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Airbus A-319, A-320, A-321
Airbus A319, A320, A321 Quick Reference Notes
AIRBUS A-319, A320, A321 STUDY GUIDE
Table of Contents
Table of Contents _______________________________________________________ 2 Limits ________________________________________________________________ 1 Systems _______________________________________________________________ 6 Ice & Rain Protection ( PH 6.x.x) _______________________________________ 7 Electrical (PH 7.x.x) __________________________________________________ 8 Fire Protection (PH 8.x.x) ____________________________________________ 12 Fuel (PH 9.x.x) ______________________________________________________ 14 Pneumatics, Air Conditioning & Pressurization (PH 10.x.x) ________________ 18 Pressurization (PH 10.5.x) ____________________________________________ 21 Hydraulics, Brakes & Landing Gear (PH 11.x.x) _________________________ 23 Flight Controls (PH 12.x.x) ___________________________________________ 28 Instrument / Nav / Comm (PH 13.x.x) __________________________________ 35 ECAM (PH 13.1.1) ___________________________________________________ 35 ECAM Procedures (PH 21.1.4, 13.1.1): __________________________________ 36 ECAM Exceptions ___________________________________________________ 37 Tune, Talk, Listen – RMP and ACP _____________________________________ 42 Auto Flight System (PH 2.9.5) _________________________________________ 43 FMA – Flight Mode Annunciator (PH 14.2.1) _____________________________ 50 Oxygen (PH 15.x.x) __________________________________________________ 51 Powerplant (PH 16.x.x, 2.14.1)_________________________________________ 52 APU (PH 16.3.x, 7.1.x) _______________________________________________ 53 FMS (PH 17.x.x) ____________________________________________________ 55 Pseudo Waypoints (PH 17.3.3) ___________________________________________ 59 Initializing the FMGC __________________________________________________ 61 Auto Initialization ________________________________Error! Bookmark not defined. Phase Triggers (PH 17-12) ______________________________________________ 66 Imaginary Centerline ___________________________________________________ 67 2
Airbus A319, A320, A321 Quick Reference Notes Auto Clear ___________________________________________________________ 67 FMS 2 Differences _____________________________________________________ 67 Reroutes _____________________________________________________________ 70 Takeoff ______________________________________________________________ 74 V1 Cuts ______________________________________________________________ 76 Approaches ___________________________________________________________ 78 ILS Approaches _______________________________________________________ 81 CAT II/III Approaches _________________________________________________ 82 PRM Approaches (PH 18.6.22) ___________________________________________ 84 RNAV (LNAV- VNAV) Approaches _______________________________________ 85 RNAV LNAV Approaches _______________________________________________ 86 VOR approaches ______________________________________________________ 87 LDA Approaches ______________________________________________________ 88 ASR Approaches ______________________________________________________ 88 Engine-Out Approaches ________________________________________________ 88 Visual Approaches _____________________________________________________ 88 Go Around ___________________________________________________________ 89 Landing______________________________________________________________ 90 Windshear (PH 2i.3, QRH OD-17, FOM 7.6.3) ______________________________ 92 EGPWS (PH 2i.4) _____________________________________________________ 92 TCAS RA Maneuver (PH 2i.5) ___________________________________________ 93 Low Energy Warning (PH 2i.12) _________________________________________ 93 A to Z - Abbreviations & Acronyms __________________Error! Bookmark not defined. FOM Stuff ______________________________________Error! Bookmark not defined. Logbook Stuff ________________________________________________________ 139
A320 IAE): Max tailwind for takeoff. A320. 195 kts.800 73.2.000 77. 20 kts. 10 kts.000 64.4.500 124 /120 A320-231 75900 75.3) (in kgs.500 58.) Max Ramp: Max Takeoff: Max Landing: Max Zero Fuel: Seats new/old: A319 75.10.500 62. 4 . A320 IAE engines: Max tailwind for Auto land Max tailwind component for landing: Max operating altitude: Max landing gear extension altitude: Max operating altitude w/ slats and/or flaps extended: 29 kts.800 185 / 169 Operational Limits (PH 1. 10 kts. 200 kts.82M 280 KIAS / .900 75. 15 kts.399 77. 39.Airbus A319. 10 kts.2) Max 90°crosswind for Takeoff and Landing: Max headwind for Auto land Max 90° crosswind (including gusts) for Autoland: Max 90° crosswind (including gusts) for CAT II/III: Max tailwind component for takeoff (ex.000 ft.399 93.1.1) Max operating speed (VMO):/(Mmo) Max gear extended (VLE): Max gear extension (VLO): Max gear retraction (VLO): Max windshield wiper operations speed (VWW): Max window open speed (who is going to open it?): Max tire speed: Max taxi speed: Max taxi speed for 90° turn: 350 KIAS/ . 25. 10 kts.000 150/142 A321 93.500 64.67M 250 KIAS 220 KIAS 230 kts. 30 kts. 15 kts. gust 38 30 kts. 1.500 62.500 62.3.100 ft. 20. Speed Limits (PH 1.000 ft. A321 Quick Reference Notes Limits (Memory items in bold italics) Weight Limits (FCOM 1.000 150 A320-214&232 77.
76M A321 Below FL 200 270 KIAS Max Flaps / Slats (VFE) (PH 1.500 lbs. A320.676 lbs.Airbus A319.1) (6.500 lbs.01 OPS DATA) A319/320 Below FL 150 250 KIAS FL150 TO 310 275 KIAS ABOVE FL 310 ./4763kgs 52./6577kgs N/A 42.2): Model A319/320 A321 Position: VFE VFE 1(slats) 230 KIAS 235 KIAS 1+F 215 KIAS 225 KIAS 2 200 KIAS 215 KIAS 3 185 KIAS 195 KIAS FULL 177 KIAS 190 KIAS Ice & Rain Protection (PH 1./6577kgs 10.5.500 lbs /12474 kgs 14.2) Engine anti-ice must be on during all ground and flight operations when icing conditions exist (and prior to descent into icing conditions) except during climb and cruise when the temperature is: Below -40° C SAT Icing conditions exist on ground: Icing conditions exist in flight: OAT 10°C (50° F) or below TAT 10° C (50°F) to-40° C Fuel (PH 1.500 lbs.6./23587kgs 5 .000 lbs./19051kgs A321 27.4.500 lbs.) Wing tanks: Center tank: Additional Center tanks: Total useable fuel: A319/A320 27. per gal.76M FL200 TO 270 300 KIAS ABOVE FL270 . /12474 kgs 14.500 lbs. A321 Quick Reference Notes Turbulence Penetration (QRH 5.
A321 Quick Reference Notes Autopilot / Auto land (PH 1. 2e.1) Ground Check: PFD 1 and 2 within +/.) Enroute (A319. AGL Non-precision approach MDA After Manual Go-Around in SRS 100 ft.Airbus A319.16.: Min altitude after takeoff (if SRS is indicated) 100 ft. of known airport altitude Max difference between PFD 1 and 2 within 25 ft. Min engine oil for dispatch (PH 1. AGL RVSM Altimeter tolerances (PH 1. AGL Enroute (A321): 900 ft. A320.2) 300° C 11 qts.75 ft.8.8.1) Autopilot Engaged Minimum Height in ft. AGL (Note: internal logic prevents autopilot engagement for 5 seconds after liftoff. A320): 500 ft. Max brake temp for takeoff (PH 1. In Flight: Max difference between Capt’s.12.10. AGL CAT I ILS 160 ft. and F/O’s PFD is 200 ft.14) 6 .
In normal use select Wing Anti-Ice (PH 3a. Engine Ignition will come on automatically when Engine Anti-Ice is selected ON on IAE engine aircraft and CFM non-upgraded FADEC aircraft. (3.13. Engine A-I valves will open automatically on loss of electrical power. on ground. Deselect to Auto after second engine start. In flight all heat automatically goes to High.2) APU bleed is NOT permitted for Wing anti-ice. They close with air pressure available. A321 Quick Reference Notes Systems Ice & Rain Protection ( TM 7-30.1. Wing A-I valves close automatically: On touchdown Leak detected Electrical power lost Wing A-I is not permitted on ground or above TAT 10° C (PH 2.6. Probe and Mast Heat / Window Heat / Rain Removal All heat is turned on at low power on ground after the first engine start. A320. Engine limits are automatically reset when Engine A-I selected.Airbus A319.3) – Engine A-I ducting is independent of wing A-I.2) . Can turn on manually on ground before engine start by pressing pb to ON. 5) Wing A-I is available for single-engine (if Engine Fire pb not pushed) by using pack off and cross bleed open as per PH 21 After ENG 1(2) SHUT DOWN.Wing anti-ice heats the three outer wing slat panels on each wing. On CFM aircraft with new upgraded FADEC’s the ignition will only come on when FADEC detects certain parameters being exceeded.3) Note: Wing A-I test opens valves for 30 sec.2): On after thrust reduction on take-off Off at FAF during approach Engine Anti-ice (TM 70-1.x) Wing Anti-ice (TM 7-30. 4. (PH 1. 7 .
The External Power (EXT PWR) pb will show green AVAIL when power is connected and OK. Blue ON indicates that external is powering the aircraft.x) All normal electrical power shifts automatically except the External Power which must have the EXT PWR pushbutton selected to supply power to the AC bus tie. Once the external power has been deselected and the green AVAIL is showing in the pb you may disconnect the external power. NOTE: Just to make things interesting Airbus has used the same Pb’s for the APU Start Pb as the External Power Pb. It will change from blue ON to green AVAIL as the APU (or engines) begin to supply power. Once pressed the EXT PWR pb will show blue ON indicating that external is now powering the aircraft. normally the APU. New Airbus pilots will sometimes find it hard to remember that the green AVAIL does NOT mean that it is powering the aircraft.B 1) 2) 3) 4) 5) 6) On side engine generator External Power APU Off side engine generator Emergency Generator (RAT) Batteries PH doesn’t use the On / Off side terms. When you wish to switch to ships power first ensure that a power source is available. This is just a reminder as the APU panel is not part of the Electrical panel. Electrical (TM 7-24. EXT PWR requires a manual power shift). However the APU blue ON is the “Master Switch” and just indicates the APU is prepared to start. The blue ON for the Start Pb means the APU is starting. Normal priority for AC power is: (work across ELEC panel from GEN 2) G E A R. below is the official PH version of the Electrical priorities: 1) 2) 3) 4) 5) Engine Generators External Power APU Emergency Generator (RAT) Batteries 8 . the opposite of the EXT PWR Pb. Cool the cockpit (or stow shades) and reset the WHC circuit breaker. A321 Quick Reference Notes Note: when on ground a windshield (or window) heat fault may be given due to heating by the sun.Airbus A319. The green AVAIL in the Start pb shows that the APU is available for use and power is OK and the APU will automatically pick up the electrical load unless you are on external (remember. Then press the EXT PWR pb. A320. Rain repellant is inhibited on the ground with engines shut down. So for the APU green AVAIL can be showing in the Pb when powering the aircraft. The pilot must press the pb to manually select external.
APU will automatically power AC unless the EXT PWR or ENG GEN is on. AC BUS 1 then feeds DC BUS 1 through TR 1 (transformer rectifier). Part of the normal procedures. The Electrical system is divided into two main branches. The same happens on side 2.Airbus A319.1). A321 Quick Reference Notes The only way to power both AC busses from a single power source is through the AC BUS TIE. Two batteries are installed. charge is required if BAT voltage is not enough. If both IDG’s are available then the AC busses will not be connected to the AC BUS TIE. 9 . Battery charging is automatic and is controlled by the BCL (Battery Charge Limiter). Min Battery voltage is 25. If only one ENG GEN (no APU or EXT PWR) is available the opposite AC bus will connect to it through the AC BUS TIE. Both AC and DC are normally separated into two branches with Engine 1 driving IDG (integrated drive generator) 1 and IDG 1 feeding AC BUS 1. IDG can only be reconnected on the ground. The AC BUS TIE will then be isolated from the normal powered bus. To charge batteries turn them on by pressing their respective Pb’s and connecting external power. Watch on the ECAM ELEC page to see that both batteries have initial current charge rates after 10 seconds of less than 60 amps and decreasing (PH 3. Check battery voltage with the BAT switch OFF. IDG should not be disconnected when engine not turning (operating or wind milling) and the IDG disconnect should not be pressed more than 3 seconds. The BCL connects the battery to its respective DC BAT BUS during battery charging and during APU start. If the APU is then started it will automatically power the bus tie and the failed AC bus.4. A 20 min. As long as each engine IDG is available then the two sides remain electrically isolated. call for the check of both batteries to make sure that they are charging properly.5v. for the Originating Checklist. The batteries have an automatic cut-off logic to prevent complete battery run-down when the aircraft is un powered and on the ground.5v capacity to ensure APU start after overnight. A320. The APU and EXT PWR both feed the AC BUS TIE. Turn off both batteries and then turn them back on. Both AC Busses connect to the AC BUS TIE as needed. If there is a loss of power on an AC bus then the remaining powered bus will automatically power the un powered AC bus through the AC BUS TIE. In case of TR failure the DC busses can be automatically connected through the DC BAT BUS. This will shut off the batteries at about 22.
Below 50 kts. However. GEN 2 through AC BUS 2. If you need to reset the Emergency Generator after the RAT has been deployed (such as go-around after gear has been deployed) press the RAT MAN ON pb again and this will allow the Emergency Gen to reset and come back online.) regardless. Note: min. 10 . or more the RAT will automatically deploy. A321 Quick Reference Notes If all AC (no RAT) is lost a static inverter is connected from HOT BAT 1 bus to AC ESS bus (not SHED bus). the RAT will continue to supply hydraulic pressure even after it is unable to power the emergency generator. generator. and the airspeed is 100 kts. RAT speed is 140 kts. In loss of all AC. If both Main AC busses loose power. A321) and ND1 and MCDU1 will go out at that time due to loss of AC shed bus. APU will carry all busses on ground but will not supply main galley shed busses in-flight. AC Essential Feed will not automatically switch. A321 and modified A320. In-flight if only one generator is supplying entire system then part (321: all galley power) of the galley load and passenger in-seat power supply is shed. AC BUS 1 normally supplies power to AC ESS and DC BUS 1 which eventually feeds DC ESS. The RAT emergency generator is lost at landing gear down (unmodified A320) or less than 125 kts (A319.Airbus A319. If AC BUS 1 fails the pilot may press the AC ESS FEED pb to ALTN. DC BAT will connect below 100 kts. This will put the AC ESS BUS on it’s alternate source. modified A320. however pressing the MAN ON red guarded pb on the EMER ELEC PWR panel will deploy the RAT and hydraulically power the Emergency Generator. BAT 2 will supply DC ESS (not SHED) in the event of loss of all AC (no RAT emergency. This is to prevent a bus short on the AC ESS BUS from then also damaging the GEN 2 bus complex if it has already caused damage to the GEN 1 bus complex. When all AC is lost including the RAT emergency generator BAT 1 will supply AC ESS through the static inverter and BAT 2 will supply DC ESS. During the 8 seconds it takes the RAT to deploy and supply power the batteries will supply the ESS busses (not their shed busses) and the red FAULT light on the EMER ELEC PWR panel will be on during those 8 seconds. AC BUS 2 will also supply power to DC ESS BUS from DC BUS 2 and DC BAT BUS when the AC ESS FEED pb is selected to ALTN. If TR1 fails the DC BAT BUS and DC BUS 1 will become automatically powered by DC BUS 2 which will automatically connect to the DC BAT BUS. A320. ECAM upper). The emergency generator will then power AC ESS BUS and DC ESS BUS. On landing the DC BAT bus is automatically connected to the batteries when airspeed drops below 100 kts. AC ESS will no longer be supplied by the inverter and will be un powered. ECAM will direct whether to actually re power AC ESS or to leave it un powered. The RAT is normally deployed automatically for electrical problems. When the speed drops below 50 kts. It is not supplied above 100 kts. RAT will stall out at less than 125 kts on A319. the AC ESS bus is shed and power is lost to remaining CRT’s (PFD1.
GEN 1 will still be powering two wing fuel pumps. Lights available in loss of all AC emergency are:• • • Capt. If any generator is operating at more than 100% rated load the GALY & CAB (or GALLEY) pb will illuminate amber FAULT. for start after EMERG GEN connects. Passenger entertainment). In loss of all AC (RAT only) emergency the APU is allowed 3 min. If APU gen or EXT PWR is supplying power then all galleys are powered. Note: this is not the complete smoke procedure. However. All other colors are not monitored. secondary galley and the in-seat power supply. Drain mast ice protection. A321 Quick Reference Notes GEN 1 Line (7.9) – If there is smoke in the avionics compartment the amber SMOKE light will come on in the GEN 1 LINE pushbutton. This will open the GEN 1 line contactor and depower AC bus 1. Red caps are installed on the wing tip brakes circuit breakers to prevent loss of flap asymmetry protection. Commercial pb (A321 only) when pushed will depower all commercial electrical systems (Cabin & Cargo lights. The APU will not start in-flight when on BAT only (this is due to the DC BAT BUS being disconnected during Electrical Emergency configuration above 100 kts. You will be directed to select OFF which will then load shed by offloading the main galley. GEN 2 will then automatically pick up AC BUS1 through the AC BUS tie.1. The ECAM will display C/B TRIPPED ON OVHD PNL (or REAR PNL) if a green monitored breaker is tripped for more than a minute. Water & Toilet system.15.Airbus A319.1). When on the gate with normal APU or EXT PWR (AC established) the GEN 1 & 2 amber FAULT lights will normally be the only amber FAULT lights on in the overhead panel (with packs ON). 11 . instrument lights F/O dome light (if on DIM or BRT) Compass/ice light (PH 5. All circuit breakers have a letter (horizontal) and number (vertical) code. The procedure will call for the pilot to press the pb. A320.). one in each wing inner tank. Green are monitored by ECAM. just the beginning that deals with the GEN 1 LINE pb. Circuit breakers are color coded. With packs OFF the GEN 1 & 2 amber FAULT and the PACK 1 & 2 amber FAULT lights will be on. Galley. In AUTO (normal blank) pb position the main galley (A319 & A320) or all galleys (A321) and inseat power supplies will automatically load shed if in-flight with one generator operating or on the ground with only one engine generator operating. Yellow breakers are pulled during the procedure for flight on battery power only. Red capped breakers are NEVER pulled in flight.
2. blow extinguisher bottle. pylon nacelle. The 321 has (4/6) four forward detectors and six detectors in the aft cargo. after APU Green AVAIL light goes out to allow time for APU flap to close (PH 3. The engines each have two extinguishers. A fire warning is given when both loops reach the proper overheat condition. APU fire on ground will auto shutdown. the APU one.x) Both engines and the APU each have two identical loops. In either case two loops. 8. you got to have electrical somehow! Make sure you have a GEN. A & B and a computer. Cargo smoke gives: CRC.FDU (Fire Detection Unit). sound nose wheel well horn and APU FIRE light will illuminate on external interphone panel.4. If one smoke detector fails the system remains operational on the remaining detector. A320. A fire warning is given if both loops fail within 5 seconds of each other.Airbus A319. ENG fire test: (7 items – 4 reds) (PH 3. There is a red disc on the aft fuselage to show thermal discharge for the APU fire bottle. Note: APU will auto shutdown in air for other than fire (go figure). Engines have sensing elements in three sections. Agreement of two smoke detectors on a loop will give warning. APU has sensing element in APU compartment. APU fire in-flight must be manually shutdown (will not auto shutdown) and extinguished. engine core and fan section. Batteries must always be on when APU is running for fire protection.16).1. A321 Quick Reference Notes When shutting down the APU and turning off BATTs allow 2 min. EMER GEN or at least a BAT or your sidestick just became a worthless piece of plastic! And you become part of an unguided missile Fire Protection (TM 7. There is one extinguisher bottle for fore and aft compartments with one nozzle forward and two nozzles aft. The forward cargo compartment has two (2/4) smoke detectors and the aft has four (319.1) ENG 1 Test – press and hold ENG FIRE pb illuminated (red) SQUIB and DISCH lights illuminated (2) MASTER WARN illuminated (2) (red) CRC aural chime 12 . If one loop fails the other loop is able to generate the warning by itself. Master Warn light and Cargo SMOKE light.26.320). This is no magic when the electrons stop! Bottom line here. If cargo SMOKE is warning is given an isolation valve will close and the extraction fan will stop.
Arms squib Closes low pressure fuel valve & APU fuel pump off Deactivates APU GEN Closes APU bleed & Cross bleed valves (3) (0) (2) (1) (2) Cargo Smoke Detector test .Airbus A319. AC 6 items – 3 red) (PH3.press & release button for test. two on FUEL. one on ELEC. 2. SMOKE red lights illuminate MASTER WARN light illuminate CRC aural 13 .1): DISCH amber lights illuminate.1.2.4. two on AIR COND) FIRE HYD – FUEL ELEC AIR CONDSilences CRC. A320. 8.3. A321 Quick Reference Notes ENG 1 FIRE warning on E/WD (red) ENGINE page on SD FIRE light ENG 1 (on ENG panel) illuminated (red) Repeat for ENG 2 APU fire test: (BAT only 2 items – 1 red.2 sequence – two on FIRE.2) APU FIRE Test – press and hold (APU will not shutdown during test if running) APU FIRE pb illuminated (red) * * * SQUIB and DISCH light illuminated MASTER WARN lights illuminated (2) (red) CRC aural chime APU FIRE warning on E/WD (red) APU page on SD *BAT only (when doing Safety and Power On checklist on Battery only. one on HYD.2 sequence)FIRE HYD FUEL ELEC AIR CONDSilences CRC. no External power) ENG FIRE pb pressed performs: (work down panel with 2.1. 0.2. Arms squibs Closes hydraulic fire valve Closes low pressure fuel valve and turns off FADEC Deactivates the IDG Closes engine bleed & pack flow valves (2) (1) (2) (1) (2) APU FIRE pb pressed performs: (work down panel with 3.1. Shuts down APU. You should get (PH 3.
A321 Quick Reference Notes CARGO SMOKE on E/WD This test will run twice after you select it once to test both channels.237kgs Inner wing tank 12..500 lbs. /6237kgs Total Center Fuel 25.340kgs Total Right Wing Fuel 13.500 lbs/.000 lbs 18728 kgs.500 lbs/ 4763kgs A319/320: Total Left Wing Fuel 13.190 lbs. A320) so the center tank fuel will be burned before the wing tank fuel will be even 14 ./ 6.190 lbs 5435kgs Center tank 14. 23.500 lbs. The center tank pumps run at a higher override pressure (A319.000 lbs.815 kgs Fuel Philosophy: Fuel in center last. A321: 52.4) Fuel may not be added to ACT unless center tank is full (A321) except by MEL.750 Lbs.6577kgs Total Right Wing Fuel 13.Airbus A319. Note: DISCH amber lights only on first test. 691kgs (N/A 321) Surge tank A321: Total Left Wing Fuel 13./11.237kgs Total Fuel – A319/320: 42. If the CARGO SMOKE bottle is fired the indications you can expect are: Red SMOKE light remains on (smoke & bottle discharge are trapped) Both amber DISCH lights will come on and remain on (only one bottle) Fuel (TM 7-28. A320.750 Lbs. 5435kgs Outer wing tank 1560 lbs. Center fuel emptied first Takeoff on center tank prohibited (PH 1. 6476kgs Inner wing tank 12. 691kgs (N/A 321) A321 only: 2 Additional Center Tanks 10.6.750/ 6.750 Lbs.x) Surge tank Outer wing tank 1560 lbs./ 6237kgs Total Center Fuel 14.
100 lbs. Losing two inner tank pumps will put that wing on gravity (suction) feed. Normally fuel is run in Auto mode. This prevents surge tank spillage. APU fuel is drawn from the left fuel manifold. A320.Airbus A319. The pumps will restart again after takeoff when the slats are retracted. The Auto mode schedule for the center tank is to run the center tank pumps any time there is fuel in the center tank except when the slats are extended. If the inner wing tank fills completely up then the center tank pump on that side will be automatically turned off to allow wing tank fuel to be burned until 1. / 750kgs When 15 . only the inner wing tanks can suction feed. If IDG return fuel fills the outer wing tank the extra fuel will spill over into the inner wing tank. 35. If both pumps in same tank fail. Exceptions to the Auto schedule: After engine start the center tanks will run for at least two minutes for a “test run” even if the slats have already been extended. Losing one center pump requires opening crossfeed valve (one ECAM chime) Losing one inner tank pump just requires turning off the pump switch (no chime) Losing two center tank pumps will make any remaining center fuel unusable (no suction feed). / 500kgs has been used. The fuel in the outer wing tanks will gravity feed through two transfer valve openings when inner wing tank fuel level reaches 1. A321 Quick Reference Notes though center and wing pumps are both providing fuel pressure to the manifold at the same time. If slats are not extended pumps will continue to run as normal until they are extended. There is a chart to determine safe altitudes for gravity feeding in the QRH pg. This will run the wing tanks continuously and the center tank on a schedule. Center tank fuel would be unusable. The APU normally uses the tank pump pressure but has its own fuel pump that it will use if no other fuel pump pressure is available.650 lbs. After the center tanks run dry the pumps will continue to run for 5 more mins. Then the center tank pump will turn on again.
2 in each outer wing tank. If the fuel quantity is in a degraded mode the ECAM fuel quantity will have amber dashes through the last two digits. The Cross feed pb is normally extinguished when the valve is closed. the jet pumps are “powered” by fuel pressure from the fuel pumps in the main wing tanks and the jet pumps transfer fuel from the Center tank to the respective wing tank. A320. Further. Note: Unusable fuel is shown with a half amber box around the fuel quantity on ECAM. If fuel is “sloshed” during climb or descent it is possible for the transfer valves to be opened early due to a LO LEVEL alert. 16 . If operating in Manual mode the crew must ensure that the center tank pumps are off when the wing tanks are completely full or when the center tank is empty. The fueling full is less than the operational full and that allows the extra IDG fuel room to collect in normal circumstances without triggering the center tank pump turn-off for IDG return fuel. Refueling is shown on upper ECAM memo when refueling door is open.Airbus A319. There are two full levels for the inner wing tanks. Please understand that the pumps in the wing must be running in order to power the center tank jet pumps and transfer fuel. The A321 wing tanks do not have an outer and inner tank and there are no transfer valves to latch open. Note: In Auto the center tank pumps run all the time if center tank fuel is present so with all fuel pumps on if you are on the gate with APU running (slats up) you will be using center tank fuel. Opening the Cross feed valve enables one engine to be fed by both sides and/or the center or both engines to be fed by one side and/or the center. / 750kgs level a signal is sent to latch open all the transfer valves in both outer wing tanks. This is a total of 4 valves. This would indicate that the normal Auto schedule was not being followed.000 kgs of fuel per wing. / 250 kgs of fuel while the left or right wing tank has less than 11. An ECAM caution is given if during Auto mode the center tank has more than 550 lbs.650 lbs. The Cross feed valve itself is powered by two electric motors.000 lbs/5. A-321 differences: The A321 Center Tank does not have the same electric pumps as the A319/320 but uses jet pumps instead. It will show white ON when selected on and green OPEN when fully open. A321 Quick Reference Notes either wing inner tank reaches the 1. The transfer valves will remain open for the rest of the flight and will close on the next refuel operation. All the wing fuel is in one wing tank and total wing fuel remains the same as the A319/320. a fueling full and an operational full.
Note: IDG return fuel is added to the wing tank as there is no outer tank on the A321.Airbus A319. So you still have a sort of low fuel message at around 6. The normal mode is AUTO. However. All fuel transfer is done automatically in the normal mode of operation. This will continue until all center fuel has been used.000 kgs of fuel and one ACT has more than 550 17 . Fuel transfer will begin from the ACT 2 when the center tank is no longer full./3. there is a memo “FOB below 3T” (Fuel On Board below three Tons). After ACT transfer starts if the center tank becomes full transfer will stop until the center tank burns down sufficiently and the transfer process will automatically restart. If in MAN they should also be turned OFF once all center tank fuel is gone. / 250 kgs once the wing fuel tank is again full the transfer will stop until the tank is burned down 550 lbs. / 250 kgs . The automatic fuel transfer from ACT to Center Tank is noted on the ECAM as a green triangle between the ACT fuel indicators. again. Essentially these CTR TK L (R) XFR pb’s handle the same function as the center tank pb’s on the A319 and A320. ACT 1 (forward) ACT 2 (aft) An amber FAULT light will illuminate in the ACT pb if the center tank has less than 6. The ACT 2 (aft tank) will transfer fuel first followed by the ACT1. In AUTO mode the ACT Pb allows automatic control of the fuel transfer after slat retraction when in-flight. If the FUEL MODE SEL pb is in MAN then the center tank transfer valves will open and must be turned off to avoid overfilling the wing tanks. The Additional Center Tanks do not have pumps but use cabin air pressure to feed the center tank through transfer valves. A320. A321 Quick Reference Notes The center tanks pump pb’s have been replaced on the A321 with transfer valve pb’s.000 lbs/3000kgs. Transfer will continue until either the center tank is full or both ACT’s are empty. An additional pb has been added to the FUEL panel to control the ACT fuel transfer. Note: There is no ECAM OUTR TK FUEL XFRD memo on the A321 as there is no outer or inner wing tank (all fuel in one wing tank). In Auto mode they will control the valves that allow the jet pumps to operate once the wing fuel has been burned down 550 lbs.614 lbs. The A321 has two Additional Center Tanks that will automatically feed to the Center tank when the Center tank burns down to a certain level defined as when the high tank level sensor is dry for 10 mins.
