIEW: Local Authorities

• Local Authorities are to support community


mobilisation in the relocation and also act as a
partner where all department of the municipality
work together.
• The Municipality, CODI and the Community work
as a triangle but the municipality is in charge of
notification and eviction.
• Before BM the municipality’s roles was to support
the infrastructure of the community.
• Statistics on the roads show that there is not a real
impact of the airport. Only in the 2 street that are
around the airport.
• Industrial area still growing.
Figure A5.1 Space between houses ( photo by Parvathi Nair)

dpu | budd | field trip report BANGKOK 138


• The area might grow with the expansion of the the community as health and education.
road. • They use to live in a bigger house but now they are
• They are moving officials to the area in order to ok, They sign an agreement to not expand in order
decentralise the centre. to preserve the environment.
• They relocate them because they don’t have land. • They are pushing their children to live outside this
Also because is part of the development of the city community.
to reorder the city. And finally because the royal • The cost of the house is 160.000 – 170.000 less the
treasury wants to use the land. foundation because they come from the subsidy of
• Also because they didn’t have secure land they infrastructure from CODI.
now have secure housing, secure basic services, • They want to do maintenance of the house every 6
and secure tenure for the next generation. months to prevent termites.
• Cannot relocate them in another place because • There is an agreement to not use the space
they already have plans for that area. Also because between houses but some of them are using it to
there is a lot of bureaucracy in the government and join the family in the next house.
lack of capacity. They are trying to deal with this • They will have a community centre near the shop.
bureaucracy. They also use a space between the community
• The Bang Pu municipality is part of the and street allowed by highway department.
comprehensive plan of the district plan so they • Time: It takes 1 month with a proper constructor.
have influence but they don’t make the design of However, they only hire the constructor for
the plan. foundations and frame. The rest it is made by
• They don’t have to compensate them because themselves and it take finally like 4 months.
they have been living there for many years without Workers are hired from other communities and are
paying anything. paid.
• Bangkok is far away, crowded.
INTERVIEW to leader of other community: • They transport in vans.
• In the past their parents had relations with
• They have been living there for 80 years. 3 communities. However they lost them due to
generations of family and relatives. urbanization. BM is allowing them to have again
• A lot of people are waiting for expropriation in order that relation.
to be paid but the rest think that that’s an illusions. • Local authorities help them in measures the sites.
• They joined the programme in 2006. Before they felt as a barrier with LA. Today they
• They bring their food from the truck, from fishing don’t feel it.
or market.
• Their main occupation is fishing (15%), factories
(70%) and feed animals (fish) (15%) INTERVIEW: Making the third survey. By
• The highway department notified them and they Kitty Kam
started the savings group with the help of other
communities. Q: Since when have you lived here? How many people
• In the beginning only a few joined the programme are there in your family?
(10/56). The others were not sure but after a while A: Both of us work in a factory. 3 children, the oldest is
they joined the programme because they were 13, today is holiday.
receiving too many notification from highway Q:Did you build the house by yourselves? Why live in
department. this area?
• They joined the saving groups of CODI with the A: When people came, they just looked for vacancy.
help of others communities which have been They moved in the house more than 70 years ago. The
trained them. They taught them how to save, how house was their parents who passed it on to her. The
to make a cooperative, about the design of the river is not a canal but just water. The water has been
houses, set the lay out. blocked, so there is no way to get out. Now this level
• The role of women is making BM possible and is at all the time.
help in the construction. The role of the men is to Q: What do you think about Bangton project?
bring the income. A: The member of Bangton project. They save 500
• The income is 10.000 B monthly Thai Baht per month. But this month school starts so
• The most significant change has been to have more expenditure for children. Income is over 10,000
secure housing, secure welfare, self-sufficiency, Thai Baht.
and a network of friends (inside and outside the Q: What do children do after school?
community) that allow them to have help, support A: Nothing special since the project started. So there
materially when they don’t have enough money or are not special activities for children.
materials for their houses. Q: Do children have places to go after school?
• Their monthly payment is 1.700 which divides in A: Just paying around here. The children do not move
1.400 to CODI to pay the land and housing and 300 out.
B for saving group which is used for the welfare of

