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ABSTRACT Human Resource is an increasingly broadening term that refers to managing "human capital", the people of an organization.

This project is done in Human Resource and the title of the project is Stress Management in Work Settings. In medical terms stress is described as, "a physical or psychological stimulus that can produce mental tension or physiological reactions that may lead to illness". According to Richard S Lazarus, stress is a feeling experienced when a person thinks that "the demands exceed the personal and social resources the individual is able to mobilize." The project is done in the company called Health Plan Systems Pvt Limited which is located at Chennai. This project is done on the staff and executive level employees. There are 250 staff and executive level employees working in this company. So the population is considered as 250. 60% of the population, i.e., a sample of 150 employees has been drawn from the population of 250 employees and this sample size is expected to provide sufficient information. As the population size is known, it is said to be probability sampling. A simple random sampling technique has been used. The tool questionnaires were prepared consisting of those relating to various stress factors such as work load, emotional exhaustion, vulnerability, etc. Questions were asked to obtain additional information and the respondents views regarding the implementation of stress management. The total staff and executives are 250. The suggestions based on a sample size of 150 employees surveyed cannot be generalized to all the employees of the organization. There are chances of personal bias always existing while answering the questions; hence the results may not be accurate. Friendly persuasion was used to get the filled questionnaire. Some times more than once they had to be contacted which was time consuming. Percentage analysis is done and the interpretations are given. Statistical analysis such as Weighted Average Method and Chi-Square Test are made.

Many findings were done and the facts were found on the basis of the response of the employees and based on the findings, suggestions and recommendations are given. TABLE OF CONTENTS CHAPTER NO TITLE Abstract List of Tables List of Figures INTRODUCTION 1.1 Introduction to the study 1.1.1 Need for the study 1.1.2 Scope of the study 1.1.3 Objectives of the study 1.1.4 Research Methodology 1.1.4.1 Research Design 1.1.4.2 Sources of Data 1.1.4.3 Population and Sample 1.1.4.4 Sampling Design 1.1.4.5 Tools and Techniques 1.1.5 Limitations of the study 1.1.6 Chapterization 1.2 Review of Literature 1.2.1 Company profile ANALYSIS AND INTERPRETATION 2.1 Percentage Analysis 2.2 Statistical Analysis 2.2.1 Weighted Average Method 2.2.2 Chi-Square Test SUMMARY AND CONCLUSION 3.1 Findings of the study 3.2 Suggestions and Recommendations 3.3 Conclusion BIBLIOGRAPHY ANNEXURE PAGE NO

I.

1 9 19 31 32 32 32 33 33 33 34 35 36 67 72 94 94 96 104 106 108 119

II.

III.

LIST OF TABLES TABLE NUMBERS 2.1.1 PARTICULARS Prospering (or) making progress in carrier at TVS Iyengar & Sons Limited Interested in starting something new though success is not sure To do a thing in the role against better judgment Feeling emotionally drained by the work Impact of stress on the inability to think clearly Getting very nervous when didnt meet organizational requirements Coming out ahead when compared to others Willingness to take risk when the stakes are high About the rewards provided when achieve something About the infrastructure provided by the company Superior subordinate relationship PAGE NUMBERS 72

2.1.2 2.1.3 2.1.4 2.1.5 2.1.6

73 74 75 76 77

2.1.7 2.1.8 2.1.9 2.1.10 2.1.11

78 79 80 81 82

within the organization 2.1.12 2.1.13 2.1.14 2.1.15 2.1.15.1 2.1.16 2.1.17 2.1.18 Relationship with the staff of same department Relationship with the same level staff of other departments Tend to get nervous after a victory Getting 7-8 hours sleep a day Getting less than 7-8 hours sleep a day Tend to forget things easily during working hours Impact of stress on being restless during work Speaking openly about the feelings to the respective person relieve from stress Receiving feedback on the things achieved Getting fun with family or friends at least once a week Feeling proud to tell people where they work Factors which gives more stress in TVS Iyengar & Sons Limited Relationship between the 83 84 85 86 87 88 89 90

2.1.19 2.1.20 2.1.21 2.2.1 2.2.2.1

91 92 93 94 96

experience of the respondents and the opinion regarding their career progression at TVS Iyengar & Sons Ltd 2.2.2.1.1 Working for Chi-Square Test for the experience of the respondents and the opinion regarding their career progression at TVS Iyengar & Sons Ltd Relationship between the age of the respondents and the opinion regarding getting fun with their family or friends at least once a week Working for Chi-Square Test for the age of the respondents and the opinion regarding getting fun with their family or friends at least once a week 98

2.2.2.2

100

2.2.2.2.1

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CHAPTER-I 1.1 INTRODUCTION TO THE STUDY The Corporate World is working harder than ever to reduce employee stress on the job. However, the pressure at the office is increasing too much to do and too few hours to do it in. It's the 24x7 culture: Perform or perish. Stress is the "wear and tear" which bodies experience as employees adjust to the continually changing environment .It has physical and emotional effects on employees and can create positive or negative feelings. As a positive influence, stress can help compel employees to action; it can result in a new awareness and an exciting new perspective. As a negative influence, it can result in feelings of distrust, rejection, anger, and depression, which in turn can lead to health problems such as headaches, upset stomach, rashes, insomnia, ulcers, high blood pressure, heart disease, and stroke. One of the primary challenges in optimizing performance under stress is emotional resilience. For many employees, reactive emotions, such as anger and fear, undermine productivity.HR professionals should ensure that employees are always kind and gentle with themselves. They should also ensure that employees use different stress relieving tools/systems like the LGE's Performance Systems to reduce their on-job-stress and improve performance at the same time. Stress is a fact of life, but being stressed out is not. We don't always have control over what happens to us, says Allen Elkin, Ph.D., director of the Stress Management Counseling Center in New York City, and yet, that doesn't mean we have to react to a difficult, challenging
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situation by becoming frazzled or feeling overwhelmed or distraught. Being overly anxious is not just a mental hazard; it's a physical one too. The more stressed out we are the more vulnerable we are to colds, flu, and a host of chronic or life-threatening illnesses. And the less open we are to the beauty and pleasure of life. A lot of research has been conducted into stress over the last hundred years. Some of the theories behind it are now settled and accepted; others are still being researched and debated. During this time, there seems to have been something approaching open warfare between competing theories and definitions: Views have been passionately held and aggressively defended.

1.1.1 NEED FOR THE STUDY


To study the Stress management principles followed by health Plan Systems. To study the factors that leads to stress in work place among the employees.

To study about the work load pressure and emotional exhaustion of the employees in the organization.

To study the commitment of the organization in dealing with stress management of its employees.

1.1.2 SCOPE OF THE STUDY To know about the techniques to deal with stressful situations and management of the same. To study the causes for stress in work place and the methods to overcome it.

To study about the healthy ways to avoid stress and relax and recharge themselves in work place.

To study some effective plans for stress management followed by the organization and its effectiveness.

1.1.3 OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY PRIMARY OBJECTIVE

To study the stress management of staff and executives at Health Plan Systems Pvt Ltd.

SECONDARY OBJECTIVES

To identify the factors leading to stress among the staff and executives.

To analyze the work load of staff and executives. To verify the emotional exhaustion of the staff and executives. To know the vulnerability of the staff and executives. To analyze the commitment of the staff and executives to the organization.

To suggest effective plans to reduce the level of stress among the staff and executives.

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1.1.4 RESEARCH METHODOLOGY Research is a process through which we attempt to achieve systematically and with the support of data the answer to a question, the resolution of a problem, or a greater understanding of a phenomenon. This process is frequently called as Research Methodology. AIM The fundamental aim of the investigation is to make a scientific study of the workers stress level in Health Plan Systems Pvt Ltd. 1.1.4.1 RESEARCH DESIGN The most important part of scientific research is the design that has been adopted which offers a firm basis for drawing conclusions from data collected. The research design used in the study is descriptive in nature. 1.1.4.2 SOURCES OF DATA PILOT STUDY A pilot study was made before the comprehensive data collection began. The results of the pilot study provided feedback necessary to ensure that the study itself was feasible. After conducting the pilot study, some changes were made in the questionnaire. Primary as well as secondary data has been used for the study. Distributing questionnaires and conducting oral discussions with the employees collected by way of primary data. Secondary data were collected from the records of the company and also from magazines and internet.

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1.1.4.3 POPULATION AND SAMPLE

There are 250 staff and executives working in this company i.e., the population is 250. 60 % of the population, i.e., a sample of 150 employees has been drawn from the population of 250 employees and this sample size is expected to provide sufficient information.

1.1.4.4 SAMPLING DESIGN As the population size is known, it is said to be probability sampling. 1.1.4.5 TOOLS AND TECHNIQUE QUESTIONNAIRES Questionnaires were prepared to get the information from the employees regarding their stress level in the company. A simple random sampling technique has been used.

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1.1.5 LIMITATIONS OF THE STUDY

The total staff and executives are 250. The suggestions based on a sample size of 150 employees surveyed cannot be generalized to all the employees of the organization.

There are chances of personal bias always existing while answering the questions; hence the results may not be accurate. Friendly persuasion was used to get the filled questionnaire. Some times more than once they had to be contacted which was time consuming.

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1.1.6 CHAPTERIZATION CHAPTER I First chapter deals with the Introduction, Company profile, Need for the study, Scope and Significance, Objective of the study, Literature Review and Research Methodology. CHAPTER II Second chapter deals with the analysis and interpretation where the data were analyzed by using various statistical tools like Percentage Analysis, Weighted Average Method and Chi-Square test. CHAPTER III Third chapter deals with summary where findings, suggestions and conclusion of the study were given.

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1.2 REVIEW OF LITERATURE

STRESS MANAGEMENT
Stress is an unfortunate condition that affects more and more people everyday in our hectic, fast paced society. Stress is something that every person has to manage on a daily basis. However, being "stressed out" is an unhealthy condition. Whether the source of your stress stems from your home, workplace, finances, or other external/internal pressures, the effects of stress can become physically, emotionally, and psychologically hazardous to your health. Stress is difficult to define because it is a very subjective problem. What may be stressful for one person may have virtually no adverse affects on someone else. Response to stress is also individualized. Not everyone reacts to stress the same way. Because of this, scientists and medical professionals have created a list of symptoms that are usually related to stress. In doing this, they can identify certain markers or symptoms and attempt to properly diagnose the cause of the symptom (stress). Definitions Hans Selye was one of the founding fathers of stress research. His view in 1956 was that stress is not necessarily something bad it all depends on how you take it. The stress of exhilarating, creative successful work is beneficial, while that of failure, humiliation or infection is detrimental. Selye believed that the biochemical effects of stress would be experienced irrespective of whether the situation was positive or negative.