There is no ECAM CTR TANK FEEDG memo as the A321 never feeds from the Center Tank. It is normal to have fuel being transferred from the ACT’s to the Center tank and from the Center tank to the Wing tanks at the same time.Airbus A319.x. Please note that in order to feed an engine from the opposite wing you must still open the fuel cross feed valve.8. Note: For A321: if center tank is not full then do not takeoff with fuel in an ACT (PH 2.x) The pneumatic system supplies high pressure air for: Air conditioning Pressurization Engine starting Wing anti-icing Hydraulic reservoir pressurization Aft cargo heat Water tank pressurization High pressure air can be supplied by: Engine bleed APU load compressor 18 . Note: For the A321 all fuel is burned from the Wing tanks. On the A321 there’s a lot of transferring taking place. of fuel which would indicate that the AUTO schedule was not being followed. Fuel must be transferred to a Wing tank for it to be available for use by the engines. A321 Quick Reference Notes lbs/250kgs. This backup ACT XFR pump runs at a low volume and may not be able to transfer all fuel at higher altitudes (FL270 and above) or supply as fast as the engines are burning. If the ACT pb is selected to FWD then all ACT fuel will be manually transferred forward to the center tank using the ACT transfer pump. Air Conditioning & Pressurization (TM 7-36. which is a backup pump that can pump from either ACT. TM 721. A320. Chapter 21 will specify best procedures for complete transfer of fuel in case of ACT transfer FAULT.3) Note: on the SD FUEL display the left ACT is #1 (forward) and the right ACT is #2 (aft). Pneumatics. In normal AUTO operation the fuel procedures are the same and fuel transfer operation is transparent to the pilot.
A320.5%. The leak detection system uses a single loop for the pylons and APU to detect hot air temps associated with duct leaks. The cross bleed is manually set OPEN during the engine cross bleed start procedure. then only one loop is required to give a warning. If both of the dual loops detect a leak a warning is given. Dual loops are used for the wings.Airbus A319. In automatic mode the cross bleed valve opens automatically when using APU bleed air. 19 . During normal operation the cross bleed is closed to isolate the two engine bleeds. The AVAIL light will show in the APU start pb and green APU AVAIL will show on EWD display when APU is available for use. The cross bleed valve can be operated in automatic or manual mode. one for each mode. There are two electric motors for the valve. unless there is a fault on one. A321 Quick Reference Notes High pressure ground connection Controlled by BMC (Bleed Monitoring Computer) Engine Bleeds close automatically when BMC's detect: A S O O L APU bleed valve open Engine Start Over temperature Over pressure Leak The valve will also automatically close pneumatically when: Low pressure Reverse flow Is electrically closed when: ENG BLEED selected off ENG FIRE pb selected The APU bleed will close for leaks The APU is ready for bleed when reaching 95% for two seconds or 99.
Pack flow will revert to HI during single pack operation or APU bleed source regardless of selector position. A320. Failure of the primary channel will result in fixed temperature at 76° F with no optimization. 30° C/86° F The AC pack can bypass bleed air around the air cycle machine (ACM) if the ACM fails and run the bleed air through the primary heat exchanger directly. many new Airbus pilots fail to understand the way the Zone Temp system works. Failure of the 20 .Airbus A319. there is no cockpit indication of external air connected! You can turn off the cabin fans pb and if air continues to blow from the vents then external air is connected. If you are familiar with the Boeing 737-200. A/C zone temp selectors have a range of: Cold 18° C/64° 12 o’clock 24° F. Unfortunately.2). FWD Cabin and AFT Cabin. The zones are controlled by having the packs deliver all air at the lowest temp requested by any of the three zones. This allows the pack to operate as a simple heat exchanger with reduced pack flow. There are three air conditioning zones: Cockpit. This hot air is called trim air and is how the zone temp system controls temperatures in three zones with only two packs. Both packs are feeding all three zones. C/76° Hot F. Hot air is then added to any other zone that is commanding a higher temp. Pay attention here. The Zone controller can override pilot selected pack flow (HI. Then hot air is added through the trim air valves to the other two zones as needed to meet temp requirements. One Zone controller with two channels. this is very similar.7. It can also command higher APU speed or engine idle as needed. NORM and LOW) as needed to meet demands. Whichever zone is commanding the coldest temperature will drive BOTH packs to that temp. A321 Quick Reference Notes If a leak is detected: The engine bleed air valve (APU bleed air valve) on that side is closed Associated ENG (APU) BLEED FAULT light comes on Cross bleed valve closes (except during engine start) Left wing leak only – APU bleed air valve closes (except during ENG start) Packs NOTE: Do not use external conditioned air when using packs (PH 1.
No further optimization is available. The outflow valve has three DC motors: Primary. Controllers can operate in automatic.Airbus A319. A321 Quick Reference Notes secondary as well will result in a fixed temp of 68° F pack 1 and 50° F pack 2. the outflow valve will open to 50% to allow exhaust. Semi-automatic: If the database is not available for some reason the pilot can select the landing elevation from the LDG ELEV knob by pulling the selector out of the AUTO detent and turning to the needed value. Automatic: Controller automatically takes the destination field elevation from the aircraft database. During takeoff and touchdown the controllers close the ram air inlet flaps to prevent ingesting debris. 21 . Further failure of the secondary will result in a fixed pack outlet temp of 59° F. When pressurization differential is less than 1 psi. one outflow valve and two safety valves. The system has one control panel. If primary fails the secondary pack air flow will be fixed at the pre-failure setting. The entire pressurization schedule is optimized by the system. Backup and Manual. One Pack controller per pack. Two channels per controller. Pressurization There are two identical independent pressurization systems. Control is normally fully automatic. When the RAM AIR pb is selected the RAM air inlet opens. Note: The Airbus 320/321 can be dispatched with one pack INOP up to FL310 or below as per MEL 21-5201A When sitting on the gate with AC established (APU or EXT PWR ON) the PACK 1 & 2 amber FAULT lights will be on when the packs are not supplied (no APU bleed or external high pressure air). RAM air RAM air is available for cabin ventilation in the event of loss of pressurization or smoke removal. If above 1 psi. then the outflow will remain normal. two controllers. semiautomatic and manual modes. Pack controllers also regulate the cooling air flow through the ACM. A320.
A321 Quick Reference Notes Manual: Normally. then return to AUTO. Conditioned air is also available for backup if needed. If both automatic systems fail the pilot may control manually by pressing the CABIN PRESS MODE SEL to MAN. Note: during heavy rain operations on ground select EXTRACT pb to OVRD with both packs operating. and very cold ground operations. Both vents are closed. Return to normal auto operation once airborne (see PH 3. Closed configuration: In-flight mode. the controllers take turns controlling by swapping after each leg. The intake is on the lower left side below the cockpit. This will prevent rain from entering the avionics bay. however both fans run to circulate air past skin heat exchangers that are cooled by low outside skin temperatures. This pb is also used during deicing to prevent deicing fluid from entering the aircraft.5 for parameters). 22 . Note: If the pilot suspects that pressurization is not performing normally but has not yet failed press the MODE SEL pb to MAN for 10 secs. Ventilation The avionics are cooled through a system that uses two openings and two electric fans. the infamous Skin Cooling Config. A blower fan draws air in and the extract fan on the right side exhausts the air out from a port below the cockpit on the lower right side. A computer controls the whole thing. A320. The primary and backup outflow valve motors are depowered and the manual motor is activated.(one click on the toggle switch gives a rate change of 50 feet) Abort mode: If the aircraft returns after takeoff the system will reset to departure field elevation.000’ the cabin may illuminate and Exit and all cabin signs illuminate automatically.000’ cabin altitude.Airbus A319. Note: on ground with Ditching pb ON and all doors closed & external low pressure connected a pressurization differential will build. Now the pilot can select vertical speed on the cabin using the MAN V/S CTL switch. If the active controller fails the backup automatically takes over. Some air exhausted through cargo under floor.2. This will cause the systems to swap. both the inlet and outlet vents are open and both fans operate. Also known as. Open configuration: Only for ground operations. Ditching pb: The Ditching pb will close all exterior openings below the flotation line. Depressurization: When cabin exceeds about 11. Masks will automatically drop at 14.
Yellow system – 3 pumps: 1 engine. ECAM will direct configuration. Abnormal configuration: Fault is detected in either the BLOWER or EXTRACT fan. Selecting BOTH fans to OVRD will cause the blower to stop but the extract to continue operating. electric pump. same as closed except reduced opening to allow some additional exhaust of cooling air. The RAT and Yellow electric pumps do not normally run during flight. Green system – 1 pump: engine driven. blue and yellow. Similar to closed except air conditioned air is added to the circulated air. Green is the “heavy” system with landing gear. A321 Quick Reference Notes Intermediate configuration: Only for use in-flight when warm. 4 sources of power: engine 2 pump. A hand pump is provided on the Yellow system to provide the 23 . Two power sources: engine 1 pump & PTU Blue system – 2 pumps: 1 electric and the emergency RAT. Brakes & Landing Gear There are three hydraulic systems: green. A320. Two sources of power: electric pump & RAT pump. Hydraulics. Blue is basically for redundancy with the only unique items on it being L & R spoiler 3 and the Emergency Generator which are “backup” items themselves. 1 electric & 1 hand pump. then exhausted overboard. nose wheel steering and Normal Brakes. hand pump and PTU. Priority valves ensure proper pressure to critical users when system pressure is low. Other Yellow system functions are inhibited when automatically activated by a cargo door. Smoke configuration: If smoke is detected in avionics both the BLOWER and EXTRACT fan will have amber FAULT lights on and the GEN 1 LINE pb (on EMER ELEC PWR panel) has amber SMOKE illuminated. Yellow provides the ground service items of parking brake and cargo door and also helps power the flaps. The Yellow electric pump will automatically come on when a cargo door is operated. Blower fan is off but Extract remains ON. flaps/slats. All three systems are independent of each other and do not transfer fluid at any time.Airbus A319. Conditioned air is added to attempt to cool and clear the smoke. Each system has its own accumulator.
The engine pumps (Green and Yellow ) each have Fire Shut Off Valves that close when the Engine Fire Pushbuttons are selected open. This speed limit is for electrical power and the RAT will continue to supply hydraulic power to much slower speeds.Airbus A319. This is identified as when the nose wheel steering disconnect pin is in and only one ENG MASTER switch is ON. The PTU (Power Transfer Unit) is able to transfer power but not fluid. The PTU can also be powered on the ground by the Yellow electric pump to power Green hydraulic. this prevents draining low output of electric pump or accidentally powering Green Hydraulic) Parking brake is ON and only one ENG MASTER switch is ON PTU pb is off Note: If a cargo door is operated and then the 2nd engine is started within 40 seconds a PTU fault message may be given (due to inhibition during test period). Brakes The brakes are carbon. The RAT hydraulic pump is for emergency use only and will only deploy manually for hydraulic problems. (PTU operation is tested on second engine start) Cargo doors are operated (Yellow electric normally powers cargo doors. It transfers power between the Green and Yellow systems (the two with the engine pumps and heavy consumers). to power Green on ground (for example to retract slats on ground). Normal and Alternate. Note: Min RAT speed is 140 kts. A321 Quick Reference Notes ability to open cargo doors with no electric power on the aircraft. Blue electric operates all the time in-flight and on the ground when at least one engine is operating. The PTU is inhibited when: First engine is being started. with loss of all AC. with A319/321 and modified A320 RATs stalling at less than 125 kts. For electrical problems it will deploy automatically above 100 kts. A320. 24 . The PTU can transfer power in either direction and is activated when a 500 psi differential is sensed between Green and Yellow. The normal brakes are powered by the Green hydraulic system. Allows Yellow electric pump. multidiscs actuated by two independent systems.
). Do not use MAX for landing. Anti-skid during alternate brakes is inoperative when: Electrical power failure BSCU failure A/SKID & N/W STRG switch turned off Brake pressure supplied by Yellow accumulator only Parking brake disables all other brake modes (319. Hold pb for at least one second. The cargo door operation will restore parking brake (Yellow system) pressure. Think . MAX has no delay. A320.12). then alternate brakes use 1000 psi max to prevent blowing tires. Autobrakes are available on Normal Brakes (Green system) only. Alternate brakes can be used with or without anti-skid. 25 . MED mode delays for 2 seconds. If antiskid is inop. autobrakes and brake temps. Yellow brakes have the same capabilities as normal brakes except for auto brake capability.BSCU off: Alternate. 320 only).BSCU on: Normal GREEN .2700 psi. The alternate brakes are powered by the Yellow hydraulic system and will automatically become selected if Green hydraulic is insufficient for normal brakes. A pressure indicator on the instrument panel indicates Yellow accumulator pressure and Yellow left and right brake (parking brake) pressure on three needles. Accumulators maintain good parking brake pressure for at least 12 hrs. LO mode delays for 4 seconds after touchdown. With full pedal deflection Anti-skid is deactivated below 20 kts.Airbus A319. Anti-skid may or may not be available when on alternate brakes. Normal brake pressure is 2000 . YELLOW. A321 Quick Reference Notes Normal brakes are available when: The A/SKID & N/W STRG switch is ON Green hydraulic pressure is available The parking brake is OFF A BSCU (Brake and Steering Control Unit) controls all normal braking functions (anti-skid. The alternate brakes are essentially a mechanical system. Parking brake is on Yellow system. MAX is takeoff only (PH 3.
2 SEC’s are required for Autobrakes. Or. They will indicate an amber HOT when the brakes are 300° C or more. Do not set Parking Brake ON in flight. Landing Gear The Airbus Landing Gear: Has enclosed gear bays Is held by mechanical up locks Uses manual extension by gravity Has no mechanical or visual check for gear position Uses auto braking on the mains during retraction Has a brake band in the nose gear well Is hydraulically locked out from operation above 260 kts. A320. Fans should only be used to cool to about 250° C (PH 3. however if turn time is short or if brakes will exceed 500° then cool immediately. Pilot must manually select brake fans on. Autobrakes activate when ground spoilers are extended. until at gate. On takeoff they are not armed until 72 kts. Note: Delay selecting Brake Fans on taxi in for at least 5 mins. Carbon brakes actually wear better when heated. An arc will appear above the hottest brake temp. If brake temp is above 300°C then the temp will turn amber.Airbus A319. A321) Avoid use of the parking brake when brakes are 500° C or above if able. Brake temps are shown on the ECAM WHEELS page. A321 Quick Reference Notes The Green DECEL light in the auto brake pb’s indicates actual deceleration is within 80% of the selected rate (does not indicate that the auto brake is activated).15) Hot Brakes (PH 3. The brakes must be cooled below 300° C before takeoff.15) Maintenance action is required if there is: 150° C difference in brake temps on the same strut and one brake 600° or greater or 60° or less a mean 200° C difference between different trucks fuse plug melted brake temp exceeds 900° C (800° C. 26 . Brake Fans are installed in the main gear hubs.
The gear lights by the gear handle are powered through (hard wired) LGCIU 1. A green NW STRG DISC message will show on ECAM and will turn amber on second engine start when lever is activated. & F/O steering hand wheels (max deflection is 75° starts reducing above 20 kts to 0° at 70 kts. Nose Wheel Steering Nose Wheel Steering gets inputs from: Capt. therefore temporary solution of turning OFF the A/SKID & N/W STRG switch during the Before Start Checklist flow and turning it back ON during the After Start Checklist flow. Airbus has not yet engineered a fix for the problem. A321 Quick Reference Notes The LGCIU controls the Airbus landing gear operation.). The gear handle has a red down arrow that will illuminate if gear is up with flaps 3 or FULL below about 700’ (landing configuration). Nose wheel steering is enabled with hydraulic pressure when: Nose gear doors closed A/SKID & N/W STRG switch on Towing control lever in normal position At least one engine operating Aircraft on ground Nose wheel steering is disabled after manual gear extension. 27 . and Autopilot. A rudder disconnect is on the hand steering wheel for use during Flight Control Check.). A320. Note: There have been problems with the Nose Wheel Gear Electrical Box failing to deactivate the nose wheel steering during engine starts when the nose wheel steering lever was in the deactivate position. The SD will show 2 green down triangles on the WHEELS page for each gear down and locked.if LGCIU 1 is not powered the lights will not operate. Red shows gear in transit and no triangle indicates gear uplocked. kts. There are also gear indicators next to gear handle. The gear doors will remain down after manual gravity extension. A lever on the nose gear deactivates steering to enable towing. . Any green triangle (at least one out of three possible) for a gear confirms the gear down and locked. ECAM will alert. Rudder pedals (max deflection is 6° starts reducing above 40 knots to 0° at 130 .Airbus A319. One green and two red triangles for a gear still indicates down and locked.
A321 Quick Reference Notes Flight Controls Flight Control Laws: Multiple failures are required to revert from normal law. elevators) or roll rate (roll. A320. Flare mode gives slight pitch down after 50’ for flare. Normal Law Protections (think of as “A320 mode”): Bank Roll rate proportional to side stick deflection 67° Max (at 45° autopilot disconnect) Yaw Turn Coordination & Yaw Dampening Pitch Load Factor proportional to stick deflection Max 30° nose up Max 15° nose down Low Speed Nonoverride able AOA protection α Prot Low energy warn.5G/-1.0G Flaps Extended +2. Green equals signs “=” . “Multiple failures of redundant systems” Normal Flighton ground takeoff in-flight Ground Flight Mode Flight Mode Mode Direct blend from Normal Direct to Normal landing Flare Mode Normal with slight pitch down added at 50’ for flare on ground Ground Mode Direct Normal Law: for a given amount of sidestick deflection a given amount of G loading (pitch. Bank past 33° requires constant input or will automatically return to 33° “Hard ” protections.0G/-0. spoilers) regardless of airspeed.Airbus A319.0G 28 . Pitch is always kept in trim automatically. ailerons. α Floor α Max High Speed Nonoverride able nose up command prevents over speed at Vmo/Mmo Load Clean/Flaps 1 +2.
Pitch goes to direct for landing when landing gear extended (no “flare mode”). if you are on the ground you cannot have a G load or roll rate). Aircraft can stall. Red “MAN PITCH TRIM ONLY” 29 . Bottom line here. Proportional movement between sidestick deflection and flight control deflection. Amber “USE MAN PITCH TRIM” Abnormal Law: This is entered by the aircraft being in an extreme unusual attitude (about double normal limits). very little “manual reversion” and if no hydraulic power you are a lawn dart. Differential power. goes to direct for landing (think of as “737-300 mode”): Low High Load Speed Speed Low speed stability Override able nose down command to prevent stall Stall Warning High Speed Stability Override able nose up command to prevent over speed Clean/Flaps 1 +2. It is possible to be in Alternate law without speed Stability and/or Yaw Dampening. Mechanical Backup: Pitch through horizontal stab trim. No protection in roll. No auto trimming. When back to normal attitude aircraft is in Alternate Law except does not go to direct law on landing and no pitch protections. Lateral through rudders. therefore computer sees something is wrong.Airbus A319. A321 Quick Reference Notes Alternate Law: Flight control will revert to alternate law after multiple failures of redundant systems. No protections. This mode is most like a regular airplane (“Boeing 737-200 mode”).0G Direct Law: Lowest level of flight control law. A320. The default mode on the ground in all cases (think about it.5G/-1.0G Flaps Extended +2. Computer reverts to Abnormal when it sees the aircraft in unusual attitude because computer logic says aircraft should not have been allowed by normal law protections into this attitude in the first place. Auto trim still available. Both stab and rudder use cables going to controller and require hydraulic power. Over speed and Stall warnings available. roll goes to direct. Amber “X’s” Alternate Law Protections Bank Yaw Roll Direct No protections Yaw Dampening Pitch Load Factor proportional to stick deflection No flare mode. “Soft” protections.0G/-0.
Electrically controlled by ELAC or SEC and hydraulically actuated. Horizontal Stabilizer – Electrically controlled by one of three motors or mechanically controlled by the pitch trim wheels (through cable) and hydraulically powered by green or yellow hydraulic. and has two actuators (one active and the other damping).. Priorities: ELAC 2 ELAC 1 SEC 2 SEC 1 (same as elevators) Green and Yellow hyd. Elevator – Each elevator has two hydraulic power sources and two actuators (one active and one in damping mode). Electrically controlled by ELAC (ailerons) or SEC (spoilers) and hydraulically actuated. no feedback except for rudder and horizontal stab trim Two ELAC’s – Elevator. Horizontal Stab. A321 Quick Reference Notes Fly-by-wire. Ailerons – Each aileron is powered by Green and Blue hyd. Right Elevator – Yellow and Blue hyd. 3 electric motors Roll Control – provided by ailerons and spoilers. Elevator priorities: ELAC 2 ELAC 1 SEC 2 SEC 1 Left Elevator – Blue and Green hyd. If both ELAC’s fail then droop is deactivated and the ailerons streamline and only spoilers are used for roll control. Pitch – Controlled by elevators and horizontal stab. Aileron priorities: ELAC 1 ELAC 2 30 . aileron and stabilizer control Three SEC’s – Spoiler and standby elevator and stabilizer control Two FAC’s – Electrical rudder control (other warning functions also provided) FCDC’s (Flight Control Data Concentrators) process information from ELAC’s and SEC’s and send data to the EIS and CFDS. A320. The ailerons droop 5° when the flaps are extended. After touchdown the stab trim is reset automatically to zero.Airbus A319.
3-. when speed brakes extended. SEC-2spoiler spoilers-3&4 Speed brakes and Ground Spoilers -5. Do not use speed brakes below 1000’ AFE. SEC 1- Green: SPD BRK memo on ECAM. The middle three (2-. If a SEC fails the spoiler(s) it controls is automatically retracted (if extended) and that spoiler(s) deactivated. BLUE: 3 YELLOW: 2&4 Yellow and Green Yellow and Blue Green Remember SEC-3spoilers-2&1. GREEN: 1&5 Spoiler priorities: SEC 3----. The speed brake lever does not move with auto extension. Ground Spoilers extend automatically: 31 . Ground Spoilers are armed by raising the Speed Brake Lever.Airbus A319.Spoilers SEC 1------Spoilers SEC 2------Spoiler 1 & 2. Spoilers – Five spoilers are installed on each wing. really above MCT but you better be in the TOGA detent if you are above MCT!) If speed brakes out when inhibited they will automatically retract. There is no reversion to other computers. Flashes amber when thrust is applied with speed brake extended. A320. Numbers 2 through 5 (the 4 outboard spoilers)and ailerons provide roll control. All are used as ground spoilers. Must restow speed brake handle for 10 seconds to regain. From the wing root to wing tip they are numbered 1 through 5.4) provide in-flight speed brakes. 3 & 4. (Managed DES) Speed brake extension inhibited when FEAST- (FEAST): Flaps at FULL setting (also Config 3: A321) Elevator (L or R) fails (spoilers 3 and 4 only) Angle of Attack protection active (α prot) or ALPHA FLOOR active SEC 1 & 3 fail TOGA on thrust levers (OK. If one speed brake on one wing fails the corresponding one on the other wing will be inhibited for symmetry. 5. A321 Quick Reference Notes Green and Blue hyd.
AoA. Angle of attack protection speed.Airbus A319. A321 Quick Reference Notes Partial Extension – On landing – Reverse selected on at least one engine with other at or near idle –and– one main landing gear strut compressed Full Extension – On landing. there is no “in 32 . Rudder – Rudder controls yaw. No feedback (rudder pedal movement) during yaw damper corrections or turn coordination. normal and alternate yaw L – Low Energy warning (speed. The rudder is not computer controlled to the extent of the rest of the flight controls. (Rejected takeoff) – Or– Both thrust levers at idle (spoilers armed) –Or– Reverse thrust selected on at least one engine with other at idle (spoilers not armed) and both mains compressed. A320. top of amber tiger stripe A – Angle of Attack instead of Load Factor (g’s) S – Speed brakes retract A – Autopilot disconnects P – Pitch trim inhibited Flaps The flap handle has a “trigger” that must be squeezed to allow the flaps to move out of detent with balks at 1 and 3 to prevent “overshoot”. on takeoff above 72 kts. or. High and Low speed limits) W – Wind shear α Prot – Alpha Protection. It is assisted by the ELAC but does not have the level of “fly-by-wire” that the roll and pitch axis do. The flaps will only provide the configurations that are allowed for each detent. Rudder deflection is normally limited according to airspeed but during dual FAC failure full rudder deflection is available when the slats extend. speed) A – Angle of Attack (flight envelope protection . FAC Remember ( Y-LAW ) Y – Yaw functions. ELACs send signals to FACs and FACs compute yaw damper and turn coordination. Mechanically controlled by rudder pedals if FAC’s fail. FAC 1 & 2 provide electric control through trim motors and hydraulically actuated. A rudder trim RESET pb will reset the rudder to 0 trim (not available during autopilot operation). Rudder trim is automatic but can be done manually using electric RUD TRIM switch.
If only one SFCC is functional the flaps and slats will operate at half speed. 2. Flaps 0 (zero) is flaps “UP” with all trailing and leading edge flap devices fully stowed. flaps by green and yellow and slats by green and blue. Any other time Flaps 1 will provide Flaps 1 . The flap handle controls both flaps and slats. A320. Flaps 1 position will provide flaps 1+F for takeoff and anytime you are retracting flaps from a higher setting (2. For example. The flaps have 5 selected positions: 0. . two Slat Flap Control Computers (SFCCs). 3 and FULL. A321 Quick Reference Notes between the detents” positioning. However. simply this. Flaps 1 are a “hybrid” with two separate configurations for the same Flaps 1 handle position. Both flaps and slats are powered by two hydraulic systems. position numbers. Procedures remain the same for all models except for higher flap speeds on the A321.Airbus A319. from a pilot standpoint the difference is transparent as the flap handle is treated the same. 2 or 3 Landing is allowed with 3 or FULL Note: when landing with Flaps 3 the LDG FLAP 3 pb on the GPWS overhead panel should be selected ON to prevent GPWS flap warnings when landing and also CONFIG 3 selected in PERF APPR for proper approach numbers. Takeoff is allowed with 1. Controlled by. 3 or FULL).what is the difference between Flaps 1 and Flaps 1+F. The flap “indicator” is in the E/WD and shows the amount of extension for both slats and flaps. If any hydraulic system fails leaving only one hydraulic system powering either slats or flaps the single powered control will extend and retract at half speed. The A321 also has additional slots built into the flaps to provide additional lift at slower speeds. During Flaps 1+F the slats and flaps will extend to initial positions. The flap position numbers are just that. 1. A320 and A321) has slightly different flap deflection schedules for certain flap lever positions. the trailing edge flaps. The trailing edge flaps make up the +F as Flaps 1 is slats only in the initial position. Flaps FULL for the A319 is 40° A320 is 35° and the A321 is 25° . 33 . they do not correspond to degrees of flaps (or slats) and in fact each model (the A319. with three positions for the slats and four positions for the flaps.
the total input is no more than the max input from a single stick. However. the rest of the time Flaps 1 is Flaps 1+F (slats and flaps). A320. over speed. Please note on the A321 it is possible at high gross takeoff weights that F speed will exceed the flap speed for 1+F. Slats have an alpha lock function that inhibits them from retracting from position 1 to 0 when at a high angle of attack or low airspeed. runaway or uncommanded movement. 34 . If flaps are locked out.Airbus A319. Most pilots get comfortable with the sidestick within minutes. the computerized flight controls that the sidestick activate require some new features: No feedback (feel) is given. Side sticks Perhaps one of the most distinctive and noticeable differences in the Airbus 320 series from other airliners is the sidestick. Flaps 2. Sidestick is spring loaded to neutral. A321 Quick Reference Notes Now that I have you completely confused. here is the short explanation: Flaps 1 on ground extending for takeoff – Flaps 1+F (slats and flaps) Flaps 1 after takeoff during initial flap retraction from Flaps 2 or 3 – Flaps 1+F (slats and flaps) Flaps 1 for landing extending from Flaps 0 – Flaps 1 (slats only) Flaps 1 for Go Around retracting from 2 or 3– Flaps 1+F (slats and flaps) As you can see the only time Flaps 1 gives you Flaps 1 (slats only) is on extension for landing. The E/WD will show Flaps 1 or Flaps 1+F depending on configuration. WTB’s cannot be released in-flight. 3 and FULL all have both slats and flaps extended to some degree. However. There are 4 Wingtip Brakes (WTB) that will lock the flaps or slats in case of asymmetry. System algebraically sums the signals from both sticks if both are operated at the same time (dual input). In this case the flaps will automatically retract and the pilot will select flaps 0 at S speed which will retract the remaining slats. Flaps have over speed protection at flap setting 1+F so that at 210 KIAS the flaps will automatically retract to Flaps 1 (slats only). slats can operate and visa versa.