ANNEXES BANG PU
Q: Is there any neighbour passing to another
community?
A: In the community, relatives know each other but
in the past, they didn’t. Now, there is the network
between them.
Q: Saving for them is so difficult. What have they
charged? What difficulty do they save? Do they keep
records of what their saving?
A: It’s hard. But they have to. No matter what they
keep records for every member.
Q: When did they start to save?
A: Since March last year. Every family registered. They
wanted to join in.
Q: Does she believe in Bangton?
A: Bangton project is a community that offers others.
The project convinces of them. They are hard to
believe.
Q: How did they convince her to believe?
A: At the beginning, no one believed that this project
can be true. When they face threats, they pay more
attention.
Q: How do they feel about the connection with the
outside world?
A: Rural people love to live here. They feel like brothers
and sisters, different social environment, and near the
coast.
Q: When did they move here? Did they feel change?
A: No.
Q: What is her role in Bangton?
A: Years ago, she worked with her father in a farm but
it didn’t work out. So she changed the job to a factory.
No kids in school so they do not have a problem.
Q:The house?
A: The former house was not this size. They expanded.
It is bigger than before. The bedroom is small. This is a
relaxing space, children sleep in this room. They play
in other place.

BANG PU: Workshop


The Design Workshop

After two days of research and observation


our group was eager to understand the relationship
between the people and the spaces surrounding their
homes as well as within their homes. In order to test
our assumptions about the uses of these spaces, we
conducted a workshop, which allowed us to capture
a better idea of that relationship. This workshop is
designed not only for our own personal information
collection, but also for the community to realize the
importance of the in between spaces in their community
in order for them to have a positive influence on the
design of their new homes in order to adapt it to their
needs as individuals and as a community.

The First thing we had to do for this exercise was to


produce a land use map. A few members of the group
went around to map the physicality of the households
from an aerial perspective with the guidance of a
Figure A5.2 ( photo by Parvathi Nair) and Figure A5.3 ( photo by
Noor al Ghafari) Design principle workshop
dpu | budd | field trip report BANGKOK 140
Google map image. However this mapping process
was not complete until the workshop started. The
base map was made simple and adaptable to their
corrections as well. We began to understand the uses
of the spaces not only from our eyes but also from
those of the residents.

The community was invited to participate


primarily by identifying their own homes and those
of their neighbors. Together they mapped out the
locations of their home to familiarize themselves with
the context of the map.

Once this part of the process was complete, the


community was asked to take a piece of the provided
paper and write different uses around their homes and
neighborhood. This process didn’t include many men,
but mostly women of all ages; from the very young,
to the very old. There was a mix of personalities,
some very eager and some very shy, but the energy
remained enthusiastic and positive from the round
table to the construction material-recycling workshop.

The Design Workshop: Findings


• List of activities
• Talking
• Exercise
• Swinging ad taking care of baby outside of the
home
• Children Swimming
• Eating
• Washing and talking in front of home
• Selling groceries in front of Home and talking
and sleeping on balcony
• Talking and Watching Children
• Children playing (many wrote this one too)
• Drinking and listening to Music
• Shopping
• Meeting Community in Large open Space
• Barber shop
• Party
• Washing

BANG PU: Recycling Workshop


The Recyclable Construction Material
Workshop

Surveys to 5 houses were conducted in the


community of Klong Mai Tai. The survey strategy
documented each household at tree levels; recyclable
materials, built-form usage and social structure of the
family. This approach allowed the surveying team to
grasp and document the use and behavior of a number
of dwellings of this community. The team developed a
system to quantify and qualify the materials of each
household. The list of construction materials were
compared to their value at a second-hand wood
market, Ta-bae Ka Mai market, to generate a value
of each house’s recyclable construction materials
Figure A5.4 Design principle workshop (photo by Elian Peña)
available.

ANNEXES BANG PU
In an effort to share the system and findings
with the community members, the team suggested that
a community workshop should be held.

The community workshop that was facilitated


is composed of two parts; a design workshop and a
recyclable construction material workshop. The
workshop consisted of teaching the community how to
conduct a housing material survey to see how much
of their existing homes could be used towards the
upgraded product. After having done a few examples,
our group came to the conclusion that the cost of
construction could be reduced at an estimated number
of 50 000 BAHT (~1,030 GBP).