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Since then, a great deal of further research has been conducted, and ideas have moved on. Stress is now viewed as a "bad thing", with a range of harmful biochemical and long-term effects. These effects have rarely been observed in positive situations. The most commonly accepted definition of stress (mainly attributed to Richard S Lazarus) is that stress is a condition or feeling experienced when a person perceives that demands exceed the personal and social resources the individual is able to mobilize. In short, it's what we feel when we think we've lost control of events. This is the main definition used by this section of Mind Tools, although we also recognize that there is an intertwined instinctive stress response to unexpected events. The stress response inside us is therefore part instinct and part to do with the way we think. The word `stress` is defined by the Oxford Dictionary as "a state of affair involving demand on physical or mental energy". A condition or circumstance (not always adverse), which can disturb the normal physiological and psychological functioning of an individual. In medical parlance `stress` is defined as a perturbation of the body`s homeostasis. This demand on mind-body occurs when it tries to cope with incessant changes in life. A `stress` condition seems `relative` in nature. Extreme stress conditions, psychologists say, are detrimental to human health but in moderation stress is normal and, in many cases, proves useful.

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Fight-or-Flight Some of the early research on stress (conducted by Walter Cannon in 1932) established the existence of the well-known fight-or-flight response. His work showed that when an organism experiences a shock or perceives a threat, it quickly releases hormones that help it to survive. In humans, as in other animals, these hormones help us to run faster and fight harder. They increase heart rate and blood pressure, delivering more oxygen and blood sugar to power important muscles. They increase sweating in an effort to cool these muscles, and help them stay efficient. They divert blood away from the skin to the core of our bodies, reducing blood loss if we are damaged. As well as this, these hormones focus our attention on the threat, to the exclusion of everything else. All of this significantly improves our ability to survive life-threatening events. Not only life-threatening events trigger this reaction: We experience it almost any time we come across something unexpected or something that frustrates our goals. When the threat is small, our response is small and we often do not notice it among the many other distractions of a stressful situation. Unfortunately, this mobilization of the body for survival also has negative consequences. In this state, we are excitable, anxious, jumpy and irritable. This actually reduces our ability to work effectively with other people. With trembling and a pounding heart, we can find it difficult to execute precise, controlled skills. The intensity of our focus on survival interferes with our ability to make fine judgments by drawing information from many sources. We find ourselves more accident-prone and less able to make good decisions.

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There are very few situations in modern working life where this response is useful. Most situations benefit from a calm, rational, controlled and socially sensitive approach. In the short term, we need to keep this fightor-flight response under control to be effective in our jobs. In the long term we need to keep it under control to avoid problems of poor health and burnout. How to Reduce, prevent, and Cope with Stress It may seem that theres nothing you can do about your stress level. The bills arent going to stop coming, there will never be more hours in the day for all your errands, and your career or family responsibilities will always be demanding. But you have a lot more control than you might think. In fact, the simple realization that youre in control of your life is the foundation of stress management. Managing stress is all about taking charge: taking charge of your thoughts, your emotions, your schedule, your environment, and the way you deal with problems. The ultimate goal is a balanced life, with time for work, relationships, relaxation, and fun plus the resilience to hold up under pressure and meet challenges head on. Identify the sources of stress in your life Stress management starts with identifying the sources of stress in your life. This isnt as easy as it sounds. Your true sources of stress arent always obvious, and its all too easy to overlook your own stress-inducing thoughts, feelings, and behaviors. Sure, you may know that youre constantly worried

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about work deadlines. But maybe its your procrastination, rather than the actual job demands, that leads to deadline stress. To identify your true sources of stress, look closely at your habits, attitude, and excuses:

Do you explain away stress as temporary (I just have a million things going on right now) even though you cant remember the last time you took a breather? Do you define stress as an integral part of your work or home life (Things are always crazy around here) or as a part of your personality (I have a lot of nervous energy, thats all). Do you blame your stress on other people or outside events, or view it as entirely normal and unexceptional?

Until you accept responsibility for the role you play in creating or maintaining it, your stress level will remain outside your control. Start a stress journal A stress journal can help you identify the regular stressors in your life and the way you deal with them. Each time you feel stressed, keep track of it in your journal. As you keep a daily log, you will begin to see patterns and common themes. Write down:

What caused your stress (make a guess if youre unsure). How you felt, both physically and emotionally. How you acted in response. What you did to make yourself feel better.

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Look at how you currently cope with stress Think about the ways you currently manage and cope with stress in your life. Your stress journal can help you identify them. Are your coping strategies healthy or unhealthy, helpful or unproductive? Unfortunately, many people cope with stress in ways that compound the problem. Unhealthy ways of coping with stress These coping strategies may temporarily reduce stress, but they cause more damage in the long run:

Smoking Drinking too much Overeating or undereating Zoning out for hours in front of the TV or computer Withdrawing from friends, family, and activities Using pills or drugs to relax Sleeping too much Procrastinating Filling up every minute of the day to avoid facing problems Taking out your stress on others (lashing out, angry outbursts, physical violence)

Learning healthier ways to manage stress If your methods of coping with stress arent contributing to your greater emotional and physical health, its time to find healthier ones. There are many healthy ways to manage and cope with stress, but they all require

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change. You can either change the situation or change your reaction. When deciding which option to choose, its helpful to think of the four As: avoid, alter, adapt, or accept. Since everyone has a unique response to stress, there is no one size fits all solution to managing it. No single method works for everyone or in every situation, so experiment with different techniques and strategies. Focus on what makes you feel calm and in control. One very common symptom associated with and induced by stress is insomnia. Insomnia is a very common sleep disorder that keeps you awake for extended periods night after night. Stress affects the levels of certain hormones in the body. High levels of these hormones can make sleep more difficult. The sleep problems that stress creates may ultimately lead to sleep deprivation. Insufficient sleep can potentially worsen your dilemma by further exacerbating whatever situation is causing your stress in the first place. As far as learning how to manage your stress personally, the best answer is to find ways to relieve some of the stress in your life. Below are some simple suggestions that may potentially work to reduce the stress in your life. The Dyanamics of Stress In a challenging situation the brain prepares the body for defensive actionthe fight or flight response by releasing stress hormones, namely, cortisone and adrenaline. These hormones raise the blood pressure and the body prepares to react to the situation. With a concrete defensive action (fight response) the stress hormones in the blood get used up, entailing
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reduced stress effects and symptoms of anxiety. When we fail to counter a stress situation (flight response) the hormones and chemicals remain unreleased in the blood stream for a long period of time. It results in stress related physical symptoms such as tense muscles, unfocused anxiety, dizziness and rapid heartbeats. We all encounter various stressors (causes of stress) in everyday life, which can accumulate, if not released. Subsequently, it compels the mind and body to be in an almost constant alarm-state in preparation to fight or flee. This state of accumulated stress can increase the risk of both acute and chronic psychosomatic illnesses and weaken the immune system. Stress can cause headaches, irritable bowel syndrome, eating disorder, allergies, insomnia, backaches, frequent cold and fatigue to diseases such as hypertension, asthma, diabetes, heart ailments and even cancer. In fact, Sanjay Chugh, a leading Indian psychologist, says that 70 per cent to 90 per cent of adults visit primary care physicians for stress-related problems. Scary enough. But where do we err? Just about everybodymen, women, children and even fetuses suffer from stress. Relationship demands, chronic health problems, pressure at workplaces, traffic snarls, meeting deadlines, growing-up tensions or a sudden bearish trend in the bourse can trigger stress conditions. People react to it in their own ways. In some people, stress-induced adverse feelings and anxieties tend to persist and intensify. Learning to understand and manage stress can prevent the counter effects of stress. Methods of coping with stress are aplenty. The most significant or sensible way out is a change in lifestyle. Relaxation techniques such as meditation, physical exercises, listening to soothing music, deep breathing, various natural and alternative methods, personal growth techniques,
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visualization and massage are some of the most effective of the known noninvasive stress busters. Stress Can Be Positive The words `positive` and `stress` may not often go together. But, there are innumerable instances of athletes rising to the challenge of stress and achieving the unachievable, scientists stressing themselves out over a point to bring into light the most unthinkable secrets of the phenomenal world, and likewise a painter, a composer or a writer producing the best paintings, the most lilting of tunes or the most appealing piece of writing by pushing themselves to the limit. Psychologists second the opinion that some `stress` situations can actually boost our inner potential and can be creatively helpful. Experts tell us that stress, in moderate doses, are necessary in our life. Stress responses are one of our body`s best defense systems against outer and inner dangers. In a risky situation (in case of accidents or a sudden attack on life et al), body releases stress hormones that instantly make us more alert and our senses become more focused. The body is also prepared to act with increased strength and speed in a pressure situation. It is supposed to keep us sharp and ready for action. Research suggests that stress can actually increase our performance. Instead of wilting under stress, one can use it as an impetus to achieve success. Stress can stimulate one`s faculties to delve deep into and discover one`s true potential. Under stress the brain is emotionally and biochemically stimulated to sharpen its performance.

