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Descartes' Rule of Signs

Given a polynomial such as: x4 + 7x3 - 4x2 - x - 7 it is possible to say anything about how many positive real roots it has, just by looking at it? Here's a striking theorem due to Descartes in 1637, often known as "Descartes' rule of signs": The number of positive real roots of a polynomial is bounded by the number of changes of sign in its coefficients. Gauss later showed that the number of positive real roots, counted with multiplicity, is of the same parity as the number of changes of sign. Thus for the polynomial above, there is at most one positive root, and therefore exactly one. In fact, an easy corollary of Descartes' rule is that the number of negative real roots of a polynomial f(x) is determined by the number of changes of sign in the coefficients of f(-x). So in the example above, the number of negative real roots must be either 1 or 3. Presentation Suggestions: Challenge students to prove this fact for quadratic polynomials. The Math Behind the Fact: A proof of Descartes' Rule for polynomials of arbitrary degree can be carried out by induction. The base case for degree 1 polynomials is easy to verify! So assume the p(x) is a polynomial with positive leading coefficient. The final coefficient of p(x) is given by p(0). If p(0)>0, then the number of sign changes must be even, since the first and last coefficient of p(x) are both positive. Moreover, the number of roots (counted with multiplicity) must also be even, since p(x) is also positive for very large x, so the graph of p(x) can only cross the x-axis an even number of times. Similar arguments show that if p(0)<0, then the number of sign changes is odd and the number of positive roots is odd. Thus the number of sign changes and number of roots have the same parity. If p(x) had more roots than sign changes then it must have at least 2 more roots. But p'(x) is a polynomial with zeroes between each of the roots of p(x) [why?], so p'(x) has at least 1 more root than sign changes of p(x). This yields a contradiction because p'(x) has no more sign changes than p(x) does, and the inductive hypothesis then implies that p'(x) has no more roots than sign changes of p(x).

What is Poetry? When we begin analyzing the basic elements of poetry, we should first know what poetry is all about in the first place. Poetry can be defined as literature in a metrical form or a composition forming rhythmic lines. In short, a poem is something that follows a particular flow of rhythm and meter. Compared to prose, where there is no such restriction, and the content of the piece flows according to story, a poem may or may not have a story, but definitely has a structured method of writing. Elements of Poetry There are several elements which make up a good poem. In brief, they are described below. Rhythm: This is the music made by the statements of the poem, which includes the syllables in the lines. The best method of understanding this is to read the poem aloud. Listen for the sounds and the music made when we hear the lines spoken aloud. How do the words resonate with each other? How do the words flow when they are linked with one another? Does sound right? Do the words fit with each other? These are the things you consider while studying the rhythm of the poem. Meter: This is the basic structural make-up of the poem. Do the syllables match with each other? Every line in the poem must adhere to this structure. A poem is made up of blocks of lines, which convey a single strand of thought. Within those blocks, a structure of syllables which follow the rhythm has to be included. This is the meter or the metrical form of poetry. Rhyme: A poem may or may not have a rhyme. When you write poetry that has rhyme, it means that the last words of the lines match with each other in some form. Either the last words of the first and second lines would rhyme with each other or the first and the third, second and the fourth and so on. Rhyme is basically similar sounding words like cat and hat, close and shows, house and mouse etc. Free verse poetry, though, does not follow this system. Alliteration: This is also used in several poems for sound effect. Several words in the sentence may begin with the same alphabet or syllable sound. For example, in the sentence "Many minute miniature moments," the sound of the alphabet M is repeated in all the four words continuously. When you say those words aloud, the sound effect generated is called Alliteration. Simile: A simile is a method of comparison using the words like or as. When, in a poem, something is said to be like another it means that the poet is using Simile to convey his feelings about what (s)he is describing. For example, in the statement Her laughter was like a babbling brook, the poet is comparing the laughter of the girl to the sound made by a babbling brook. Note that babbling brook is an example of Alliteration. Metaphor: A metaphor is a method of comparison where the words like and as are not used. To modify the earlier example, if the statement used had been something like Her laughter, a babbling brook, then it would be the use of Metaphor. Theme: This is what the poem is all about. The theme of the poem is the central idea that the poet wants to convey. It can be a story, or a thought, or a description of something or someone anything which is what the poem is all about. Symbolism: Often poems will convey ideas and thoughts using symbols. A symbol can stand for many things at one time and leads the reader out of a systematic and structured method of looking at things. Often a symbol used in the poem will be used to create such an effect. Conclusion These are the basic elements of poetry. They are an essential part of what any good poem is all

about, structurally. Of course, it does not mean, that all poems must have all these elements. It depends entirely upon the poet, who is has all these tools at his disposal, to use in order to convey his ideas most effectively.

