This action might not be possible to undo. Are you sure you want to continue?
The Āryan Words in the Old Testament. IV Author(s): W. St. Clair Tisdall Source: The Jewish Quarterly Review, New Series, Vol. 4, No. 1 (Jul., 1913), pp. 97-105 Published by: University of Pennsylvania Press Stable URL: http://www.jstor.org/stable/1450969 . Accessed: 19/04/2011 04:15
Your use of the JSTOR archive indicates your acceptance of JSTOR's Terms and Conditions of Use, available at . http://www.jstor.org/page/info/about/policies/terms.jsp. JSTOR's Terms and Conditions of Use provides, in part, that unless you have obtained prior permission, you may not download an entire issue of a journal or multiple copies of articles, and you may use content in the JSTOR archive only for your personal, non-commercial use. Please contact the publisher regarding any further use of this work. Publisher contact information may be obtained at . http://www.jstor.org/action/showPublisher?publisherCode=upenn. . Each copy of any part of a JSTOR transmission must contain the same copyright notice that appears on the screen or printed page of such transmission. JSTOR is a not-for-profit service that helps scholars, researchers, and students discover, use, and build upon a wide range of content in a trusted digital archive. We use information technology and tools to increase productivity and facilitate new forms of scholarship. For more information about JSTOR, please contact firstname.lastname@example.org.
University of Pennsylvania Press and Center for Advanced Judaic Studies, University of Pennsylvania are collaborating with JSTOR to digitize, preserve and extend access to The Jewish Quarterly Review.
IV. Bedford. B. 5 occurs lnn'm.THE ARYAN WORDS IN THE OLD TESTAMENT BY W. In Achaemenian the word is fratama. 3.Urkunden. ' leading men'. Lexicon rightly regards this as the plural of the word which in Avestic isfratema. I. 'foremost'. 'leader'.~ in Dan. ' foremost'. WE now come to Persian words in the Hebrew-Aramaic text which have-or seem at first sight to have-as their first element the prefixes fra and ham. I. The certainty of this derivation has recently been proved by the occurrence of the comparative of the same word fra in the Elephantine papyri. IV. German vor. ST. Beds. Fratama (fratema. I. The B. Drei aramdische Papyrus. in Sanskrit). 'first': fratamna mnartiyd.. and the word is rendered 'prefect'. pralama) is the superlative of fra. Skt. Esther . which would befratara-ka in either dialect of Old Persian.]. CLAIR TISDALL. 9. Dahvyundm fratemo-dhdto in Yasht X. 6. Lat. England. Having dealt with these we shall be able to go on to consider certain other supposed Persian vocables which in reality are not such. D. 97 HI . word 1l)n. As a noun it means 'chief'. not here a diminutive. superlative of fra. fore) there seems to occur only the pro. The -ka is an adjectival termination (compare prathama-ka. VOL. Eng. Infra (Avestic and Achaemenian = Greek 7rpo-. 3. In Sachau's and its comparative in Avestic is fratara. 6. x8 = 'prae-positus (prae-fectus) provinciarum '.
'necklet '. It does not occur in the Achaemenian inscriptions as yet found.. 29. The assimilation of the n to the d in Syr. 3. 'armlet'. but it formerly meant also 'a limb'.7: Ginsburg gives also the Ketib form K~.wn. B. is in Dan. MavLa'Krs used by Polybius to denote the Celts' torques. 2. . make' (Skt. and is there hadddma. 'together with') we find three words. has :1D.. and that it is a diminutive of the 'Persian hamydn'. 7. is evidently 'necklace'. Gk. 2. WDn.nt. I. In the Avesta it is handdma. 5. &c. The word comes from ham. cum. 5. The meaning of the word in Dan. and da. sam. But hamydn is . The used latter word is borrowed from the Greek form MAavatdKrY. In the Talmud the forms q?. as well as into Aramaic. D.) of Dan. It was taken into Syriac. The Syriac word is hamn[kd. In Arabic it comes to mean 'symmetry'. It now means 'the body'.. The first of these. 7n?. sam+ dha). The word Dan. is common enough in other words. B. 'stature' (handam). In Modern Persian andam zadan or anddm anddm kardan (in Armenian andam hos/hel)means 'to dismember'. Andreas reads t?. x6. and is rightly explained in B. and the Targ. 'together'. Lexicon suggests that the word in its simple and indefinite form should be read hamydnak.:I. 'to dismember'. is variously read. occur.. In ham (Avestic hcm. as from the Persian word which in Mediaeval times was handam and is now andam. 'limb'. But we can trace the word farther back. and Aram.98 THE JEWISH QUARTERLY REVIEW II. p. just as the equivalent phrase in Daniel does. D. i.: Skt. Lat. 'a limb'. as has long been known: but what is its etymology? The B.occurs in the plural (Aram.^=. rv'v. and P. The received text has zi=?n and :?ir. and Knlrn.evv.sn. . 29.Tr~. 'to put. by the LXX and Theodotion. haddem.