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A working class mother in down town California, Erin Brokovich, accomplished an extraordinary feat in the 1990s when she took up a challenge against the giant industrial house Pacific Gas & Electric. The unit was polluting the drinking water of the area with chromium effluents. Once into it, Brockovich had to work under tremendous stress taking on the bigwigs of the society. By her own account, she had to study as many as 120 research articles to find if chromium 6 was carcinogenic. Going from door to door, Erin signed up over 600 plaintiffs, and with attorney Ed Masry went on to receive the largest court settlement, for the town people, ever paid in a direct action lawsuit in the U.S. history$333 million. It`s an example of an ordinary individual triumphing over insurmountable odds under pressure. If handled positively stress can induce people to discover their inherent talents. Stress is, perhaps, necessary to occasionally clear cobwebs from our thinking. If approached positively, stress can help us evolve as a person by letting go of unwanted thoughts and principle in our life. Very often, at various crossroads of life, stress may remind you of the transitory nature of your experiences, and may prod you to look for the true happiness of life. Spiritual and Psychological Stress Most causes of psychological stress are perennially related to emotional and psychological disorders. Stressful situations, whether longterm or short-term, can set forth a series of emotional symptoms such as a feeling of personality disintegration, phobia, anxiety attacks, unfocussed attention or distractions, exaggerated emotional responses and psychological discomposure such as depression, confusion, burn out and, never forget the resultant, vehicular accidents. No wonder, under persistent stress, an individual suffers from spiritual riots within himself.
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These perturbations in emotional and psychological health may cause or exacerbate debilitating disorders, which can stop life on its track. Because studies show as much as 50 to 80 per cent of all the complaints treated by physicians are psychosomatic ailments resulting from psychological stress. "A quiet mind cureth all." Robert Burton Sleep Disorders Almost all anxiety attacks and stress related mind-body illnesses are known to cause sleep disorders such as sleep apnea, delayed sleep phase syndrome, and even oversleeping. In extreme cases stressors or causes of stress can even cause insomnia. Attention Deficiency Disorder Chronic stress conditions can lead to various Attention-Deficiency Disorders such as ADD and ADHD. Which are again products of the demands of modern life and its priorities. Individuals with AttentionDeficiency Disorder, Predominantly Inattentive Type (ADD) exhibit six or more symptoms of inattention and less than six symptoms of hyperactivityimpulsivity. They usually exhibit some of the following symptoms: inattention, distractibility, disorganization, daydreaming, lack of foresight, carelessness, forgetfulness, lack of motivation, lack of persistence, and procrastination. Individuals with Attention-Deficiency Disorder, Predominantly Hyperactive-Impulsive Type (ADHD) usually exhibit six or more symptoms of hyperactivity-impulsivity and less than six symptoms of inattention. They
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usually exhibit some of the following symptoms: hyperactivity, fidgeting behavior, restlessness, excessive talking, inappropriate running and climbing, often "on the go," can`t wait, interrupt others, and impulsiveness. Spiritual Disturbances & Negative Mental Trait Constant stress can ruin one`s spirit, slowing down the motivation to lead a meaningful life. Under stress an individual may fall into compulsive, obsessive behavior and fear. Stressed out individuals seem to be easily charmed by negative habits of procrastination, addiction to alcohol, smoking and substance abuse. Addictions (alcohol, drugs, et al), as stress responses, depend on many factors: one`s false sense of relief through it, the intensity and type of stress and one`s inability to cope with these, as a genetic stress response, non-availability of social support as a cushion against stress. All these debilitating mental traits arise from a loss of self-confidence and inner strength. Prolonged pressure and inabilty to disburse with the same lead individuals to such situations. Spiritual paths such as Yoga, and holistic healing methods such as Pranic healing and Reiki speak of a luminous energy body that encircles an individual`s physical body. This is composed of subtle particles (life force) and intimately related to one`s emotional conditions. Under chronic stress, this energy body or aura gets depleted due to inadequate absorption of `life force` or prana into body, and the energy pathways or chakras are blocked with stagnant and toxic prana leading to imbalances in body, mind and spirit. An individual tends to lose his all round composure and fails to look for solutions within. A depleted and weakened aura can incapacitate one to
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remain connected to his `self` and even to the outside world. This sense of disconnectedness can cause depression in individuals. Research shows stressors can distort one`s spiritual well being. Symptoms such as self-doubt, jealousy, suspicion, difficulties in interpersonal relationships, feelings of loneliness, sense of inadequacy and sexual problems are directly linked to one`s spiritual disturbances. Stressed out individuals are known to rush into self-injury, suicidal attempts and fatal accidents. Our body is designed to react to two types of stress. Good stress helps keep us alert, motivates us to face challenges and drives us to solve problems. These low levels of stress are manageable and can be thought of as necessary and normal stimulation. Distress, on the other hand, results when our bodies overreact to events. It leads to what has been called a "fight or flight" reaction. Such reactions may have been useful a long time ago when our ancestors were frequently faced with life or death matters. Our bodies really don't know the difference between a saber-toothed tiger and a teacher correcting our test. It is how we perceive and interpret the events of life that dictates how our bodies react. When we view something as manageable, our body doesn't go haywire; it remains alert, but not alarmed. The activation of our sympathetic nervous system (a very important part of our general nervous system) mobilizes us for quick action. The more we sense danger (social or physical), the more our body reacts. Problems can occur when over activation of the sympathetic system is unnecessary. If we react too strongly or let the small overreactions (the daily hassles) pile up, we may run into physical, in addition to psychological
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problems. Gastrointestinal problems (diarrhea or nausea), depression or severe headaches can come about from acute distress. Insomnia, heart disease and bad habits (drinking, overeating, smoking and using drugs) can result from the accumulation of small distress. What we all need is to learn how to approach matters in more realistic and reasonable ways. Strong reactions are better reserved for serious situations. Manageable reactions are better for the everyday issues that we all have to face. Stress is not the same for all people and one approach will not work for all employees. As an example, providing employee training in individual coping techniques as a preventive measure without also correcting negative stressful working environments is short sighted and may be viewed by some as blaming the victim for the problems of the corporation. Additionally, many personal stressors are not work related and will not be improved through environmental or organizational changes. A stress management and relaxation center should be part of any complete worksite health promotion program. The emphasis of such a center is on allowing individuals to experience a variety of stress management techniques and to develop competence in one or more techniques. A commitment by the employer to reduce work related stress while promoting the concept of a stress management and relaxation facility, demonstrates a concern in the lives of the workers and the stress in their lives. By empowering individuals to better manage their stress and relax, health promotion professionals will ensure a healthier and more productive workforce.

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Dealing with Stressful Situations: The Four As Change the situation:


Avoid the stressor. Alter the stressor.

Change your reaction:


Adapt to the stressor. Accept the stressor.

Stress management strategy #1: Avoid unnecessary stress Not all stress can be avoided, and its not healthy to avoid a situation that needs to be addressed. You may be surprised, however, by the number of stressors in your life that you can eliminate.

Learn how to say no Know your limits and stick to them. Whether in your personal or professional life, refuse to accept added responsibilities when youre close to reaching them. Taking on more than you can handle is a surefire recipe for stress. Avoid people who stress you out If someone consistently causes stress in your life and you cant turn the relationship around, limit the amount of time you spend with that person or end the relationship entirely. Take control of your environment If the evening news makes you anxious, turn the TV off. If traffics got you tense, take a longer but less-traveled route. If going to the market is an unpleasant chore, do your grocery shopping online.
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Avoid hot-button topics If you get upset over religion or politics, cross them off your conversation list. If you repeatedly argue about the same subject with the same people, stop bringing it up or excuse yourself when its the topic of discussion. Pare down your to-do list Analyze your schedule, responsibilities, and daily tasks. If youve got too much on your plate, distinguish between the shoulds and the musts. Drop tasks that arent truly necessary to the bottom of the list or eliminate them entirely.

Stress management strategy #2: Alter the situation If you cant avoid a stressful situation, try to alter it. Figure out what you can do to change things so the problem doesnt present itself in the future. Often, this involves changing the way you communicate and operate in your daily life.

Express your feelings instead of bottling them up. If something or someone is bothering you, communicate your concerns in an open and respectful way. If you dont voice your feelings, resentment will build and the situation will likely remain the same. Be willing to compromise. When you ask someone to change their behavior, be willing to do the same. If you both are willing to bend at least a little, youll have a good chance of finding a happy middle ground. Be more assertive. Dont take a backseat in your own life. Deal with problems head on, doing your best to anticipate and prevent them. If youve got an exam to study for and your chatty roommate just got home, say up front that you only have five minutes to talk.
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Manage your time better. Poor time management can cause a lot of stress. When youre stretched too thin and running behind, its hard to stay calm and focused. But if you plan ahead and make sure you dont overextend yourself, you can alter the amount of stress youre under.

Stress management strategy #3: Adapt to the stressor If you cant change the stressor, change yourself. You can adapt to stressful situations and regain your sense of control by changing your expectations and attitude.

Reframe problems. Try to view stressful situations from a more positive perspective. Rather than fuming about a traffic jam, look at it as an opportunity to pause and regroup, listen to your favorite radio station, or enjoy some alone time. Look at the big picture. Take perspective of the stressful situation. Ask yourself how important it will be in the long run. Will it matter in a month? A year? Is it really worth getting upset over? If the answer is no, focus your time and energy elsewhere. Adjust your standards. Perfectionism is a major source of avoidable stress. Stop setting yourself up for failure by demanding perfection. Set reasonable standards for yourself and others, and learn to be okay with good enough. Focus on the positive. When stress is getting you down, take a moment to reflect on all the things you appreciate in your life, including your own positive qualities and gifts. This simple strategy can help you keep things in perspective.

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Adjusting Your Attitude How you think can have a profound affect on your emotional and physical well-being. Each time you think a negative thought about yourself, your body reacts as if it were in the throes of a tension-filled situation. If you see good things about yourself, you are more likely to feel good; the reverse is also true. Eliminate words such as "always," "never," "should," and "must." These are telltale marks of self-defeating thoughts. Stress management strategy #4: Accept the things you cant change Some sources of stress are unavoidable. You cant prevent or change stressors such as the death of a loved one, a serious illness, or a national recession. In such cases, the best way to cope with stress is to accept things as they are. Acceptance may be difficult, but in the long run, its easier than railing against a situation you cant change.

Dont try to control the uncontrollable. Many things in life are beyond our control particularly the behavior of other people. Rather than stressing out over them, focus on the things you can control such as the way you choose to react to problems. Look for the upside. As the saying goes, What doesnt kill us makes us stronger. When facing major challenges, try to look at them as opportunities for personal growth. If your own poor choices contributed to a stressful situation, reflect on them and learn from your mistakes. Share your feelings. Talk to a trusted friend or make an appointment with a therapist. Expressing what youre going through can be very

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cathartic, even if theres nothing you can do to alter the stressful situation.

Learn to forgive. Accept the fact that we live in an imperfect world and that people make mistakes. Let go of anger and resentments. Free yourself from negative energy by forgiving and moving on.

Stress management strategy #5: Make time for fun and relaxation Beyond a take-charge approach and a positive attitude, you can reduce stress in your life by nurturing yourself. If you regularly make time for fun and relaxation, youll be in a better place to handle lifes stressors when they inevitably come. Healthy ways to relax and recharge

Go for a walk. Spend time in nature. Call a good friend. Sweat out tension with a good workout. Write in your journal. Take a long bath. Light scented candles Savor a warm cup of coffee or tea. Play with a pet. Work in your garden. Get a massage. Curl up with a good book. Listen to music.

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Dont get so caught up in the hustle and bustle of life that you forget to take care of your own needs. Nurturing yourself is a necessity, not a luxury.

Set aside relaxation time. Include rest and relaxation in your daily schedule. Dont allow other obligations to encroach. This is your time to take a break from all responsibilities and recharge your batteries. Connect with others. Spend time with positive people who enhance your life. A strong support system will buffer you from the negative effects of stress. Do something you enjoy every day. Make time for leisure activities that bring you joy, whether it be stargazing, playing the piano, or working on your bike. Keep your sense of humor. This includes the ability to laugh at yourself. The act of laughing helps your body fight stress in a number of ways.

Learn the relaxation response You can control your stress levels with relaxation techniques that evoke the bodys relaxation response, a state of restfulness that is the opposite of the stress response. Regularly practicing these techniques will build your physical and emotional resilience, heal your body, and boost your overall feelings of joy and equanimity. Stress management strategy #6: Adopt a healthy lifestyle You can increase your resistance to stress by strengthening your physical health.
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Exercise regularly. Physical activity plays a key role in reducing and preventing the effects of stress. Make time for at least 30 minutes of exercise, three times per week. Nothing beats aerobic exercise for releasing pent-up stress and tension. Eat a healthy diet. Well-nourished bodies are better prepared to cope with stress, so be mindful of what you eat. Start your day right with breakfast, and keep your energy up and your mind clear with balanced, nutritious meals throughout the day. Reduce caffeine and sugar. The temporary "highs" caffeine and sugar provide often end in with a crash in mood and energy. By reducing the amount of coffee, soft drinks, chocolate, and sugar snacks in your diet, youll feel more relaxed and youll sleep better. Avoid alcohol, cigarettes, and drugs. Self-medicating with alcohol or drugs may provide an easy escape from stress, but the relief is only temporary. Dont avoid or mask the issue at hand; deal with problems head on and with a clear mind.