Elements of Poetry
Voice (Who is speaking? How are they speaking?) Stanzas (how lines are grouped) Sound (includes rhyme, but also many other patterns) Rhythm (what kind of "beat" or meter does the poem have?) Figures of speech (many poems are full of metaphors and other figurative language) Form (there are standard types of poem)

Voice
Voice is a word people use to talk about the way poems "talk" to the reader. Lyric poems and narrative poems are the ones you will see most. Lyric poems express the feelings of the writer. A narrative poem tells a story. Some other types of voice are mask, apostrophe, and conversation. A mask puts on the identity of someone or something else, and speaks for it. Apostrophe talks to something that can't answer (a bee, the moon, a tree) and is good for wondering, asking, or offering advice. Conversation is a dialogue between two voices and often asks us to guess who the voices are.

Stanza
A stanza is a group within a poem which may have two or many lines. They are like paragraphs. Some poems are made of REALLY short stanzas, called couplets--two lines that rhyme, one after the other, usually equal in length.

Sound
One of the most important things poems do is play with sound. That doesn't just mean rhyme. It means many other things. The earliest poems were memorized and recited, not written down, so sound is very important in poetry.

Rhyme - Rhyme means sounds agree. "Rhyme" usually means end rhymes (words at the end of a line). They give balance and please the ear. Sometimes rhymes are exact. Other times they are just similar. Both are okay. Repetition - Repetition occurs when a word or phrase used more than once. Repetition can create a pattern Refrain - Lines repeated in the same way, that repeat regularly in the poem. Alliteration - Alliteration is the repetition of the same sound in different words. Onomatopoeia - Onomatopoeia means words or phrases that sound like the things they are describing. (hiss, zoom, bow-wow, etc.) Consonance - Consonance happens when consonants agree in words, though they may not rhyme. (fast, lost) Assonance - Assonance happens when vowels agree in words, though they may not rhyme. (peach, tree)

Rhythm
Meter (or metrics) - When you speak, you don't say everything in a steady tone like a hum-you'd sound funny. Instead, you stress parts of words. You say different parts of words with different volume, and your voice rises and falls as if you were singing a song. Mostly, we don't notice we're doing it. Poetry in English is often made up of poetic units or feet. The most common feet are the iamb, the trochee, the anapest, and the dactyl. Each foot has one stress or beat. Depending on what kind of poem you're writing, each line can have anywhere from one to many stressed beats, otherwise known as feet. Most common are: Trimeter (three beats) Tetrameter (four beats) Pentameter (five beats) You also sometimes see dimeter (two beats) and hexameter (six beats) but lines longer than that can't be said in one breath, so poets tend to avoid them.

Figures of speech
Figures of speech are also called figurative language. The most well-known figures of speech are are simile, metaphor, and personification. They are used to help with the task of "telling, not showing." Simile - a comparison of one thing to another, using the words "like," "as," or "as though."

Metaphor - comparing one thing to another by saying that one thing is another thing. Metaphors are stronger than similes, but they are more difficult to see.
Personification - speaking as if something were human when it's not.

Poetic forms
Ballad - story told in verse. A ballad stanza is usually four lines, and there is often a repetitive refrain. As you might guess, this form started out as a song. An example of a traditional Scottish ballad is Lord Randal at http://www.bartleby.com/243/66.html Haiku - a short poem with seventeen syllables, usually written in three lines with five syllables in the first line, seven in the second, and five in the third. The present tense is used, the subject is one thing happening now, and words are not repeated. It does not rhyme. The origin of the haiku is Japanese. Cinquain - a five-line poem with two syllables in the first line, four in the second, six in the third, eight in the fourth, and two in the fifth. It expresses one image or thought, in one or possibly two sentences. Villanelle - a 19-line poem with five tercets and one quatrain at the end. Two of the lines are repeated alternately at the ends of the tercets, and finish off the poem: the first line and the third line of the first tercet. Although it sounds very complicated, it's like a song or a dance and easy to see once you've looked at a villanelle. Limerick - A five-line poem, usually meant to be funny. The rhythm is anapests. Lines 1, 2, and 5 rhyme with one another, and lines 3 and 4 rhyme with one another. Lines 1, 2, and 5 have three feet, lines 3 and 4 have two feet. An iamb can be substituted for an anapest in the first foot of any line. The last foot can add another unstressed beat for the rhyming effect. Sonnet - There are different types of sonnet. The most familiar to us is made of three quatrains and ends with a couplet. They tend to be complicated and elegant. William Shakespeare wrote the most well-known sonnets. Free verse (or open form) - Much modern poetry does not obviously rhyme and doesn't have a set meter. However, sound and rhythm are often still important, and it is still often written in short lines.
Concrete poetry (pattern or shape poetry) is a picture poem, in which the visual shape of the poem contributes to its meaning.