Airbus A319, A320, A321 Quick Reference Notes A red Takeover pb in the sidestick (also serving as autopilot disconnect) allows one pilot to override the other or to disable a damaged sidestick. If priority is taken an audio “PRIORITY LEFT (or RIGHT)” is sounded. A red arrow light will illuminate in front of the pilot who has been deactivated when one pilot has taken priority over the other. A green CAPT or F/O light will illuminate in front of the pilot with priority if the other sidestick is out of neutral. Last pilot to press Takeover pb has priority. Pressing Takeover pb for 40 secs. Will latch the priority condition (pilot does not have to continue to press Takeover pb). However, a deactivated sidestick can be reactivated by momentarily pressing the Takeover pb on either sidestick. Green CAPT and F/O sidestick priority lights will flash during dual input and an audio “DUAL INPUT” will be sounded. The Takeover pb and dual input warning system are commonly misunderstood. A green light in front of you means dual input or you have just taken priority in a dual input situation and a red arrow means your sidestick has been deactivated. These are two different things. Dual input is almost always unintentional and unwanted. The takeover priority may be something that needs to be done if a sidestick has gone bad or some other problem has occurred. However, if YOUR sidestick is bad the OTHER pilot must latch it out with hisTakeover pb. Sidestick “locks” in place when on autopilot. Pilot action on sidestick (or trim wheel) at any time will disconnect the autopilot.
Instrument / Nav / Comm
The ECAM (Electronic Centralized Aircraft Monitoring) system is made up of two primary components, two SDAC’s (System Data Acquisition Concentrators) and two FWC’s (Flight Warning Computers). A loss of only one SDAC or only one FWC will not result in any loss of function. The second computer can handle all functions alone. The SDAC’s receive data from sensors and will send signals to 3 DMC’s (Display Management Computer) which generate the screen image. The SDAC’s also send signals to the FWC. The FWC will generate various warning/caution messages. The E/WD (Engine/Warning Display) is the display that shows normal engine readings and ECAM messages. The SD (System Display) is directly below the 35
Airbus A319, A320, A321 Quick Reference Notes E/WD and normally shows system pages or status. For information on switching screens in case of failures see EFIS later in this section. ECAM uses color to indicate the importance of the indication– RED: Immediate action required ORANGE (AMBER): Awareness but no action required GREEN: Normal operation WHITE: Titles and remarks BLUE (CYAN): Actions to be carried out or limitations PURPLE (MAGENTA): Special messages (i.e. inhibition messages) Note: pulsing green or amber indications are approaching limits If a FWC fails the Master Caution and Master Warning lights will indicate the failure (along with a warning from ECAM) by the upper or lower light in both the Master Caution and Warning light being out. If the #1 FWC fails then the captain’s upper lights would be out and the F/O’s lower lights would be out. If #2 FWC fails the reverse lights will go out. Loss of both FWC’s will result in a loss of most warning capability. The dual failure of the FWC’s will result in an amber caution with no aural. ECAM system pages are controlled through the ECAM control panel. Use the mnemonic FHPED to check systems prior to departure. Work right to left across ECAM control panel. Note: Press FUEL, HYD, PRESS, ENG and then press ENG again to return to default DOOR/OXY page F FUEL, balance, configuration, quantity H HYD, Hydraulics quantity (pointers in boxes) P PRESS, Set to AUTO E ENG, Engine oil quantity (min. 11 qts.) D DOOR/OXY, Doors armed, Oxygen pressure (note: over wing slides always armed)
ECAM action should not be taken (except to cancel audio warning through the MASTER WARN light) until: The flight path is stabilized and The aircraft is higher than 1,000 AFE
Airbus A319, A320, A321 Quick Reference Notes
There are times that ECAM may or may not direct the pilot to do a procedure that is the best procedure to do. The front page of the QRH lists six such possibilities and the pilot should consider these before running any other procedures for these ECAMS. Of course there are other possible situations and combinations of events that can be thought of. Examples are if an ECAM directs to turn off the last available source of hydraulic power (no power to any flight controls is a bad thing in any circumstance) or opening the fuel X-feed for fuel imbalance when in fact you have a major fuel leak. As always Captain, it is your aircraft and you have the final decision. Exercise your emergency authority as needed (but always with discretion!).
EFIS (PH 13.1.1, 13.2.2, 13.2.4, 13.2.8)
A white diagonal line across the display means that the DMC (Display Management Computer) has failed. The CRT itself is still working. Just switch to the standby DMC on the switching panel to restore the displays as normal. A failure of the DU Display Unit (display blank) means that you will have to swap screens to view all information. The PFD has priority over the ND and the EW/D has priority over the SD. This means that if the PFD display fails then the PFD will automatically display on the ND display screen. However, if the ND fails the PFD will remain on its normal screen. If you wish to view the ND you can press the PFD/ND XFR switch. In the same way the EW/D has priority over the SD. If the SD needs to be displayed use the ECAM/ND XFR switch on the switching panel to bring that screen up on the CAPT or F/O ND as selected. A failure of both the ECAM screens (EW/D and SD) will require use of the ECAM/ND XFR switch on the switching panel to view the EW/D screen on the ND display and by pressing the required system pb on the ECAM Control Panel you can view the SD info on the ND as needed. The ND has two brightness controls, outer and inner bezel control knobs. The outer ND bezel controls brightness of the radar and terrain on the ND. The inner knob controls the brightness of all the other normal ND display
Note that if the PFD/ND XFR button is used the outer bezel is disabled and only the inner knob is available for brightness control. Green dot is used during normal takeoff and the engine-out maneuver and gives best angle of climb speed.1) Slats/Flaps Pitch Trim Speed Brakes Sidestick Fault Hot Brakes Door Not Closed -the following are only triggered when takeoff power is set 38 . If there is a system advisory message when the SD has failed the EW/D will flash a white ADV at the bottom of the screen to notify the crew to select the SD for viewing. A yellow speed trend arrow will appear from the speed reference line to indicate the anticipated airspeed in 10 seconds. A320. Green Dot is a green dot on the speed scale and is available only when aircraft is clean (flaps 0).Airbus A319. For example if the commanded speed is by pilot action (speed select) the speed target index (speed pointer) will be blue. STS in a white box will show on the bottom of the EW/D if there are any systems downgraded to remind the crew of any status information. The current airspeed is indicated by a fixed yellow reference line. The Landing Elevation is available only in QNH (below 18. Ground Reference display on the altitude scale is a red ribbon and is based on radar altimeter information. Magenta means managed and Blue means selected. On the altitude scale the Landing Elevation is a blue line and is based on barometric information. It shows best lift over drag speed (L/D) and is also called VFTO Final Takeoff speed. If an MDA has been entered the altitude (note: this is the normal altitude readout.1. Radar altimeter readout comes on screen in green below 2500’ AGL and goes amber (if DH is entered) when 100’ above DH (CAT II/III). If the commanded speed is controlled by the FMGC (speed engage) the speed pointer will be magenta. The new target altitude will move onto the scale once it is within the altitude scale range (about 600’). Takeoff Warning (PH 13. When a new altitude is selected the new target altitude will appear above (during climb) or below (during descent) the altitude scale.000’) and on approach. not the radar altimeter readout) will turn amber below the MDA (CAT I / RNAV). A321 Quick Reference Notes symbols.
A red WINDSHEAR warning is shown on the PFD and an aural WINDSHEAR alert is given three times during windshear detection. Wind shear prediction uses the normal weather radar and there is only one radar installed. Predictive windshear will not warn for CAT (Clear Air Turbulence). Color of the warning will be red or amber depending on level of warning. A warning message reading WINDSHEAR AHEAD will appear on PFD and ND. Levels include Advisory (display only) and the Warning and Caution messages have an aural warning alert as well. If the normal radar is turned off the windshear prediction will still operate normally if set to Auto. Note: Predictive windshear is inhibited during takeoff after 100 kts up to 50’! Reactive Windshear detection is controlled by the FAC’s and is based on GNADIRS information. It looks out to 5 nm ahead of aircraft. Predictive warnings are inhibited during takeoff after 100 kts. until 50’ AGL and then again inhibited on landing once below 50’ AGL. A321 Quick Reference Notes Parking Brake On Flex Temp Not Set (not displayed if thrust levers set in TOGA detent) Altitude Alert Altitude alert (tone and pulsing yellow altitude windows) is inhibited when: Slats are out and landing gear selected down Landing gear locked down Captured on glide slope The tone is also inhibited when on autopilot and capturing a normal set target altitude. Windshear detection means that you are IN a windshear. Prediction means that a possible windshear is ahead of you.Airbus A319. after takeoff! 39 . A320. Note: Windshear detection is NOT available until 5 secs. Wind shear prediction and detection Wind shear prediction is radar based and is available below 1500’ AGL. but pulsing yellow window is still effective. Windshear detection (when slats/flaps selected) is available 5 seconds after takeoff until 1300’ AGL and is again available on landing from 1300’ AGL until 50’ AGL. system must have precipitation to work.
17. This information will be used during RNAV approaches. A320.3. The IRU’s have laser ring gyros that provide a stable reference signal as well as provide attitude information.1. etc. MMR1 sends data to ADIRU1 and MMR2 sends data to ADIRU2. from shutdown position Extinguished. The FMGC also takes VOR/DME signals (PH 13.Airbus A319.1) into account along with the GNADIRS data to compute aircraft position. Be very careful NOT to just turn off the IRU because it gives a bad nav signal. alignment is complete (normal) Note: DO NOT move aircraft during alignment. mach. temperatures. Both MMR’s can send data to ADIRU 3 as needed for backup purposes if ADIRU 1 or 2 fail. The system is very accurate and reliable with a high degree of redundancy using three ADIRU units and multiple navigation signal inputs from GPS and IR. The FMGC decides which signals are most accurate and provide a “synthetic” (best guess) aircraft position after weighing all available data. NAV lost White ALIGN light: Steady. The FMGC can track IR drift and predict aircraft position even when GPS or ground based (VOR/DME) signals are lost. & long. Amber FAULT light: Steady. Failure of an associated air data reference DOES NOT fail the IR! The failed ADR can be turned off by deselecting its pb and still maintain all IR and GPS functions. The MMR’s process position data and send it to the GNADIRU’s. It may still be giving good attitude information and can be selected to attitude information only (ATT). may be available in ATT only. 1° difference in lat. There are two independent GPS receivers called MMR’s (Multi Mode Receiver). airspeed. The third GNADIR is basically a standby that can be selected if #1 or #2 fail. GNADIRS also provides the aircraft with needed air data information such as altitude. A321 Quick Reference Notes GNADIRS The Global Navigation Air Data Inertial Reference System (say that five times fast!) provides the FMGS with the data input it needs to navigate the aircraft. The FMGC can also estimate the accuracy of its synthetic position due to available sensors and data. IR lost Flashing. in align mode (normal) Flashing align fault No entry in 10 mins.3. Wait 3 minutes after aircraft stop to re-align or turn off 40 .
Note: If the STBY NAV is being used during the electrical emergency configuration only RMP 1 has power. RADNAV Nav. remote tuning When normal radio navigation is not available you can use the backup nav mode. If the TERR ON ND pb is not selected and a warning is generated the terrain display will come on automatically and override weather radar display. to manually tune an ILS use the same technique by putting the ILS ident on LSK 3L and ILS course on 4L then select ILS Rose for the ND. Now you can select the ILS course using the inner knob of the selector. Then press the transfer button to make the frequency active. Select Rose VOR for the ND. Number 1 VOR will be displayed on Capts. To use VOR nav press the VOR button. Standby Nav. Then tune the VOR frequency with the normal selector knob in the STBY/CRS window. Please note that the radar is NOT being used for terrain detection but the DISPLAY will override the weather radar image display when the terrain on ND pb (TERR ON ND) is selected. The enhanced terrain feature can be shut off using the TERR pb on the overhead without losing any of the normal GPWS functions. Then press the LS button in the STBY NAV area of the RMP. Number 1 ILS will be displayed on Capts. The Terrain “sweep” is a distinctive middle to the sides to make it obviously different from the normal radar. Number 2 ILS will be displayed on F/O’s PFD when on LS and Capt’s. Press the LS pb to see DME on PFD. The enhanced function is database (computer) driven but it is shown in a radar format. This allows comparison of the signals during approach. Then press the LS button on the FCU. 41 . A320. PFD when on Rose LS Note: the ILS STBY NAV will display onside tuning on the PFD and offside tuning on the ND. Enter the VOR ident on LSK 1R or 1L and the course on LSK 2R or 2L. PFD when in LS and F/O’s ND when on Rose LS. Number 2 VOR will be displayed on F/O’s ND in Rose VOR. Now tune the ILS frequency by using the normal RMP selector to tune the freq. also known as remote tuning. Then press the guarded NAV button on the RMP. Press to transfer the freq to active and now you can select the course on the STBY/CRS window using the inner knob of the selector. in the STBY/CRS window. A321 Quick Reference Notes EGPWS Enhanced GPWS provides all normal aural GPWS functions as well as the enhanced terrain avoidance features. Standby Nav (STBY NAV). Select VOR Rose for the ND. ND in Rose VOR.Airbus A319. on the MCDU. manual tuning: Select the RADNAV key. All auto tuning is disabled during Standby Nav. Press the guarded NAV button on the RMP and the green light will come on indicating that you are now using Standby Nav. To tune an ILS first select Rose LS on the ND.
All RMP’s will tune any radio. The Airbus has a very flexible setup for tuning radios but it takes a little getting used to. Talk.Airbus A319. You may select as many as you wish and set independent volume control on each. This means that if you lose two RMP’s you can still tune any radio with the third RMP. The ACP transmit is the same way. selecting VHF 1 for tuning will deselect the prior selection. Look. On the RMP only one radio may be tuned at a time. However. While this redundancy is great you have to be able to keep track of it all! Further the ACP (Audio Control Panel) allows the pilot to transmit or listen on any radio or interphone. A320. On the ACP the pilot will select “up” or “out” the radios or interphones to listen to. when ROSE LS is selected with an ILS manually selected the CAPT ND will show ILS2 and the F/O ND will show ILS1. The table below is greatly simplified to show you the “stack” for each radio and includes controls on both the RMP and ACP. Please note that you must select out a radio to listen to even if you have pressed to tune or talk on it. For example you can tune on VHF 2 while listening on VHF 1 while transmitting on VHF 3. Communications: Comms are monitored by ECAM for “stuck mike”. A321 Quick Reference Notes Note: when ROSE VOR is selected with a VOR manually tuned the CAPT ND will show VOR1 and F/O ND will show VOR2. ACP’s may be switched in case of failure using Audio Switching panel on overhead. VHF 1 Tune Talk Listen VHF 2 Tune Talk Listen VHF 3 Tune Talk Listen When using the RMP or ACP you must realize that every control is independent. Listen but when using the Airbus RMP and ACP you should Tune. Listen – RMP and ACP When you come to a railroad crossing you should Stop. Fortunately Airbus helped us out a little bit by lining up all the functions for each radio in a “stack”. only one radio may be selected for transmit from that ACP at one time. Again there are three installed. the audio is NOT automatically selected when you use the RMP. The pilots will have their own RMP and ACP on the center pedestal on their side with the third “standby” on the overhead. Listen. First of all any RMP (Radio Management Panel) can tune any radio in the aircraft. On the RMP a green triangle light will indicate which radio is being tuned and on the ACP a triple bar green light will indicate which radio is set to transmit. Tune. Talk. 42 . For the pilots the RMP is mounted above the ACP.
The next level of control is autoflight. Do not confuse the flight control computers (i. Level 1 . Level 3 . The first or lowest level is manual control.“Manual” Pilot Flight Controls Thrust In this case the pilot is controlling any flight control movement by use of the sidestick.Airbus A319. The flight director (F/D) may be getting its cues from the FMGC or from the settings on the FCU.“Autoflight” Pilot Flight Director Autopilot Flight Controls Autothrust Thrust 43 . This is when the autopilot and autothrust are engaged. In this case the pilot is controlling the aircraft through the settings on the FCU for the autopilot and the thrust levers. The pilot can manually control the thrust levers to command any thrust level that stays within the normal engine operating parameters. The same holds true for thrust. This would be the pilot controlling through the sidestick and the thrust levers. SEC and FAC) with the flight management guidance computers (FMGC). ELAC. Level 2 – “Manual with or without Flight Director or Autothrust” Pilot Flight Director Autothrust Flight Controls Thrust In this example the pilot maintains manual control of the flight control but is being guided by the flight director. a little general autoflight theory! The Airbus has four “layers” or levels control if you wish to call it that. If the pilot wants a climb of 1000 fpm then the pilot sets 1000 fpm in the FCU. The pilot is telling the autopilot and autothrust directly what is wanted.e. A320. Auto Flight System First. if a heading of 90 is required the pilot just sets a heading of 90 in the FCU and the autopilot holds that heading. which sends its signals through the appropriate computers to the hydraulic actuators and finally the flight control itself. The pilot can command any flight control movement that stays within Flight Control Normal Law. This is hand flying as you have always done. A321 Quick Reference Notes Note: ACARS is set on RMP 3 (standby on overhead) and VHF 3 and ACARS cannot be set to use any other radio. For example.
The FMGC is not controlling the climb rate. Level 4 . Two things that should be pointed out. The final and most sophisticated level is computer guided. the new fix is typed into the MCDU and entered into the DIR page. For example. The pilot can always “drop down” from one level to a lower level by disengaging the appropriate equipment. Normally you will only use one autopilot at a time (Capt. In this case the flight controls are in manual but the thrust is in autoflight. If the pilot wishes to make changes or revisions to the flight plan then it is done to the FMGC which then recalculates the needed information. if the pilot wishes to change the flight plan route to go direct to a new fix.“Computer Guided” Pilot FMGC Flight Director Autopilot Flight Controls Autothrust Thrust Each higher level uses all the previous levels. Another example is when the pilot is hand flying but using autothrust (which is very common). The FMGC now computes the new course and commands the autopilot to turn to the new heading. For example. However.Airbus A319. A321 Quick Reference Notes This level is basically the same as any other aircraft you have flown with autopilot and autothrust. 44 . The FMGC then commands the autopilot and autothrust to properly maintain the computed track and path. In other words computer guided flight is also using the autoflight and manual levels. The autopilot and autothrust are controlling through the same flight control system that the pilot uses when hand flying. of course. when the second is inop. For example.). The other thing to point out is that when hand flying the pilot may use the Flight Director so that while the aircraft is under manual control the pilot is still getting autoflight or computer guided assistance. for every ILS approach you will engage both autopilots (except. In this case the pilot enters the desired settings in the FMGC and the computer calculates the proper flight path and track. If the pilot then disengages the autopilot the aircraft is now under manual control and the pilot is now manually controlling the climb rate. You can have various levels of control at one time. A320. the track may be computer guided by the FMGC while the vertical path is under autopilot control. using A/P 1 and F/O using A/P 2). By selecting a vertical speed of 1500 fpm on the FCU the pilot has now put the vertical path in autopilot control. the pilot may be climbing under computer control in Managed Climb. Autopilot There are two autopilots installed.
A321 Quick Reference Notes The autopilot can be controlled either directly from the FCU (Flight Control Unit) or through the MCDU and the FMGC. For Example (PH 2. pressing will engage to allow Managed climb/descent on FMGC Altitude Hold/Vertical Speed: Pulling knob will select vertical speed mode. Pressing knob will engage an immediate level off in altitude hold. “Heading 280” – pilot selects new heading of 280. dial to needed speed. Dial knob to select amount of climb or descent in hundreds of feet per minute. Always confirm settings on the FMA at the top of the PFD. Speed: Pull to select to KIAS or Mach by pilot. Altitude and Altitude Hold/Vertical Speed.Airbus A319. In both cases you must monitor engagement status on the FMA. pulling will allow open climb/descent (full power climb. Altitude: Value set by pilot. Heading/NAV. A320. Pressing the knob will tell the autopilot to use the FMGC for guidance. Pulling the knob will tell the autopilot to use a pilot selected value. In each case the knob for the selection can be pressed or pulled. known as managed speed.11): “Speed 170” – pilot selects new speed of 170 “Managed Speed” – speed controlled by FMGC. Speed. If the autopilot control is selected (pull) to a pilot set value the pilot value will appear in the LCD readout.9. When the autopilot control is engaged (push) on the FMGC for a setting a white dot will appear on the LCD readout for that setting. idle descent). Press to engage in Managed speed mode in FMGC Heading: Pilot can dial to set desired heading then pull to select HDG mode. The FCU has four places to make inputs. “Nav” – track controlled by FMGC route “Autopilot Off” or “Autopilot 1 (2)” “Flight Directors Off” or “Flight Directors On” “Speed _____” or “Managed Speed” “Heading _____” or “Nav” Autopilot Flight Directors Speed Heading/Nav 45 . Pressing HDG knob will engage Managed NAV and allow autopilot to track FMGC route.
Autothrust controls to a limit in Open. reduce the thrust lever back to CL (one or two clicks). When LVR CLB flashes. 46 . It is all done electronically through the FADEC (Full Authority Digital Engine Control). Of course.1) After Takeoff (if SRS indicated) 100’ AGL Enroute 500’ AGL (321: 900’) Non-precision approach MDA. either the climb limit or the idle limit. The other “FCU” method to control thrust is to set vertical speed (V/S) which allows the thrust to maintain speed and climb rate is controlled through pitch.10. Managed (Hold) is always knob pushed away from you (pilot is “giving” control of autopilot to FMGC). then push the thrust levers up to FLX/MCT (two clicks) or TOGA (three clicks). At takeoff push the thrust levers up to 50% on N1on CFM or 1. Memory and Non-memory autopilot limits (PH 1. A320. A321 Quick Reference Notes Open/Managed Climb (Descent) “Open Climb (Descent)” or “Managed Climb (Descent)” “Vertical Speed Plus (Minus)_____” or “Vertical Speed Zero” Vertical Speed Select is always knob pulled to you (pilot is “taking” the control of the autopilot).05 EPR on IAE engines until both engines stabilize. The thrust levers in normal operation will not move again until landing when at about 30 to 50’ the PF will reduce the thrust lever to idle and the autothrust will automatically disconnect at that point. When using select if you are changing the amount from what is in the window then say amount after naming control. There is no physical connection between the thrust levers and the power plant. Open mode simply means using either full climb thrust for climb or idle thrust for descent.Airbus A319. Managed climb or descent means that the FMGC is controlling in either. Thrust is now set by selecting Open Climb (OP CLB) or Open Descent (OP DES) or Managed climb or descent. In this case autothrust is maintaining speed and is in Speed mode. (normally about 1000’) on the FMA. The thrust will now be controlled through the FMGC or the FCU. DA or DDA CAT 1 ILS Approach (no autoland) 160’ AGL Autoland Touchdown After a manual go-around in SRS mode 100’ AGL Autothrust During ground operations handle the thrust levers as on a “normal” aircraft.
Arm A/THR (autothrust): Arm on ground (with at least one FD on): Set thrust lever in FLX/MCT if FLX temp is set Set thrust lever to TOGA Arm in flight: Press on the A/THR pb on FCU when thrust levers not in active range or setting thrust levers out of active range. A320. Open (controlling thrust) and Speed (controlling speed). A321 Quick Reference Notes during cruise and approach the altitude or glide slope is held through pitch with the autothrust maintaining the required speed. Managed thrust is controlled by the FMGC. Further. If you are having problems with thrust doing something other than what you think it should you can possibly try: Turn off flight directors (if hand flying). When coming back to the CL detent after takeoff you are putting the thrust levers to the A/THR active range. this will cause autothrust to go to Speed mode Select Speed Select (if in Managed speed). this will force the commanded speed to what you desire. this will cause autothrust to go to Speed mode Select vertical speed (if in Open climb or descent). If you don’t get anything else out of this little discussion please understand that the autothrust works in one of two modes. A/THR pb pressed on when autothrust in active range Set thrust levers to active range when A/THR pb armed ALPHA FLOOR protection activated (not a great way to activate!) Disconnect A/THR: Press instinctive disconnect pb on thrust levers 47 . Blue A/THR in FMA. Activate A/THR: Note: on ground you will set takeoff thrust to either FLX/MCT or TOGA which are manual thrust settings. Most of the time if you are going to have a problem it is in the Open mode (controlling to thrust).Airbus A319. thus activating autothrust. Open mode can be either climb or idle thrust.
The proper way to disconnect auto thrust and begin manual thrust operation is to bring thrust levers back until the TLA “donuts” are matched to thrust indicators and then press instinctive disconnect pb on thrust lever. ALPHA FLOOR is available in NORMAL law only. just use the instinctive disconnects (or idle when at flare) to disconnect the auto thrust. Warning: If auto thrust is disconnected by pressing the A/THR pb on the FCU the aircraft won’t know if the pb was pressed off or signal was lost and will give an ECAM warning to move thrust lever. Alpha Floor – Angle of attack between α Prot and α Max at which the auto thrust will command TOGA regardless of thrust lever position. ALPHA FLOOR is disabled if you press the instinctive disconnects for 15 secs. Bottom line here. To cancel ALPHA FLOOR or TOGA LK disconnect the autothrust. It will think you are in a Thrust Lock situation. ALPHA FLOOR is enabled at liftoff and active during flight.Airbus A319. Warning: If auto thrust is disconnected and then thrust levers are pulled back from CL detent the thrust will immediately go the power selection commanded by the thrust levers and indicated on the TLA donuts. Alpha Floor will give: A FLOOR in green with flashing amber box on FMA and in amber on E/WD TOGA LK in green with a flashing amber box around it on the FMA when the A FLOOR condition is left. Chime and ECAM warning will sound every 5 seconds to remind pilot to either disconnect auto thrust or reset thrust levers to CL detent. Be sure power is at the intended setting when A/THR is disconnected to avoid power surge. disabled at 100’ RA on approach to let you land the aircraft. A321 Quick Reference Notes Place both levers to idle detent Press off the A/THR pb on FCU when system active (green light goes out) Set one thrust lever beyond MCT or both beyond CL detent when RA is below 100’ Note: Pulling back the thrust levers from the CL detent during auto thrust operation will allow the pilot to limit auto thrust upper limit but auto thrust is still active until levers are at idle. TOGA thrust is frozen. 48 . A320.
This works in normal autothrust. vertical speed). If you think about it you are used to doing this yourself when flying manually. The Flight Guidance acts in the exact same way. Think “Match and Mash”. On climb you set climb power and maintain speed with pitch but when leveling for cruise at altitude you use pitch to maintain altitude and power to hold speed.Airbus A319. no matter what kind of thrust situation you are in. Although not always technically necessary. then thrust will follow the movement of the thrust levers and be controlled manually. If one is maintaining speed the other will maintain trajectory and visa versa. The A/THR. by matching TLA to thrust you always avoid any unintentional thrust “excursions” and use good practice. AP or FD in trajectory mode (example: altitude hold. THRUST LOCK and TOGA LOCK. A321 Quick Reference Notes Please note that Alpha Floor has to do with autothrust while Alpha (α) Prot and Alpha (α) Max are actually to do with flight controls. A320. and the AP/FD work together to maintain speed and trajectory (altitude. During every approach you will need to confirm autothrust is in SPEED mode on FMA or off by 1000’ AP/FD & A/THR interaction There is a link between the autopilot and/or flight director and the auto thrust. There are two basic ways the autoflight maintains control. THR LK flashes on the FMA and ECAM memo displays AUTO FLT A/THR OFF. glide slope. The thrust will be frozen at the last commanded setting until the pilot moves the thrust levers. This is called mode reversion when the modes change 49 . Always match the TLA to the thrust before disconnecting (using instinctive disconnect pb). V/S. THR LK – Thrust Lock occurs if the autothrust system fails. G/S) A/THR in SPEED mode maintain speed or MACH in cruise and approach Or AP or FD in SPD/MACH AP or FD adjust pitch to hold speed A/THR in THR mode Steady thrust set to either THR CLB (OPEN CLB) or THR IDLE (OPEN DES) There are times that the autoflight cannot hold what has been set and will have to change modes.
never both controlling the same thing together. Only one controls pitch or speed at a time. A321 Quick Reference Notes automatically without the pilot calling for it. This mode reversion cannot be tracked on the FCU. This will be true even if the pilot reselects a new altitude before the level off is complete. If in Open climb or descent and you allow the speed to hit max or min the auto thrust will go to SPEED mode and attempt to regain the selected speed while the flight director bars will be removed! Turn OFF FD when hand flying! FMA – Flight Mode Annunciator The FMA allows the pilot to know what modes the autoflight systems are in and what can be expected.Airbus A319. The pilot can then change the vertical speed to a descent or select Open Descent. On approaching level off at the target altitude pitch will now revert from speed to vertical speed and thrust will revert from climb thrust to speed. The new altitude is below the current altitude. The mode will revert to V/S set to the current vertical speed upon reversion. There are times when changes will occur in the modes without pilot action. you must look at the FMA to know what is actually happening. be aware that if the autopilot is controlling pitch then the auto thrust is controlling speed and visa versa. A common reversion mode is if the aircraft is climbing in Open Climb or Managed Climb and the pilot is suddenly given a new altitude. This is both a part of normal flying and also part of the system to prevent flight outside the envelope. The vertical speed mode will remain until the pilot reselects something else. A320. Basically. The FMA is broken into columns as shown below: COLUMN NAMES THRUST VERTICAL LATERAL APPROACH CAPABILITY STATUS AUTOFLIGHT ENGAGEMENT STATUS 50 COLUMNS . An everyday example is during a climb the autopilot normally will control pitch to keep speed in OPEN CLB and the auto thrust will maintain climb thrust (THR CLB). Reversions can also happen when hand flying if you don’t follow the flight director.