Get enough sleep. Adequate sleep fuels your mind, as well as your body. Feeling tired will increase your stress because it may cause you to think irrationally. Self Help Handling Stress from Criticism Benjamin Franklin once said: "The sting of any criticism comes from the truth it contains." Most of us are most sensitive to stress in the areas where we are weak. It may also be difficult for us to take in these truths because of the manner in which they are usually communicated. These are

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great sources of stress for us in every field of life, such as work place, schools, social gathering and in our own home. But, knowing how to deal with accusations or criticisms may save you from a lot of stress and mental agony. 1. Dont be shocked or offended when someone decides to criticize you. While it may feel like they are trying to hurt you, they may actually be speaking with good intentions. 2. Dont take criticism personally. When someone criticizes you or is angry with you, try to focus on what you did or didn`t do and ignore any generalizations or personality attacks that also come along. People can sometimes be vicious and insensitive when they are angry. If you put their viciousness aside, you can still benefit greatly from the feedback they are providing you. 3. If you dont understand the legitimacy of the other persons anger or criticism, ask them to help you better understand their point of view. As long as you are interested in what you can learn from other peoples negative comments (instead of arguing against them), they will usually be willing to explain things in greater detail. Some Dos and Dont 1. Never take important decisions while under stress. 2. Learning to create or be part of interactive groups/communities helps in weaning away an individual from stress and its effects. Sharing of personal views, experiences, even getting consultation and involving in meaningful activities play an important role in lessening or managing stress.
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3. Planning ahead is the secret of sound financial management without which one can invite a lot of stress . Allocate your income across the categories you need to fund each month. These might include mortgage, clothing, food, holiday, medical,children`s education, traveling expenses and so on. Assign a part of your income to each of these categories, regularly. 4. You spend a lot of your life on the road. Do whatever it takes to make the journey a pleasant one. The following attitudes may help make your life onroad safe and enjoyable: a. Give other motorists the benefit of doubt. The slow driver in front of you could be sick or aged. b. Travel with someone whose company you enjoy. c. Listen to a humorous tape or radio station. d. Listen to music that you really enjoy. e. Try to figure out what the crazy drivers you encounter are going to do with the extra few minutes that they gain on the journey.

REVIEW OF THE LITERATURE


Stress Management in Medical Education Abstract Purpose: To review systematically clinical studies providing empirical data on stress-management programs in medical training. Method: The authors searched Medline and PSYCHINFO from 1966 to 1999. Studies were included if they evaluated stress-management programs

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for medical trainees (medical students, interns, or residents); reported empirical data; and had been conducted at allopathic medical schools. Results: Although the search yielded over 600 articles discussing the importance of addressing the stress of medical education, only 24 studies reported intervention programs, and only six of those used rigorous scientific method. Results revealed that medical trainees participating in stressmanagement programs demonstrated (1) improved immunologic functioning, (2) decreases in depression and anxiety, (3) increased spirituality and empathy, (4) enhanced knowledge of alternative therapies for future referrals, (5) improved knowledge of the effects of stress, (6) greater use of positive coping skills, and (7) the ability to resolve role conflicts. Despite these promising results, the studies had many limitations. Conclusion: The following considerations should be incorporated into future research: (1) rigorous study design, including randomization and control (comparison) groups, (2) measurement of moderator variables to determine which intervention works best for whom, (3) specificity of outcome measures, and (4) follow-up assessment, including effectiveness of future patient care. Stress management in work settings: A critical review of the health effects. Murphy, Lawrence R. American Journal of Health Promotion. Vol 11(2), Nov-Dec 1996, 112-135. Presents a critical review of the research literature on the health effects of worksite stress-management interventions. In the 64 articles

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published 19741994 that are reviewed, major program types included progressive measures muscle included relaxation, meditation, biofeedback, cognitivebehavioral skills, and combinations of these techniques. Health outcome physiological/biochemical, psychological/cognitive, somatic complaints, and job and organization measures. Over half the studies were randomized control trials, but only 30% conducted posttraining follow-up evaluations. The effectiveness of stress interventions varied according to the health-outcome measure used. Biofeedback was the least frequent technique used in work settings and seemed to be the least effective technique. Meditation produced the most consistent results across outcome measures but was used in only 6 studies. In general, studies using a combination of techniques seemed to be more effective across outcome measures than single techniques. A Study on Stress Management done by Christos Ballas, M.D., Attending Psychiatrist, Hospital of the University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA on his patients shows the following results. Emotional stress usually occurs when people consider situations difficult or unable to manage. Different people consider different situations as stressful. Physical stress refers to a physical reaction of the body to various triggers. The pain experienced after surgery is an example of physical stress. Physical stress often leads to emotional stress, and emotional stress often occurs as physical discomfort (e.g., stomach cramps). Stress management involves controlling and reducing the tension that occurs in stressful situations by making emotional and physical changes.

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The degree of stress and the desire to make the changes will determine how much change takes place. ASSESSING STRESS Attitude: A person's attitude can influence whether or not a situation or emotion is stressful. A person with a negative attitude will often report more stress than would someone with a positive attitude. Physical well-being: A poor diet puts the body in a state of physical stress and weakens the immune system. As a result, the person can be more likely to get infections. A poor diet can mean unhealthy food choices, not eating enough, or not eating on a normal schedule. This can cause a person to not get enough nutrients. This form of physical stress also decreases the ability to deal with emotional stress, because not getting the right nutrition may affect the way the brain processes information. Physical activity: Not getting enough physical activity can put the body in a stressful state. Physical activity has many benefits. A regular physical activity program can help decrease depression, if it exists. It also improves the feeling of well-being. Support systems: Most everyone needs someone in their life they can rely on when they are having a hard time. Having little or no support makes stressful situations even more difficult to deal with.

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Relaxation: People with no outside interests, hobbies, or ways to relax may be unable to handle stressful situations because they have no outlet for their stress. AN INDIVIDUAL STRESS MANAGEMENT PROGRAM

Make an effort to stop negative thoughts. Plan some fun. Refocus the negative into the positive. Take a break. Think positively.

Physical activity: Start a physical activity program. Most experts recommend doing 20 minutes of aerobic activity three times per week. Decide on a specific time, type, amount, and level of physical activity. Fit this time into your schedule so it can be part of your routine. Find a buddy to exercise with -- it is more fun and it will encourage you to stick with your routine. You do not have to join a gym -- 20 minutes of brisk walking outdoors will do the trick. Nutrition: Plan to eat foods that improve your health and well-being. For example, increase the amount of fruits and vegetables you eat.

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Use the food guide pyramid to help you make healthy food choices.

Eat the right amount of food on a regular schedule. Social support: Make an effort to interact socially with people. Even though you feel stressed, you will be glad to meet your friends, if only to get your mind off of things. Nurture yourself and others. Reach out to other people. Relaxation: Learn about and try using one or more of the many relaxation techniques, such as guided imagery, listening to music, or practicing yoga or meditation. One or more of these techniques should work for you. Listen to your body. Take a mini retreat. Take time for personal interests and hobbies. RESOURCES If these stress management techniques do not work for you, there are professionals, such as licensed social workers, psychologists, and psychiatrists, who can help. Schedule time with one of these mental health professionals to help you learn stress management strategies, including relaxation techniques.
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Personnel support interventions Taylor (1991), USA, Cochrane Library An exercise and a music programme was examined using two treatment groups and a no intervention control which was waiting for the active intervention to be available. Assignment to groups was random. Sample attrition was low and considered in the analysis. Both treatment interventions are categorised as personnel support. Stress levels were measured by the Perceived Stress Scale. Reduced stress was observed in the exercise group (mean difference (MD) = 4.1) and the music group (MD = 1.5) after the intervention, but stress increased in the control group (MD = +1.2) (possible scores = 056). The difference in stress reduction between the two treatments was not significant, although the difference against the control was significant for both treatments. However, the clinical significance of the stress reduction was unknown. Furthermore, the effects of the control condition were not clear: whether or not only waiting for the programmes to be provided could increase stress level. It should be concluded that the exercise and music programmes are potentially effective, but this should be viewed with caution. Kwandt (1992), USA, CINAHL The effect of a humour and a relaxation programme was tested. Both programmes are classified as personnel support. A placebo group received a workshop on the use of neurological assessment. The interventions were provided in only one session, which lasted for three hours. Allocation to groups was random. According to the Psychiatric Nurses Occupational Stress Scale, the mean post-test score adjusted for pretest level was highest

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in the relaxation group (137.9), next in the humour group (128.9), and lowest in the control group (125.6) (possible scores = 0158). The differences were not significant. The same results were shown generally in the subscales. Methodological weakness is noted due to the small sample size and large attrition. Therefore, it is impossible to draw conclusions. Razavi et al (1993), Belgium, Cochrane Library This study investigated an educational programme which is classified as personnel support. A control group received no intervention. Allocation to groups was random. A translated and modified version of the Nursing Stress Scale was used to measure stress levels. No score on the scale was reported, only the statistical significance of the differences. Although the authors concluded that the programme was effective, this is difficult to support owing to a number of weaknesses in the study design. The largest one is the lack of between group comparison, which makes the randomised controlled design largely meaningless. Changes in stress level were reported at different times between the two groups. Reliability and validity of the scale modified by the author was not tested. Thus, it would be impossible to estimate the effectiveness of the programme on the basis of this report. Tsai and Crockett (1993), Taiwan, Cochrane Library A relaxation training programme was examined. The programme is considered to focus on personnel support. A placebo intervention consisted of an equal number of lectures on theory analysis. Allocation to groups was random. The programme used a Chinese version of the Nurse Stress Checklist in nine point Likert format. The results showed a larger decrease in stress in the treatment group (MD = 0.7) than the placebo group (MD =

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0.2), which was statistically significant. The researchers also used another scale of stress related phenomenon, the Chinese General Health Questionnaire; scores on this indicated alike results. The major weakness is that the conclusion was made without taking the influence of placebo intervention on stress into consideration. Equally the timing of administering the scales was not ideal, with assessments being conducted at the end of the first session and at the beginning of the last session. Although the treatment group showed a greater decrease in stress than the placebo group, the findings should be viewed with caution due to potential bias. Environmental management interventions Proctor et al (1998), UK, Cochrane Library This study examined the effect of providing structured training and a regular support programme. Although the intervention was described as an educational schedule in the report, it is regarded in effect as introducing a changed nursing method. The intervention is therefore considered as environmental management rather than personnel support. A control group received no intervention. Method of allocation to groups was in effect not random. The Occupational Stress Indicator was used. Stress was increased on all subscales post-intervention in both the treatment and control groups (total scores were not reported). The differences between groups were not significant. Scores on the General Health Questionnaire34 supported this finding. When reviewed as a PCS, this is a relatively well conducted investigation. Sample size was reasonably large and the treatment and control groups were similar in nature and number. The intervention was

