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1. Most of the world supply of ammonia is manufactured through Haber process. The raw materials for the manufacture of ammonia are hydrogen gas and nitrogen gas. The ratio for the raw materials is one portion of nitrogen to three portion of hydrogen. a. Nitrogen is obtained from the fractional distillation of liquid air. b. Hydrogen can be obtained by two methods : i, The reaction between methane ( from natural gas ) and steam. CH4 (g ) + 2H2O

4H2 (g ) + CO2 ( g )

ii. The reaction between heated coke with steam C( s ) + H2O H2 ( g ) + CO ( g)

( This mixture is known as water gas )

2. The optimum conditions for Haber process are : a. the use of red hot iron catalysts b. very high pressure of 200 atmospheric pressure c. average high temperature of 450 c 3. During Haber process : a. A mixture of one volume of dry nitrogen gas and three volume of pure hydrogen gas is mixed and passed to the compressor and compressed to a pressure of about 200 atm. b. The mixture is then passed through layers of heated and finely divided iron catalyst in the reactor at a temperature of about 450 c. c. Ammonia is produced in the reactor but the reaction is reversible. N2 ( g ) + 3H2 ( g ) 2NH3 ( g )

d. The production of ammonia is exothermic and gives out heat. It is passed into the cooling chamber, then liquefied and separated to get a better yield. e. The unreacted nitrogen and hydrogen are recycled and passed back into the reactor together with the new source of nitrogen and hydrogen. 4. About 98% of nitrogen and hydrogen are converted into ammonia. Chemist Tidbits. In 1918, Fritz Haber ( 1868 1934 ) was awarded the Nobel Prize for inventing the Haber process. This helped to solve the shortage of food after the First World War.

Each year, more than 140 million tones of ammonia, NH3 is produced around the world. Ammonia is produced industrially as an intermediate compound and as raw material forn many other chemical processes. However, have all of you wonder what is it used for ? The manufacture of nitrogenous fertilizers such as ammonium phosphates, ammonium sulphate, ammonium nitrate and urea As a raw material for the manufacture of niric acid in Ostawald Process Used in the manufacture of synthetic fiber and nylon As an alkali to prevent coagulation of latex To produce ammonium chloride used as electrolyte in dry cells Cleaning agents such as washing powder and detergents To be converted into nitric acid used for making explosives The liquid form is used as cooling agent ( refrigerant ) in refrigerator To manufacture dyes

The nitrogenous fertilisers are actually ammonium salts obtained from neutralisation of ammonia with different acids. These fertilisers include a. Ammonium phosphate The reaction of ammonia with phosphoric acid produces ammonium phosphate. Ammonium phosphate is a good fertiliser as it provides two important nutrrients,nitrogen and phosphorus b. Ammonium nitrate Ammonium reacts with nitric acid to produce ammonium nitrate. c. Ammonium sulphate Ammonium reacts with sulphuric acid to produce ammonium sulphate. d. Urea Ammonia reacts with carbon dioxide at 200c and atmospheric pressure of 200 to produce urea. Urea has the highest percentage of nitrogen and is very suitable for plant growth.

Group leader : Ong Poh Yeong 4A Group members : Susanna Choy Xia Yen 4A Choy Shin Joo 4A

Lee Pei Ying 4A 4A 4A Tan Hui Xin Sim Soo Min




Uses of Ammonia

Properties of ammonia

Manufacture of Ammonia in industry

Ammonium Fertilisers

Practice Makes Perfect