Blowout of this green disk indicates thermal discharge.Armed Middle row. SPECIAL MESSAGES THR MAN THR LVR ASYM VERT ALT* G/S LAT APP STAT CAT 3 DUAL DH 100 ENGAG STAT AP 1+2 1FD2 A/THR NAV LOC SET HOLD SPEED Each column has rows for messages and memos. Oxygen Crew oxygen is supplied from one cylinder. Messages about flight control first priority Bottom row.1). If face mask has surface contamination. White . Crew oxygen is turned on using a pb in the overhead panel. A320. Crew oxygen pressure is indicated on the SD and if low the pressure indication will have a half amber box around it. A green over pressure disk is located on the outside of the aircraft skin below the Captains windows. A starred message (ALT*) means that portion is in the process of capturing. The first three columns. Green – Active or Engaged. Thrust.Airbus A319. However. 3-34 to indicate amount needed for number of crewmembers. the tear-off strip can be removed to clear an area to see through. Masks are full-face and have clear “tear-off” strips. Messages about FMGS have second priority This is what the FMA looks like at the top of the PFD: THR IDLE LVR ASYM ALT* G/S NAV LOC CAT 3 DUAL DH 100 AP 1+2 1FD2 A/THR The FMA is at the top of the PFD and allows the pilots to see exactly what the various modes of the auto flight system are. 51 . A chart is available on PH pg. not an actual flight situation. There are up to three rows available for each column to use. Blue or Magenta – Armed (Magenta shows ALT CSTR from FMGC) Bottom row. ENGAGED MODES ARMED MODES MEMOS. The PH has a complete list of all messages and meanings (PH 14. A321 Quick Reference Notes ROWS ACTIVE. half amber box should be ignored and crew action to check pressure is not required until pressure is less than 1000 psi. The above examples are just given to allow you to see what type of messages would be in the FMA.2. the. Vertical and Lateral have the following rules: Top row. A white box message means mode change or automatic switching has just taken place in past 10 seconds.
3 or 4 masks to a group. Passenger oxygen is located at passenger seats. A321 Quick Reference Notes Passenger oxygen is chemically generated.1) (non-memory) 319: CFM 56-5B6/P rated at 23. If the alternator fails normal ships power will take over. Max Starting Temp: Max Continuous Temp: TOGA Temp: 11 qts.500 lbs.000 lbs. All EXIT and cabin signs will automatically illuminate when cabin altitude exceeds about 11.000 ft. Oxygen generators last approximately 13 minutes after first mask in group is used. thrust. Powerplant (TM 7-70 2. thrust ready to be moved to TOGA slightly above idle.Airbus A319. Selected when on ground and thrust levers at idle. thrust 321: IAE V2700rated at 32. Passenger oxygen SYS ON light only means that the signal was sent. Max continuous Climb thrust Idle thrust for forward and reverse Maximum reverse thrust 52 . galleys and at each F/A station with 2. thrust 320: IAE V2500rated at 27.000’. May be manually deployed by pilot using red guarded MASK MAN ON pb. Min for dispatch FADEC controlled (Full Authority Digital Engine Control) (PH 16. activated when flaps not at 0.) Three idle modes: Modulated: Approach: Reverse: Varies with bleed demand. slightly Higher than forward idle. Masks will automatically deploy when cabin altitude exceeds 14. Each FADEC has its own alternator that powers it once N2 is above 12 %.3) Each FADEC is a two channel computer with one channel active and the other used as backup.1. in flight with flaps at 0 Depends only on altitude.14. 725°C 915°C 950°C (5 mins. some masks may not deploy and F/A’s may have to manually open some doors. lavatories.000 lbs. Five Thrust Lever Detents: TOGA: FLX/MCT: CL: IDLE: FULL REV: Takeoff go-around Flex takeoff. A320.
x. Run 3 mins. but that may be reduced to 1 min. 20% N2) select ENG Master switch ON Fuel and ignition will begin when ENG Master selected ON At 50% start valve closes.11.x) APU can supply can electrical up to 39. If no other fuel boost is available the APU will activate a 53 . 7. ignition off At idle. A & B during manual start Note: (PH 2b. A321 Quick Reference Notes Continuous ignition provided automatically (with Mode selector in NORM) when: Engine Anti-ice selected ON. for operational considerations.1. returns to normal when stabilized at idle Ignition A or B will show on SD during normal start. A320. 400° C EGT.4.4. APU bleed is NOT permitted for Wing anti-ice. about 58%.5/2h.000’.6 – Approx. 20% N1. ignition off Engine idle should stabilize at about 58% ENG mode selector to NORM Normal Idle – 2. 600 lbs/hr FF Manual Start Sequence: ENG Mode selector to IGN/START ENG MAN START pb ON At Max Motoring (min. on IAE and non-updated CFM engines Engine flameout in-flight detected EIU fails Continuous ignition may be selected manually by positioning the ENG MODE selector to IGN/START Normal Start Sequence: ENG Mode selector to IGN/START ENG Master switch to ON (after amber X’s go away) At 16 % ignition ON At 22% starts fuel flow At 50% start valve closes. before applying takeoff thrust. at idle after landing. The APU is fed fuel from left fuel manifold.3) For first flight of day run engines for at least 5 mins.3. for subsequent flights (with 1 ½ hrs shut down or less) warm up engines at least 3 mins. APU (PH 16. 60% N2. ENG MAN START pb OFF ENG mode selector to NORM N2 background “grays out” during start.Airbus A319.000’ and bleed air up to 20.000’ and supply full electrical load up to 25.6. Electrical takes precedence over bleed air.
5%. The APU will continue to run for cooling period before shutting down.Airbus A319. The APU generator will automatically come online if engine generators. or external is not already online.) on bat only the APU will not start (RAT failed). A321 Quick Reference Notes separate dedicated APU fuel pump. The APU will auto shutdown and fire the extinguisher bottle on the ground but not in-flight. APU “Bleed” is actually supplied by APU load compressor. The AVAIL light will show in the APU start pb and green APU AVAIL will show on EWD display when APU gen is available for use. A320. The APU is ready for bleed and electrics when reaching 95% for two seconds or 99. In flight (above 100 kts. When shutting the APU down for the Parking & Securing checklist wait 2 mins. Note: APU will auto shutdown in-flight for reasons other than fire. If the APU SHUT OFF pushbutton on the external panel or the APU FIRE pb on the overhead FIRE panel is pressed the APU will shutdown but the extinguisher will not automatically fire. On shutdown the APU Master is pushed off. If the APU Master is pressed back on before the APU shuts down the APU will continue to run. The Line method for starting the APU and putting it “online”: Press APU Master Switch pb ON Wait about 5 seconds then press APU Start pb ON Press APU Bleed pb ON That’s it! If EXT PWR is not already established online the APU GEN will automatically come online followed by APU bleed air after the proper interval which will automatically turn on the packs assuming their pb’s are in the normal on (switch blank) position. In-flight the APU must be manually shut down and extinguished for fire. leave batteries on for fire protection. If APU is left running. Isn’t technology wonderful! You can start the APU before your walk around and the APU will be heating the cabin and have air pressure available for the coffee maker by the time you get back! 54 . In the air the APU will not supply the main galley shed busses. APU bleed may be selected on whenever needed and APU will allow bleed to come online after allowing time for EGT to stabilize. With RAT (loss of GEN 1 & 2) the APU is allowed 3 minutes for a start attempt. The APU can supply the entire electrical system on the ground. after APU Avail light goes out or until APU flap shows fully closed on ECAM APU page before switching batteries off.
Airbus A319, A320, A321 Quick Reference Notes
A little general theory: All FMS systems that I have used function or think in a “Mode” pattern. This is to say that the FMS must always be in a mode or phase and be aware of what the aircraft is doing to “know” what mode it should be in. The FMS will have many different ways to identify a mode change but it will need to change modes during every flight. The pilot should be aware of the modes and their changes (this is starting to sound like marriage counseling…). The Airbus is no different. For vertical planning the FMGC has modes called Flight Phases that are named Preflight, Takeoff, Climb, Cruise, Descent, Approach, Go Around and Done. In addition the FMS needs to know when the aircraft is in taxi, engine-out and landing modes. With the pilot entering the proper needed data during initialization the FMS is able to properly plan and control a flight through all the necessary phases or modes. Further, the pilot must enter a route of flight to allow for lateral planning. This will also involve modes, in this case, takeoff runway, SID (if applicable), enroute, STAR (if applicable) and approach/go around and landing runway. The pilot will enter the needed route data before flight and modify it in-flight as necessary. Some changes the pilot will make are considered Strategic (entire flight) and some are Tactical (current flight phase or mode). As you learn the different functions of the FMGC and the Autoflight system be aware of whether a function is Strategic or Tactical. For example the Cost Index is strategic but the descent speed is tactical. If a page is longer than one screen can show you will use the scroll or slew keys (up/down arrow keys,↑↓) to show additional information. If there is more than one page to a key you can press the NEXT PAGE key to see the succeeding pages. Sometimes additional information can be accessed from a page and you will see an on screen prompt ( <, >, or * ) to present that new page. See PH 17.6.1 for full information. FMGC Stuff: Now for some general info on the FMGC! As our airline has different versions of the A319, A320and A321 there will be differences. Additionally, the A-319s have new FMGCs. These will be referred to as the FMS 2. This has been an optional FMGC that other airlines have used in the past so is not really new,. The new FMS is the Smiths and the “old” one is the Honeywell. For our purposes the old Honeywell unit will be the FMS and the new Smiths unit will be the FMS 2. Differences will be noted later.
DIR key: This key is one of the most used and will allow the pilot to go direct to
any fix that the FMGC will recognize. If the FMGC doesn’t recognize the fix then the pilot can build a temporary waypoint and insert the new waypoint into the
Airbus A319, A320, A321 Quick Reference Notes direct command to be able to navigate to the fix. This will be gone over more later in waypoints and reroutes.
F-Plan Key: When you select the F-Plan key the default (normal) Flight Plan
view will have the FROM waypoint at the top of the MCDU screen (first line). The next (second) line will be the TO waypoint and all succeeding waypoints will continue down the screen. The FROM waypoint is usually the last VOR or intersection you crossed but it can also be PPOS (Present Position) or T-P (Turning Point). PPOS simply means that you are not on any nav segment and the FMGC is just tracking where you are with no nav guidance available. This will occur after takeoff when the runway is automatically cleared and you don’t have a nav segment to join yet. T-P will show when you use the Direct function, which we will go over later. The second line is the TO waypoint and is in white while most of the rest of the lines are in green. However, it is possible that a pseudo waypoint may be on line two and therefore it may be white but not the TO waypoint. We will go over pseudo waypoints later as well. You can always scroll up or down on the F-Plan page but the FROM will always be at the top when you select the F-Plan key. Think of the FROM as being what is behind you. Think of the TO as being what is just ahead of you. The FROM is important because to use lateral navigation you must define a nav segment for the FMGC to follow and this means that you must have two points for any given nav situation to define a segment. This will become clearer when we go over Reroutes. DISCONTINUITY is a line that shows two points are not joined and they do not form a segment. If DISCONTINUITY is showing then the FMGC will NOT continue to the next waypoint. Think of it as a gap in your navigation. In fact that is exactly what it is, a gap between two NAV points. This is something that you want if you will be given radar vectors at a certain point. You will most commonly see DISCONTINUITY after the runway when initializing when you will expect radar vectors to your first fix and after the last fix on your route prior to beginning your approach. There are times when you will need to clear a DISCONTINUITY and we will look at that in a moment. If you are in NAV mode and reach a discontinuity in the flight plan the autopilot will just drop to heading mode on the current heading or entered heading if one is entered in the FCU. Note that the Heading “window” will only hold a heading for 45 seconds The scratchpad is the bottom line of the MCDU and is where you will enter data. After you type info into the scratchpad you will then select it up into the FMGC by using the LSK (Line Select Keys) on either side of the MCDU. Note that you cannot select data from the FMGC into the scratchpad. You will also get various warnings in the scratchpad and they can be cleared by pressing the CLR key in the bottom right hand corner of the keys. Note : Always keep your scratchpad clean to avoid wrong data being fed into the FMGS at a critical point.
Airbus A319, A320, A321 Quick Reference Notes
AIRPORT Key: The AIRPORT key simply allows the pilot quick access to any airport that is entered into the flight plan. This would include the departure airport, arrival airport and the alternate airport. Press this key and the display will place the next available airport in the FMGC flight plan on the first (top) line in the MCDU. This just gives the pilot a fast way to “scroll” the flight plan display to the next airport. NEXT PAGE Key: The NEXT PAGE key gives access to additional information for some screens when there is more than can be shown on one screen. Think of NEXT PAGE as scrolling horizontally. The F-PLAN and INIT screens use the NEXT PAGE function. When there is more than one page the pages are referred to as PAGE A and PAGE B as in INIT PAGE B. This would require you to select INIT and then press NEXT PAGE to access INIT PAGE B.
↑↓ Keys: The ↑↓ keys (up/down arrows, slew keys) allow the pilot to scroll a
page vertically. You will also use them for changing values. This is most commonly used when adjusting the LAT/LONG that is stored for the airport to the gate value when initializing on INIT. You will also very commonly use them for scrolling the F-Plan screen to see waypoints that continue in the flight plan beyond the MCDU screen display. DIR Key: The DIR key allows the pilot to go direct to any waypoint entered. The TO waypoint will become whatever is entered as the direct and the FROM waypoint will become a T-P (position the aircraft is at when the DIR is entered). You may either press the LSK next to the direct fix or type the fix in the scratchpad and press the DIR TO LSK. PROG Key: The PROG key will actually access a number of different pages depending on the phase of flight you are in. In every case you will see a PROG page but the name will change depending on the phase. For example, when in cruise flight the page will be name PROG CRZ and in climb PROG CLB and so forth. This PROG page along with F-PLAN will be used most of the time when you are not accessing some other page. The PM should have PROG on their side unless they need something else. The PROG page will show the planned cruise altitude (as loaded during INIT or as modified) as well as the optimum cruise altitude and the recommended maximum altitude. Optimum (OPT) is based on cost using the COST INDEX you entered. Recommend Maximum (REC MAX) is based on 1.3 G protection and should only be used in smooth air. You may change the planned cruise altitude anytime by coming to any PROG page.
The “locked” identifier will be in LARGE letters.1) in the scratchpad. You will use this key when initializing to enter takeoff information. cruise and descent speeds and entering approach data. there are times that you will need to “lock” a frequency for tuning. This page will be gone over in more detail later. changing climb. 58 . Even better. Just put in any airport or fix and you can immediately see how far you are from it and what heading to take to it. Gross weight and CG data are entered on LSK 3L. You are able to copy the primary flight plan in order to make changes to it or you can program a new flight plan.Airbus A319. For example in takeoff phase the PERF page is named PERF TO page and in cruise it is named PERF CRZ page. Then select the identifier to the VOR1 or 2 LSK at the top of the MCDU. If the INIT page B is showing on the MCDU on engine start the FMGC will automatically “rollover” to FUEL PRED for weight data to be entered.2/23. Only the preflight and done phases do not have pages. Normally the Airbus will autotune the radios and you will not be aware of what navaids are being utilized. You initialize the FMGC from this page. This will keep that side tuned to that frequency. This is the page to use to enter Weight and Balance data.2 INIT Key: The INIT key is used when getting ready during preflight. such as when a DME is used for departure on a SID. PERF Key: The PERF key allows the pilot to see and enter data for the various phases of flight. RADNAV Key: The RADNAV key stands for Radio Navigation and is the page to check when you wish to determine which navaids are being tuned. PROG is also where you will change the required accuracy for RNAV GPS approaches. You can use the DDRMI to see raw data. For example. This is a great place to come when planning a crossing restriction before you get it loaded into the Flight Plan to be sure you won’t miss the fix. SEC F-PLN Key: The SEC F-PLN key allows the pilot to have a second flight plan to use for what-if scenarios or to load anticipated changes that might occur in the primary flight plan. alternate and fuel management data. Just press the RADNAV key and then type the navaid identifier (you may also use the frequency by using a leading slash. If you aren’t sure what phase the FMGC is in just look at the top of this page as each phase is named here. Press the PERF key and then press the LSK at the bottom of the screen to move to the next or previous phase page. With a MAC of 23. However.190 kgs. 54. A320. Finally. this is one of the few features that does not “crosstalk” with the other FMGC so each pilot can load a different fix to use.2 would be entered as: 54. A321 Quick Reference Notes Another handy feature is the Bearing / Distance to feature. for example /112. FUEL PRED Key: The FUEL PRED key allows the pilot to view fuel prediction info on destination.
Airbus A319. DATA Key: The DATA key will allow the pilot to view the various sources of data for the FMGC and determine whether it is valid or not.3. CLR will be entered into the scratchpad. the Over fly key has basically only one function. A320. Press the CLR key and then press the LSK that corresponds to the discontinuity and it will be deleted with the waypoints on either side of the discontinuity now joined as a segment. If you continue pressing the entire phrase in the scratchpad will be cleared. When you are coming up to a waypoint the FMGC will normally compute the turn at the waypoint and due to the radius of the turn the aircraft may begin its turn early to be able to turn smoothly onto the airway centerline. CLR Key: The CLR (clear) key is a delete key. OK. You cannot change an active NAV segment while NAV is engaged. The FMGC will now make sure to fly directly over the fix even if it will cause overshoot on the far side of the turn. MCDU MENU Key: The MCDU MENU key allows selection whether to work in FMGC or ACARS or another area such as AIDS. The CLR key can also get rid of warning messages. OVFY ∆ Key: One of the more obscure keys on the MCDU.3) Basically they are lines of information on the Flight Plan page that are not something that you can navigate to. When using free text in ACARS you will use the over fly key to put a space in the text as you would use the space bar on a word processor. A321 Quick Reference Notes Note: If the initial fix in the Secondary flight plan is different from Active flight plan you must be on Heading to activate. This is how to delete a discontinuity. there is one other function for the Over fly key. To delete data entered into the FMGC press the CLR key while there is nothing in the scratchpad. If the opposite side is selected to ACARS then you will “locked” out of ACARS until it is selected back out of ACARS. Pseudo waypoints on the MCDU will consist of the following: 59 . Only one MCDU can be set to ACARS at one time. Now select CLR to the LSK that corresponds to the data you wish to delete. They are mostly to do with vertical profile information and are therefore not for lateral navigation. Pseudo Waypoints (PH 17. To clear the scratch pad just press the CLR key and the last entered character will be deleted. Well. There may be times that you need to actually fly exactly over the fix before turning. You can use it to delete characters or phrases in the scratch pad or to delete data from the FMGC. In those cases press the OVFY ∆ key and then line select it up to the appropriate fix as a lateral revision.
This is very useful when cleared for approach or when cleared to join the departure or arrival. A321 Quick Reference Notes T/C – Top of Climb (hockey stick) T/D – Top of Descent (hockey stick) S/C or S/D – Start of Climb or Descent for Step Climb/Descent (hockey stick) SPD LIM – Speed Limit (M&M) DECEL – Deceleration to approach phase (circle D brand) I/P – Intercept Point (lightening bolt) Please note that while you cannot navigate laterally using the pseudo waypoints they will show on your ND using various symbols. The Intercept Point will show as INTCPT on the course when on heading to join the active nav leg. The Energy Circle (green dashed arc) is available only in Descent and Approach phases. A320. It is interesting to note that Flaps 1 provides longer range than Flaps 0 (clean). The MCDU logic simply makes the second line white whether it is actually the TO waypoint or not. Also you will have some pseudo waypoints that show on the ND that are not on the MCDU such as the Energy Circle and Crosstrack Error. this is due to the higher engine idle speed with Flaps 1. It shows how far the aircraft will go until reaching landing elevation in the current configuration until 1500’ AGL then configure for landing and descend to landing elevation.Airbus A319. 60 . Cross track Error will show how far the aircraft is from the active nav segment or leg. If a pseudo waypoint is on the second line of the flight plan it will be white even though it cannot be the TO waypoint.
Example: for ISLAMABAD use OPRN. ALIGN IRS should be pressed within 15 minutes of turning GNADIRS to NAV to avoid excessive drift. Enter intended cruise altitude on the CRZ FL (350 for 35. F-PLAN PAGE B RAD NAV Init page B PERF PROG SEC F-PLAN Note: Allow at least 3 minutes after initial power up on a cold airplane for all internal tests to be completed before pressing buttons. A320. Check lat/long coordinates. DATA: Press DATA key. INIT Page A: Press INIT key. Enter the city pair codes in FROM/TO. for OPKC/OPLA. For example: for ABQ. For example. Press the ALIGN IRS key (LSK 3R). 61 . F-PLAN PAGE A. New database is effective at 0900Z on the date of change. Enter BIAS from flight plan on PERF for performance factor on LSK 6R. Cost Index. A321 Quick Reference Notes Initializing the FMGC When initializing the FMGC during pre-flight use these pages to enter data: DIFRIPPS D I F R I P P S DATA-STATUS INIT PAGE A. Enter 10. Enter flight number.000’) and modify the anticipated cruise temperature with /TEMP (/–49 for minus 49). then A/C Status. Check database validity and dates. Cruise flight level.. Enter the alternate city code.Airbus A319.402. DO NOT move aircraft during align process. It is safer to use the airport coordinates from the database as this avoids the pilot typing in gross errors that are not caught.
This will join the to waypoint on either side of the discontinuity. Enter any vertical restrictions (cross LAX VOR at or above 10. Enter appropriate Arrival. Flight Plan page B: Access this page by using the F-Plan key followed by the Next Page key. Insert first fix or waypoint in flight plan route. Transition and Runway Approach and Insert if OK. This is a gross check and should be close but does not need to be exact as arrival and approach routings may add mileage not on release. Now select RWY for anticipated departure runway. Enter any anticipated arrival and approach by pressing the left LSK (lateral revision) for the destination airport. For example to go direct from BOS to CMK simply press CMK on the line below BOS LSK. Then INSERT if OK. If there is victor or jet airway routing from the fix then use a lateral revision to enter the needed airway. A320. This will place CMK after BOS in the flight plan as the next fix. Do a lateral revision from the departure airport. You will need to clear the discontinuity if you want to join the fixes to make a segment. To do this press the LSK 1L on the left side of the MCDU next to the departure airport code. Then select DEPARTURE. To clear a discontinuity press the CLR (clear) key and then press the LSK next to the discontinuity. A321 Quick Reference Notes F-PLAN Page A: Press F-PLAN key to program the filed route. You can also enter a vertical revision by pressing the right LSK for that fix and putting it into the proper field. Check distance at bottom of F-Plan page against the total distance showing on Release. For example for a route from BOS VOR on Jet 75 that ends at CMK press the left LSK next to BOS in the flight plan. then SID if needed and TRANS if needed. Any fix that is a direct with no published route you can simply press on the next line. If you have an at or above clearance put a + in front of the altitude before entering it (use – for at or below) Example: at or above 10. Take the winds from the flight plan on the release and type them into the scratch page in the following format: DIR/SPD so that DIR is wind direction and SPD is wind speed. Forecast winds may be entered here for each waypoint as desired to improve FMGC accuracy in planning. In this example the wind is 265 at 83 62 .000’ use +10000.Airbus A319. at or below FL240 use –240. Now enter J75/CMK in the VIA/ GO TO. Note: pressing a fix on top of a fix places the new fix ahead of the previous one and a discontinuity is in between the two fixes now.000’) by typing the altitude in the scratch pad and pressing it on the right LSK for that fix.
A320. INIT Page B: Press the INIT key. Press the LSK for Copy Active. The left hand side of this screen will be similar to the Flight Plan page A. The center of the screen will show the estimated fuel on board (EFOB) at each entered waypoint. Note: If the initial fix in the Secondary is different from Active flight plan you must be on Heading to activate. and you would type 265/83. Note: if the DME is from an ILS then press the ID for the ILS into the ILS/FREQ on LSK 3L and press the LS pb to display the ILS DME on the PFD (not DDRMI). This PERF will allow you to enter the performance data for the secondary flight plan 63 .Airbus A319. if the system is auto tuning the letters will be little. For example. Insert the Zero Fuel Weight. RAD NAV: Press the RAD NAV key and be sure that if a DME mileage is needed during a departure that you enter the ID for the station here. SEC F-PLAN: Press the Sec F-Plan key. Press the NEXT PAGE key. If nothing is showing in the RADNAV page then check to make sure that STBY NAV is not selected on the RMP. Fuel on Board Taxi Fuel and Route Reserve . Now press the LSK on the right hand side that corresponds to the waypoint you are adding winds to.Now check the Extra time and fuel. After completing the departure return the switch to the OFF position. or F/O) to “lock” CLT into the auto tuning. If Secondary has been copied then PERF will be available as a prompt on SEC page. This will take you to the second INIT page. A321 Quick Reference Notes kts. In order to read VOR DME use the ADF/VOR selector switch on the EFIS control panel. The DME readout will be on the bottom of the ND page (bottom left for VOR 1 and bottom right for VOR 2). Just select the appropriate switch (VOR 1 or VOR 2) to the VOR setting. on FINAL/TIME line.6 nm fix. The DME mileage will also be shown on the DDRMI DME readout. If you enter a VOR on RADNAV the tuning letters will be bold. Press CLT into the 1L or 1R LSK (Capt. when doing the HORNET departure off of 18R you need the CLT DME 1. This will give you a “practice copy” of the flight plan with which you can later play “what if” scenarios with if you should so choose or to enter possible route changes (such as different than filed arrivals) to quickly activate as an active flight plan if needed.
If you receive the Weight and Balance message before engine start you may type the weight and CG in the scratchpad for entry after engine start if you wish. Example: 133. Enter THR RED/ACC (thrust reduction/accelerate) and ENG OUT ACC altitudes from W&B printouts.8 Before engine start leave the FMGC on the FUEL PRED page and you will have the proper page ready for use. A321 Quick Reference Notes PERF: Press the PERF key and you will now be on the PERF TAKEOFF page. in PIT it is common to use runway 25L intersection F. If using an intersection departure enter the distance from the end of the runway to the intersection on the TO SHIFT LSK. in this case BURLS intersection on the SHINE arrival into CLT. So go ahead and get approach data loaded. You will not have to enter the fuel as the FMGC reads it on it’s own. you can always just type in the name if you know it. Enter 1500 on the TO SHIFT LSK. Enter the actual gross weight (RAMP weight) and CG from the W&B printout on GW / CG on LSK 3L.5DN or 2/1. the electrons are free! To enter a new waypoint you have several options. After engine start: FUEL PRED: After engine start you will use the FUEL PRED key to enter W&B. This allows the aircraft to accelerate to “green dot” after takeoff instead of 250. Enter FLEX temp if needed. Enter the flaps setting and stab trim settings in units of UP or DN on the FLAPS/THS LSK (example: 1/0.6/24. For example.Airbus A319. Subtract that from the full runway length and you have the intersection 1500’ from the end of the runway. A320. Select NEXT PHASE and put the clean speed in the CLIMB *SPD LSK. You will then be shown the four formats for new waypoints to be entered.0UP). Now type the “0” (or clean) speed in the scratchpad. 64 . V2 and VR speeds on their LSK’s. From the TPS pages you can determine the distance available for takeoff (or just ask Ground Control!). Of course. If you do not remember the format for creating a new waypoint just type HELP and press a LSK just as you would enter a waypoint. If approach data (PERF APPR) is not entered within about 180 nm of destination then MCDU will give error message saying so. When taking off from an intersection you should enter the amount of distance the intersection is from the end of the runway. Enter V1.
slash) Example: CLT–314/HMV–171 (dash.5N/08158. The P-B/P-B waypoints are shown as PBX so they appear as PBX01. FMS2 only) Example: 3551. dot) Example: CLT/314/64 (slash. 65 . Airbus Gotcha: Autopilot must be in Heading Select to delete a TO or FROM waypoint.Airbus A319. You can’t delete the current NAV leg. PBX02 and so forth. To enter a new destination (diversion not to alternate) use a lateral revision on any waypoint in flight plan (NOT current destination) and then enter NEW DEST on LSK 4R. dash) Example: Shine/10 or Shine/–10 (waypoint slash plus. LAT/LONG waypoints are shown as LL01. A320. PD02. minus) Note: Along Track waypoints or waypoint “slewing” or uptrack/downtrack on the course using a + or – is NOT available for the original FMS. etc. Note: In the flight plan on the MCDU a P/B/D is shown as a PBD. Along Track waypoints are PD01. To enter holding into flight plan use a lateral revision on intended hold point then press the HOLD LSK on 3L. To make a vertical revision press a LSK on the right hand side of the MCDU (LSK 1R through 6R).3W (dot. The pilot created waypoints will be numbered so the first PBD is shown as PBD01 and the second as PBD02 and so on. A321 Quick Reference Notes LAT/LONG (latitude / longitude) P/B/D (Place / Bearing / Distance) P-B/P-B (Place – Bearing / Place – Bearing) PD (Along Track Waypoint. slash. Use a P/B/D on the course if possible. LL02 and so forth. slash. To make a lateral revision to flight plan (F-PLAN button selected on FMGC) press a LSK on the left side of the MCDU (LSK 1L through 6L).