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administered for a relatively long term. Methodological weakness involves the large sample attrition not included in the analysis and the lack of analysis using total scores. There were organisational and managerial changes in some institutions under the study, which possibly influenced the increase in stress level in both treatment and control groups. However, if comparing the changes in stress level carefully, the degree of increase was greater in the control group than the treatment group on all indicators. It could be said that the programme is not successful as the differences between the two groups were not statistically significant, yet it is possibly effective for reducing stress level. Summary of results Among the response support interventions, one approach focusing on cognitive techniques was determined to be effective, although evidence was weak; three approaches on exercise, music, and relaxation training were potentially effective; one approach of social support education is questioned but possibly effective; and two are impossible to draw conclusions after the critical appraisals. One auxiliary study on cognitive education and role playing allowed no conclusion. One study focusing on environmental change (introducing different nursing method) provided no evidence of effectiveness (non-significant results), although findings tended to favour the intervention and so the study is classified as possibly effective. With regard to the auxiliary studies, one approach of changing nursing method (environmental change) is potentially effective and one further study allows no conclusion to be drawn. In line with the bipartite categorisation described above, it seems that there is more evidence for the effectiveness of personal support than
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environmental management for reducing workplace stress in the nursing profession. However, it is not possible at this stage to determine what kind of approach is more effective, because the number of studies is too small to compare different approaches. DISCUSSION Methodological weakness of identified studies Sample size was on the whole small with no power analysis presented. In most reports, it is ambiguous whether statistical non-significance was due to type II error or a real phenomenon. Also, sample attrition was often high and rarely considered in analysis. Selecting an appropriate placebo is a major issue for research in this area in particular. Feeling stress is a quite subjective phenomenon and it cannot be assumed that a placebo is neutral. Listening to music or receiving supportive sessions may reasonably have either positive or negative impacts on stress as interventions in themselves. A placebo intervention, therefore, must be chosen with careful consideration, and ideally the influences of the placebo intervention on stress should be already clear. Five investigations in this review used a placebo intervention, yet they did not clarify its influences on stress level. In one study the placebo intervention appeared to be an active and effective stress reducing intervention. This is a serious problem in disentangling placebo effect, hawthorn effect, maturation, etc, and it remains unclear whether the results of some studies here were due to genuine effects of the treatment intervention or not. Many studies used within group and subscale analysis to draw conclusions. Such analyses may be useful for exploratory examination, but
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are not superior to between group and total score analysis. The statistical procedures used seem appropriate in all studies and those results were presented in detail, but actual differences in stress levels were not exhibited in some reports. More importantly, no article discussed clinical significance of the changes in stress level, simply concentrating on statistical significance. It may be difficult to judge the clinical significance of changes on a stress scale, but some index such as normative scores should be referred to, or the issue should be mentioned. Few programmes studied here were based on a clearly defined model of stress. Consequently, current stress management programmes seem to be a sort of guesswork. It is certain that the various theories of stress offer frameworks that can be used to categorise components and goals of intervention and that categorisation and description of interventions should not be regarded as non-problematic. Conceptual clarity in future research would help to identify which aspects of the stress mechanism the programme is designed to affect. Implications for practice and future research It is not possible to recommend any particular approach for practical implementation because the number of studies is too small to determine it. However, there is more evidence for the effectiveness of personnel support than environmental management. Moreover all programmes reviewed here appeared at least not harmful. Further research is definitely needed, specifically RCTs or PCSs with rigour. This review strongly suggests the need for experimental research on stress management programmes which overcome the limitations pointed out in the critical appraisals and methodological weakness.
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Stress at Work Stress at work is a relatively new phenomenon of modern lifestyles. The nature of work has gone through drastic changes over the last century and it is still changing at whirlwind speed. They have touched almost all professions, starting from an artist to a surgeon, or a commercial pilot to a sales executive. With change comes stress, inevitably. Professional stress or job stress poses a threat to physical health. Work related stress in the life of organized workers, consequently, affects the health of organizations. Job stress is a chronic disease caused by conditions in the workplace that negatively affect an individual`s performance and/or overall well-being of his body and mind. One or more of a host of physical and mental illnesses manifests job stress. In some cases, job stress can be disabling. In chronic cases a psychiatric consultation is usually required to validate the reason and degree of work related stress. Working on a project on stress at work, Andy Ellis, Ruskin College, Oxford, UK, has shown in a chart how stress can adversely affect an employee`s performance. In the early stages job stress can `rev up` the body and enhance performance in the workplace, thus the term `I perform better under pressure`. However, if this condition is allowed to go unchecked and the body is revved up further, the performance ultimately declines and the person`s health degenerates. Symptoms The signs of job stress vary from person to person, depending on the particular situation, how long the individual has been subjected to the stressors, and the intensity of the stress itself. Typical symptoms of job stress can be:

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Insomnia Loss of mental concentration, Anxiety, stress Absenteeism Depression, Substance abuse, Extreme anger and frustration, Family conflict Physical illnesses such as heart disease, migraine, headaches, stomach problems, and back problems. Causes of Workplace Stress Job stress may be caused by a complex set of reasons. Some of the most visible causes of workplace stress are: Job Insecurity Organized workplaces are going through metamorphic changes under intense economic transformations and consequent pressures. Reorganizations, takeovers, mergers, downsizing and other changes have become major stressors for employees, as companies try to live up to the competition to survive. These reformations have put demand on everyone, from a CEO to a mere executive. High Demand for Performance Unrealistic expectations, especially in the time of corporate reorganizations, which, sometimes, puts unhealthy and unreasonable pressures on the
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employee, can be a tremendous source of stress and suffering. Increased workload, extremely long work hours and intense pressure to perform at peak levels all the time for the same pay, can actually leave an employees physically and emotionally drained. Excessive travel and too much time away from family also contribute to an employee`s stressors. Technology The expansion of technologycomputers, pagers, cell phones, fax machines and the Internethas resulted in heightened expectations for productivity, speed and efficiency, increasing pressure on the individual worker to constantly operate at peak performance levels. Workers working with heavy machinery are under constant stress to remain alert. In this case both the worker and their family members live under constant mental stress. There is also the constant pressure to keep up with technological breakthroughs and improvisations, forcing employees to learn new software all the times. Workplace Culture Adjusting to the workplace culture, whether in a new company or not, can be intensely stressful. Making oneself adapt to the various aspects of workplace culture such as communication patterns, hierarchy, dress code if any, workspace and most importantly working and behavioral patterns of the boss as well as the co-workers, can be a lesson of life. Maladjustment to workplace cultures may lead to subtle conflicts with colleagues or even with superiors. In many cases office politics or gossips can be major stress inducers.

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Personal or Family Problems Employees going through personal or family problems tend to carry their worries and anxieties to the workplace. When one is in a depressed mood, his unfocused attention or lack of motivation affects his ability to carry out job responsibilities. Job Stress and Women Women may suffer from mental and physical harassment at workplaces, apart from the common job stress. Sexual harassment in workplace has been a major source of worry for women, since long. Women may suffer from tremendous stress such as `hostile work environment harassment`, which is defined in legal terms as `offensive or intimidating behavior in the workplace`. This can consist of unwelcome verbal or physical conduct. These can be a constant source of tension for women in job sectors. Also, subtle discriminations at workplaces, family pressure and societal demands add to these stress factors. The Survival Sutras Because change is constant in life, stress is an integral part of it. Since we dont want to perish under it, we have to adhere to the bottom line for survivaladapt. Following are some of the long-term tips to survive stress: Even if we feel secured in a habituated life, the truth remains that changing with the times makes one`s position more secure. In today`s business climate, you must continually be prepared for changes to avoid stress and survive in the competitive world.
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Find and protect whatever time you get to refresh, re-energize and remotivate yourself. Spend quality time with your family. This can be an excellent source of emotional and moral support. Avoid giving in to alcohol, smoking and other substance abuses while under constant stress. Develop positive attitudes towards stressful situations in life. Give up negative mental traits such as fear, anger and revengeful attitudes, which actually germinate stress. Try to revert to holistic relaxation and personal growth techniques such as meditation, breathing and exercises, to remodel your lifestyles. In case of chronic stress consult a health professional. Reduce workplace stress by celebrating your`s or your colleagues` accomplishments. Adapting to demands of stress also means changing your personality. Improve your line of communication, efficiency and learn from other`s experiences. Dont be complacent. Be prepared for any change physically, emotionally and financially. But, when you are under stress at work, some simple practices can help: Sit straight and comfortably on your seat, and try breathing exercises. It will relax your nerves and muscles. Relax and count backwards (20, 19, 18, 17, 16, 15.) Try creative visualization Burnout When under severe stress, an individual fails to take clear-cut decisions, reevaluate and reassess the priorities and lifestyles, and ultimately, tend to fall into unproductive distractions. This can be described
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as a classic case of `burnout`. The `burnouts` often engage in reckless or risk-taking behaviors. Starting from glamor and sport celebrities to common men, `burnouts` are found everywhere. Chronic Responsibility Syndrome is a kind of burnout where people get mentally and physically exhausted from their workload. The symptom is often described as "there`s simply too much work to do, and no one else can do it but me". Typically it will occur in hard working, hard driven people, who become emotionally, psychologically or physically exhausted. You are at risk of burnout where: you find it difficult to say `no` to additional commitments or responsibilities you have been under intense and sustained pressure for some time your high standards make it difficult to delegate to assistants you have been trying to achieve too much for too long you have been giving too much emotional support for too long Often burnout will manifest itself in a reduction in motivation, volume and quality of performance, or in dissatisfaction with or departure from the activity altogether. Recognizing A Stressor: It is important to recognize whether you are under stress or out of it. Many times, even if we are under the influence of a stressful condition and our body reacts to it internally as well as externally, we fail to realize that we are reacting under stress. This also happens when the causes of stress are there long enough for us to get habituated to them. The body constantly tries to tell us through symptoms such as rapid palpitation, dizzy spells, tight
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muscles or various body aches that something is wrong. It is important to remain attentive to such symptoms and to learn to cope with the situations. We cope better with stressful situation, when we encounter them voluntarily. In cases of a relocation, promotion or layoff, adventurous sports or having a baby, we tend to respond positively under stress.But, when we are compelled into such situations against our will or knowledge, more often than not, we wilt at the face of unknown and imagined threats. For instance, stress may mount when one is coerced into undertaking some work against one`s will. Laughter Adopting a humorous view towards life`s situations can take the edge off everyday stressors. Not being too serious or in a constant alert mode helps maintain the equanimity of mind and promote clear thinking. Being able to laugh stress away is the smartest way to ward off its effects. A sense of humor also allows us to perceive and appreciate the incongruities of life and provides moments of delight. The emotions we experience directly affect our immune system. The positive emotions can create neurochemical changes that buffer the immunosuppressive effects of stress. During stress, the adrenal gland releases corticosteroids, which are converted to cortisol in the blood stream. These have an immunosuppressive effect. Dr. Lee Berk and fellow researcher Dr. Stanley Tan at Loma Linda University School of Medicine have produced carefully controlled studies showing that the experience of laughter lowers serum cortisol levels, increases the amount
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and activity of T lymphocytesthe natural killer cells. Laughter also increases the number of T cells that have suppresser receptors. What Laughter Can Do Against Stress And Its Effects: Laughter lowers blood pressure and reduces hypertension. It provides good cardiac conditioning especially for those who are unable to perform physical exercise. Reduces stress hormones (studies shows, laughter induces reduction of at l least four of neuroendocrine hormonesepinephrine, cortisol, dopac, and growth hormone, associated with stress response). Laughter cleanses the lungs and body tissues of accumulated stale air as it empties more air than it takes in. It is beneficial for patients suffering from emphysema and other respiratory ailments. It increases muscle flexion, relaxation and fluent blood circulation in body. Boosts immune function by raising levels of infection-fighting T-cells, disease-fighting proteins called Gamma-interferon and disease-destroying antibodies called B-cells. Laughter triggers the release of endorphinsbody`s natural painkillers.