The Targ. But we lack proof that Arabic vocables had won an entrance into Old Persian and there undergone such a change. In Armenian the word maneak.. however.n or T:'a. mant). In any case they are from the same root as mani. with the -ka but without the prefix. also occur: hence the derivative verb manel. In Avestic the forms mina and minu. which is a genuine Arabic derivative of the Arabic verb hama'.3 is derived from the same word mani (maini). ' together'. this being the natural form of the vocable in that tongue. H2 . 'to fall'.THE ARYAN WORDS IN OLD TESTAMENT-TISDALL 99 merely the modern Persian pronunciation of the modern Arabic himynn. From this came the Greek loan-word /AavLrK/is (also tzaviaKov). The -ka termination is usual enough. Combining this with the prefix ham. In Avestic we have a word maini (=Skt. like the Latin loan-words monile.' necklace'. snn?s. 3. is the proper name of a city. and means (i) 'a loincloth'. Ldvvos. are possibly from Persian. &c. occurs. The third word. a 'neck-chain': probably therefore :p?. (3) 'a purse hanging from the girdle'. or possibly original. Flo'vos. 'a collection of necklets'. not always having a diminutive sense (see above). and specially 'a necklace'. The derivation of T:nn. The other forms in Greek. in Armenian. form :1~. is really quite clear. weave'.nin the Masoretic text is right. a vulture' with a golden collar' (zarenu-maini) is mentioned. dAvoS. spin. 'an In the Avesta ornament'. Hence the Achaemenian form of the word used in Daniel would be ham(m)anika. 'to twist. we should have in Avestic hammaini (which in Achaemenian would be ha(m)mani).. 'a necklace'. Arabic words taken into modern Persian do (very occasionally) take the Persian diminutive -ak. (2) 'a girdle'.
&c. 'together'. (Hamdan with the h is the name of an Arabian tribe.). It has a prosthetic N. su. B. III. 'to think' (Achaemenian. &c.Tiglath Pileser about 1100 B. of course. 76-8) writes the name Ha(n)gmatdna. Haman and Hammedatha. the LXX 'AuaOda. Driver and some others write it with the hard Arabic h. &c. But I have never met it so written in Persian. and a final t is lost. Haman. from hu (=Skt. This is perhaps the best place to deal with two proper names of men. D. sing.vos. though they have no connexion with the root ham. Skt. Darius (Besitun Inscription. trn. the root gam. mens. The formn'Ay3adravaused by Herodotus is more correct than the more common Greek 'EK37rava. Gk. Gk. 'to go'.I00 THE JEWISH QUARTERLY REVIEW but none the less the same prefix ham enters into its composition. Lexicon says that the etymology is dubious. The Peshitta has Ahmdtan. the Ban . 'well'. . II.. Haman is the Avestic word human' (nom. This is. All this is clear from comparing the different forms in which the name is found. whence Lat. writes it Amaddna. having no connexion with 3nr). .Hamdan. the city of Hamadan in Persia. Zmaas. but on Jensen's authority suggests that the word is the name of the Elamite god IHumban or Humman. the n is an early error for n. n. the explanation and derivation are quite evident. Esther 3. i. In this case. Dr. Surely we should not accept such a most unlikely derivation until we are quite certain that no simple Persian source can be found from which the name can come. The B. and a termination denoting the place where anything is done: hence it means 'the place of holding a hangama (modern anjuman) or assembly'. equivalent to the Heb. and man. and Avestic alike). and the Talmud has t?pi. ev). however. It comes from ham.C. Sanskrit. I.