Phases are very important and you can look at the top of the PROG and PERF pages to see what phase you are currently in. Descent to Approach – Activate and Confirm Approach on PERF DES page.O. You will better understand how the Airbus FMGC “thinks” if you understand what triggers the phase change. CONFIG test button on the ECAM control panel. Note: If descent is initiated before 200 nm from destination then descent will be made in CRUISE DESCENT at 1000 fpm and will not honor any descent crossing restrictions. This will force the taxi phase and the ECAM takeoff memo screen to come up. Climb to Cruise – Reaching planned cruise altitude listed on PERF page. The FMGC will prompt for a new cruise altitude as a warning. 66 . A321 Quick Reference Notes Phase Triggers I think phase triggers belong in Star Trek but these are phase triggers. A320. Cruise to Descent – Start of descent from current cruise altitude (within 200 nm of destination). This will drive managed speed to approach speed.Airbus A319. Note: If the ECAM takeoff memo hasn’t yet come up on the screen during taxi just press the T. Taxi to Takeoff – Flex (if FLEX loaded in FMGC) or TOGA thrust lever detent selection Takeoff to Climb – Reaching the acceleration altitude loaded in the FMGC during initialization on PERF page.
MCDU Keyboard Changes: The / (slash) and – and + signs are swapped. If you are vectored to join outside the defined nav segment the FMGC will still join the extended centerline. Arrow keys will now be used to page instead of the NEXT PAGE key. For the most part the new system is very similar to the old one.Airbus A319. Bright (BRT) and DIM keys are now added to increase or decrease the screen intensity instead of a knob to turn. This happens most often on close vectors for approach near the approach course on downwind. Auto Clear On vectors if you go close enough past a waypoint there is some FMGC logic that says you won’t use that waypoint and it will automatically clear it. Left and right arrow keys ( ← . less heat and brighter screens and of course new and improved functions. FMS 2 Differences Airblue has new FMS systems on the Airbus 319 aircraft. However. Some of the benefits of the new system are faster processors. the current nav segment has already been cleared. With the FMS 2 the course will actually show so you don’t have to “imagine it”. Then you are cleared to rejoin the radial for the arrival. The display will not show a nav line but it will show miles left or right of course until on the actual nav segment. A321 Quick Reference Notes Imaginary Centerline Airbus has “imaginary” extended centerlines that you can use. 67 . →) are now available along with the current up and down arrow keys. A space (SP) key is added where the + key used to be so you can now use the SP key instead of the OVFY ∆ as a “spacebar” key. A320. Just press NAV engage and as long as the present heading will cross the extended centerline it will join at the point of crossing. LCD screens in the MCDU that allow lighter weight. If you have been vectored off course and are cleared to join a radial but don’t have the nav segment available you may be able to join it with no reprogramming at all. As long as the next segment is the same radial the FMGC will still join the “imaginary” extended centerline of the next nav segment. This will also work in the case of being vectored for final approach. In this example you are on an arrival and vectored off course. Also the – and + keys are combined so if you need plus or minus you may have to press more than once to get the appropriate sign.
if cleared to cross 45 before MEM VOR you could use MEM/-45 and a fix 45 prior to MEM would be built. The LAT and LONG may now be scrolled and the ALIGN IRS prompt will be shown on this second page.Airbus A319. New EQUITIME POINT function. OAL) until done. DBL) on the right side. Once you press a LSK for a fix you can continue to enter route or fix changes on the new page until complete. shows nearest four airports with bearing and distance to the airport. An additional airport may also be entered by the pilot. You do not have to jump back and forth. Each press will undo only the last step until you are down to the original change and only TMPY ERASE will be shown. Also a new feature. To change the performance factor a CHG CODE of PRF must be used. J80) on the left side and the next fix in the TO box (for example. For example. A321 Quick Reference Notes Data Page – New CLOSEST AIRPORT function. You may continue with the next route (for example. The changes to the flight plan will be shown in amber on the ND. Pres TMPY ERASE to eliminate the changes or press TMPY INSERT to make the changes permanent into the flight plan. Along Track waypoints are now available in FMS2. if you need the new F-PLN - 68 . shows point in flight plan it will take equal time to return to origination or continue to destination. After code is accepted /PERF changes may be made INIT Page IRS INIT is on two pages now. Just enter the route in the VIA box (for example. A320. Any change to the F-PLN page will now bring up TMPY ERASE (temporary erase) and TMPY INSERT prompts. ONCE UNDO/THEN ERASE allows changing only the last change made. Of course. From INIT page press IRS INIT prompt. There is no NEXT PAGE with F-PLN. Then select the back to the TMPY F-PLN page once there ERASE or INSERT your changes. This point is displayed on the ND as a circle on the routed with ETP next to it. New A/C STATUS functionality. You may build a new fix such as for crossing restrictions based on a current fix in the flight plan. A very nice new feature allows all routes programming to be done at the same time on one page. J80) and fix (for example.
You cannot capture the extended centerline in APPR mode (such as for the RNAV approach). All abeam points will have prefix AB added. 69 . there is a fix for this in FMS2. A321 Quick Reference Notes fix after MEM you would use the positive distance. for example MEM/45 would build the fix 45 beyond MEM in the flight plan. RIC VOR as an abeam point will appear as ABRIC in the flight plan. For example. NOTE:You cannot build a new fix inside of the TO waypoint unless you are on heading mode. However. You can then ERASE or INSERT. each fix in the flight plan which can be navigated to is listed with it’s own prompt. Actually I believe this was a “bug” in the original FMS software that turned into a feature. However. Note: The FMS2 DOES NOT have the “imaginary centerline” feature. ABEAM Points can be added. A320. In the DIR TO page you can use the RADIAL IN feature to build the inbound course the needed fix. This will serve as an extended centerline.Airbus A319. the FMS2 actually handles this differently. Again press TMPY ERASE or TMPY INSERT to get rid of or to activate your changes. DIR TO page The page does not look like the F-PLN page now which helps to reduce any possible confusion. Select the fix you desire or type it into the top box. Also.
Airbus A319, A320, A321 Quick Reference Notes
One area that gives many new Airbus pilots problems is making changes to the FMGC flight plan once under way. There are several very common ways to enter reroutes into the FMGC, depending on the nature of the reroute. Direct: Press the DIR key and type in the fix (VOR or intersection). Press the LSK 1L key to enter the fix. The FMGC will automatically enter a T-P (turning point) to create a FROM waypoint and the fix that is entered will become the TO waypoint. Direct then as filed: Use the above method or press the DIR key and then find the cleared fix in the flight plan. Press the LSK next to the desired waypoint and it will become the TO waypoint. Using either method all waypoints before the fix are now cleared and the remainder of the flight plan will be available as filed. Note: if you are on heading when DIR is used the mode will change to Managed NAV automatically (in other words, when you go direct in heading mode the aircraft will automatically engage NAV and go to the direct fix). Heading to intercept then as filed: Select the cleared intercept heading on the HDG selector on the FCU. Then you must determine if the segment you have been cleared to join exists in your flight plan. If it does you only have to clear any waypoints that are ahead of the segment until you have the proper fix as the TO waypoint. Use the CLR key to clear any unwanted waypoints then engage NAV. If the needed segment is not available you must build it. As above first select the intercept heading. Then type in the fix that will become the FROM. Remember, in this case you have to create a NAV leg (segment) that does not currently exist in the FMGC. After typing the new FROM select it to the LSK 2L key and it will become the TO. Now enter the TO fix on the next line if it does not already exist. This creates the new leg segment. Now clear the T-P (turning point) on 1L (clearing the T-P allows each fix to move to its proper TO and FROM position). Then engage Managed NAV. You can now add any other needed fixes until on the original route. Then clear any remaining discontinuities. Offset: To parallel your current course use a lateral revision at the FROM waypoint. Type in the amount of distance (up to 50 nm) to the side you wish to parallel the current course and right or left of course. For example for 20 miles left of course type 20L and for 35 miles right of course type 35R. Now select the amount into the OFFSET prompt on LSK 2L. You can see the anticipated new offset course on the ND. If you wish to adjust it press ERASE and type in the new amount. Once satisfied with the new course press INSERT. Aircraft will take a 45° cut to the new course. To resume the original course access the same OFFSET prompt and clear or go DIRECT to a fix on the original flight plan.
Airbus A319, A320, A321 Quick Reference Notes New SID: Press the LSK 1L key for the departure airport. Now select DEPARTURE, then select the departure runway. If you are using a SID select the appropriate SID (NOTE: you may have to scroll to see all available SIDS). If there is a transition to the SID you can select it on the right side of the MCDU. Once everything is selected press INSERT. New STAR or Approach or Runway: Find the DEST (destination) airport at the bottom of the Flight Plan page on LSK 6L. Press the left LSK for the airport for the lateral revision page. Now select ARRIVAL on LSK 1R. Select the appropriate approach and/or runway if needed. Scroll as needed to see additional approaches if the needed one is not on screen. If you don’t need a new approach or runway simply press Next Page to see the arrivals. Next select the appropriate STAR (NOTE: you may have to scroll to see all available STARS). Now select any transition as needed on the right hand side of the MCDU. When all has been selected press the INSERT prompt on the 6R LSK. If a transition is used that is already in the flight plan then there will not be a discontinuity to clear in the flight plan. However, if you do not have a transition then please be aware that the arrival and the flight plan will not have a common point and therefore will have a discontinuity. Note: Changing the STAR, approach or runway will delete any pilot entered crossing restrictions on an arrival. Make sure you confirm any crossing restrictions after making any arrival changes. Also make sure you enter a new MDA or DH for any newly inserted approach. New Route: To enter a new route you will program just like you did for the flight plan initialization. Take a lateral revision (left LSK) from the last common fix. Then use the VIA/ GOTO in the following format J75/BOSOX. If the new flight plan ends in a common fix then there will be no discontinuity and no fixes to clear. However, if the routing results in no common fix then you will need to go back and clear all the old fixes. Holding: Press the left LSK for a lateral revision at the holding fix. If the fix does not appear in your flight plan (you are really having a bad day!) then use DIR first to enter the fix. Now press the HOLD selection on LSK 3L. If the hold is as published then check all data on the DATABASE HOLD page and if it is all good then press INSERT on LSK 6R. If you need to make changes or there is no published hold (COMPUTED HOLD) then make the needed changes to the Inbound Course, Turn Direction (L or R), and the time or distance needed for legs. Once all data for the hold is good press the INSERT selection on LSK 6R. For immediate hold, take lateral revision at FROM waypoint and select <HOLD.
Airbus A319, A320, A321 Quick Reference Notes New Destination: Make a lateral revision from any waypoint in the flight plan (not an airport) by pressing the left LSK for that waypoint. Now select the NEW DEST prompt by typing in the new airport identifier (example: KCLT for Charlotte) and pressing the LSK 4R key. You may now go to the flight plan to modify the arrival information as needed for the new destination. New Alternate: Press the left LSK for a lateral revision from the destination airport. The select the <ALTN prompt on LSK 5L. Enter the new airport identifier on the blue line on LSK 3L over the old alternate or in the brackets if there was no alternate. Now press LSK 3L again to select the new alternate. Now press INSERT. Alternate should now be entered in the flight plan and on the FUEL PRED page. Sec F-Plan: For a planned reroute (or at least anticipated!) you may wish to use the Secondary Flight Plan page. In most cases you will want to copy the active flight plan and then make any needed changes in the secondary flight plan. This will work well when descending into the terminal area and you anticipate a change in your STAR assignment. Along Track Waypoints: (Note: only available on FMS 2) To create a new fix along the current flight plan track you may wish to simply use a current waypoint and add or subtract the distance from that fix. For example Approach tells you to descend to cross 55 miles out from CLT VOR at 13000’ and 250 kts. While you are on the MAJIC arrival you look and see that MAJIC is 45 DME from CLT so you just want to add a waypoint 10 miles before MAJIC. You type MAJIC/–10 (MAJIC slash minus 10) and press the LSK over MAJIC intersection. A new PD waypoint will be created 10 miles before MAJIC (the first one will be PD01, second PD02 and so forth). You can now add any speed or altitude info just like any other waypoint. If you wish the fix to be after the “parent” fix then leave the minus sign off, for example MAJIC/10 for 10 miles after MAJIC. In either case, whether the new fix goes before or after the parent fix press the LSK to put the fix over the parent fix and the FMGC will place in the appropriate place. NOTE: You cannot insert the new waypoint in a nav segment apart from the parent waypoint. The new Along Track Waypoint must be sequential.
A320 and A321 on both engines with parking brake ON (PH 1.6. A321 Quick Reference Notes Taxi It is Captains discretion as to when visibility is good enough to taxi. APU is normally used for starting second engine as it is more fuel efficient than a crossbleed start. Note: If you do not get the Flight Control page on ECAM when you do the Flight Control check you need to turn off the Engine Mode switch from IGN/START to NORM. Minimum pavement width for 180° turn: 100’ (A321 105’) Ensure at least 5 minutes for engine warm up after engine start before applying takeoff thrust for first flight of day.2). This will avoid BSCU computer problems during electrical power shifts. if APU bleed off then select X-BLEED OPEN. If APU bleed is being used during single engine taxi then select X-BLEED AUTO. if APU or APU bleed is not available single engine taxi may still be used and crossbleed procedures used for second engine start. 3. Note: Do not exceed 75% N1 for CFM A319. passenger comfort. Use APU if available on taxi out. However. 3 minutes on subsequent flights within 1 ½ hrs of prior engine shutdown. Engine 1 will normally be used during single engine taxi. 73 . For Single Engine Taxi: Yellow Electric Pump ON and Yellow Accumulator pressure in green.3) Max taxi speed on straightaway – 30 kts.6). Next time try to remember your After Start flow! Single Engine Taxi (PH 2c.8. to shed fan ice (PH 3. Make no braking or steering inputs during engine starts or when engine generator brought online. Plan for 5 minutes and allow at least 3 minutes for subsequent flights for that day. Normally APU is not used during taxi in. (PH 18.6) No more than 40% N1 for breakaway thrust without clearance. Allow 5 minute warm up for first flight of day. A320. Allow 3 minutes (may be reduced to 1 minute for operational reasons) for engine cool down on taxi in (PH 2b. (PH 18. ramp condition.2.9) – Single engine taxi is at Captain’s discretion with factors such as weight. 10 kts.2. etc.18 EPR on IAE.4.3. (FOM 5. Therefore APU is to be used if available during single engine taxi out. run-up engines to approx.Airbus A319.3. 3. 70% N1 for at least 30 secs. Max taxi speed on turns approx.15) During taxi in icing conditions longer than 30 mins. 1.7. 2h.11.5.3).
During all normal takeoffs use half forward sidestick pressure until 80 to 100 kts. PM the PERF-TAKEOFF page Use a radar tilt of 5-8° UP if radar required during takeoff. PF should have the F-PLN page.2. This will ensure that you do not have any roll in the initial rotation and liftoff. or tailwind (PH 2d. Note: Allow at least 5 minutes for engine warm up before applying takeoff thrust for first flight of day. warm up if engine is shut down 1 ½ hrs. then increase to FLEX or TOGA by 40 kts.11. After first flight of day use a minimum of 3 mins. Make an initial setting on the thrust levers and then adjust on the TLA to 50%.5) apply full forward sidestick to be taken out by 80 to 100 kts.2. make sure that your Flight Director is turned on. or less. During a takeoff with crosswind component exceeding 20 kts.1. A320. (PH2d. This number should be very close to the Ramp weight shown on the W&B printout and similar to the TPS numbers. If you are using a SID departure where NAV is required NAV mode will engage at 30’ automatically. An easy way for both the Capt. If you manage to still takeoff with the wrong gross weight entered. To correct this just enter the proper weight in the PROG page after subtracting the current fuel used from the original Ramp weight. Do not fly around in PLAN. (PH 2b. and F/O to double-check their work is to look at the Gross Weight shown in the bottom right hand corner of the SD after engine start and W&B is entered. A321 Quick Reference Notes Takeoff When setting power for takeoff. Note: set the heading you will need at 400’.5). do not set a heading for NAV departure. Note: If on taxi out you do not have the V speeds showing in your PFD (after entry in MCDU). you will eventually get a gross weight mismatch error message once the aircraft has computed its in-flight weight. Only use PLAN as a momentary reference in-flight.3) Ensure the aileron is neutralized by looking at the “control pointer cross” on the PFD or relax the sidestick to center during the takeoff roll. 74 . Use ARC or ROSE NAV on takeoff on your EFIS ND settings. Slowly release any rudder being held during crosswind takeoff during the rotation. During crosswind takeoff let engines stabilize at 50% then increase to 70% N1 and stabilize. ground speed.6) Do not use aileron into the wind during a crosswind (PH 2d. Note: It is possible for the F/O to occasionally enter the wrong W&B data.Airbus A319. Normally set a departure heading for selection at 400’. the thrust levers should be set to 50% on the TLA (doughnut) and once both engines stabilize at 50% then position both levers to FLEX or TOGA. On takeoff.
inform passengers and flight attendants “CABIN CREW AT YOUR STATIONS’’ Note: If necessary. Remember that when above CL you are manually controlling the thrust but the FLEX has “capped” the thrust so that with large assumed temps there is little or no change from FLX/MCT to CL. When the FLEX temp is around 60° there will be little or no reduction when coming out of FLX/MCT to CL and this is why pilots get used to just “slapping” the levers back. Your passengers and engines will appreciate it! 75 . You don’t want to “confuse” the computers (or the pilot!). You will usually not really notice this change as the aircraft will be climbing quickly but you will learn to release the backpressure around 100 to 200 ft. The captain calls “STOP”.Airbus A319. However. While this will work it really isn’t the best technique. when the reduction is in the 30° range or so (common on the 321) or at TOGA the immediate reduction is very noticeable. Thrust Levers idle (when the thrust levers go to idle the ground spoilers extend. A321 Quick Reference Notes RTO – Rejected Takeoff (PH 2d. Note: Autobrakes will not activate below 72 kts. the less input on the stick the better. call No Autobrakes if needed and notify tower Select Full Reverse F/O call “70”knots Maintain slight forward pressure on side stick Stop aircraft Capt.7) ECAM will inhibit all warnings/cautions that are not paramount from 80 kts. to 1500’ AGL. A good Airbus pilot quickly learns to minimize input as many times the pilot is inducing a slight amount of sidestick pressure without realizing it. This means that the backpressure that you need to hold the nose up will reduce to zero once normal law auto trim activates. as the trim kicks in or the nose will “balloon”. Just ease the thrust levers back from FLX/MCT or TOGA to the CL detent slowly just as you would on any other jet aircraft. New Airbus pilots tend to get into the habit of “slapping” the Thrust Levers back from TOGA or FLX/MCT to the CL detent. which then trigger the autobrakes) F/O monitor autobrakes. The power reduction will be very noticeable in back to the passengers and is harder on the engines when using TOGA or less aggressive FLEX reductions. On takeoff the aircraft will “blend” from direct to normal law as it goes from ground mode to flight mode. A320. Remember. maximum reverse may be used until aircraft comes to complete stop.
aircraft must be maneuvered for obstacle clearance. aircraft is on fire or has other time critical problem pilot should consider using TOGA if not already selected.76M 280 KIAS / . V1 Cuts Pick a line and stick to it no matter what on every takeoff.3) A319: A320: A321: 260 KIAS / .3. Note: EXPED pb can produce a rapid change and is not intended for routine use. Then follow the flight director. You don’t get any bonus points for a quick rudder trim while losing speed and pitch control! Note: If taking off in FLEX the PF has the discretion to leave thrust levers in FLEX or to increase to TOGA. By selecting from FLEX to TOGA and then back to the MCT detent the logic is satisfied for the FMGC. 76 . Since technically the autopilot can be put on at 100’ some folks try to show how good they are and start trimming rudder right away. You may do this once on autopilot if so desired.76M Max Climb Angle: Slow to Green Dot Speed. Use above FL 250 should be avoided.Airbus A319. It will then blend to Normal. A321 Quick Reference Notes Max Rate of Climb: (PH 2e. In fact this is what happens on every takeoff. You will find that you will just naturally put in the correct rudder for V1 cuts if you practice this on every takeoff. EXPED climb pb will give maximum climb angle by applying maximum climb thrust and controlling speed to down to green dot. The only real Gotcha here is that the aircraft takes off in Direct mode. runway is short. If aircraft is heavy. Bring the nose up to 10° (park it on the 10° “shelf”) and hold it. Better to wait until the blend is complete around a few hundred feet first and then trim the rudder and then get it on autopilot. You should have the aircraft already stabilized with rudder before rotation (assuming the cut is before the Rotate call). You don’t have to hit the centerline lights but stay right on the centerline. Thrust should be increased to TOGA in a slow. If increasing to TOGA while airborne it is best to do it while on autopilot and below 1000 ft. Remember in direct you will be holding back pressure to keep the nose at 10° until Normal law with autotrim comes in and then you will need to release the back pressure on the sidestick. A320. deliberate manner in order to not destabilize the situation. You may do this while on the runway. This means that you will have autotrim kicking in just after takeoff.76M 260 KIAS / . Be sure that you don’t try to trim off the rudder so quickly that you are diverted from flying during the blend from direct to normal as the trim coming in will cause you to pitch up if you aren’t watching for it. This is due to the fact that the same detent is used for FLEX and MCT. Note: If thrust levers are left in FLEX then they must be positioned to TOGA and reset back to MCT (same detent as FLEX) when engine out procedures call for reduction to MCT.
A320. minimize sidestick inputs At VR – “Rotate” “Positive Rate” “Gear UP” “Gear UP” – position gear lever UP and disarm spoilers After blend from direct to normal law (about 200’) trim off rudder as needed “Autopilot 1” (or 2) as needed above Select autopilot as called for 100’ RA At 400’ select heading if needed. A321 Quick Reference Notes First Pilot noting engine failure: “Engine Failure” PF: “TOGA” (if desired) PM: “TOGA SET” Maintain centerline. Comply with engine out departure procedures if specified for airport or runway At 1000’ or engine out acceleration Push V/S if called for altitude push V/S or call “Vertical Speed Zero” At F speed call “Flaps 1” “Flaps 1” – Select Flaps 1 Note: only if Flaps 2 or 3 used At S speed call “Flaps UP” “Flaps UP” – Select Flaps UP Accelerate to Green Dot (VFTO) Continue climb if needed Select Open Climb if called for Select OPEN CLIMB or call “OPEN CLIMB” Select green dot speed or call “Speed ___” Select MCT on thrust levers (or if in FLEX select TOGA and then MCT) “MCT” “ECAM actions” “After Takeoff checklist” Select green dot speed if called for “MCT Set” 77 .Airbus A319.
12 & PH 18. Entering the current altitude as the cruise altitude on the PROG page will force the FMGC back to Cruise phase. Auto callouts are not available at 100 above and minimums when using the MDA setting. Once on vectors with approach control you can clear out any remaining flight plan in the FMGC that is not needed to allow only the planned approach to be shown.1) Make your flight instructor happy!: When making any change in modes such as arming an approach or turning off the flight director or autopilot make sure you look at FMA (at the top of the PFD) to see what mode you actually are in. All approaches are to be stable by 1000’ RA (PH 2f. Before any approach you must enter the applicable approach data (PH 3. RNAV.10. ASR/SRA. LDA w/ glideslope.III) PM calls “100 above” and PF replies “Continue”. “Minimums.1.000’ and on selected speed. PF responds to minimums calls with either “Landing” or “Go Around”.4): ILS. This is sometimes referred to as “clean up the box”. I suggest activating the approach when out of 10. A321 Quick Reference Notes Approaches Approved Approaches (FOM 5. ILS/PRM. AH) such as ILS CAT II and CAT III the minimums setting is on the DH line (line select key 3R) on the PERF APPR page.2. If you accidentally activate the approach you can simply use Speed Select for remainder of flight or enter current cruise altitude on PROG page for CRZ altitude. So far I prefer Flaps FULL better.Airbus A319. DA) such as ILS CAT I. ILS/DME. Activating the approach will drive managed speed to approach speeds.7). Note: If flaps 3 is to be used then CONF3 should be selected on PERF APPR page and the overhead GPWS LDG FLAP 3 pb ON (PH 2f. VOR (with VNAV). Both Flaps FULL and Flaps 3 are normally available for landing. runway in sight” or “Minimums. On all instrument approaches (except CAT II. LDA DME w/ glideslope. A320. LDA and RNAV the minimums setting is on the MDA line (line select key 2R) on the PERF APPR page.x) and then activate the approach on the PERF APPR page of the MCDU. no contact”. Autocallouts will be made at 100 above and minimums. 78 . LDA PRM DME w/ glideslope. When using approaches that utilize radar altimeter (DH. When using approaches that utilize barometric settings (MDA. VOR/DME (with VNAV). At minimums PM calls.
VLS + 1/3 headwind component = VAPP So for runway 18 a wind of 180 at 30 kts. This leaves only the ground speed and the previously added 1/3 wind “cushion” of 10 kts.6. If VLS is 120 then VAPP would be 130 (+10). However. It is computed by taking the highest of two different figures. above VLS or more than 15 kts. If we had a head wind of 30 kts. This VAPP Target is shown on the PFD airspeed scale as a magenta triangle. Now comes the other way to figure VAPP Target.5) The approach speed is automatically computed by the FMGC (of course!). then new approach) PROG (if RNAV approach. You can use this “backward Z” for any PRELIMINARY checklist flow. the infamous GS Mini. While it sounds like either a new Mini car or a new mini-skirt style it will actually figure the safest minimum ground speed for your approach.Approach checklist) It may be helpful to notice a “backward Z” flow to the keys on the MCDU when doing the F-Plan. ground speed. insert . company) F–PLN (insert new destination if needed. So you can see that the “cushion” has actually added 10 kts. GS 79 . This will ensure that even if all headwind was lost at once that the aircraft has sufficient energy to fly through the loss of speed. A321 Quick Reference Notes Remember: WAFPPC for working in the sim. then insert approach data on PERF APPR) Checklist (call for Descent . PROG and PERF for the approach. that would result in a ground speed of 90 kts.Airbus A319. would result in a VAPP of +10 kts. While this sounds slow remember that VLS was 120. make plan) Advise (ATC. Remember. Weather (check destination weather. VAPP is shown on the PERF APPR page on the FMGC. GS Mini takes the VAPP that has been already figured (130 in our example) and then subtracts the whole headwind component from it. If the FMGC sees the ground speed going below the minimum of 100 kts. so in this case 130 – 30 = 100 kts. VAPP (PH 18. It then takes 1/3 of the headwind and adds this to VLS. With runway 18 and wind 270 at 20 the VAPP would be +5 as a minimum of plus 5 must be added and a crosswind adds no additional speed. to the minimum ground speed. You entered the runway so it can now know what the ground speed should be on approach. then it will increase the VAPP Target to maintain the minimum ground speed. A320. After you enter the steady state winds (no gusts) and the approach runway the FMGC figures the headwind component. F/A’s. RADNAV.3 nm RNP) PERF (ACTIVATE and CONFIRM. the GNADIR’s know your ground speed and the wind the aircraft is experiencing at the moment. VAPP cannot be less than 5 kts.
1). This will drive the managed speed to approach speed. You will only have VAPP target shown when in APPR phase. One point to remember when putting in the wind component.3. Normally you will be on speed select when you do this but when you command speed engage the speed will be VAPP. A320. Use the following aids during your approach briefing: Approach chart: (Note: visual approach is defined as 2000 & 3 or better) Approach name and runway (not required for day visuals) Approach chart date (not required for day visuals) TDZE (not required for day visuals) Final approach verification altitude (not required for day visuals) Required visibility (not required for day visuals) Planned runway turnoff and taxi route Highest MSA (minimum safe altitude within 25 nm of depicted fix) PFD (be sure LS pb is selected for ILS): ILS frequency (does not apply for RNAV approaches) Final approach course DA. DH or AH as applicable (not required for day visuals) F-PLN page: Glide path angle (RNAV only) Missed approach procedure review (not required for day visuals) 80 . VAPP or GS Mini. Note that VLS will change depending on the flaps configuration selected and therefore the VAPP will also change with landing flap configuration. If you wish to increase the VAPP Target it is better to simply enter the desired VAPP speed on the PERF APPR page while using accurate wind numbers.9. FOM 5. It won’t help you to “cheat” and put in a greater wind than actually exists. VAPP – headwind component = GS Mini The VAPP Target will be the higher of these two airspeeds.Airbus A319. A321 Quick Reference Notes Mini may increase the VAPP beyond the normal plus 15 limit to maintain the minimum ground speed required.10. Putting in a greater wind speed will actually result in a lower GS Mini (remember the FULL wind speed is subtracted from VAPP) which will result in less protection on approach. While the FMGC will add airspeed for headwind components it will not add anything for crosswinds. It will be up to you to add anything to VAPP on the PERF APPR page if you have heavy crosswinds and you wish to have additional airspeed on the VAPP Target. All approaches must be briefed on the following outline (PH 2e. You can force the FMGC to approach phase by selecting PERF and then ←ACTIVATE APPR PHASE and *CONFIRM APPR PHASE.