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Produces a general sense of well-being. Managing Stress There are very many proven skills that we can use to manage stress. These help us to remain calm and effective in high pressure situations, and help us avoid the problems of long term stress. In the rest of this section of Mind Tools, we look at some important techniques in each of these three groups. Keeping a Stress Diary or carrying out the Burnout Self-Test will help you to identify your current levels of stress, so you can decide what action, if any, you need to take. Job Analysis and Performance Planning will help you to get on top of your workload. While the emotionally-oriented skills of Imagery, Physical Techniques and Rational Positive Thinking will help you change the way you see apparently stressful situations. Finally, the article on Anger Management will help you to channel your feelings into performance. This is a much-abridged excerpt from the Understanding Stress and Stress Management module of the Mind Tools Stress Management Masterclass. As well as covering this material in more detail, it also discusses:

Long-term stress: The General Adaptation Syndrome and Burnout The Integrated Stress Response Stress and Health Stress and its Affect on the Way We Think Pressure and Performance: Flow and the Inverted-U

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These sections give you a deeper understanding of stress, helping you to develop your own stress management strategies for handling unique circumstances. Click here to find out more about the Stress Management Masterclass and here to visit the Stress.MindTools.Com site, which has many more articles on stress management. Job Analysis The First Step in Managing Job Overload We have all experienced that appalling sense of having far too much work to do and too little time to do it in. We can choose to ignore this, and work unreasonably long hours to stay on top of our workload. The risks here are that we become exhausted, that we have so much to do that we do a poor quality job, and that we neglect other areas of our life. Each of these can lead to intense stress. The alternative is to work more intelligently, by focusing on the things that are important for job success and reducing the time we spend on low priority tasks. Job Analysis is the first step in doing this. The first of the action-oriented skills that we look at is Job Analysis. Job Analysis is a key technique for managing job overload an important source of stress. To do an excellent job, you need to fully understand what is expected of you. While this may seem obvious, in the hurly-burly of a new, fastmoving, high-pressure role, it is oftentimes something that is easy to overlook.

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By understanding the priorities in your job, and what constitutes success within it, you can focus on these activities and minimize work on other tasks as much as possible. This helps you get the greatest return from the work you do, and keep your workload under control. Job Analysis is a useful technique for getting a firm grip on what really is important in your job so that you are able to perform excellently. It helps you to cut through clutter and distraction to get to the heart of what you need to do.Note that this tool takes two forms - the short-form we discuss here assumes that your organization is already well organized and that its job descriptions, review criteria and incentives are well-aligned and correct. The long-form (discussed within the Stress Management Masterclass), helps you to deal with jobs where this is not the case here, inconsistent job design can cause enormous stress. How to Use the Tool: To conduct a job analysis, go through the following steps: 1. Review formal job documentation:

Look at your job description. Identify the key objectives and priorities within it. Look at the forms for the periodic performance reviews. These show precisely the behaviors that will be rewarded and, by implication, show those that will be punished. Find out what training is available for the role. Ensure that you attend appropriate training so that you know as much as possible about what you need to know.
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Look at incentive schemes to understand the behaviors that these reward.

2. Understand the organizations strategy and culture: Your job exists for a reason this will ultimately be determined by the strategy of the organizational unit you work for. This strategy is often expressed in a mission statement. In some way, what you do should help the organization achieve its mission (if it does not, you have to ask yourself how secure the job is!). Make sure you understand and perform well the tasks that contribute to the strategy. Similarly, every organization has its own culture its own, historically developed values, rights and wrongs, and things that it considers to be important. If you are new to an organization, talk through with established, respected members of staff to understand these values. Make sure that you understand this culture. Make sure that your actions reinforce the companys culture, or at least do not go against it. Looked at through the lens of culture, will the company value what you do? Check that your priorities are consistent with this mission statement and the company culture. 3. Find out who the top achievers are, and understand why they are successful: Inside or outside the organization, there may be people in a similar role to you who are seen as highly successful. Find out how they work, and what

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they do to generate this success. Look at what they do, and learn from them. Understand what skills make them successful, and learn those skills. 4. Check that you have the people and resources to do the job: The next step is to check that you have the staff support, resources and training needed to do an excellent job. If you do not, start work on obtaining them. 5. Confirm priorities with your boss: By this stage, you should have a thorough understanding of what your job entails, and what your key objectives are. You should also have a good idea of the resources that you need, and any additional training you may need to do the best you can. This is the time to talk the job through with your boss, and confirm that you share an understanding of what constitutes good performance in the role. It is also worth talking through serious inconsistencies, and agreeing how these can be managed. 6. Take Action: You should now know what you have to do to be successful in your job. You should have a good idea of the most important things that you have to do, and also the least important. Where you can drop the less-important tasks, do so. Where you can deprioritize them, do so.

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Where you need more resource or training to do your job, negotiate for this. Remember to be a little sensitive in the way you do this: Good teamwork often means helping other people out with jobs that do not benefit you. However, do not let people take advantage of you: Be assertive in explaining that you have your own work to do. If you cannot drop tasks, delegate them or negotiate longer time scales. Warning: Stress can cause severe health problems and, in extreme cases, can cause death. While these stress management techniques have been shown to have a positive effect on reducing stress, they are for guidance only, and readers should take the advice of suitably qualified health professionals if they have any concerns over stress-related illnesses or if stress is causing significant or persistent unhappiness. Health professionals should also be consulted before any major change in diet or levels of exercise.

Now coming to HPS pvt ly stress does not have much impact on its emplodyees. Even though creating a stress free atmosphere is very hard, the company is trying to create it. The stress has an impact on employees when they didnt meet organizational requirements. The high authority employees are stressful as they have many responsibilities in the company. The same level employees of different departments are not so good at their relationship which may cause stress.

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The company is showing its excellence in providing career progression to its employees and thus they are not giving any room for stress to the employees regarding their career. Employees are also given opportunities to develop themselves and so stress due to idle does not occur. The opinions of the employees are also accepted and so stress can be avoided due to lack of respect. The company does not upset the minds of the employees by making them feel emotionally drained by their work. The company provides enough room for the employees to think clearly which also avoids stress. There is a healthy competition among the employees in the company and so the employees can come out ahead easily which reduces stress. The company encourages the employees when they achieve something and that relieve employees from stress. Stress regarding infrastructure does not exist as the company is providing an excellent infrastructure. The superior sub-ordinate relationship and the relationship among the staffs of same department are good and it does not create any stress. The company is making the employees feel more confident after a victory achieved by them and that avoids stress. The company is not demanding the employees to work for long hours as it will be stressful. The employees of this organization are very dedicated to their work and as they dont forget things easily and dont get tired of their work, stress is avoided. The company is providing necessary feedback to its employees and gives enough time for the employees to spend with their family or friends which avoid stress. The employees of this organization are unwilling to express their negative feelings to the respective person when they get angry or worried as it gives them stress. The employees feel very proud to tell people where they work and so they respect their company which also avoids stress.
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In sum, the employees of this concern are not much influenced by stress. The company is taking much effort to have a stress free atmosphere and it is quite successful in creating such atmosphere. The company also takes much care on the well being of the employees and that is one of the main reason for the absence of stress in most of the employees.

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1.2.3 COMPANY PROFILE 3.1 ABOUT HEALTH PLAN SYSTEMS Health Plan Systems (HPS) Founded in 1988 is a leading provider of customized healthcare administrative software products and services to: Welfare and benefit administration groups such as ERISA (Taft-Hartley) funds Third Party Administrators Insurance companies Medical and dental offices HPS recognizes that each client presents different needs and requirements that must be individually addressed. Because of this HPS created software with unprecedented efficiency, flexibility and functionality. With nearly 20 years of experience in healthcare software, the HPS management team is committed to meeting and exceeding our customers expectations by developing technologies that will revolutionize the administrative and practice management software marketplace. As one of an elite group of companies to have its software certified by Claredi, HPS makes HIPAA compliance a simple and easy part of everyday business, while simultaneously eliminating administrative waste. VISION To be the most preferred and significant software and engineering led global IT services provider in our chosen markets MISSION To provide the highest quality administrative software by offering customized and automated financial, management, and clinical solutions. And exceed the customers expectations with our expertise and commitment to service.
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3.2 SERVICES HPS is involved in many areas of service that include: Planning Technical Services Implementation and Training Customization Network Services Support Planning HPS provides comprehensive planning, which is customized for the site based on the needs of the customer. This includes design, coordination of information flow and timely communication. HPS is experienced in designing implementation strategies, including developing options for conversion of old data to the new environment. HPS oversees and monitors the software installation process to ensure consistent operations. Technical Services The HPS team conducts an assessment at the customer site to evaluate the existing hardware and network infrastructure. The team then makes a recommendation about requirements for the successful operation of the purchased HPS products. HPS technical services include analysis of the needs of the customer to build appropriate report modules. Customer needs are based on questionnaire and quality reviews.

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Implementation and Training The HPS Implementation group coordinates the installation of the software and hardware needs for networking. HPS provides training for the users and also for the customers if required. User manuals are also made available. Customization We have a team of highly skilled professionals to assess the software in use and provide the customized services needed for our customers. HPS will help design and implement any interfaces that are required. Customization can also be done to interface existing data files for HIPAA compliance. Network Services HPS has a team of hardware specialists who are available to the customer for installation and configuration of hardware and network as needed. Support HPS takes pride in its well-established customer support system. HPS Help-desk is available as the primary source of maintenance. Additionally, there are both online and telephone software support at the highest technical level. Corrections and updates to the systems can be performed online as needed. Health Plan Systems now provides the opportunity to email your support issues to the Health Plan Systems Technical Support Department HPS is constantly dedicated to providing an unprecedented resource for total electronic office automation.

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CHAPTER II ANALYSIS AND INTERFERENCE 2.1 Percentage Analysis 2.1.1 How satisfied are you in prospering (or) making progress in your

carrier at HPS Pvt ltd? RESPONDENTS PERCENTAGE 47 31% 82 55% 21 14% 0 0% 0 0% 150 100%

OPTIONS a. Highly Satisfied b. Satisfied c. Neither Satisfied Nor Dissatisfied d. Dissatisfied e. Highly Dissatisfied TOTAL
60% 50% 40% 30% 20% 10% 0% Highly Satisfied Satisfied Neither Satisfied Nor Dissatisfied 14% 31% 55%

Series1

0% Dissatisfied

0% Highly Dissatisfied

INFERENCE As no employee is dissatisfied, it can be concluded that the company provides a progressive career to its employees. 2.1.2 How interested are you in starting something new though success is not sure?