With Haoma-ddta compare 'created by Mithra'. doubtless. Tradition says that Zoroaster (Zarathustra) was born to reward his father Pourushaspa for making copious libations of haoma. Avestic presupposes an au or o in Achaemenian Persian. sumaznas. Soma-datta is a name which not unfrequently occurs in Sanskrit. hence. That the haoma or its Genius should be thus honoured will not seem strange to students of the Avesta (compare the worship of the Soma in Vedic times). and compares the forms Masbdrnj. e. Haoma was the yazata of the haomaplant. Lexicon suggests that this is from maha. Mabaras.nlnl Esther 3. They must have . The name is doubtless Homa-data (which in Avestic would be Haoma-ddta. cannot have come from the shortened and corrupted forms in use in the modern language.' Moon-given '. MasbrnT. Haman's father's name was Hammedatha. We come now to deal with some words which are not really Persian. As an appellation in its Greek form the word is fairly well known. 'a month' and ddta. The B.-in fact impossible. which corresponds in the form of its name to the Sanskrit Sorma-plant. . if derived from Persian. EvuEvrj). Perhaps we should here remind our readers that loan-words in the Hebrew-Aramaic text of the Bible. The ao in Mithra-dcta (MLOpaBaTdr). &c. Skt.THE ARYAN WORDS IN OLD TESTAMENT-TISDALL IOI Hence zhmanE means 'well-disposed' (=Skt. But it would be difficult to account for the first syllable in this way. 2. Soma-datta). D. Homa-data is the name we need: in the nom. ' created by Haoma'. for these were not yet in existence at the time when the Biblical books were written. Gk. Homa-ddto would be a common form. In the Masoretic text only the vowels need be changed. IV. i. i. 'given '. B. though they have been thought to belong to that language.
The B. Germ. D. so we get the old forms polopat and polovat. 'to . It is now usually rendered 'steel'. Pouru in Avestic isparu in Achaemenian (Greek 7roAi. But this derivation is impossible for the simple reason that pulad is a corruption of an older and longer form. 'to fly'. From either of these. 'a king'. the a being short or long. 'to wound'. the word would probably be pouru-pat or pouru-vat. In Armenian. 7reT-avvvtz. &c. vadh). 'sharp'. instead of from the Latin silva and camisia respectively.102 THE JEWISH QUARTERLY REVIEW been derived from either Avestic or Achaemenian Persian. Skt. Vat may be the Avestic root vad. the Modern Persian pilad is derived. and did not exist in its present shape when Nahum wrote. voll. especially the latter. as Old Persian had no I (another reason against Lagarde's proposed etymology).1n . B. ourfull): pat may be from the same root as the Sanskrit patu. found in the plural (n5l) in Nahum 2. Now gh in Armenian represents an antique 1. vadh (Skt. or from the root pat. unless we are sure that these have not been altered since ancient days. pet-ere).puru. (cf. or the Arabic kamns from the French chemise. In the latter case. just as it would be to say that the Italian selvatico is taken from the French sauvage. Heb. i. Hence it is unscientific to compare modern Persian words with them. let us examine the proposed etymology of the word . Bearing this in mind.unless both languages take the word from an ancient Persian word. but doubtfully gives Lagarde's suggestion that it comes from the Persian pzlad with that meaning. 4. The modern word Shah. was in Achaemenian times Khshyaiythiya: hence to suggest that any Biblical word comes from the form Shah would be absurd. found in Avestic and Sanskrit with such meanings as 'to fall'. poghovat. says its origin is dubious. 'steel' is poghopat.