If DH or AH is being used then radio altimeter is being used and auto callouts are available for 100 above and minimums. Check that the 0. This allows the pilot to double-check the actual ILS being used as well as ensures that the LS pb is selected before the approach begins. A320 or A321) and check landing weight.000 MOCA. runway conditions. max landing pitch & landing performance. etc. number on airway: 10.. is showing make sure that RADNAV ILS is cleared. A320. MEL’s. the DATA key. Enter DA information in MDA position on approach page in MCDU (PERF APPR).000T Route MORA. If wrong ILS freq.If the approach uses a DA then the barometric altimeter is being used and no auto callout will be made for 100 above or minimums. within defined grid sector. within 25 nm of defined navaid: On approach chart MEA. antiicing. landing flap setting.e. number with “T”: 4. 10-7 page engine-out procedures.Airbus A319. Also include in brief any other considerations such as noise. autobrake setting. On the ECAM DOOR/OXY page on the SD check the number of over wing exits and slides – if there are: A319 – A320 – A321 – One exit and one slide Two exits and one slide Two exits and two slides (OK. A321 Quick Reference Notes SD: Brief aircraft model (i.3 is showing on both MCDUs. Airway centerline. NOT that it has happened to me but if you forget what aircraft model you are in here is the gauge.3 RNP on the PROG page to ensure FMGC accuracy prior to the approach. <A/C STATUS page will also show aircraft type) Minimum Safe Altitudes MSA. number with “a”: 3200a Grid MORA. DH or AH . 4 nm of airway centerline. Use the DH line select key for entry of minimums information in MCDU (PERF APPR). 81 . 10 nm of airway centerline. Note: if LS pb is not selected when approach is armed then ILS will flash in amber on the PFD DA . number near center of grid ILS Approaches LS pb should be selected before approach briefing so pilot can read ILS freq.. Note: for RNAV approaches enter 0. windshear. and course off of PFD. A319.
Airbus A319. Considerations – if Captain fails to respond to minimum call Note: any CAT II RA not AUTH approaches are based on inner marker. This means it is possible that the runway may not be seen by the pilots before minimums. CAT II/III Approaches Captain must brief the CAT II or III approach from the QRH: F/O will call out “Land Green” or “No Land Green” if LAND doesn’t show before 350 ft. no FLARE in FMA at about 40 ft. requires 50’ DH).1. This will allow the pilot to have a reminder at 100’ AGL but the approach may be continued as long as all indications are normal and the reported RVR remains at or above the minimum for the approach. Note blue GS and LOC on FMA indicating glide slope and localizer are armed for capture. You may use the inner marker GS crossing altitude in the MDA as a reminder. confirm FMA below 5.200’ AGL (max valid radar altimeter range) FMA will show CAT 1. If CAT 3 Dual is not shown in the FMA (for example CAT 3 Single or CAT 2) then DH must be used if doing a CAT II or III and runway must be seen. AH stands for Alert Height and allows for continuing the approach only on electronic indications (no visual confirmation of runway environment required). Both autopilots should be engaged for all ILS approaches. AUTO LAND warning light.000’ AGL. and then capture Glide Slope. Must capture localizer first. Disconnect autopilot prior to descent below DA for CAT I ILS. A321 Quick Reference Notes When cleared for approach. NOTE: Above 8. When entering Radar Altimeter information in the FMGC on the Approach page use 100’ in the DH window for the AH. disconnect autopilot by 60 kts.No Land Green.6): Both AP’s off below 200’ RA 82 . Captain retards throttles on the 10’ “Retard” callout. A320. press the APPR pb on FCU. Dual will be shown when both autopilots are in use. Then press to engage the second autopilot on FCU. Auto callouts will be made at 100 above and Minimums as DH is being selected on the Approach page. The auto land fail light will flash red if the following conditions occur below 200’ while in LAND mode (PH 14. and Single when only one autopilot is in use or loss of some other required redundant system. The Airbus 319/320/321 requires that CAT 3 Dual be annunciated in the FMA before AH is used. When shooting a CAT II or III approach the PF must make callout of CAT 3 dual (or single) or CAT 2 based on FMA information when armed for approach. on runway. Mandatory Go-Arounds . Engine-out approaches limited to CAT IIIA (CAT 3 Single.
indicates that the autopilot is “locked in” and will “ignore” inputs on the FMU (autopilot panel).6. Practice auto land approaches may be done on CAT I runways only if (PH 18. Autobrakes should be used for CAT II/III approaches. CAT II Go-Around Mandatory if – No LAND GREEN below 350 ft. Max elevation for Auto Land: A319 A320 Tails 663-680 A320 all others A321 9200 MSL 6500 MSL 2500 MSL 5750 MSL 83 . Autopilot should be disconnected on ground before 60 kts. Autoland warning light comes on FMA does not show FLARE at about 40 ft. Remember that the autopilot will be steering the aircraft through nose wheel steering until disconnected. Note: when doing autoland during CAT I or better weather the ILS hold line is not being protected and signal may be poor. Low visibility taxi systems (SMGCS) will be activated when RVR is below 1200. Basically at this point it is only looking for a TOGA selection or to complete the landing. If auto callouts are not available the F/O (PM) will need to make the 100 Above and Minimums callouts. The existing visibility must also meet or exceed the new approach minimums. A320. ATC has a long checklist to run before CAT II/III is actually flown and this will not be done during CAT I weather. A321 Quick Reference Notes Excessive LOC (¼ dot – above 15’ RA) or GLIDE (1 dot – above 100’ RA) deviation – LOC and GLIDE scales flash Loss of LOC (below 15’) or GLIDE (below 100’) signal Difference between radar Altimeters is greater than 15’ (FD bars flash) LAND green on FMA below 400 ft.Airbus A319. Note: If autoland capability degrades above 1000’ the pilots have the option of changing the minimums on the PERF APPROACH page if this is done before 500’ AGL and the captain understands the new minimums are a decision height (not an electronic alert height AH).11) runway is listed as approved for auto lands in Airport Advisory pages and approach is done in CAT I or better weather conditions with CAT I mins.
Every PRM has both generic and approach specific information that must be reviewed every approach. When handed off to Tower frequency the pilots will maintain listening watch on both frequencies. not to transmit on this frequency. This allows higher traffic flow during IFR periods for airports with closely spaced parallel runways. A breakout is similar to a go-around but must be followed immediately. 84 . PRM Approaches Precision Radar Monitoring approaches allow closer than normal spacing between parallel runways and simultaneous approaches. Since there is obviously reduced margin for error procedures have been put in place to ensure quick response to any loss of separation. If the tower frequency gets blocked by a stuck mike or whatever you can still hear commands from the PRM controller.2). All breakouts must be hand flown. A321 Quick Reference Notes Engine-out autoland authorized for CONFIG 3 or FULL (except A320 is CONFIG FULL only) (PH 1. PRM approaches will be flown either with ILS or LDA facilities. DO NOT EXPECT to be told when to monitor the monitor only frequency! When assigned Tower frequency dial in the normal tower frequency and talk and listen as normal on this frequency. However if during the RA the controller gives a turn follow the controllers command since the TCAS cannot give steering commands. flight directors and if available autothrust Put TCAS in TA/RA.10. if RA is received during approach follow the RA Dual VHF frequencies are used for the approach. A breakout command will begin “Traffic Alert” followed by instructions. If an RA is received on TCAS during a PRM follow the RA as normal (Autopilot off. On the number two radio put in the monitor only frequency and select to listen only. Breakouts may be used for a climb or a descent and will normally include an immediate turn. This means that you are listening to two different frequencies while you are talking to tower. Must use autopilot.Airbus A319. All procedures for ILS and LDA are the same except an offset LDA will be flown to a MAP followed by a visual segment. Flight Directors off). Captain is always the PF for PRM approaches Review procedure on Jepp chart. A320.
A320.VNAV) Approaches All non-precision approaches must be flown with autopilot and flight director unless no ILS is available and #2 autopilot has failed.Airbus A319. 85 . then a manual non-precision approach is permitted. When cleared for the RNAV approach press the APPR pb on FCU. A321 Quick Reference Notes PRM Climb Breakout: “Traffic Alert” Captain (PF) On “Breakout” climb command from ATC: “Breakout TOGA” Autopilot off Thrust to TOGA Turn to new heading Establish climb Select Thrust Levers back to Climb when able PRM Descend Breakout: “Traffic Alert” Captain (PF) On “Breakout” descend command from ATC: “Breakout” Autopilot off Verify thrust in Climb Detent Turn to new heading Establish descent (not to exceed 1000 fpm) First Officer (PM) First Officer (PM) Set and select heading on FCU Set and select altitude on FCU If RA received turn off Flight Directors Set and select heading on FCU Set altitude on FCU (don’t select) If RA received turn off Flight Directors RNAV (LNAV. Do NOT select the LS pb! LS pb will disable the RNAV indications and flash amber V/DEV on the PFD. Non-precision approaches are to use only the #2 autopilot Only use approach from database Do not manually build approach RNAV approaches that are listed as LVAV-VNAV are designed to provide vertical guidance and will utilize a DA(H).
Note: PM makes 100 above and minimums calls. This lowers the FMGC “tolerance” from an enroute value to an approach value. extend flaps 3 at 2 miles from FAF and extend flaps FULL at 1 mile from FAF. call the PM should not make the normal Ref + and sink calls as it is commonly very close to the minimums call and can be too confusing. lateral guidance from F/D and ND. All other auto callouts available. The Airbus is using it’s technology to create an artificial glideslope that allows this normally unstabilized approach to be stabilized. In actual use the procedure is exactly like the full RNAV LNAV-VNAV approach and the presentation is exactly the same as well. If both FMGC’s display an error message or you get an FM/GPS POS DISAGREE ECAM you must go around. At start of descent ensure that missed approach altitude is set. You may also get a GPS PRIMARY LOST message which indicates that the GPS signal from an MMR has been lost. Ensure HIGH is showing on PROG for nav accuracy. The 50’ pad is added to allow descent to the MDA and then to recognize that the runway is not in sight and begin goaround procedure without busting the hard MDA limit.3 for required accuracy on PROG page (make sure the new value shows on both sides). RNAV LVAV approaches will be flown just like RNAV LNAV-VNAV approaches except with the following changes: 86 . The autopilot will automatically disconnect at DA minus 40 ft. RNAV approach must have a HIGH nav accuracy showing with 0. A320. A321 Quick Reference Notes Enter 0. if not off sooner. Remember that these approaches were originally designed by the FAA as “drop and drag” or “dive and drive” utilizing an MDA (minimum descent altitude). This will allow you to continue the RNAV approach.3 nm value on the PROG page before beginning the approach to ensure that the FMGC accurate enough for an RNAV approach. The new decision altitude is called the DDA for Derived Decision Altitude as it is derived from the original MDA. 3-2-1 – plan to extend landing gear at 3 miles from FAF. Remember “High Hockey Finals” Note: vertical guidance from F/D and “brick”. Less than required accuracy will create a NAV ACCURACY DOWNGRADE message on MCDU. Ensure APP NAV and FINAL are showing on FMA. If you get either message you must select the autopilot on the side of the operative FMGC. RNAV approaches that are listed as LNAV only utilize an MDA but will still generate vertical guidance. When visual on runway is acquired turn off autopilot (at least by MDA). RNAV LNAV Approaches This non-precision approach is flown using RNAV procedures. In both cases the “brick” will be available for vertical guidance. When the autocallout makes the 500 ft. Ensure FINAL is now showing on FMA.Airbus A319. Ensure the “hockey stick” (descent arrow symbol) is visible on ND for start of descent.
VOR approaches VOR Approaches are also flown in a manner similar to the RNAV LNAV approaches. Do not change RNP on the PROG page NAV accuracy downgrade does not require a missed approach Add 50’ to the MDA(H) to create DDA (Derived Decision Altitude) Note: do not add the 50’ when noted on the approach. Must remain within 5° of course. Position PM VOR selector to VOR. Select VOR identifier on PM’s side. A321 Quick Reference Notes RNAV LNAV must add 50’ to the MDA Note: do not add the 50’ when noted on the approach.Airbus A319.5° needle deflection. A320. 87 . Raw data must be monitored by the PM. The verbiage will be similar to the following: “Only authorized operators may use VNAV DA(H) in lieu of MDA(H)” Raw data will be monitored by manually tuning the PM’s RADNAV page to the VOR. For VOR approaches use the RNAV LNAV-VNAV procedures except: NAV must be utilized for approach VIAs (do not select APPR until cleared for approach and intercepting the intermediate segment) A coded VNAV flight path angle (FPA) in the FMGC is required for the final approach segment. Both pilots should continue to use the PF’s NAV display to monitor approach progress and improve situational awareness. Maintain within + or . The verbiage will be similar to the following: “Only authorized operators may use VNAV DA(H) in lieu of MDA(H)” Another way to say this is that the RNAV LNAV approach is flown exactly like the RNAV LNAV/VNAV approach except when the additional verbiage is not added. Just as the RNAV LNAV approach the VOR approach is flown to an MDA but is using an artificial glideslope to create a stabilized approach.
then “drop” down to the MDA and “drag” the MDA until you either descend to land or go-around. Turn off both Autopilot and Flight Director to descend below MDA. Since US Airways no longer issues ASR approach plates and the ASR is not in the FMGC database you may want to load a similar approach to the same runway and use an approach to the same runway or airport to help in situational awareness and to brief common items such as MSA. Use “dial ahead” on altitude. Round MDA up to next highest hundred (example: MDA is 740. Max 1000 fpm descent below 1. do not use Open Descent. not on a written profile. This is what I call a “drop and drag” or “dive and drive” approach. set 800).e.13. LDA in database as LOC. and is simply my suggestion of comfortable speed ranges for a given flap setting. A321 Quick Reference Notes LDA Approaches LDA approaches use same procedures as ILS approaches. You will configure and fly to the FAF. The aircraft is certified for autolanding with single engine operation down to CAT IIIA single which will allow autoland approaches down to a DH of 50’. A320. KDCA Roselyn LDA is NOT authorized. Use V/S (vertical speed) only.000 AFE. Note: do not set new altitude until altitude is fully captured (ALT* is gone from FMA) to avoid a reversion to vertical speed.1) When using speed select (manual speed selection – blue bug) I suggest the following speed ranges for a given flap setting. Ask for other fixes to plan for configuration (i. Visual Approaches Open descent prohibited below 1000’ AGL on a visual approach (U) (PH 2. when at initial altitude set MDA before reaching DP. LDA must have glide slope. set to missed approach altitude. 2. For example. Controller will give you MDA and Descent Point (final approach fix) and one mile prior to DP. Note that this is based on my observation of managed speed. Of course you are able to select from VMAX down to VLS whenever needed but the following are 88 .) for category C (A321 D) aircraft and missed approach procedure. When at MDA. Engine-Out Approaches All single-engine approaches follow the same procedures as normal two engine approaches except that Flaps 3 will be used (exception: A320 must use Flaps FULL for autoland engine out approach). ASR Approaches Ask for approach minimums (RVR or vis. No extra points for getting to the MDA too close to the runway to land so get down promptly once you reach the FAF.Airbus A319. 1 miles from DP). 3.
by using these “ranges” you have a visual reference in front of you at all times: Flaps 0 – down to green dot (suggest about 210) Flaps 1 – below VFE NEXT down to S speed (green S) (suggest 190) Flaps 2 – below VFE NEXT down to F speed (green F) (suggest 170) Flaps 3 – below VFE NEXT down to F speed (green F) (suggest 160) Flaps Full or 3 – Managed Speed – before 1000’ Note: recall that VFE NEXT is the amber equals sign on airspeed scale Note: A321 may need slightly higher suggested speeds at heavy weights. If you are rapidly approaching a low altitude in TOGA you must bring the thrust levers back to the Climb detent. if flaps Full. This means that the autothrust will not reduce on level out while in TOGA detent. 89 . Single engine go around follows same procedure. During acceleration when at F speed go to flaps 1 whether you are at flaps 2 or 3. Go around flaps are to select one step up from the approach flap setting (i. If LVR CLB flashes in the FMA reduce to Climb Power (CL) detent. At acceleration altitude begin engine out clean up procedure. then select flaps 3. if you TOGA on go around be ready to reduce thrust faster than normal if leveling at a low altitude.e. A321 Quick Reference Notes suggested as flexible and comfortable speeds to use in line operations. if flaps 3 then select flaps 2). (in parentheses is full ILS equivalent): Plan and configure to arrive prior to 3 nm from FAF with Flaps 2 3 nm from FAF – gear down (Dot and a half G/S) 2 nm from FAF – flaps 3 (Half dot G/S) 1 nm from FAF – flaps FULL (G/S intercept) Go Around Set thrust levers to TOGA. When in TOGA the aircraft will continue to accelerate when level until it hits the Vmax limit and Normal law takes over. A320.Airbus A319.6) works well for conservative Visual approaches as well (assuming on glideslope) and is similar to RNAV technique. As well. If you plan on using this technique the FAA wants you to state “alternate ILS technique” in your approach briefing. Once TOGA is used please note that autothrust is now manually set and WILL NOT reduce until brought back to the Climb detent by the pilot (as during a normal takeoff).6. The long and short here. this will activate go around mode and (if turned off) will turn on Flight Director. The alternate ILS technique (PH 18.
A320. After Takeoff Checklist” “Flaps Up” select Flaps 0. This will cause a “thrust bump” that will have you floating down the runway with excess energy. On touch down use positive nose down to lower the nose. Select Full Reverse as you lower nose. Bring thrust levers back to idle at about 30’ in normal conditions. disarm spoilers and accomplish After Takeoff Checklist Landing Note: these are my personal tips and not necessarily procedures. Don’t let nose drop when normal nose down pitch is added at 50’ in flare mode. Try to have the flare started by the 10’ call. In gusty condition you may want to carry thrust longer. Select requested heading or engage “Heading ___ “ or “NAV” NAV as requested When LVR CLB flashes on FMA “Climb” “Climb Set” At F speed “Flaps 1” “Flaps 1” select Flaps 1 At S speed “Flaps Up. Do not carry thrust to the flare as the autothrust will begin to command climb thrust as speed deteriorates if you do not bring back idle. A321 Quick Reference Notes Go Around Callouts PF PM “Go Around” (Thrust Levers to TOGA) “TOGA” “TOGA Set” “Go Around Flaps” “Flaps___” set flaps one step up and state new setting. “Flaps 3” (or 2) “Positive Rate” “Gear Up” “Gear Up” (position gear lever up. “Autopilot 1” (or 2) Select requested autopilot At or above 400 ft. I was used to flying smaller (and shorter geared!) jets and found it helpful to move my aim point on the runway from the 1000’ marker to halfway between the 1000’ and 1500’. Be careful not to let the nose ride up when reverse is selected. Be sure you 90 . disarm spoilers) Advise ATC of missed approach or go around. As the aircraft slows through 80 knots slowly push the thrust levers back toward idle reverse so as to be at or near idle reverse at 60 knots.Airbus A319. Flaps 3 will not slow as quickly and you may wish to reduce to idle closer to 50’ more often here. The aircraft has plenty of airspeed and energy with managed speed being flown and you will not need to delay thrust reduction to ensure proper flare in normal conditions.
Aircraft seems to level out in flare with Flaps 3 more quickly than with Flaps Full. Recommend autobrakes for “short. or more. In gusty conditions don’t be afraid to use the full throw of the sidestick! In normal smooth air the stick can be very sensitive to slight pressures and is easy to over control. it would retrim and you would start all over again. I normally use about 50 ft. If you didn’t have a pitch down to hold against then when you began your flare the autotrim would just trim off your flare. Use a more “subtle” flare with Flaps 3 than with Flaps Full. Release all roll input when the aircraft is on the ground. The sidestick must be released once the bank angle is established. first. Autobrakes are required for crosswind component of 10 kts.Airbus A319. Flaps 3 landings will tend to float more than Flaps Full. Maintain the aircraft on the centerline with roll control. to start aligning the nose. Then retard the lever again against the stop to ensure minimum forward thrust in idle. remember that autothrust is active until the thrust levers are all the way to idle (assuming autothrust is already active). Why do they add this pitch down? It is actually due to the auto trimming in normal law. as the Airbus uses roll rate for the ailerons the pilot cannot HOLD the sidestick in the crossed control position. The PH recommends aligning the aircraft with the runway centerline during the flare with the rudder. It is more intuitive than it sounds! Second. Two points however. So once you bring the thrust levers out of the Climb detent you aren’t actually reducing thrust until the levers get all the way back to where autothrust has them commanded. Care must be taken to use measured inputs to the sidestick. Another common problem is that some folks will reduce the power very slowly. the Airbus uses conventional crosswind landing technique.Short runway. This is not true. wet. You will go to direct once you are on the ground. However. If you bring the levers back slowly you are only reducing the maximum amount that can be commanded but not actually reducing the thrust until you get them very far back. There is actually some lag time from when you command full left or 91 . Then you would balloon and pitch over. So the pitch over is to give you an artificial back pressure to feel during the flare but it is not a blend back to direct. A320. Crosswind Landings – Despite rumors. cross. If you wait too long you get the thrust bump we just talked about as autothrust is still trying to maintain the speed. A321 Quick Reference Notes push the thrust lever all the way back through the detent into forward idle. However. in gusty conditions you may need to use full throw of the sidestick. You will only be limiting the amount of thrust that can be commanded. wet or contaminated. cat” . Think of “bumping” in the needed bank. crosswind and CAT II/III A persistent myth is that the Airbus will blend back to direct law during the flare mode. the sidestick is as sensitive in the flare as in cruise. The aircraft remains in normal law but normal law has a flare mode that adds a pitch down at 50’. Be very careful when using Flaps 3 on shorter runways that you ensure touch down in a timely manner.
6. A320. If you don’t believe me watch the next time you do the flight control check. The severity of the warning (Advisory. Windshear!) the PF should call: “Windshear.3) Takeoff – use TOGA. FOM 7. A321 Quick Reference Notes right roll and when the controls actually get there. Basically. Windshear. Windshear (PH 2i. On landing if Predictive Windshear warning or caution given execute a normal go-around (you may reconfigure flaps and gear). AGL to 50 ft AGL and up to 5 miles . Predictive Windshear protection is only available below 1500 ft. use minimum allowable flap setting. consider increasing rotation speed if possible Landing – Use Flaps 3.3. Do not reject takeoff/go around for Predictive Advisory. AGL on landing. Warning) is based on nearness of windshear. EGPWS (PH 2i.4) TOGA thrust Autopilot off 92 . roll wings level. For a Predictive Windshear warning reject takeoff or go around on landing for Caution (amber and aural “Monitor Radar Display”) or Warning (red and aural “Windshear Ahead”). not strength of windshear. You can always take it back out if you don’t need all of it. 200’ descending. consider increasing approach speed During a windshear encounter (reactive warning: Windshear. Follow Flight Director. On the ground it is available on takeoff until 100 kts.Airbus A319. Don’t change gear/flap configuration until safe (ensure Speedbrake stowed). it will not work in dry conditions. use TOGA to continue for Advisory alert takeoff. The PM should call altitude from radio altimeter and climb/descent trend: “300’ descending. Caution: Predictive Windshear is radar based and can only function with precipitation. AGL. use longest suitable runway. Reactive windshear warning is available from ground to 1300 ft. Quickly position the sidestick to full left or right and watch how long before the position indicators take to get there! Even if the lag is just in the indicators I have had the Airbus be slower than I wanted when commanding full aileron so the point here is if you think you need full roll authority go ahead and put it in. on takeoff and 1300 ft. 400’ climbing”. apply TOGA thrust. TOGA”. QRH OD-17. only reject takeoff or landing for an aural alert as the Advisory has no aural. Caution. AGL to 50 ft.
5) If a traffic resolution is given (CLIMB. Normally based on 25 nm from depicted naviad. MAINTAIN VERTICAL SPEED MAINTAIN. if needed use full speed range from Vmax to αmax. Avoid excessive maneuvers. provides terrain clearance on airway. provides terrain clearance on airway and normally assures nav signal coverage. MOCA – Minimum Obstacle Clearance Altitude. MSA’s provide 1000 ft. MSA – Minimum Safe Altitude. May be divided into sectors not less than 90° each. Denoted by letter “T” after altitude. 400’ climbing”. 200’ descending. of obstacle clearance but do not ensure signal coverage. After clear of conflict autopilot and flight directors may be put back on. A321 Quick Reference Notes Roll wings level Sidestick FULL AFT until at safe altitude The PM should call altitude from radio altimeter and climb/descent trend: “300’ descending. DESCEND. SPEED. SPEED Increase thrust until warning stops. provides obstacle clearance within 10 nm of airway centerline.500 ft. on an approach chart the lowest you can safely descend if not on a charted route. TCAS RA Maneuver (PH 2i. A320. Selecting MCT on thrust levers will work well. ADJUST VERTICAL SPEED ADJUST): Autopilot – OFF Both Flight Directors – OFF “Flight Directors OFF” Adjust vertical speed as required to remain in green area of vertical speed scale (stay outside of red).Minimum Enroute Altitude. 93 . MORA – Minimum Off Route Altitude.” Don’t change gear/flap configuration until safe (ensure Speedbrake stowed).12) If during approach conditions additional thrust is needed to recover a positive flight path you will get a synthetic voice: SPEED.Airbus A319. PM call out safe altitude “MSA is 6. Low Energy Warning (PH 2i. not signal coverage. MEA. Go Around must be performed if RA CLIMB or INCREASE CLIMB is given on final approach. can be expanded to 30 if shown. Denoted by letter “a” after altitude.
the drift down procedures is as specified in FCOM. an authorisation of the Chief Pilot Flight Operations is required. If available and not limiting. Before commencement of VFR altitudes requirements of ICAO Rules of the Air . Where the planned En-route IFR flight levels or altitudes are higher than the published Minimum En-route IFR Altitude (MEA) indicated on en-route charts. b. while considering the effect of: a. D. the minimum altitude/flight level at which the flight is operated will be subject to Civil Aviation Authority-Pakistan (CAAP) regulations. C. B. Engine failure A. Operational Navigation Charts (ONC) will be used In case of incomplete or lack of safety altitude information to determine the minimum safe en-route altitude which clear all obstacles within 5 NM (9. the net flight path as defined in the aircraft Flight Manual/FCOM is considered. B.Airbus A319. C.Annex 2 chapter 4 and CAA Pakistan are to be fulfilled. Enroute minimum altitude Normal operation A. The highest altitude/flight level of the above for a particular route will determine the minimum flight altitude for that route.3 km) of the route centreline by 1000 ft (300 m) if the reference point is not higher than 5000 ft (1500 m) MSL or 2000 ft (600 m) if reference point is higher than 5000 ft MSL. A320. It is ensured that Operations are conducted in a manner: a. depressurisation). air conditioning. VFR operations are not allowed for revenue flights. B. Where the planned altitude is higher of the Minimum Off-Route Altitude (MORA) and the published Minimum Obstruction Clearance Altitude (MOCA). During a diversion topography along the route and the requirements mentioned below (engine(s) failure. In case of obstacle. 94 . Point(s) of Non Return (PNR) are established (drift down on course. B. To determine the MORA. B. If VFR is required for a specific flight or part(s) of a flight. the grid MORA is to be used as minimum flight altitude. For diversion procedure please refer to Airblue Operations Manual Part C. The net flight path is established as per the FCOM. turn back or diversion outside the track depending on the aircraft position). semi circular cruising levels or by the need to maintain a safe height margin above any significant terrain or obstacle en route. For engine failure. Abnormal operation A. Minimum IFR altitude requirements A. while the remaining engine being set at MCT (Maximum Continuous Thrust). A321 Quick Reference Notes OPERATIONS MANUAL IMPORTANT INFORMATION Minimum flight altitudes Minimum VFR altitude requirements A. as and when required. air traffic control requirements.
c.One engine inoperative a. High altitude temperature corrections 95 . wind and temperature (weather forecast) C.Airbus A319. A321 Quick Reference Notes b. icing protection system if its use is expected. Values to be added by the pilot to minimum promulgated heights / altitudes (ft) Aerodrome Temperature 0°C -10°C -20°C -30°C -40°C -50°C Height above the elevation of the altimeter setting source (ft) 200 300 400 500 1000 2000 3000 4000 20 20 30 30 60 120 170 230 20 30 40 50 100 200 290 390 30 50 60 70 140 280 430 570 40 60 80 100 190 380 570 760 50 80 100 120 240 480 720 970 60 90 120 150 300 600 890 1190 5000 290 490 710 950 1210 1500 A. A320. En-route .