dekada '70 Category: Genre: Drama Movies

Dekada 70 pamagat

Ang layunin o adhikain ng pamagat na nais ipakita o ilarawan sa mga mambabasa ay upang ipakita ang realidad ng buhay bilang isang pamilya at bilang isang mamamayan ng isang bansa.Ipinapakita rin dito ang ibat ibang mga pangyayaring naganap noong Dekada 70, na nagyari sa realidad ng buhay, na maaaring maging inspirasyon at kapulutan ng aral at isagawa na sa realidad na nagdudulot ng pagbabago bilang isang mamamayan at bilang isang miyembro ng isang pamilya

I. Buod: Ang mahabang salaysay ay nakasentro sa panggitnang-uring pamilyang Bartolome, at sa kung papaano naapektuhan ng batas militar ang mga tunggalian at trahedyang naganap sa buhay nila. Katuwang ni Amanda ang inhinyerong asawa na si Julian Sr. sa pagpapalaki sa lima nilang anak na lalaki: ang panganay na si Jules na isang kabataang aktibista na sumapi sa rebeldeng New People's Army (NPA) at pagkatapos ay naging bilanggong pulitikal; si Gani na sa batang edad ay nakabuntis ng babae; si Em na isang manunulat na naghahanap ng pagkakakilanlan sa sarili; si Jason na naging biktima ng salvaging at si Bingo na maaga pa'y nagmamasid na sa mga nangyayari.

Tauhan: Si Amanda Bartolome (Vilma Santos) ay isang babaeng nagsisikap matunton at maunawaan ang tunay na kahulugan ng pagiging isang babae sa gitna ng masalimuot na kalagayan ng bansa noong dekada '70 sa ilalim ng Batas Militar. Siya ay kumikilos bilang isang ina (sa limang anak na pulos lalaki) at asawa ayon sa dikta ng lipunan at ng asawa niyang si Julian (Christopher de Leon). Bagama't tradisyonal, umiiral sa pamilyang Bartolome ang kalayaan sa pagpapahayag ng damdamin kung kaya't lumaki ang kanilang mga anak na mulat ang kamalayan sa nangyayari sa lipunan. Dahil dito'y sumali sa kilusang makakaliwa ang kanilang panganay na si Jules (Piolo Pascual), naging makata at manunulat naman si Emman (Marvin Agustin), at nahilig sa musikang rock n roll si Jason (Danilo Barrios). Si Gani (Carlos Agassi) naman ay malayang pinasok ang pagiging US Navy bagama't taliwas ito sa paniniwala ng mga kapatid. Nanatiling matatag ang pamilya Bartolome sa kabila ng napakaraming pagsubok ng panahon. Dito rin nasubok ang katatagan ng pagsasama nina Amanda at Julian, kung saan si Amanda ay nagnais na matunton ang sarili bilang isang babae, malayo sa dikta ng lipunan at ng asawa.

II. Tagpuan:

Ang kwentong isunulat ni Lualhati Bautista ay naganap sa Pilipinas noong Dekada 70, kung saan dito unang ipinatupad ang Martial Law sa ilalim ng panunungkulan ng Pangulong Ferdinand Marcos, sa kadahilanang maraming mamamayan ang lumalaban o umaaklas sa mga opisyal ng pamahalaan, kung kayat ipinatupad nila ito ng sa ganon ay makontrol nila at mapigilan ang mga pangyayaring ito. Napasailalim sa kahigpitan ang mga mamamayan, sa panahong ito. Dito ipinatupad ang mga curfews sa mga kabataan, na ipinagbabawal ang pag uwi sa mga bahay-bahay pagsapit ng alas diyes ng gabi dahil tiyak na huhuliin ang mga taong matagpuang gumagala, at mga pagbabawal sa mga mamamayan na lumaban o umaklas sa mga opisyal ng pamahalaan at ang pagbabawal na ilabas o ipahiwatig ang kanilang saloobin bilang mamamayan, kung kayat inilabas na lamang nila ang kanilang saloobin sa pamamagitan ng pagsusulat na ipinagbabawal rin. Sa panahong ito makikita ang ibat ibang karahasan,ng kahigpitan,kahirapan ng ilang mamamayan sa kamay ng mga opisyal,at pag-aboso sa karapatang pantao na naging dahilan ng mga pag-aaklas at pagwewelga sa ilang opisyal na nagdulot ng malaking kaguluhan sa panahong ito, at dahil sa mga kaguluhang ito maraming mamamayan ang naghirap, nasugatan at namatayan dahil sa kagustuhan nilang makamit ang kanilang minimithi nilang karapatan bilang isang mamamayan ng bansa Pilipinas, na hindi nila nakamit sa panahong Dekado 70, ito ay ilan lamang sa mga nangyari sa panahong ito