BANG PU: VIDEO


http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=YkV-SV0atGA

Figure A5.5 ( photo by Parvathi Nair), Figure A5.6 (photo by Elian


Peña) and Figure A5.7 Recyclable construction material workshop
( photo by Parvathi Nair)

dpu | budd | field trip report BANGKOK 142


Figure A5.10, Figure A5.11 and Figure A5.12 Diagram of built form
and usage

Figure A5.8 and Figure A5.9 Ta-bae ka mai second hand woodshop
(photos by by Josue Robles)

ANNEXES BANG PU
SURVEY OF RECYCLABLE MATERIALS
House NO. 1
|USAGE |TYPE |MATERIAL |AREA/ QUANTITY |QUALITY
1.Walls |lap siding |wood |27 sqm |75%
2.Roof |corrugated roof panels |fiber glass |61.75 sqm |100%
3.Floor |1x8 boards |wood |42.5 sqm |70%
4.Beams |2x4 lumber |wood |61.75sqm/ 1m. on ctr |60%

5.Rafter |2x2 lumber |wood |218sqm/ 1m. on ctr |60%
6.Studs |2x2 lumber |wood |167sqm/ 50cm. on ctr |90%

House NO. 2.1 + 2.2


|USAGE |TYPE |MATERIAL |AREA/ QUANTITY |QUALITY
1.Walls 2.1 |fiber cement panels |fiber glass |68 sqm |90%
2.Walls 2.2 |lap siding |wood |99 sqm |90%
3.Roof |corrugated roof panels |fiber glass |218 sqm |100%
4.Floor |1x10 boards |wood |218 sqm |50%
5.Columns 2.2 |columns 4x4 |wood |16 units, 3m length |80%
6.Beams |2x4 lumber |wood |218sqm/ 1m. on ctr |60%

7.Rafter |2x2 lumber |wood |218sqm/ 1m. on ctr |60%
8.Studs |2x2 lumber |wood |167sqm/ 50cm. on ctr |90%

House NO. 3
|USAGE |TYPE |MATERIAL |AREA/ QUANTITY |QUALITY
1.Walls |lap siding |wood |127 sqm |75%
2.Roof |corrugated roof panels |fiber glass |155 sqm |100%
4.Floor |1x10 boards |wood |147 sqm |50%
5.Columns |columns 4x4 |wood |28 units, 3m length |80%
6.Beams |2x4 lumber |wood |155 sqm/ 1m. on ctr |80%

7.Rafter |2x2 lumber |wood |155sqm/ 1m. on ctr |60%

Figure A5.13 Survey of recyclable materials

SECOND HAND MARKET VALUE


ta-bae ka mai. Second-hand wood shop.
|UNIT |AREA/ QUANTITY |PRICE |HOUSE 2 |USABLE % |VALUE
A. 2 X 2 Lumber |3.5 linear meters |50฿ |130lm |90% |1,679฿
B. 2 X 4 Lumber |2.5 linear meters |100฿ |150lm |60% |1,285฿
C. 2 X 6 Lumber |6 linear meters |580฿ |157lm |60% |9,106฿
D .5 X 8 Lumber |3 linear meters |80฿ |99sqm |90% |11,866฿

E. 1 X 8 Lumber |3 linear meters |300฿ |48lm |100% |8,640฿
F. 1 X 12 Lumber |3.5 linear meters |400฿ |218sqm |50% |45,780฿

tong-fu. New construction material shop.


|UNIT |AREA/ QUANTITY |PRICE

A. 5mm roof panel |.36 sqm |29.4฿ (-30%) |218sqm |100% |3,793฿
B. 4mm wall panel |2.88 sqm |105฿ (-30%) |68sqm |90% |2,231฿


Total |51,804฿
Figure A5.14 Second hand market value

dpu | budd | field trip report BANGKOK 144


Figure A6.0 Contrast between slum, mid-class, and temple/tourism
(photo by Jose di Girolamo)
A6.0 RATTANAKOSIN ISLAND
annex