The following table is to be consulted:- 96 . A321 Quick Reference Notes a. the minimum safe altitude is to be corrected for deviations in pressure when the pressure is lower than the standard atmosphere (1013hPa). When flying at levels with the altimeter set to 1013hPa.1.2. 40 IS A -3 Altitude (QNH) (1000 ft) 0° C A IS 30 A IS + °C 30 20 10 * This assume a constant ∆ ISA from sea level to aircraft flight level True Altitude * (1000 ft) 0 10 20 30 40 Altitude temperature correction for high altitude use Example: Given: MEA = FL200 / ISA-30°C Find: min FL = 230 8.3. A320.Airbus A319. Pressure correction (QNH correction) A. The following graph does not take into account the elevation of the altimeter setting source and the correction applies to the air column between the ground and the aircraft.1.
Adequate aerodrome A. the aerodrome shall be available and equipped with necessary ancillary services.510 = 19490 ft. a pressure correction is not required.0 ft .--. It is ensured that alternate. departure and destination aerodromes are adequate for company aircraft fleet.Airbus A319. A320. B.80 ft -----220 ft -----380 ft -----510 ft -----630 ft -----780 ft -----920 ft ----1080 ft Example: Given: Indicated altitude = 20000 ft. local QNH = 995 hPa Ans: Geometrical (true) altitude = 20000 . USABILITY OF AERODROMES Usable aerodrome A. A321 Quick Reference Notes QNH correction QNH of station nearest Correction QNH of station nearest Correction 1050 1045 1040 1035 1030 1025 1020 1015 1013 1013 1010 1005 1000 995 990 985 980 975 -----. When using the QNH or QFE altimeter setting (giving altitude or height above QFE datum respectively). Following table is for guideline only: Aircraft type A318 / A319 / A320 A321 Aerodrome category 6 7 97 . Airblue considers an aerodrome to be adequate when the applicable performance requirements and runway characteristics are suitable for aircraft fleet and at the expected time of use. ISA.
Airblue considers an adequate aerodrome usable for take-off alternate if the TAFORs 1 hr before and ending 1 hr after ETA.Airbus A319. 1 hr before and ending 1 hr after ETA. A320. 98 . ceiling at or above MDH) will be at or above the approach operating minima. Planning minima Planning minima for take-off alternate aerodrome B. the weather conditions will be at or above the applicable landing minima. Planning minima Planning minima for take-off alternate aerodrome A. the ceiling is taken into account when the only approaches available are non-precision and/or circling approaches. Airblue considers an aerodrome to be suitable if the aerodrome is adequate for the operation and the meteorological conditions satisfy the planning minima given here after for the expected landing time and meet the approach. Planning minima for destination aerodrome (except isolated destination aerodrome) A. 1 hr before and ending 1 hr after ETA. Airblue considers an adequate aerodrome usable for take-off alternate if the TAFORs 1 hr before and ending 1 hr after ETA. weather conditions (RVR / visibility and for non-precision or circling approaches. A321 Quick Reference Notes Suitable aerodrome A. Airblue considers an adequate aerodrome usable for destination (except if the aerodrome is isolated) if the TAFORs. Planning minima for destination aerodrome (except isolated destination aerodrome) B. Airblue considers an adequate aerodrome usable for destination (except if the aerodrome is isolated) if the TAFORs. ceiling at or above MDH) will be at or above the approach operating minima. the ceiling is taken into account when the only approaches available are non-precision and/or circling approaches. the weather conditions will be at or above the applicable landing minima. weather conditions (RVR / visibility and for non-precision or circling approaches. runway and aircraft capabilities and crew qualifications (associated with meteorological conditions).
Planning minima for en-route and destination alternate aerodromes and isolated destination aerodromes A. This take-off alternate shall be usable and located within: a. For two-engine aircraft i. either. 99 . An aerodrome is selected as destination for an operation. if it is adequate for this operation. weather conditions will be at or above the planning minima as follows: Table: Planning minima: En-route alternates. one hour still air flight time at the one-engineinoperative cruising speed (max continuous power speed) in ISA conditions based on the actual take-off weight. destination alternates and isolated destination aerodromes Type of approach Cat II Cat I Non-precision Planning minima Cat I minima (RVR) Non-precision approach minima (ceiling / RVR) Non-precision approach minima plus 200 ft/1000 m (MDH/MDA + 200 ft / RVR + 1000 m) Circling minima Circling Selection of aerodromes Destination aerodrome A. Take-off alternate aerodrome A. en-route alternate or for destination aerodrome when isolated. If planning minima at destination are not fulfilled. Airblue considers an adequate aerodrome usable for destination alternate.Airbus A319. two destination alternate aerodromes are selected. if the TAFORs 1 hr before and ending 1 hr after ETA. A321 Quick Reference Notes C. A320. When performance or meteorological conditions preclude return to departure aerodrome (weather conditions do not fulfil applicable minima for approach/landing). a take-off alternate aerodrome is selected.
where Pilot-incommand shall ensure that the amount of usable fuel remaining in flight is not less than the fuel required to proceed to an aerodrome where a safe landing can be made. Extra Fuel (if required by the PIC) Additional Fuel is specified prior to the production of the Operational Flight Plan (OFP)/Computerized Flight Plan (CFP) and is therefore incorporated into the MIN FUEL figure. the planned Landing Weight does not exceed the Maximum Landing Weight (MLW) less 1%. Extra Fuel is determined by the Commander and is entered manually on the OFP/CFP by the crew with remarks. contingency. F. whenever B. Anticipated meteorological conditions b. E. corrected for any rise or fall in Zero Fuel Weight (ZFW). Determination of the quantities of fuel and oil carried B. reserve fuel and extra fuel if required by the Commander. Trip Fuel c. Alternate Fuel e. D. Fuel performance factor. Note: The final authority and responsibility for fuel loads and the fuel management in flight rests with the Pilot-in-command. However. C. C. alternate fuel. B. ATS procedures. The fuel planning must be sufficient to cover the following requirements: a. At any time during a flight the fuel quantity remaining on board must be enough to deal with the planned operation and the possible deviations. Procedures contained in the Airblue Flight Operations Manual (FOM) and must include a safe margin for contingency. it is company policy to carry CFP MIN FUEL. Taxi Fuel b. Reserve fuel consists of contingency fuel. C.0010. Contingency Fuel (Also known as Route Reserve) d. 100 . A320. A. final reserve fuel and additional fuel if required by the type of operation. reserve and taxi must be loaded for an intended flight. Weights c. alternate and holding to meet regulatory recommendations as per CAA ANO 91. A321 Quick Reference Notes A. Final Reserve As and when appropriate: d. Additional Fuel e. In absence of any non standard planning factors.Airbus A319. At the flight planning stage the CFP ZFW will be selected to ensure that with the normal fuel requirement. Standard fuel planning Policy The pre-flight calculation of usable fuel required for a flight includes taxi fuel. f. trip fuel. Routings d. FUEL POLICY A. Adequate fuel quantity (block fuel) to cover the requirements of trip. which takes in account: a. alternate. Delays e.
Technical Logbook. Trip Fuel comprises of a. final reserve fuel and additional fuel if required by the type of operation. Planning Factors The pre-flight calculation of usable fuel required for a flight includes taxi fuel. On a multi sector flight additional sector fuel could be uplifted subject to payload at respective locations. Trim-sheet. A320. SID and Climb Cruise b. Take Off. A321 Quick Reference Notes necessary to uplift the maximum payload (to maximum landing weight). along with Flight Log.Airbus A319. A. E. Acceleration. alternate fuel. C. Thereafter minimum fuel required is as per the requirements of CH-11. ATC Clearance. Descent G. B. Fuel Indent. Reserve fuel consists of contingency fuel. Copies of completed CFP on which fuel checks have been recorded. Pre-flight fuel requirements of this section only exist until completion of refuelling. General Factors Computerized Flight Plan (CFP) will normally be provided for every intended flight. planning to this weight should only be done by Dispatch in co-ordination with Load Control and the PIC. C. Fuel Receipt and Weather information are to be placed in the Flight Document Zipper Envelope for Post Flight analysis and record. D. then it should be ensured that enough fuel is carried to cater for the next sector only (payload and other limitations permitting). B. 101 . trip fuel reserve fuel (and extra fuel if required by the Pilot-incommand with reason). Tankering of fuel. If the CFP shows a recommendation to carry extra fuel (tankering) as a result of Maximum Fuel Policy. when not recommended is UNECONOMICAL. A.
A320. and Top Of Descent (TOD. Quantities known to be unusable iv. e. a. Additional Fuel is required for: i. If the Destination Forecast Wx for a period ±1 hr ETA indicates. Visibility 5 km or more Then only one nearest alternate should be nominated. g.Airbus A319. and expected to remain so until after Expected Approach Time. upon reaching destination/alternate you cannot accept any undue delay. Ceiling 2000 ft or above and ii. A Diversion to alternate may not be initiated if landing at destination is assured. Selection of Alternate Airfield will be as follows. A321 Quick Reference Notes c. an urgency call must be given. when weather at destination is above its own alternate minima. i. f. In-flight fuel checks should be carried out on each sector at the first convenient waypoint in cruise and thereafter every 30 minutes approximately. G. Any time it is expected to go below 30 minutes of fuel. D. c. Holding F. Units of weight should be the same as on the cockpit fuel gauges. h. Use of APU iii. Be aware a minimum fuel advisory does not imply a need for traffic priority. but merely an advisory that indicates an emergency situation is possible should any undue delay occur. Where SIDs and STARs have not been published a distance of 15 NM is to be added. In-Flight Fuel Monitoring and Low Fuel A.) b. Close vigilance and early decision making is necessary in order to ensure that diversion and holding allowances are not eroded to an extent that Operational Safety is compromised. If the remaining usable fuel is expected to go below 30 minutes and suggests the need for traffic priority to ensure a safe landing. 102 . If at any time it is known that the aircraft may land with fuel less than reserve fuel at destination (Alternate plus Holding). Contingencies v. ATC must be informed about Fuel Remaining in minutes. Alternate airfields vi. Selection of Alternate A. Start UP and Taxi ii. Be aware that this is not an emergency situation. Advice ATC of your minimum fuel status when your fuel supply has reached a state where. d. Procedure a. Pilot-in-Command must ensure that the correct type and quantity of fuel is on board. an emergency shall be declared on account of low fuel and report fuel remaining in minutes. STAR and Instrument Approach Procedure to land Note: Where published most commonly used SID and STAR are considered.
A320 and A321 are App Cat “C”. ii. The Listing of Alternates. Some airports may have restricted hours of operation. Company Preferred alternates are marked [P]. H.“Tempo” conditions in the forecast wx are only to be considered if at the estimated time of arrival it is below the pre-flight planning minima. b. Alternates Policy A. Alternates are being listed in order of distance from destination. B. i. For hours of operation the relevant NOTAMs and Jeppesen Manuals must be consulted. an alternate is required for flight release within a distance equivalent to a flight time of one hour at the single engine cruise speed for A320 aircraft family. At planning stage. f.Airbus A319. International Destinations and Alternates. Selecting closest Alternate Airfield for example Nawabshah: For flight with destination as Karachi: i. Planning Minimums (IFR flight) a. General a. j. e. Where a condition is forecast as “Prob” it will be considered only if the probability factor is more than 30%. In case of payload restrictions and if the visibility is more than 2. b. If the weather conditions at the airport of takeoff are below the landing minimum for that airport.6 km (applicable to Cat “D”).2 km (applicable to Cat “C”) or 2. 103 . These airports are marked [RH]. in case an alternate is not available due to weather or any other reason. If the weather criteria in above para a) and para b) are not met then nominate two alternates. then the next available Alternate in the list should be nominated. payload permitting select Karachi as alternate. d. A320.5 tonnes it is App Cat “D” aircraft. Domestic Destinations and Alternates.5 km (applicable to Cat “D”) select Nawabshah as alternate. Fuel to be carried for the farthest of the two. A. For planning purposes the distance to alternate includes 6 NM. The new flight plan should be sent to concerned station. Takeoff Alternate a. Fresh CFP flight plan is to be sent under intimation to concerned station. For flight with destination other than Karachi (within Pakistan): a. Scheduled Destinations and Alternates are listed in two sections: i. the nearest being listed first.1 km (applicable to Cat “C”) or 2. If the Destination Forecast Wx ± 1hr of ETA is above its own Alternate Minima for an Instrument Approach then only one nearest alternate should be nominated c. For planning minimums for takeoff alternates. c. If nearer distance alternates are not available. (a) and (b) are being provided in the form of Routes Information Bulleting(s) which shall be revised as and when warranted. destination and destination alternates and for Enroute alternate aerodrome refer to Aerodrome Operating Minimums in the ATC chapter of Jeppesen Airway Manual/Lufthansa System/AERAD/AIP complemented by the route alternates GIBs/TIBs issued by Operations Control. Aircraft heavier than A321 is an App Cat D aircraft. as additional distance to join airway after conducting Missed Approach Procedure. A321 Quick Reference Notes b. k. except when the MLW of A321 is more than 75. Fuel for Alternate Lahore is to be given whenever the forecast weather is below 2.
B. an instrument approach (or 6 minutes to land which ever higher) and landing procedure at the destination runway. Aircraft Performance Deterioration (APD) Factor A. When APU fuel allowance is given and the taxi fuel drop to less than the taxi fuel as mentioned in Table-1 (above). A standard quantity of fuel to cater for ground manoeuvres from engine start prior to take-off (including APU consumption). The APD figures will be revised periodically or as and when warranted. Following taxi fuel will be used region wise. J. B. Flight Dispatch Requirements Taxi Fuel A. It is depicted on each CFP. Fuel allowance (200 kg) as tankered fuel shall be given when most commonly used STAR is not available or CFP most commonly used STAR s not available. cruise including step climbs if any. A321 Quick Reference Notes I. APD factor is to be applied to all fuel calculations. C. Table-2 A319 A320 A321 Domestic 360 380 400 Regional 400 400 400 Europe 400 280 400 Table-3 Stations with One hour Ground Time and APU is used Aircraft Type Domestic Regional Europe A319 260 360 360 A320 280 380 380 A321 300 400 400 Table-4 Stations with 30 minutes Ground Time and APU is used Aircraft Type Domestic Regional Europe A319 240 300 300 A320 240 340 340 A321 240 340 340 Note1 : Maximum ramp weight is not be exceeded with taxi fuel on board. L. Note1 : The APU fuel allowance does not form part of the minimum departure fuel. a. A320. 104 . Trip fuel Fuel for take-off and climb to cruise altitude taking into account the departure procedure.Airbus A319. Table-1 Aircraft Type Domestic Regional Europe A319 160 260 260 A320 180 280 280 A321 200 300 300 Stations with two hours Ground Time and APU is used Aircraft Type K. descent. Latest list of APD factors of each aircraft is available at Flight Despatch Centre. A. only then the refuelling shall be done.
When two destination alternates are required. A320. limited by the figures in following table. b. Table-5 Option 1 Taxi fuel Trip Fuel Contingency Fuel Reserved Fuel for minutes Option 2 Taxi fuel Trip Fuel Contingency Fuel 30 Alternate Fuel Reserves Fuel for 15 minutes Note * Favourable Destination: An airport is considered as a Favourable Destination when it satisfies all the following conditions. the block fuel will be higher of the sum of following quantities. Fuel to cover deviations from the planned operating conditions such as unfavourable variations in cruise altitude or track. d. Contingency fuel A. O. Fuel to fly for 30 minutes at holding speed at 1500 ft (450 m) above destination alternate airport elevation in standard conditions. Contingency fuel shall be 5% of Trip Fuel. Alternate fuel A. Aircraft Minimum Quantity Maximum Quantity A319 300 500 A320 300 600 A321 400 600 Note: Total fuel carried must be sufficient to permit flight with engine / pressurization failure from any point along track to an enroute airport with 30 minutes holding fuel. alternate fuel should be sufficient to proceed to the alternate which requires the greater amount of alternate fuel. This fuel may be for 15 minutes holding as provided when the destination is Favourable*. c. Fuel to reach the alternate aerodrome. which ever higher) and landing at alternate airport. cruise at Long Range Cruise speed. Approach procedure fuel (or 6 minutes for additional distance to join airways after conducting missed approach. Climb. A missed approach at the destination airport. calculated with estimated weight on arrival at the alternate or the destination when no alternate is required. Final reserve fuel A. taking into account: a. deviations from the forecast wind values or any other unforeseen adverse circumstances. 105 .Airbus A319. descent to the alternate airport. N. A321 Quick Reference Notes M.
descent as necessary and proceed to an adequate aerodrome. It has more one independent runway suitable for landing. make an approach and landing D. Discretion fuel: at the discretion of the Pilot-in-command A. Additional permit fuel: fuel which should a. Any stored Fuel and discretion Fuel. E. and C. Final Reserve Fuel. 106 . hold there for 15 minutes at 1500 ft (450 m) above aerodrome elevation in ISA conditions. It has a weather forecast for a period ± 2 hrs ETA indicating: i. c. B. Ceiling 2000 ft or more ii. if any. C. fuel transportation could be considered. However it should be kept in mind that carrying unnecessary extra fuel increases the fuel consumption for that sector and therefore reduces the economy of the operation (lower flex temperature. This is known as Fuel Tankering. A321 Quick Reference Notes a. Trip Fuel. Additional fuel for engine failure or loss of pressurisation is only required if the fuel calculated above (from trip fuel up to final reserve fuel) is not sufficient for such an event. Following the possible engine failure or loss of pressurisation at the most critical point along the route the aeroplane to: A. Q. more time in climb phase. It has one prescribed instrument approach procedure for each runway. Alternate Fuel.Airbus A319. This increases the aircraft weight due to extra fuel will decreases takeoff and climb performance and will increase the fuel consumption. and B. Any quantity of fuel carried for the purpose of Economic Tankering or fuel to cater for non-availability of fuel at destination R. Visibility 5 km or more P. Block Fuel i. Holding for 15 minutes at 1500 ft (450 m) above aerodrome elevation in ISA conditions. The Pilot-in-command may decide for example to add fuel to the minimum required fuel quantity defined above if he expects significant deviations from present flight planning. A320. lower optimum flight level etc). more tire and brake wear. When a difference in fuel price exists between different stations. (refer to “Fuel transportation” paragraph hereafter). Contingency Fuel. The block fuel is the sum of Taxi Fuel. D. when the flight is operated without a destination alternate and b. (Runways that do not meet or intersect) b. Stored / Tankered fuel A.
D. flight may be released for departure. due to adverse weather following procedure will be adopted:Table-6 Weather at Destination 1 Visibility above Minima. E. Despatch of Conditions flight in Dust Storm A. METAR trend may be monitored and when visibility is approaching 200m. 107 . Despatch of flight in Fog Conditions A.) B. Dust Storm is usually a temporary phenomenon and passes away in a short time. passenger boarding may be commenced.Airbus A319. Despatch of flight if forecast shows adverse conditions A. Engineering is to be advised for the possibility of refuelling 00:30 hours before departure. Whenever there forecasted visibility or weather conditions are such which require farthest distance alternate the Officer Dispatching the flight will get a short term (two hours before and after arrival time) forecast from the particular station on telephone. B. Flight can be despatched if the forecasted visibility is above minima at the time of the arrival of the flight. U. T. The Flight Dispatcher shall monitor the trend and will take on the spot decision and recalculate the fuel with Origin airport as alternate. TAFOR will override METAR for giving Boarding Clearance. C. During the Monsoon Period the Northern Region of Pakistan will be affected. ISB & PEW) Visibility above Minima. In order to reduce chances of diversion. A320. No Thunder activity expected Alternates are above Minima and no Thunder activity Thunderstorm or Poor Visibility Selection of Alternate Two nearest Alternates Carriage of Extra Fuel Nil Two nearest Alternates 30 minutes fuel at Destination Two Alternates Nil Fuel for Karachi V. A321 Quick Reference Notes S. Airport Operations be advised of the possible offloading in case of full flight and fuel for originating airport is required. No Thunder activity is expected 2 Thunderstorm or Poor Visibility is Expected 3 Thunderstorm or Poor Visibility is Expected Weather at Alternate (LHE. Despatch Period of flight during Monsoon A. If pax are already on board and visibility is approaching 200 meters. Boarding Clearance on METAR Trend (Delayed by 00:30 hours to avoid diversion.
Selection of Alternates in Changing Weather conditions (Not during Monsoon Period) B. Boarding can be initiated simultaneously. Boarding Clearance on METAR Trend (Delayed by 00:30 hours to avoid diversion. If destination METAR shows TS . Engineering is to be advised for the possibility of refueling 00:30 hours before departure. Minimum Block Fuel for Take-off will be as follows a. X. The Flight Dispatcher will monitor the trend and will take on the spot decision and recalculate the fuel with Karachi as alternate. Despatch of flight in Thunderstorm Conditions (Not during Monsoon Period) A. Rain without reduced visibility does not constitute adverse weather conditions. one alternates is nominated C. The METAR trend will be monitored and flight can be cleared for dispatch when activity is dissipating. 108 . A321 4500 kg Z. C. Reserve Fuel is depicted on CFO and is the sum of Alternate Fuel and Final Reserve Fuel. The Fuel Indent form will be provided later in this case to avoid any possible delay. E. Reserve Fuel B. D. A320 4200 kg c. Destination weather is clear. A320. Y.two alternates are to be nominated which are without adverse weather conditions (visibility. A319 4000 kg b. Minimum Block Fuel A.) B. if Thunderstorm conditions exist at already designated Alternates or movement of the activity is towards the designated alternates.Airbus A319. A321 Quick Reference Notes W. Airport Operations is to be advised of the possible offloading in case of full flight and fuel for Karachi is required. TS/RA or weather warning for Visibility or TS/RA).
an authorized Aircraft Engineer or if he/she is not available. This list takes into account the fuel cost differential between the airfields of departure and destination as well the cost of transportation of the additional fuel. One copy of the signed Technical Log and the Fuel Indent is to be handed over to the Aircraft Engineer.1% of that required.Airbus A319. F. selected tankering fuel 109 . A320. Fuel Tankering a. Refuelling has to be supervised and the quantity checked by a qualified person. the Captain shall ensure that the quantity and distribution of fuel on board correspond with that indicated in the Technical Log/fuel uplift Performa c. G. General: The Captain is responsible for ensuring that sufficient fuel is on board for the completion of the planned flight and that it is correctly distributed in the fuel tanks. fuel adequate to perform the return trip (or next sector) is to be uplifted. one of the flight crew. Supervision of Refuelling and Fuel Check a. Fuelling E. A321 Quick Reference Notes AA. b. subject to the landing weight limitation. i. This figure will take into account all pertinent factors. possible fuel savings enroute. Whenever a sector is nominated for tankering. d. b. The Figure-1 illustrates the different fuel quantities for a standard flight fuel planning Figure-1 BLOCK FUEL ADDITIONAL FUEL EXTRA FUEL TRIP FUEL FINAL RESERVE FUEL ALTERNATE FUEL including Go-Around and VFR procedure Generally % of trip fuel TAXI FUEL IFR Procedure CONTINGENCY FUEL Holding at 1500ft Parking Brake release Wheel touch down DESTINATION ALTERNATE DEPARTURE BB. e. Prior to departure. The total fuel onboard shall be verified to be within +2 / .g.e. An updated list of sectors is maintained on which fuel tankering provides financial benefit to the Company. Where fuel adequate to perform the return trip (or next sector) cannot be uplifted due to landing weight limitation.
ii. Flying at a more economical flight level. This option is subdivided into two phases. One is applicable based on fuel calculations prior to the top of descent (TOD). For convenience this sum is referred to as Company Minimum Reserve (CMR). Flying a more direct routing. Insufficient Fuel Remaining (Enroute) The CFP provides Minimum Required fuel values at each waypoint. an enroute technical stop for refuelling should be made. any airfield listed in RIBs may be considered in this regard.Airbus A319. The runway for takeoff is contaminated or Runway length is marginal. b. Whenever necessary to uplift the maximum payload. to the sum of alternate fuel and holding fuel. Fuel Tankering is not recommended if. The value of the CMR may change as the flight progresses. Such checks should be carried out over enroute waypoints at intervals normally not exceeding 30 minutes. If it becomes apparent that the predicted fuel remaining at destination will be less than the required minimum corrective action must be taken. iii. These values are only accurate if the CFP conditions of weight. c. It should be borne in mind that planning with a margin below maximum landing weight as outlined in the last paragraph is applicable only to tankering sector. Company Minimum Reserve: It is the Captain’s responsibility to ensure that he/she conducts the flight in a manner that the fuel calculated to be remaining on board at the destination is at least equal B. wind. Reducing consumption for the remainder of the flight by i. A321 Quick Reference Notes figure shall allow a margin between planned and maximum landing weight of 500 kg on A320 aircraft family. and the other is applicable after the aircraft has commenced its descent to the destination airfield. provided the forecast and actual weather for both 110 . planning should be to the maximum landing weight. temperature. General: Fuel checks shall be carried out at regular intervals throughout each flight in order to establish that actual fuel consumption matches that planned. Crews are expected to make maximum use of any flight Management systems to predict fuel on board at destination based on actual conditions. provided that the weather conditions at ETA are forecast to be at or above the applicable landing minima at that airfield. Comparison of actual fuel on board with the Minimum required as indicated on the CFP will enable early identification of higher than anticipated consumption. Furthermore. This corrective action should ensure that adequate fuel will be on board at destination and may involve any of the following: a. D. b. Flying at a more fuel economical speed. it is supersede a TAFOR of the airfield. A320. C. c. In-Flight Fuel Management A. Should none of these actions be possible. d. it may be possible to reduce the fuel reserves required at destination. route and flight level are encountered for the remainder of the flight. Selecting an alternate airfield closer to the intended destination. diversion fuel to the alternate airfield may be calculated from cruise altitude. Prior to Top of Descent The Company Minimum Reserve can be reduced by recalculating the fuel to alternate. If METAR trend is available. CC. Approaching Destination a. In the latter stages of any flight. Within one hour of destination.
Trip fuel c. Decision point procedure (re-clearance) A. Trip fuel to the destination airport. the amount of fuel at departure should include: a. if a destination alternate is required v. Taxi fuel ii. Contingency fuel calculated as for a standard flight planning d. Contingency fuel equal to not less than 3% of the estimate fuel consumption (trip fuel) from the departure airport to the en-route alternate iv. Extra fuel. The sum of: i. Final reserve fuel v. Extra fuel if required by the Pilot-in-command EE. Taxi fuel b. at the discretion of the Pilot-in-command. Taxi fuel ii. Contingency fuel of not less than 5% of the estimated fuel used from the decision point to the destination aerodrome iv. Alternate fuel. via the decision point iii. DD. Final reserve fuel vi. Additional fuel. at the discretion of the Pilot-in-command or b. Isolated airport procedure A. Additional fuel not less than the fuel necessary to fly for two hours at cruise speed after arriving overhead destination. if required vii. A320. When planning to a destination aerodrome via a decision point along the route. Trip fuel from the departure to a suitable en-route alternate via the decision point iii. When the destination is an isolated airport for which a destination alternate does not exist.Airbus A319. The sum of: i. Extra fuel. A321 Quick Reference Notes destination and alternate airfields indicates at least 5000 meters visibility and 1000 ft ceiling. including final reserve fuel e. 111 . if required vi. the amount of fuel required is the greater of ‘a’ or ‘b’ below: a. Additional fuel.
including final reserve fuel v. via the predetermined point iii. provided decision to B or diversion to E is taken before or when reaching D. Trip fuel from the departure aerodrome to the destination aerodrome. The sum of: i. If not. E. f. Extra fuel if required by the Pilot-in-command. the amount of fuel should be the greater of (a) or (b) below: a. Taxi fuel ii. Taxi fuel Trip fuel from the departure aerodrome to the alternate aerodrome. or b. At the decision point (D). F2 = Taxi + Trip AE + 3% AE + EY + Hold + Additional fuel + Extra fuel d. e. Contingency fuel (as for standard flight planning) iv. via the predetermined point Contingency fuel (as for standard flight planning) F. Additional fuel if required. F1 = Taxi + Trip AB + 5% DB + BX + Hold + Additional fuel + Extra fuel D. The decision point (reclearance) fuel planning is the greater of F1 or F2: C. A320. The sum of: D. the pilot will be proceed to the intended final destination (B) only if a normal contingency fuel (5% of DB) is still on board in addition to other normal fuel requirements (trip DB. When planning to a destination alternate where the distance between the destination aerodrome and the destination alternate is such that a flight can only be routed via a predetermined point to one of these aerodromes. Predetermined point procedure A. 112 . A321 Quick Reference Notes Y Alternate of E En-route Alternate E Dest. holding …). the pilot will proceed to the en-route alternate (E). Alternate X A Departure D Decision Point B Destination c. FF. The contingency fuel from departure airport (A) to the decision point (D) may be omitted on segment AD.Airbus A319. alternate BX. but not less than the fuel to fly for two hours at normal cruise consumption after arriving overhead the destination aerodrome.
but not less than the fuel to fly for 30 minutes at holding speed at 1500 ft (450 m) above aerodrome elevation in standard conditions. it must be annotated in the OFP. fuel transportation could be considered. Air distance = 1800 NM.087 ii. If the FCOM does not give adequate information. HH. E Destination Alternate H. It should be kept in mind that this formula is not applicable to large fuel transportation quantities. b. including final reserve fuel Extra fuel if required by the Pilot-in-command. fuel transportation should be considered only if: Formula: FPR < 0. correction: 87 kg/1000 kg LTF = 0. The correction on fuel consumption is given in kg/1000 kg for different FL and different air distances. LTF = Load Transportation Factor (additional kg of fuel burn-off per kg of extra load) The LTF (in kg/kg or lb/lb) can be determined using correction on fuel consumption data provided in the FCOM “Flight Planning“chapter on tabulated distance calculation charts. E. which lead to fly at lower altitudes than originally planned. In these conditions.087) D. the commander shall write his name and sign the OFP confirming acceptance of the flight plan. A Departure P Predetermined Point B Destination c. A320. If any extra fuel is required. D. These corrections are given in the charts to account for different aircraft weights. a simple formula for fuel transportation consideration is given below: Formula: FPR < 1 / 1 + LTF a. F.92 (=1/1. predetermined fuel planning is the greater of F1 or F2: i.Airbus A319. Example: i. F2 = Taxi + Trip AE + 5%(*) AE + 30 minutes holding + Extra fuel GG. Acceptance of Flight Plan On completion of flight planning. FPR = Fuel Price Ratio (fuel price at departure / Fuel price at destination) b. C. A321 Quick Reference Notes G. C. FL = 330. 113 . Additional fuel if required. F1 = Taxi + Trip AB + 5%(*) AB + 2 hours cruise + Extra fuel ii. (*) contingency fuel as per standard fuel planning Fuel transportation (Tankering) When a difference in fuel price exists between different stations.