III. Panimula: May isang eksena sa gitna ng pelikula na simple ngunit puno ng simbolismo. Sa gabi ng unang araw ng pag-alis ni Jules upang sumali na sa NPA at mamundok, makikita natin si Amanda at Julian na nakaupo sa veranda ng kanilang bahay. Pinag-uusapan nila ang ginawa ng kanilang anak. Nagsisimula ang eksena sa isang long shot, at mapapansin nating nasa ibabang bahagi ng screen ang isang mesang bubog kung saan nasasalamin ang baligtad na imahe ng mag-asawa. Ipinahihiwatig sa atin ng shot na ito na binabaligtad na ng mundo sa labas ang kanilang datis masayahin at tahimik na tahanan.

Kasukdulan: Ang bahagi ng kwento na nagbibigay ng pinakamasidhi o pinakamataas na kapanabikan ng kwento ay ang bahagi kung saan nagkaroon ng hinala o pagduda sa sarili si Amanda Bartolome na ang kanyang panganay na anak na si Jules o julian, ay maaaring pumanig sa ilang organisasyong may kaugnayan sa pagiging isang subersibo, na tumutuligsa sa pamahalaan, na siyang ikinatatakot niya, sapagkat bilang isang ina, ayaw nyang mapahamak ang kanyang anak, lalo nayt pamahalaan ang kanilang tinutuligsa. Sa bahaging ito mayroong kapanapanabik ang maaaring mangyari, maaaring ano ang mangyayari kay Jules pagkatapos ng kanyang ginagawa? Kung ang lahat ng hinalang ito ay may katotohanan? Ito ay ilan sa mga tanong na maaaring magpatunay na ito ay kapanapanabik dahil nagkakaroon o nakalilikha tayo ng mga katanungan at pagtataka sa ating isipan

Pangwakas:

Sa huli, kung tutuusin ay pulitikal din naman ang mensahe ng Dekada '70. Binibigyang-diin nitong mahalaga ang papel na ginagampanan ng mga magulang sa paggabay sa kanilang mga anak sa mga usaping katulad ng kalayaan o karapatang pantao o peminismo at marami pang iba. At sa kahihinatnan, makikita nating ganito rin kahalaga ang papel na gagampanan ng isang pamilya magulang at anak sa paghubog ng isang tunay na malaya at mapagpalayang lipunan

IV. Reaksyon: Dahil nga nagaganap ang istorya sa panahon ng batas militar, maaasahan nating marami sa mga tema ng pelikula ay may bahid-pulitikal. Sa katunayan, mainam nitong isinasalarawan ang masalimuot na panahong ito sa ating kasaysayan. Maigting na ipinapakita ang mga nag-aalab na damdamin ng mga aktibistang-estudyante sa ibat ibang paraan. Nariyan ang tapang nila sa harap ng karahasan ng Metrocom sa mga nagra-rally, ang pagkakasal sa isang magkasintahan kasama sa kilusan kung saan sa halip na puting belo ay pulang bandilang komunista ang ibinabalabal at sa halip na singsing ay kuwarenta y singkong baril ang hahawakan nila, at iba pa. Si Jules, bilang panganay at estudyanteng kolehiyo, ang mamumulat sa ganitong mga pangyayari sa kanyang kapaligiran.

Aktuwal na kwento ng panunupil at karahasan ng mga military sa mga inosenteng sibilyang nasasangkot sa digmaan, mga paglabag sa mga karapatang pantao, ibat-ibang mukha ng karukhaan at pagsasamantala sa aping mamamayan, at ang walang humpay napaglaban ng mamamayan sa diktadurya sa panahon ng batas military.