dpu | budd | field trip report BANGKOK 146


annex

RATTANAKOSIN ISLAND •
Programme by CPB
2 ½ years old
Interviews • 200 baht per month
• Middle class contribute to savings group to help
INTERVIEWS: DAY 1 others out
Wangkromprassommutamormphan • Many committees: activities, accountants, CPB
Community coordination
• Partnerships with other actors and infrastructure:
54 households • Entered into Baan Mankong for infrastructure
267 people upgrading
• Land is owned by CPB. The palace located in • Mapping the different sources of funding that may
the community belonged to Rama IV son, when overlap
Thailand became a constitutional monarchy, and
many properties got sold off. Ban Batt Community
• Had already upgraded before Baan Mankong,
Programme is addressing land issues. • Focus is on rebuilding on the same land
• Livelihoods: Royal servants • Project started 4 years ago but it took them a year
• Sub-renters from 1st generations to understand the programme
• Residents are a mix of low and middle-income • They are looking to strengthen local economy with
occupants a tourism initiative
• Land ownership is a mix of CPB and private • Community seems to have strong ties to each
ownership other, perhaps reinforced by community centre
• Spatiality: shop houses, courts, narrow streets, no • It is one of the oldest communities
formal community space • Livelihoods: Monk bowl production
• Communities know each other but don’t really
interact all that much except at events Land and Housing Construction:
• CPB has no eviction policy but if sub tenants do • Ownership belongs to CPB and Temple
not agree to negotiate rents after upgrading they • Temple residents are part of the second phase
can be evicted. of baan mankong programme in this community-
cannot get grant until they have proof of acceptance
Land and Housing Construction: from temple but negotiations with institution of
• Ownership belongs to CPB. residents rent land Buddhism are proving difficult
from CPB but (may or may not) own house • Temple does not grant receipts meaning residents
• 2600 baht per year property tax have no proof of occupancy
• pre-upgrading surveys must be done by CPB so • Split in land ownership has split community
that land rental price can be raised • Temple land residents seem to feel insecurity of
• Under the Baan Mankong programme land rental tenure and as a result oppose upgrading
prices may be stabilised. • Proof of occupancy has to be provided to avoid
eviction (receipts or old objects)
Finance and funds: • CPB puts restrictions on building heights
• Multiple sources of funding: CODI and CPB • Materials used can increase heights (currently
(200,000 baht from each) buildings are concrete on the bottom and wooden
• Loan has been granted but remains in the bank as on the top)
they have no proposal for plans • By law, land owner owns building, if they are
• Confusion over minimum savings group evicted, the CPB will reimburse them.
contribution
Community mobilisation and capacity building:
• Savings group was set up before Baan Mankong

ANNEXES RATTANAKOSIN ISLAND


Finance and funds:
• 90% of community is in savings group
• Temple land residents are not part of savings group
• Savings group was set up before Baan Mankong
Programme by CPB
• 2 ½ years old
• 200 baht per month (100 for membership and 100
minimum for welfare)
• Can contribute more to savings group if you want
the loan quicker

Community mobilisation and capacity building:


• Community networks

Partnerships with other actors and infrastructure:


• Entered into Baan Mankong for infrastructure
upgrading
• Mapping the different sources of funding that may
overlap
• Use traditional wells as a water source and as part
of their livelihood (monk bowls)
• Local authorities are starting to talk to the
community and negotiate
• MOU between BMA and CPB has been proposed
for the community- BMA seems to see them as an
important example of housing intervention
• Community centre was part of infrastructure
proposal to CODI and therefore supported by the
grant
• Elections for community board roles- crown
representative must be present

Wat Saket: Community:

2 year of Baan Mankong


65 households
37 in Baan Mankong
40 shop houses
• Huge diversity between economic status of
residents
• Internal differentiation between residents and
their interests/objectives/expectations of the
programme
• Economic interests in upgrading community
• Livelihoods: Coffin making, 90% of resident own
shops there
• Spatiality: Normal street, not an alley way for
entrance/ exit

Land and Housing Construction:


• Land ownership is CPB and Temple
• Land is not a major issue, Baan Mankong is being
used as a tool to mobilise people and address
issues they have with the local economy
• Upgrading had already been done without CODI
grants
• Private businesses contributed some materials
• 300,00 baht paid from their own money to upgrade
• 120 baht per month to rent land

Finance and funds:


• Private funding from other savings group as well Figure A6.1 Narrow pathway in community (photo by Su Ann Tan)
as interest from investment/ banking
dpu | budd | field trip report BANGKOK 148
Partnerships with other actors and infrastructure: participate in CM yet, need for more understanding
• Collaborating with universities: children’s activities, of programme and its benefits
art gallery
• Partnership with private sector in palace: Partnerships with other actors and infrastructure:
community is able to use space for community • Partnerships with university for activities purposes
activities outside of working hours (agreement is • TAT under ministry of tourism and sports as an
between CPB and private company) established partnership

Sitaram Community: Watsuntornthammathan Community:

65 houses including 40 shops 233 households


37 houses not participating in BM 800 people
• CPB owned land • 129 members of saving group
• Transfer of rights after old lady’s dad passed away, • 13 problematic houses: very poor, drugs, theft and
only right to plot behind living on temple land
• Spatiality: narrow entrance on main road, behind • Want to involve richer people in the community to
shop house. improve perceptions
• Started savings groups 3,5 years ago • They approached house holds door by door to
• 100 B / month per household promote Baan Mankong
• 40 members of savings groups, including residents • Significant problems with children as a result of
of shop houses and other houses. Residents of abandonment (teenage parents)
shop houses participate in savings groups for • Some people have more than one unit
infrastructure improvement. • Shop houses and lower-income housing seem to
• Funds: politicians, CODI, municipality have some conflict
• Fund for infrastructure approved by CODI but not • Middle income households are interested in Baan
received yet Mankong for the sake of getting an extended lease.
• Shop houses/middle class vs. poor behind the • Perceived as a poor community
shop houses. Lack of interactions, fragmentation
• No community space yet Land and Housing Construction:
• There seems to be no connection between the • Ownership belongs to CPB and temples
other houses.
• Using culture as a tool Finance and Funds:
• Baan Mankong fund
Jakkrapadipong Community: • Village fund: used for daily needs and livelihoods

52 shop houses Community mobilisation:


27 wooden houses at the back • Part of a network of a historic walk (between the 6
• Tension between shop owners and people behind. communities) – eco-tourism walk
• Residents behind not ready to join the programme. • Organisation of community activities and events
They are skeptical, while shop houses really •
wanted infrastructure grants. Jakkrapadipong Community:
• Diversity within community, in terms of income,
also origin (Lady was Cambodian) Interview outside of migrant renters house
We spoke to some migrants from Cambodia who are
Land and Housing Construction: yet to join the BM programme.
• CPB owned land
• Houses built after WWII. “typical” housing types, They discussed several points that explained their
wooden architecture etc. position about not joining:
• Upgrading of shophouses funded by CPB (facades,
6 years ago) • They were uncertain about renting through the
• Some were individually funded upgrading (house programme, as they rent directly from CPB and
behind coffee house) not a sublease. Also they were apprehensive as
this is a long term commitment that would require
Finance and funds: the next generation to continue this.
• 90% of people are part of BM and savings groups • They would rather observe other communities first
• 100, 000 Baht have been collected in one year and to see what challenges they would face so they
a half could learn from them and mitigate potential risks.
• There is a concern for the future power structure,
Community mobilisation and capacity building: as they have trust in today’s leaders but not sure
• Network different than NULICO about tomorrows.
• People behind the shop houses: not willing to • The challenge that they will face is not with the

ANNEXES RATTANAKOSIN ISLAND


savings group but when they move on to a
cooperative. Although CODI help them to scale up,
it is complicated for them to understand as they
only get step-by-step information of the stages
rather than full information.
• It is not hard to save up every months but it is hard
for people to be consistent when paying.

Figure A6.2 Self-designed houses (photo by Jose di Girolamo)

dpu | budd | field trip report BANGKOK 150


WORKSHOP : Phom Mahakan Community This was a highly lively exchange between different
Non-Baan Mankokng on BMA Land communities that enabled them to identify the common
obstacles they faced and possible collective solutions,
The community requested that we make a master plan with premature plans of a tourist cycle route being
of the site and make recommendations to how they proposed by the community as a way to spatially
could landscape some of the community grounds to integrate the fragmented communities.
accommodate their vision of tourism whilst acting as a
functional space to support their daily life. What was made clear is that culture and tourism are
being used as a soft entry point to addressing the hard
This required us to divide into two groups, and explore pressing issues such as land tenure and livelihood.
the site with the community listening to how they Hosting this workshop at this highly resilient community
envisioned the area and elaborate on their interaction proved inspirational to other communities, as although
with the spaces and each other. From this we were they are not participating in the BM programme they
able to propose extending the canal walkway, a café are in great solidarity, which is a living testament to
at the bottom of the planned NESDB centre and what they themselves can overcome and achieve.
the incorporation of interactive facades to host the
communities planned workshops for visitors.

We started the workshop by asking each community


representative three questions, as a way to actively
engage them as opposed to them being passive
observers to the presentation. This allowed us to gather
data and compare where they think they are to where
they actually are positioned. The nature of questions
such as “what challenge are you facing?” gave the
communities a platform to which they discussed
multiple issues, the majority of which interlinked.

Figure A6.3 Community by river

ANNEXES RATTANAKOSIN ISLAND


Figure A6.4 Detailing of existing houses

dpu | budd | field trip report BANGKOK 152


Figure A6.5 Contrast between slum and palace Figure A6.6 Improvised kitchen at historic wall (photo by Su Ann Tan)
(photo by Jose di Girolamo)

ANNEXES RATTANAKOSIN ISLAND


Figure A6.7 Wall between community and city
(photo by Dhrin Anantamongkolchai)
dpu | budd | field trip report BANGKOK 154