while paradu means 'to be impetuous.) If with Wellhausen and Nowack we read eNO for 'like fire flash the W:3. paruvat). This seems better than to invent a word to mean 'steel'. which seems to mean. referring to :. if we may similarly reconstruct the word. whence Avestic vadare. (He indulges in several departures from the usual practice in vv. However this may be. shows that Nahum's n15Z cannot come from pulad. but pJourupat. But is there any need for such a search? Is it not simpler to suppose that n'13 is for either nin. whatever its etymology may be.and the Vulgate The Peshitta conjectured that the word follows suit. 'blow'. yet Nahum makes the collective noun plural feminine by . The Mesidot Da~vd takes the same view. for which no proper etymology can be found. parupat. as the Russian version does. Or. The LXX guessed that it meant 'reins' (fjviat). we may render n. 'with fire are the elephants of their war-chariots prepared'. to hasten'. Rashi mentions this idea. In Assyrian the root N'nt means 'to be bright'.B (agreeing or In either case this with tWK) ninb. The Targum has l'M lln~nn *5mnNnftf&.W32 chariots'. should be n?. reading nflb. sing.m 'torches'.. The puzzle afforded by n2S? is an ancient one. 4 and 5 in any case. the fact that steel in Nahum's time was not called pulad in Persian.??nS. -truly a remarkable idea! It may be noted that.THE ARYAN WORDS IN OLD TESTAMENT-TISDALL 103 hurt'. puruvat (or. we have.n'? amounts merely to the suggestion that Nahum substitutes 5 for I in a well-known Hebrew verb. 'Very sharp' or 'much smiting' might describe steel not amiss. but admits he does not know what rnif means. 'weapon'. in Achaemenian. though 5. 'like flashing fire are the chariots'. but this occurs just below.1 is usually masc.
104 THE JEWISH QUARTERLY REVIEW his use of thefern. which occurs in later books. occurs in Syriac. B.. . plur. ' cushion'. to change the Masoretic w. wisadah. (2) The other possible derivation It is the root which in Aramaic is '1e 'to pour out'. too. 'At His right hand there is a seat for them': cf. in Assyrian isdu. which we need not discuss. According to Ginsburg the Ket7b has n'. throne'. 2 occurs the strange word which in the Masoretic text is read n'IM-. The B. present Participle. It may be noticed that Luther's version completely agrees with this view. however. throne'. place'. This rendering took n1 for the Old Persian data. 'a fiery law'. In Deut. asadah. but would hardly be expected in Deut. throne. 'arms' (of a throne) is used for the Heb. D. n1iF. plur. but it may not be out of place to investigate its meaning and derivation. l. z. the Heb. If derived from this root. would mean ' seat. and we should render. Lexicon admits that this is erroneous. nT~w 'stays'. pillow. There is really no necessity. 'cushion. We need not try to trace an Aryan etymology for the word. ' teir appearance'. Egyptian has the word 'ist. where e?dd dma means 'effusion of blood'. whence in Arabic we have isadah. pronominal suffix in ver. There seem to be two possible derivations. nrw in Deut. wasadah. each of which (i) Ancient appears to give a not unsuitable sense.t 'foundation'. and in the Targum in i Kings o1. couch. 'seat. In Assyrian from this root comes ?adietu [Muss- . This justifies our suggestion that nM5T should be punctuated nhSi as a fer. I9. and gives various suggested corrections of the text. 5 (?nap). 33. which comes from a Semitic root w1. for the former suits the sense quite as well. rendering 'Seine Wagen leuchten wie Feuer'. and which used to be rendered 'a fire of law'. into t?3.
The Targum has 'The book of His right hand gave us instruction from the midst of the fire'. The LXX have CKbetLv avrov ayyeXoLt Fr'E avrov. The Vulgate has 'a fiery law'. The ancient versions and commentators render no real help. IoI7]. If we accept this view we should render the text. . p. He gave to them'.' At His right hand there is grace for them'.THE ARYAN WORDS IN OLD TESTAMENT-TISDALL IO5 Arnolt. The Peshitta renders. 'And with Him from myriads of His saints at His right hand. The difficulty which many have thus found in the passage may perhaps excuse my venturing to deal with it here.' favour'. and even Ibn Ezra and Rashi accept this now exploded rendering. In either case there seems to be no need of deeming the text corrupt and adopting conjectural emendations. 'grace'.
This action might not be possible to undo. Are you sure you want to continue?
We've moved you to where you read on your other device.
Get the full title to continue reading from where you left off, or restart the preview.