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OPTIONS a. Highly Interested b. Interested c. Neither Interested Nor Disinterested d. Disinterested e. Highly Disinterested TOTAL
Highly Disinterested Disinterested Neither Interested Nor Disinterested Interested Highly Interested 0% 5% 10% 13% 15% 20%

RESPONDENTS PERCENTAGE 19 13% 47 31% 38 26% 29 17 150 19% 11% 100%

11% 19% 26% 31%

Series1

25%

30%

35%

INFERENCE From the above graph, it is concluded that the company provides room for the individuals to improve themselves. 2.1.3 Do you have to do a thing in your role against your better judgment? OPTIONS a. Yes b. No c. Sometimes TOTAL RESPONDENTS PERCENTAGE 31 21% 78 52% 41 27% 150 100%
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60% 50% 40% 30% 20% 10% 0% Yes No Sometimes 21% Series1 52%

27%

INFERENCE As most of the employees said no, it is concluded that the company gives importance to the opinion of the employees.

2.1.4 Do you feel emotionally drained by your work? OPTIONS a. Yes b. No c. Sometimes TOTAL RESPONDENTS PERCENTAGE 19 13% 97 65% 34 22% 150 100%

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70% No, 65% 60% 50% 40% Series1 30% 20% 10% 0% 0 0.5 1 1.5 2 2.5 3 3.5 Yes, 13% Sometimes, 22%

INFERENCE From the above graph, it is concluded that the company do not upset the minds of the employees as many said no.

2.1.5 Do you often feel that stress has an impact on your inability to think clearly? OPTIONS a. Yes b. No c. Sometimes TOTAL RESPONDENTS PERCENTAGE 47 31% 69 46% 34 23% 150 100%

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50% 45% 40% 35% 30% 25% 20% 15%31% 10% 5% 0% Yes No Sometimes 23% 46% Series1

INFERENCE From the above graph, it is concluded that the company provides enough room for the employees to think clearly.

2.1.6 Do you get very nervous when you didnt meet organizational requirements? OPTIONS a. Yes b. No c. Sometimes TOTAL RESPONDENTS PERCENTAGE 82 55% 26 17% 42 28% 150 100%

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Yes 55% 60% 40% 20% 0% 28% Sometimes 17% No Series1

INFERENCE From the above graph, it is clear that the company gives much importance to its outputs or requirements as very few employees have said no.

2.1.7 How satisfied are you in coming out ahead when compared to others? OPTIONS a. Highly Satisfied b. Satisfied c. Neither Satisfied Nor Dissatisfied d. Dissatisfied e. Highly Dissatisfied TOTAL RESPONDENTS PERCENTAGE 26 17% 73 49% 37 25% 14 9% 0 0% 150 100%

73

50% 45% 40% 35% 30% 25% 20% 15% 10% 5% 0%

49%

25% 17% 9% 0% Highly Satisfied Satisfied Neither Dissatisfied Highly Satisfied Dissatisfied Nor Dissatisfied Series1

INFERENCE As most of the employees are satisfied, it is concluded that there is a healthy competition between the employees within the organization.

2.1.8 Kindly mark your willingness to take risk when the stakes are high? OPTIONS a. Highly Willing b. Willing c. Neither Willing Nor Unwilling d. Unwilling e. Highly Unwilling TOTAL RESPONDENTS PERCENTAGE 31 21% 86 57% 20 13% 13 9% 0 0% 150 100%

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60% 50% 40% 30% 20% 10% 0% Highly Willing Willing Neither Willing Nor Unwilling Unwilling 21% 13% 57% Series1

9% 0% Highly Unwilling

INFERENCE From the above graph, it is clear that most of the employees are highly responsible to the organization.

2.1.9 How satisfied are you about the rewards provided to you when you achieve something? OPTIONS a. Highly satisfied b. Satisfied c. Neither Satisfied Nor Dissatisfied d. Dissatisfied e. Highly Dissatisfied TOTAL RESPONDENTS PERCENTAGE 34 23% 71 47% 27 18% 18 12% 0 0% 150 100%

75

50% 45% 40% 35% 30% 25% 20% 15% 10% 5% 0%

47%

23% 18% 12% 0% Highly Satisfied Satisfied Neither Dissatisfied Highly Satisfied Dissatisfied Nor Dissatisfied Series1

INFERENCE The above graph shows that the company encourages the employees to achieve something.

2.1.10 How do you feel about the infrastructure provided by your company? OPTIONS a. Highly satisfied b. Satisfied c. Neither Satisfied Nor Dissatisfied d. Dissatisfied e. Highly Dissatisfied TOTAL RESPONDENTS PERCENTAGE 76 51% 43 29% 31 20% 0 0% 0 0% 150 100%

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60% 50% 40% 30% 20% 10% 0% 0% Highly Satisfied Satisfied 0% Neither Dissatisfied Highly Satisfied Dissatisfied Nor Dissatisfied 29% 20% Series1 51%

INFERENCE The graph shows that the company is much cared about its employees wellbeing.

2.1.11 According to you how is the superior subordinate relationship within your organization? OPTIONS a. Highly Lenient b. Lenient c. Neither Lenient Nor Stringent d. Stringent e. Highly Stringent TOTAL RESPONDENTS 12 79 41 18 0 150 PERCENTAGE 8% 53% 27% 12% 0% 100%

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Highly Stringent 0% Stringent Neither Lenient Nor Stringent Lenient Highly Lenient 0% 8% 10% 20% 30% 40% 50% 60% 12% 27% 53%

Series1

INFERENCE The graph shows that the company superiors are friendly to their subordinates. 2.1.12 How satisfied are you in your relationship with the staff of your department? OPTIONS a. Highly satisfied b. Satisfied c. Neither Satisfied Nor Dissatisfied d. Dissatisfied e. Highly Dissatisfied TOTAL RESPONDENTS PERCENTAGE 66 44% 71 47% 13 9% 0 0% 0 0% 150 100%

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Neither Satisfied Nor Dissatisfied

Dissatisfied

INFERENCE The graph shows that the company is good at interpersonal relationship within the departments. 2.1.13 How satisfied are you in the relationship with your level staff of other departments? OPTIONS a. Highly satisfied b. Satisfied c. Neither Satisfied Nor Dissatisfied d. Dissatisfied e. Highly Dissatisfied TOTAL RESPONDENTS PERCENTAGE 29 19% 78 52% 31 21% 12 8% 0 0% 150 100%

Highly Dissatisfied

Highly Satisfied

Satisfied

50% 45% 40% 35% 30% 25% 20% 15% 10% 5% 0%

44%

47%

Series1

9% 0% 0%

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60% 50% 40% 30% 20% 10% 0% 0 1 2 3 4 Highly Satisfied, 19% Neither Satisfied Nor Dissatisfied, 21% Dissatisfied, 8% Highly Dissatisfied, 0% 5 6 Series1 Satisfied, 52%

INFERENCE The graph shows that the same level employees of different departments are good at interpersonal relationship. 2.1.14 Do you tend to get nervous after a victory? OPTIONS a. Yes b. No TOTAL RESPONDENTS PERCENTAGE 23 15% 127 85% 150 100%

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90% 80% 70% 60% 50% 40% 30% 20% 10% 15% 0% Yes 85% Series1

No

INFERENCE The graph shows that the employees are more confident after the victory.

2.1.15 Do you get 7-8 hours sleep a day? OPTIONS a. Yes b. No TOTAL RESPONDENTS PERCENTAGE 108 72% 42 28% 150 100%

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80% 70% 60% 50% 40% 30% 20% 10% 0% Yes No 28% 72% Series1

INFERENCE As only very few have said no, it is concluded that the company is not demanding the employees to work for long hours.

2.1.15.1 If No, how many hours of sleep you get a day? OPTIONS a. 6-7 hours b. 5-6 hours c. 4-5 hours TOTAL RESPONDENTS PERCENTAGE 42 100% 0 0% 0 0% 42 100%

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100% 90% 80% 70% 60% 50% 40% 30% 20% 10% 0% 6-7 hours 0% 5-6 hours 0% 4-5 hours 100% Series1

INFERENCE As the employees who have said no are very low and as all they are getting 6-7 hours sleep a day, it is concluded that these employees may have some other reason for their lack of sleep and so the company is not liable for their lack of sleep.

2.1.16 Do you tend to forget things easily during working hours? OPTIONS a. Yes b. No c. Sometimes TOTAL RESPONDENTS PERCENTAGE 15 10% 102 68% 33 22% 150 100%

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70% 60% 50% 40% 30% 20% 10% 0% 10% Yes No Sometimes 22% 68% Series1

INFERENCE The above graph shows that the employees of this organization are very dedicated to their work.

2.1.17 Does stress has an impact on you being restless during work? OPTIONS a. Yes b. No e. Sometimes TOTAL RESPONDENTS PERCENTAGE 11 7% 107 72% 32 21% 150 100%

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80% 70% 60% 50% 40% 30% 20% 10% 0% Yes S1 No Sometimes 7% 21% Series1 72%

INFERENCE The above graph shows that the employees of this organization are not tired of their work.

2.1.18 Does speaking openly about your feelings to the respective person when you get angry or worried relieve you from stress? OPTIONS a. Yes b. No e. Sometimes TOTAL RESPONDENTS PERCENTAGE 32 21% 84 56% 34 23% 150 100%

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60% 40% 20% 21% 0% Yes 56% 23% Series1

No

Sometimes

INFERENCE The above graph shows that the employees of this organization are unwilling to express their negative feelings to the respective person as it doesnt relieve them from stress.

2.1.19 How do you feel when you receive feedback on the things you have achieved? OPTIONS a. Highly satisfied b. Satisfied c. Neither Satisfied Nor Dissatisfied d. Dissatisfied e. Highly Dissatisfied TOTAL RESPONDENTS PERCENTAGE 26 17% 94 63% 18 12% 12 8% 0 0% 150 100%

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70% 60% 50% 40% 30% 20% 10% 0% Highly Satisfied Satisfied Neither Satisfied Nor Dissatisfied Dissatisfied 17% Series1 63%

12%

8% 0% Highly Dissatisfied

INFERENCE The above graph shows that the company is providing necessary feedback to its employees. 2.1.20 How satisfied are you in getting fun with your family or friends at least once a week? OPTIONS a. Highly satisfied b. Satisfied c. Neither Satisfied Nor Dissatisfied d. Dissatisfied e. Highly Dissatisfied TOTAL RESPONDENTS PERCENTAGE 94 63% 56 37% 0 0% 0 0% 0 0% 150 100%

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70% 60% 50% 40% 30% 20% 10% 0% Highly Satisfied 0% 0% S1 Neither Dissatisfied Satisfied Nor Highly Dissatisfied Dissatisfied 0% 63% 37% Series1

Satisfied

INFERENCE The above graph shows that the employees of this organization are spending enough time with their family or friends. 2.1.21 Do you feel proud to tell people where you work? OPTIONS a. Yes b. No TOTAL RESPONDENTS PERCENTAGE 150 100% 0 0% 150 100%

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100% 90% 80% 70% 60% 50% 100% 40% 30% 20% 10% 0% Yes 0% No Series1

INFERENCE The above graph shows that all the employees are very proud to be a part of the organization.

