Adjectives

Adjectives are one of the eight parts of speech. Just as a reminder, the others are the verb, the noun, the pronoun, the adverb, the preposition, the conjunction, and the interjection. The primary purpose of an adjective is to modify a noun. They typically answer one of these three questions about the noun: What kind? How many? Which one? For example: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. the 44th president a green product a responsible investment an economist's analysis the dumbest, worst leader

Adverbs
An adverb modifies--changes, enhances, limits, describes, intensifies, muffles--a verb, an adjective or another adverb. ANSWERS THE QUESTION HOW? [In the following examples, the adverb is bold and the word it modifies is underlined.] 1. It isn't just the practice, studying, running, bad days, great days and traveling that experienced players handle well. 1. WELL tells us how the players HANDLE things. 2. They have quickly figured out how to deal with their boss. 1. QUICKLY tells us how they HAVE FIGURED OUT.

A predicate is one of the two main parts of a sentence, the other being the subject, which the predicate modifies. For the simple sentence "Apples are red.", Apples acts as the subject, and are red acts as the predicate (a subsequent description of the subject, headed with a verb).

Verbal A verbal is the form of a verb used as a noun, adjective or adverb. Identifying verbals can be somewhat tricky. While verbals are forms of verbs, they are NOT the action associated with the subject. In other words, they are not verbs.

it is an adjective. Burning oil and smashing atoms are good for the environment. As the colonies became a new nation dedicated to the proposition that all men are created equal. public schools had another purpose." [In the following examples. So.] 1. Is it an action verb? Yes? Do they forbid something? Yes. First find the subject and verb of each clause: COLONIES BECAME and SCHOOLS HAD. Many local governments and school districts forbid releasing student information to any outside group. Instead. 1. 2. And finally. Infinitives are forms of the verb that may acts as adjectives. but it is not a verb. They always end in "ing. First find the subject and verb: BURNING and SMASHING are the subjects and ARE is the verb." Gerunds First and foremost. it describes the word NATION." "en. which is a noun. a gerund is the form of a verb. Second. A form of a verb that ends in ING and acts as a noun is a gerund. Second. A form of a verb that ends in ING and acts as a noun is a gerund. adverbs or nouns. And finally. it is a noun. They include "to" plus the base form of the verb. but it is not a verb. Therefore. 1. it is an adjective. as in "to run." 3. Participles First and foremost. it ends in "ing" or "ed" or "en. With that done. we can see that DEDICATED is not the subject.] 1. BURNING and SMASHING are nouns. 2." 2. EN or ING and acts as an adjective is a participle. Therefore. RELEASING is a direct object. the gerund is bold and the verb is underlined. colleges or corporations. Participles are forms of the verb that function as adjectives. . First find the subject and verb: GOVERNMENTS and DISTRICTS are the subjects and FORBID is the verb. They can end in "ed. the participle is bold and the verb is underlined. it ends in "ing. Gerunds are forms of the verb that function as nouns.1. What? RELEASING." or "ing. a participle is the form of a verb." [In the following examples. A form of a verb that ends in ED. including the military. 1.

Transformed by the national economy. Infinitives First and foremost.] 1. . which do not have a subject and verb. adverb). it is always "to" plus a verb. 2. Supporters of the Internet fail to mention that it contains a lot of trash packaged to look like reliable information. And finally.2. There are four types of phrases: 1. an infinitive can be a noun. "She has not met the person who will move into her old office. adjective.. they are often contrasted with phrases. Second. So what does TRANSFORMED do? It describes FACTORIES. Participial phrases. A phrase typically functions as a single part of speech in a sentence (e. urban factories developed a need for disciplined." "She has not met the person" and "who will move into her old office" are both clauses. an adjective or an adverb. but it is not a verb. an infinitive is the form of the verb. 1. which begin with the participle and include the object of the participle or other words that are connected to the noun by the participle. which begin with a preposition and include the object of the preposition. Prepositional phrases. In attempting to identify clauses. "into her old office" is a phrase. noun. The subject (factories) DEVELOPED. On the other hand. obedient workers. [In the following examples. Phrases A phrase is a group of related words that lacks both a subject and a verb. in the sentence. the infinitive is bold and the verb is underlined. Because it lacks a subject and a predicate it cannot act as a sentence. Clauses Traditionally a clause is defined as a group of related words that has both a subject and a verb. Therefore.g.

her title is additional information. Evan's friend John cheated on the test. Gerund phrases. as its chief executive officer. WHO relates back to (or is relative to) the noun CHEF. 4. In doing so. NON-RESTRICTIVE: 1. WHO also acts as the subject of the dependent clause and the verb WON.e. 2. no commas are used to set off JOHN. We need the name to know which friend we're talking about. Thus. 2. Infinitive phrases. It can be set off by commas. synonym) or further explains another noun (pronoun).) Therefore. which begin with an infinitive and include the object of the infinitive or other words that are acting as part of the phrase. Her husband. therefore. it connects a dependent clause to an antecedent (i. Relative Pronouns A relative pronoun relates to another noun preceding it in the sentence. In this sentence. vice president of public affairs. we could take it out and the meaning would not change. a relative pronoun acts as the subject or object of the dependent clause.. 1. 1. Because we have identified the person by name. Restrictive appositives are essential to the meaning of the sentence. The firm chose Mary. Fritz. Appositives A word. Non-restrictive appositives are not essential to the meaning of the sentence. is a nice guy. which begin with the gerund and include the object of the gerund or other words that are acting as the complete subject or complete object. The dependent .. 1. a noun that precedes the pronoun. 1. In other words. The chef who won the competition studied in Paris. commas are used. EVAN has more than one friend.3. RESTRICTIVE: 1. 1. Consider the following sentence where the relative pronoun is a subject: 1. We assume she has only one husband. phrase or clause that means the same thing as (i.e.

Yet) 2. The independent clause: The chef studied in Paris. THAT relates back to (or is relative to) the noun SHIRT. A coordinating conjunction 1. 2. the relative pronoun is an object in the dependent clause. And. The dependent clause is: that Carl bought. The attempt to interrupt the flow of a sentence a sentence with a dash. Conjunctions Most simply. In this sentence. Nor. creates a relationship between ideas in the sentence. a writer must understand the rules that govern punctuation. Or. 1. All of these involve crafting beyond simply applying rules. Punctuation Punctuation is more than simply a series of rules to be memorized. A conjunctive adverb 1. connects only clauses and in doing so creates a subordinate clause.clause: who won the competition. The decision to string series of phrases one after another with commas. Not Only/But Also) 4. There are six types of punctuation we will consider: . 1. The choice to use a semicolon rather than begin a new sentence. connects a word. But. (For. THAT is also the object of the verb BOUGHT. not a true conjunction. But to apply the proper touch. conjunctions connect things. (Either/Or. operates in pairs to connect sentence elements. A correlative conjunction 1. The shirt that Carl bought has a stain on the pocket. There are four types of conjunctions: 1. A subordinating conjunction 1. In this sentence. It is the tool that can most effectively fine tune your writing. He or she must know slows a sentence as well as what stops it. They allow us to make longer more complex sentences. 3. a phrase or a clause of equal weight. Neither/Nor.

6) quotation marks.1) commas. 2) semicolons. which are used to let the reader know that a list or restatement is to follow. 5) hyphens. which are used to connect compound modifiers. phrases and clauses and have specific rules of use in Associated Press Style. which are used to indicate a dramatic break in the sentence's direction. which have specific rules of use in Associated Press Style. . which are used to connect independent clauses and provide clarity in a "comma heavy" sentence. 3) colons. 4) dashes. which are used to connect a series of words.

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