2.2 STATISTICAL ANALYSIS 2.2.1 Weighted Average Method Ranking of the factors which gives more stress in HPS Pvt Ltd. FACTORS 1 2 3 4 5 POINTS PERCENTAGE

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i. Less time to perform a task ii. Unstructured instructions from

29 31 39 21 30 35 42 31 24 18

458 502

20.36% 22.31%

the superior iii. Loaded with too 44 33 29 25 19 many works iv. Less decision making authority v. Inadequacy of information for the work TOTAL 19 20 24 33 54 23 24 27 47 29

508 367 415

22.58% 16.31% 18.44%

100%

From the table the following ranking has been given to the factors. I Rank II Rank III Rank IV Rank V Rank Loaded with too many works Unstructured instructions from the superior

- Less time to perform a task - Inadequacy of information for the work Less decision making authority

INFERENCE The factors such as less decision making authority and inadequacy of information for the work does not give more stress to the employees which means there is enough decision making authority provided to the employees and enough information provided for the employees to work. Another factor less time to perform a task should also be considered as it gives neither more stress nor less stress to the employees. The major factors are unstructured

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instructions from the superior and loaded with too many works which should be given prior importance as it gives more stress to the employees.

2.2.2 Chi-Square Test 2.2.2.1 Table showing the relationship between the experience of the respondents and the opinion regarding their career progression at HPS Pvt Ltd.
EXPERIEN CE HIGHLY SATISFI SATISFI ED NEITHER SATISFIED DISSATISFI ED HIGHLY DISSATISFI TOTA L

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ED

NOR DISSATISFI ED

ED

1-5 YEARS 6-10 YEARS 11-15 YEARS 16-20 YEARS >20 YEARS TOTAL Hypothesis

6 9 7 13 12 47

17 13 14 18 20 82

7 6 4 3 1 21

0 0 0 0 0 0

0 0 0 0 0 0

30 28 25 34 33 150

Null Hypothesis : Ho There is no significant difference between the experience of the respondents and the opinion regarding their career progression at TVS Iyengar & Sons Ltd. Alternative Hypothesis : H1 There is a significant difference between the experience of the respondents and the opinion regarding their career progression at TVS Iyengar & Sons Ltd. Degree Of Freedom = 16 Significance Level = 5% Table Value = 26.296 2.2.2.1.1 Working for Chi-Square Test for the experience of the respondents and the opinion regarding their career progression at TVS Iyengar & Sons Ltd

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OBSERVED VALUE (O) 6 17 7 0 0 9 13 6 0 0 7 14 4 0 0 13 18 3 0 0 12 20 1 0 0

EXPECTED VALUE (E) 9.4 16.4 4.2 0 0 8.773 15.307 3.92 0 0 7.833 13.667 3.5 0 0 10.653 18.587 4.76 0 0 10.34 18.04 4.62 0 0 TOTAL

(O-E) 2 11.56 0.36 7.84 0 0 0.052 5.322 4.326 0 0 0.694 0.111 0.25 0 0 5.508 0.345 3.098 0 0 2.756 3.842 13.104 0 0

(O-E) 2/E 1.230 0.022 1.867 0 0 0.006 0.348 1.104 0 0 0.089 0.008 0.071 0 0 0.517 0.019 0.651 0 0 0.267 0.213 2.836 0 0 9.248

CALCULATED VALUE = 9.248 TABLE VALUE = 26.296 TABLE VALUE > CALCULATED VALUE Hence, we accept the null hypothesis (Ho).

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INFERENCE The career progression at TVS Iyengar & Sons Ltd does not have any direct impact on the experience of the employees. In other words, both the experienced and the non-experienced employees have a positive opinion regarding career progression at TVS Iyengar & Sons Ltd.

2.2.2.2 Table showing the relationship between the age of the respondents and the opinion regarding getting fun with their family or friends at least once a week.
AGE HIGH LY SATIS FIED SATISFIE D NEITHER SATISFIED NOR DISSATISFI ED DISSATISFI ED HIGHLY DISSATISFI ED TOTA L

Below 25 YEARS 25-40 YEARS Above 40

22

17

11

50

19 20

21 18

9 13

0 0

0 0

49 51

YEARS TOTAL 61 Hypothesis

56

33

150

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Null Hypothesis : Ho There is no significant difference between the age of the respondents and the opinion regarding getting fun with their family or friends at least once a week. Alternative Hypothesis : H1 There is a significant difference between the age of the respondents and the opinion regarding getting fun with their family or friends at least once a week. Degree Of Freedom = 8 Significance Level = 5% Table Value = 15.507 2.2.2.2.1 Working For Chi-Square Test for the age of the respondents and the opinion regarding getting fun with their family or friends at least once a week OBSERVED VALUE (O) 22 17 11 0 0 19 21 9 0 0 20 18 13 0 0 EXPECTED VALUE (E) 20.333 18.667 11 0 0 19.927 18.293 10.78 0 0 20.74 19.04 11.22 0 0 TOTAL (O-E) 2 2.779 2.779 0 0 0 0.859 7.328 3.168 0 0 0.548 1.082 3.168 0 0 (O-E) 2/E 0.137 0.149 0 0 0 0.043 0.401 0.294 0 0 0.026 0.057 0.282 0 0 1.389

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CALCULATED VALUE = 1.389 TABLE VALUE = 15.507 TABLE VALUE > CALCULATED VALUE Hence, we accept the null hypothesis (Ho). INFERENCE Getting fun with their family or friends at least once a week does not have any direct impact on the age of the employees. In other words, all age group employees are having fun with their family or friends at least once a week.

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3.1 FINDINGS OF THE STUDY As no employee is dissatisfied regarding their career, it can be concluded that the company provides a progressive career to its employees. As most of the employees are interested in starting something new though success is not sure, it is concluded that the company provides room for the individuals to improve themselves. As most of the employees do not have to do a thing in their role against their better judgment, it is concluded that the company gives importance to the opinion of the employees. Most of the employees are not emotionally drained and so it is concluded that the company do not upset the minds of the employees. Stress does not have an impact on employees inability to think clearly and it is concluded that the company provides enough room for the employees to think. The company gives much importance to its outputs or requirements as very few employees get nervous when they didnt meet organizational requirements. As most of the employees are satisfied in coming out ahead when compared to others, it is concluded that there is a healthy competition between the employees within the organization. Most of the employees are highly responsible to the organization as they are willing to take risk when the stakes are high.

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The company encourages the employees by providing rewards when they achieve something. The company is much cared about its employees wellbeing as it is providing a good infrastructure to its employees. The company superiors are friendly and lenient to their subordinates. The company is good at interpersonal relationship within the departments. The same level employees of different departments are good at interpersonal relationship in the company. The employees are more confident after the victory as many employees dont tend to get nervous after a victory. The company is not demanding the employees to work for long hours as many get 7-8 hours sleep a day and it is also not liable for the lack of sleep of some of the employees as all them are getting 6-7 hours of sleep a day. The employees of this organization are very dedicated to their work as they dont tend to forget things easily during working hours. The employees of this organization are not tired of their work as stress does not have an impact on them being restless during work. The employees of this organization are unwilling to express their negative feelings to the respective person as it doesnt relieve them from stress. The company is providing necessary feedback to its employees. The employees of this organization are spending enough time with their family or friends.

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All the employees of this organization are very proud to be a part of the organization. 3.2 SUGGESTIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS As career progression does not give any stress to the employees, it should be maintained in the same way. Always company must show interest on employees career. Employees should be given ample opportunities as many are interested in starting something new though success is not sure. As now opinion of the employees should be considered in most cases to get mutual benefits. Even though many are not emotionally drained by their work, there are also employees who get emotionally drained by their work. The company should never upset the minds of the employees. The employees can be given more time to think clearly as for some employees stress has an impact on their inability to think clearly. The company should not make the employees get very nervous when they didnt meet organizational requirements. They should be given enough time and information to complete their task. The company is having a healthy competition among its employees and it should maintain the same. As many employees are ready to take risk when the stakes are high, they should be given more responsibilities according to their designation.

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The company should keep on encouraging its employees when they achieve something. The company should maintain its excellent infrastructure as many employees are highly satisfied. The existing friendly atmosphere between the superiors and the subordinates should be maintained and at the same time work should not get delayed. As the employees of same department are interdependent they should be very co-operative. The company should concentrate more on the relationship of same level staff of different departments as about 30% of the employees are not satisfied with their relationships. The company should always see that the employees are more confident after their victory. As now the company should not demand the employees to work for long hours and the company should never be liable for the employees lack of sleep. The company should keep on reminding the important works or assignments to the employees even though most of the employees do not tend to forget things easily working hours. The employees at this company do not get tired of their work and the company should maintain the same. The company should provide room for negotiation to the employees when a problem arose among them. The company should always provide necessary feedbacks to its employees.

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As now the employees should be given enough time to spend with their family or friends. The company should always make its employees feel proud to be a part of the organization. 3.3 CONCLUSION Stress management is the need of the hour. However hard we try to go beyond a stress situation, life seems to find new ways of stressing us out and plaguing us with anxiety attacks. Moreover, be it our anxiety, mind-body exhaustion or our erring attitudes, we tend to overlook causes of stress and the conditions triggered by those. In such unsettling moments we often forget that stressors, if not escapable, are fairly manageable and treatable. Stress, either quick or constant, can induce risky body-mind disorders. Immediate disorders such as dizzy spells, anxiety attacks, tension, sleeplessness, nervousness and muscle cramps can all result in chronic health problems. They may also affect our immune, cardiovascular and nervous systems and lead individuals to habitual addictions, which are interlinked with stress. Like "stress reactions", "relaxation responses" and stress management techniques are some of the body`s important built-in response systems. As a relaxation response the body tries to get back balance in its homeostasis. Some hormones released during the `fight or flight` situation prompt the body to replace the lost carbohydrates and fats, and restore the energy level. The knotted nerves, tightened muscles and an exhausted mind crave for

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looseners. Unfortunately, today, we don`t get relaxing and soothing situations without asking. To be relaxed we have to strive to create such situations.

BIBLIOGRAPHY C.R.Kothari, Research Methodology, Wishva Prakashan, New Delhi, 2001. Uma Sekaran, Research Methods for Business, John Wiley and Sons Inc., New York, 2000. Jerrold S Greenberg, Comprehensive Stress Management, Brown and Benchmark Pub, USA, 1999. Dr Tim Newton, Managing Stress: Emotion and Power at Work, Sage Publications, USA, 1995. Journals

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The Acadian journal of management research 2008 Website www.CiteHR.com www.stresscure.com www.google.com

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