LL. plus the estimated oil e. f. Based less than analysis a performance an amount of usable fuel remaining in be made. alternate fuel. ATS procedures. of operation. whenever necessary tonot exceed the Maximum Landing Weight (MLW) weight). e. Procedures contained A319. includes taxi fuel. Fuel and oil loaded and consumeddoesselected to ensure that with Landing Weight requirement.b. alternate fuel. reserve fuel calculation of if required by the Commander. city/aircraft combination D. Policy operational factors like sector. alternate and holding to meet regulatory recommendations as per Procedures contained in the Airblue Flight Operations Manual (FOM) and must include a safe margin for contingency. fuel. B. Fuel performance factor. f. Reserve the CFP/OFP accurately and completely with and additional fuel if enable proper contingency of operation. and when appropriate: oil consumption should cover the flight time the The estimated C. The etc to identify operational trends and statistics. Cockpit preparation"standard planning factors. reserve and Reserve) be loaded prior to departure. Standard fuel planning Programme analyses fuel usage from other b. landing weight). is specified prior to the production of the Operational Flight Plan Additional Fuel D. In absence of for non standard planning factors. At any time operation and A. the planned Landing Weight be uplift the maximum payload (to maximum (MLW) less log. fuel planning the Additional Fuel plus 15 minutes. Extra Fuel is determined by maximum therefore entered manually on the OFP/CFP OO. FUEL. the planned operation and the possible deviations. Determination of the quantities of fuel and oil carried FUEL POLICY D. requirement. However. e. Extra Fuel (if requiredconsumption is normally determined by the The hourly oil by the PIC) D. ATS procedures. pre-flight calculation of usable fuel required for a flight A. and the to this weight should only be done by Dispatch in co-ordination with Load Control and the PIC. Thereafter G. b. Extra Fuel (if required by the PIC) NN. trip fuel. The fuel planning must be sufficient to cover the following requirements: B. As a. of CARsto this weight should uplift the maximum payload co-ordination requirements However. The records have to does maintained in accordance with the technical 1%. Contingency Fuel (Also known as Route Reserve) d. As and when appropriate: MM.0010. Contingency Fuel (Also known as Route taxi must contingency. G. c. Weights i. At any time during a flight the fuel quantity remaining on board must be enough to deal with Fuel Consumption Monitoring Programmes the planned during a flight the fuel quantity monitor fuel consumption. which takes in account: g. Alternate Fuel quantity specified for a particular engine. Fuel performance factor. Final Reserve C. maintenance. II. calculations. minimum fuel required is as per the requirements of CH-11. (OFP)/Computerized specified prior to and is therefore incorporated into the Flight FUEL Additional Fuel is Flight Plan (CFP) the production of the Operational MIN Plan (OFP)/Computerized Flight Plan (CFP)Commander and is incorporated into the MIN FUEL figure. FUEL. Extra Fuel is determined by the Commander and from maintenance available) by the crew with remarks. Pre-flight fuel requirements of this section only exist until completion of refuelling. trip fuel. average estimated oil consumption (if no datais entered manually on the OFP/CFP by the crew with in FCOM "Standard Operating Procedure . B. l. it is company policy to carry CFP MIN In absence of any non for the related aircraft/engine concerned.d. Delays e. The minimum and the and is oil quantities and the maximum figure. Policy A. Additional be aircraft can Fuel operated with the minimum quantity of fuel requested by a. landingless 1%. correctedany any rise or fall in Zero Fuel Weight (ZFW). Pre-flight fuel requirements of this section only exist until completion of refuelling.Preliminary are indicated remarks. The pre-flightand extra fuel usable fuel required for a flight includes taxi fuel.OIL Fuel Taxi b. reserve and taxi must be loaded for an intended flight. Fuel Efficiency D. A320. where a safe landing can flight is not less than the fuel required toapplied to an aerodrome factor for each aircraft is determined and proceed for all fuel where a safe landing can be made. At the flight planning stage the CFP ZFW will be selected to ensure that with the normal fuel F. Fuel and for records F. final to fillbyfuel and additional fuel if required by the type mandatory fuel if required contingency and extra for crew reservethe Crew Used Copy of fuel consists of reserve the Commander. margin for contingency. A321 QuickManual (FOM) and must include a safe Airbus in the Airblue Flight Operations Reference Notes B. Standard fuel planning C. Trip Adequate oil quantity to cover the requirements of trip. Delays k. flight profile. Adequate fuel quantity (block fuel) to cover the requirements of trip. Routings j. Trip Fuel KK. the planned Landing Weight be not exceed the Maximum the normal fuel At the flight planning stage the CFP ZFW will data will be entered into the aircraft A. Note: The final Performance Monitoring Programme: This programme a. It isfuel fuel. possible to remaining on board must be enough to deal with C. corrected Oilany rise or fall in Zero Fuel Weight (ZFW). C. alternate. Theplanning must be sufficient to covertime to time. Fuel performance factor. it is company policy to carry CFP MIN PP. Following programmes are useddeviations. E. whenever necessary toonly be done by Dispatch in (to maximum with Load Controlplanning PIC. Final Reserve consumption. Aircraft authority and responsibility for fuel loads and the fuel management in flight Note: The final cruise performance Pilot-in-command baseline management ineach rests with the Pilot-in-command. planning 1994. where this the fuel required to proceed todegradation rests with remaining in flight is not on Pilot-in-command shall ensure that the aerodrome individual aircraft. TheAlternate Fueloil quantity requested for any flight is equal to the minimum minimum d. H. contingency. wheredeviations from shall ensure that the amount of analyses authority and responsibility for fuel loads and the fuel nominal for flight usable fuelthe Pilot-in-command. Reserve fuel consists of c. CAA ANO 91. a. ATS procedures.0010. final reserve fuelall fuel data to required by the type administration of above programmes. 114 . Thereafter minimum fuel required is as per the requirements of CH-11. Fuel c. The fuel APD will be monitored from the following requirements: a. C. Taxi Fuel JJ. E. d.b. alternate. I. alternate and holding to meet regulatory recommendations as per CAA ANO 91. Anticipated meteorological conditions h.
final reserve fuel and additional fuel if required by the type of operation. corrected for any rise or fall in Zero Fuel Weight (ZFW). then it should be ensured that enough fuel is carried to cater for the next sector only (payload and other limitations permitting). Standard fuel planning Policy H. On a multi sector flight additional sector fuel could be uplifted subject to payload at respective locations. K. As and when appropriate: f. However. I. At any time during a flight the fuel quantity remaining on board must be enough to deal with the planned operation and the possible deviations. Additional Fuel is specified prior to the production of the Operational Flight Plan (OFP)/Computerized Flight Plan (CFP) and is therefore incorporated into the MIN FUEL figure. alternate fuel. O. Computerized Flight Plan (CFP) will normally be provided for every intended flight. J. Note: The final authority and responsibility for fuel loads and the fuel management in flight rests with the Pilot-in-command. Tankering of fuel. In absence of any non standard planning factors. Contingency Fuel (Also known as Route Reserve) i. Final Reserve K. reserve fuel and extra fuel if required by the Commander. The fuel planning must be sufficient to cover the following requirements: f. Extra Fuel is determined by the Commander and is entered manually on the OFP/CFP by the crew with remarks. alternate and holding to meet regulatory recommendations as per CAA ANO 91. A320. At the flight planning stage the CFP ZFW will be selected to ensure that with the normal fuel requirement. Procedures contained in the Airblue Flight Operations Manual (FOM) and must include a safe margin for contingency. If the CFP shows a recommendation to carry extra fuel (tankering) as a result of Maximum Fuel Policy. Pre-flight fuel requirements of this section only exist until completion of refuelling. planning to this weight should only be done by Dispatch in co-ordination with Load Control and the PIC. Reserve fuel consists of contingency fuel. General Factors D. where Pilot-incommand shall ensure that the amount of usable fuel remaining in flight is not less than the fuel required to proceed to an aerodrome where a safe landing can be made.0010. trip fuel. whenever necessary to uplift the maximum payload (to maximum landing weight). The pre-flight calculation of usable fuel required for a flight includes taxi fuel. Taxi Fuel g. N. when not recommended is UNECONOMICAL. M. Additional Fuel g. Thereafter minimum fuel required is as per the requirements of CH-11. Extra Fuel (if required by the PIC) L. Alternate Fuel j. F. it is company policy to carry CFP MIN FUEL. J. A321 Quick Reference Notes E. 115 . Trip Fuel h. the planned Landing Weight does not exceed the Maximum Landing Weight (MLW) less 1%.Airbus A319. E.
Airbus A319. Copies of completed CFP on which fuel checks have been recorded. Fuel Receipt and Weather information are to be placed in the Flight Document Zipper Envelope for Post Flight analysis and record. L. Technical Logbook. The pre-flight calculation of usable fuel required for a flight includes taxi fuel. alternate fuel. Planning Factors E. Descent 116 . Acceleration. ATC Clearance. Take Off. Fuel Indent. trip fuel reserve fuel (and extra fuel if required by the Pilot-incommand with reason). SID and Climb Cruise e. A320. final reserve fuel and additional fuel if required by the type of operation. G. Trim-sheet. Reserve fuel consists of contingency fuel. Trip Fuel comprises of d. A321 Quick Reference Notes F. along with Flight Log. F.
) m. Pilot-in-Command must ensure that the correct type and quantity of fuel is on board. upon reaching destination/alternate you cannot accept any undue delay. In-flight fuel checks should be carried out on each sector at the first convenient waypoint in cruise and thereafter every 30 minutes approximately. p. r. Where SIDs and STARs have not been published a distance of 15 NM is to be added. Start UP and Taxi viii. o. Holding M. Close vigilance and early decision making is necessary in order to ensure that diversion and holding allowances are not eroded to an extent that Operational Safety is compromised. n. Be aware that this is not an emergency situation. and Top Of Descent (TOD. Contingencies xi. A Diversion to alternate may not be initiated if landing at destination is assured.Airbus A319. an urgency call must be given. If at any time it is known that the aircraft may land with fuel less than reserve fuel at destination (Alternate plus Holding). Units of weight should be the same as on the cockpit fuel gauges. Alternate airfields xii. STAR and Instrument Approach Procedure to land Note: Where published most commonly used SID and STAR are considered. Quantities known to be unusable x. In-Flight Fuel Monitoring and Low Fuel B. ATC must be informed about Fuel Remaining in minutes. A320. q. A321 Quick Reference Notes f. 117 . Advice ATC of your minimum fuel status when your fuel supply has reached a state where. Use of APU ix. Procedure l. H. but merely an advisory that indicates an emergency situation is possible should any undue delay occur. Be aware a minimum fuel advisory does not imply a need for traffic priority. and expected to remain so until after Expected Approach Time. Additional Fuel is required for: vii. Any time it is expected to go below 30 minutes of fuel. when weather at destination is above its own alternate minima.
If the Destination Forecast Wx ± 1hr of ETA is above its own Alternate Minima for an Instrument Approach then only one nearest alternate should be nominated f. For planning purposes the distance to alternate includes 6 NM. If the weather criteria in above para a) and para b) are not met then nominate two alternates. Domestic Destinations and Alternates. Aircraft heavier than A321 is an App Cat D aircraft. At planning stage. Selection of Alternate B. For flight with destination as Karachi: t. except when the MLW of A321 is more than 75. N. Selection of Alternate Airfield will be as follows. Company Preferred alternates are marked [P]. A320 and A321 are App Cat “C”. If the remaining usable fuel is expected to go below 30 minutes and suggests the need for traffic priority to ensure a safe landing. e. (a) and (b) are being provided in the form of Routes Information Bulleting(s) which shall be revised as and when warranted. O. f. Alternates Policy C. Ceiling 2000 ft or above and iv. Some airports may have restricted hours of operation. These airports are marked [RH]. Fuel to be carried for the farthest of the two. General a.6 km (applicable to Cat “D”). A320. International Destinations and Alternates. 118 . iv. Fuel for Alternate Lahore is to be given whenever the forecast weather is below 2. Selecting closest Alternate Airfield for example Nawabshah: a. For hours of operation the relevant NOTAMs and Jeppesen Manuals must be consulted. c. b. A321 Quick Reference Notes s.2 km (applicable to Cat “C”) or 2. an emergency shall be declared on account of low fuel and report fuel remaining in minutes. the nearest being listed first.5 tonnes it is App Cat “D” aircraft. Where a condition is forecast as “Prob” it will be considered only if the probability factor is more than 30%. ii. Scheduled Destinations and Alternates are listed in two sections: iii. iii. The Listing of Alternates.“Tempo” conditions in the forecast wx are only to be considered if at the estimated time of arrival it is below the pre-flight planning minima. Fresh CFP flight plan is to be sent under intimation to concerned station. e. Alternates are being listed in order of distance from destination. as additional distance to join airway after conducting Missed Approach Procedure. then the next available Alternate in the list should be nominated. d. d. in case an alternate is not available due to weather or any other reason. Visibility 5 km or more Then only one nearest alternate should be nominated. If the Destination Forecast Wx for a period ±1 hr ETA indicates.Airbus A319.
For flight with destination other than Karachi (within Pakistan): a. A320. If the weather conditions at the airport of takeoff are below the landing minimum for that airport. P. E. payload permitting select Karachi as alternate. F. The APD figures will be revised periodically or as and when warranted. The new flight plan should be sent to concerned station. an alternate is required for flight release within a distance equivalent to a flight time of one hour at the single engine cruise speed for A320 aircraft family. If nearer distance alternates are not available. u. Planning Minimums (IFR flight) b. 119 . APD factor is to be applied to all fuel calculations.5 km (applicable to Cat “D”) select Nawabshah as alternate. Flight Dispatch Requirements R. b. A321 Quick Reference Notes D. It is depicted on each CFP. Q.1 km (applicable to Cat “C”) or 2. Latest list of APD factors of each aircraft is available at Flight Despatch Centre. Takeoff Alternate b. v. Aircraft Performance Deterioration (APD) Factor D. A standard quantity of fuel to cater for ground manoeuvres from engine start prior to take-off (including APU consumption).Airbus A319. For planning minimums for takeoff alternates. In case of payload restrictions and if the visibility is more than 2. Taxi Fuel C. destination and destination alternates and for Enroute alternate aerodrome refer to Aerodrome Operating Minimums in the ATC chapter of Jeppesen Airway Manual/Lufthansa System/AERAD/AIP complemented by the route alternates GIBs/TIBs issued by Operations Control. Following taxi fuel will be used region wise.
A321 Quick Reference Notes Table-1 Domestic Regional 160 260 180 280 200 300 Aircraft Type A319 A320 A321 Europe 260 280 300 Table-2 Stations with two hours Ground Time and APU is used Aircraft Type Domestic Regional Europe A319 360 400 400 A320 380 400 280 A321 400 400 400 Table-3 Stations with One hour Ground Time and APU is used Aircraft Type Domestic Regional Europe A319 260 360 360 A320 280 380 380 A321 300 400 400 Table-4 Stations with 30 minutes Ground Time and APU is used Aircraft Type Domestic Regional Europe A319 240 300 300 A320 240 340 340 A321 240 340 340 Note1 : Maximum ramp weight is not be exceeded with taxi fuel on board. only then the refuelling shall be done. S. Note1 : The APU fuel allowance does not form part of the minimum departure fuel. a. Aircraft Minimum Quantity Maximum Quantity A319 300 500 A320 300 600 A321 400 600 Note: Total fuel carried must be sufficient to permit flight with engine / pressurization failure from any point along track to an enroute airport with 30 minutes holding fuel. Trip fuel B. Fuel to cover deviations from the planned operating conditions such as unfavourable variations in cruise altitude or track. Contingency fuel B. descent. Contingency fuel shall be 5% of Trip Fuel. limited by the figures in following table. Fuel allowance (200 kg) as tankered fuel shall be given when most commonly used STAR is not available or CFP most commonly used STAR s not available. deviations from the forecast wind values or any other unforeseen adverse circumstances. cruise including step climbs if any. an instrument approach (or 6 minutes to land which ever higher) and landing procedure at the destination runway.Airbus A319. 120 . A320. When APU fuel allowance is given and the taxi fuel drop to less than the taxi fuel as mentioned in Table-1 (above). Fuel for take-off and climb to cruise altitude taking into account the departure procedure. T.
Holding for 15 minutes at 1500 ft (450 m) above aerodrome elevation in ISA conditions. A missed approach at the destination airport. Final reserve fuel B. (Runways that do not meet or intersect) d. It has one prescribed instrument approach procedure for each runway. Approach procedure fuel (or 6 minutes for additional distance to join airways after conducting missed approach. and G.Airbus A319. Fuel to fly for 30 minutes at holding speed at 1500 ft (450 m) above destination alternate airport elevation in standard conditions. It has a weather forecast for a period ± 2 hrs ETA indicating: iii. h. calculated with estimated weight on arrival at the alternate or the destination when no alternate is required. Additional fuel: fuel which should permit c. make an approach and landing H. f. and F. This fuel may be for 15 minutes holding as provided when the destination is Favourable*. A320. descent as necessary and proceed to an adequate aerodrome. Table-5 Option 1 Taxi fuel Trip Fuel Contingency Fuel Reserved Fuel for minutes Option 2 Taxi fuel Trip Fuel Contingency Fuel 30 Alternate Fuel Reserves Fuel for 15 minutes Note * Favourable Destination: An airport is considered as a Favourable Destination when it satisfies all the following conditions. It has more one independent runway suitable for landing. cruise at Long Range Cruise speed. Climb. hold there for 15 minutes at 1500 ft (450 m) above aerodrome elevation in ISA conditions. taking into account: e. When two destination alternates are required. Fuel to reach the alternate aerodrome. Visibility 5 km or more V. W. when the flight is operated without a destination alternate and d. Ceiling 2000 ft or more iv. A321 Quick Reference Notes U. which ever higher) and landing at alternate airport. Alternate fuel B. 121 . Following the possible engine failure or loss of pressurisation at the most critical point along the route the aeroplane to: E. descent to the alternate airport. alternate fuel should be sufficient to proceed to the alternate which requires the greater amount of alternate fuel. Additional fuel for engine failure or loss of pressurisation is only required if the fuel calculated above (from trip fuel up to final reserve fuel) is not sufficient for such an event. g. e. the block fuel will be higher of the sum of following quantities.
lower optimum flight level etc). This increases the aircraft weight due to extra fuel will decreases takeoff and climb performance and will increase the fuel consumption. G. 122 . fuel transportation could be considered. H. (refer to “Fuel transportation” paragraph hereafter). I.Airbus A319. The Pilot-in-command may decide for example to add fuel to the minimum required fuel quantity defined above if he expects significant deviations from present flight planning. A320. When a difference in fuel price exists between different stations. A321 Quick Reference Notes X. Discretion fuel: at the discretion of the Pilot-in-command F. more tire and brake wear. more time in climb phase. This is known as Fuel Tankering. However it should be kept in mind that carrying unnecessary extra fuel increases the fuel consumption for that sector and therefore reduces the economy of the operation (lower flex temperature.
Z. BB. No Thunder activity is expected Weather at Alternate (LHE. due to adverse weather following procedure will be adopted:Table-6 Weather at Destination 1 Visibility above Minima. Airport Operations be advised of the possible offloading in case of full flight and fuel for originating airport is required.Airbus A319. Despatch of flight during Monsoon Period B. METAR trend may be monitored and when visibility is approaching 200m. J. The Flight Dispatcher shall monitor the trend and will take on the spot decision and recalculate the fuel with Origin airport as alternate. H. Stored / Tankered fuel B. CC. Alternate Fuel. Any stored Fuel and discretion Fuel. Engineering is to be advised for the possibility of refuelling 00:30 hours before departure. A321 Quick Reference Notes Y. if any. Any quantity of fuel carried for the purpose of Economic Tankering or fuel to cater for non-availability of fuel at destination ii. No Thunder activity expected Selection of Alternate Two nearest Alternates Two nearest Alternates Two Alternates Fuel for Karachi Carriage of Extra Fuel Nil 2 Thunderstorm or Poor Alternates are above Minima Visibility is Expected and no Thunder activity 3 Thunderstorm or Poor Thunderstorm or Poor Visibility is Expected Visibility 30 minutes fuel at Destination Nil 123 . Despatch of flight in Dust Storm Conditions C. I. In order to reduce chances of diversion. Dust Storm is usually a temporary phenomenon and passes away in a short time.) G. TAFOR will override METAR for giving Boarding Clearance. A320. Boarding Clearance on METAR Trend (Delayed by 00:30 hours to avoid diversion. During the Monsoon Period the Northern Region of Pakistan will be affected. Despatch of flight in Fog Conditions F. flight may be released for departure. D. Trip Fuel. Final Reserve Fuel. Block Fuel The block fuel is the sum of Taxi Fuel. passenger boarding may be commenced. ISB & PEW) Visibility above Minima. Flight can be despatched if the forecasted visibility is above minima at the time of the arrival of the flight. If pax are already on board and visibility is approaching 200 meters. Contingency Fuel. AA.
The METAR trend will be monitored and flight can be cleared for dispatch when activity is dissipating. If destination METAR shows TS . H. A320 f. The Fuel Indent form will be provided later in this case to avoid any possible delay. II. Selection of Alternates in Changing Weather conditions (Not during Monsoon Period) D.Despatch of flight if forecast shows adverse conditions B. Boarding Clearance on METAR Trend (Delayed by 00:30 hours to avoid diversion.two alternates are to be nominated which are without adverse weather conditions (visibility. Reserve Fuel is depicted on CFO and is the sum of Alternate Fuel and Final Reserve Fuel. A321 4000 kg 4200 kg 4500 kg HH. Airport Operations is to be advised of the possible offloading in case of full flight and fuel for Karachi is required. A321 Quick Reference Notes DD. A319 e. if Thunderstorm conditions exist at already designated Alternates or movement of the activity is towards the designated alternates.Reserve Fuel D. Minimum Block Fuel C.) G. A320. Rain without reduced visibility does not constitute adverse weather conditions. one alternates is nominated E. Despatch of flight in Thunderstorm Conditions (Not during Monsoon Period) F. J. Boarding can be initiated simultaneously. GG. Engineering is to be advised for the possibility of refueling 00:30 hours before departure. I. Whenever there forecasted visibility or weather conditions are such which require farthest distance alternate the Officer Dispatching the flight will get a short term (two hours before and after arrival time) forecast from the particular station on telephone. Destination weather is clear. The Figure-1 illustrates the different fuel quantities for a standard flight fuel planning 124 . The Flight Dispatcher will monitor the trend and will take on the spot decision and recalculate the fuel with Karachi as alternate. Minimum Block Fuel for Take-off will be as follows d. TS/RA or weather warning for Visibility or TS/RA). FF.Airbus A319. EE.
One copy of the signed Technical Log and the Fuel Indent is to be handed over to the Aircraft Engineer. possible fuel savings enroute. f. Fuelling KK. This figure will take into account all pertinent factors. 125 . i. MM. General: The Captain is responsible for ensuring that sufficient fuel is on board for the completion of the planned flight and that it is correctly distributed in the fuel tanks. A320. one of the flight crew.e. fuel adequate to perform the return trip (or next sector) is to be uplifted. Whenever a sector is nominated for tankering.1% of that required. The total fuel onboard shall be verified to be within +2 / . g. Fuel Tankering e. It should be borne in mind that planning with a margin below maximum landing weight as outlined in the last paragraph is applicable only to tankering sector. LL. subject to the landing weight limitation. the Captain shall ensure that the quantity and distribution of fuel on board correspond with that indicated in the Technical Log/fuel uplift Performa g. An updated list of sectors is maintained on which fuel tankering provides financial benefit to the Company. Whenever necessary to uplift the maximum payload. Refuelling has to be supervised and the quantity checked by a qualified person. an authorized Aircraft Engineer or if he/she is not available. planning should be to the maximum landing weight. Prior to departure. Where fuel adequate to perform the return trip (or next sector) cannot be uplifted due to landing weight limitation. This list takes into account the fuel cost differential between the airfields of departure and destination as well the cost of transportation of the additional fuel.Airbus A319. Supervision of Refuelling and Fuel Check e. e.g. A321 Quick Reference Notes Figure-1 BLOCK FUEL ADDITIONAL FUEL EXTRA FUEL TRIP FUEL FINAL RESERVE FUEL ALTERNATE FUEL including Go-Around and VFR procedure Generally % of trip fuel TAXI FUEL IFR Procedure CONTINGENCY FUEL Holding at 1500ft Parking Brake release Wheel touch down DESTINATION ALTERNATE DEPARTURE JJ. selected tankering fuel figure shall allow a margin between planned and maximum landing weight of 500 kg on A320 aircraft family. f. h.
Should none of these actions be possible. One is applicable based on fuel calculations prior to the top of descent (TOD). to the sum of alternate fuel and holding fuel. it may be possible to reduce the fuel reserves required at destination. b. Taxi fuel 126 . Reducing consumption for the remainder of the flight by iv. H. A320. Selecting an alternate airfield closer to the intended destination. Fuel Tankering is not recommended if. A321 Quick Reference Notes h. In-Flight Fuel Management E. For convenience this sum is referred to as Company Minimum Reserve (CMR). OO. Flying at a more fuel economical speed. Insufficient Fuel Remaining (Enroute) The CFP provides Minimum Required fuel values at each waypoint. When the destination is an isolated airport for which a destination alternate does not exist. This corrective action should ensure that adequate fuel will be on board at destination and may involve any of the following: d. Comparison of actual fuel on board with the Minimum required as indicated on the CFP will enable early identification of higher than anticipated consumption.Airbus A319. Flying at a more economical flight level. f. e. provided that the weather conditions at ETA are forecast to be at or above the applicable landing minima at that airfield. Company Minimum Reserve: It is the Captain’s responsibility to ensure that he/she conducts the flight in a manner that the fuel calculated to be remaining on board at the destination is at least equal F. temperature. If it becomes apparent that the predicted fuel remaining at destination will be less than the required minimum corrective action must be taken. G. an enroute technical stop for refuelling should be made. Approaching Destination a. provided the forecast and actual weather for both destination and alternate airfields indicates at least 5000 meters visibility and 1000 ft ceiling. If METAR trend is available. This option is subdivided into two phases. NN. the amount of fuel at departure should include: f. diversion fuel to the alternate airfield may be calculated from cruise altitude. Furthermore. General: Fuel checks shall be carried out at regular intervals throughout each flight in order to establish that actual fuel consumption matches that planned. it is supersede a TAFOR of the airfield. Such checks should be carried out over enroute waypoints at intervals normally not exceeding 30 minutes. wind. These values are only accurate if the CFP conditions of weight. Within one hour of destination. The runway for takeoff is contaminated or Runway length is marginal. Prior to Top of Descent The Company Minimum Reserve can be reduced by recalculating the fuel to alternate. Isolated airport procedure B. In the latter stages of any flight. any airfield listed in RIBs may be considered in this regard. and the other is applicable after the aircraft has commenced its descent to the destination airfield. vi. The value of the CMR may change as the flight progresses. v. Crews are expected to make maximum use of any flight Management systems to predict fuel on board at destination based on actual conditions. Flying a more direct routing. route and flight level are encountered for the remainder of the flight.
Trip fuel from the departure to a suitable en-route alternate via the decision point ix. if required Extra fuel. The sum of: viii. Decision point procedure (re-clearance) B. Final reserve fuel xi. When planning to a destination aerodrome via a decision point along the route. including final reserve fuel j. Taxi fuel ix.Airbus A319. if required xiv. Trip fuel h. Final reserve fuel xiii. Additional fuel not less than the fuel necessary to fly for two hours at cruise speed after arriving overhead destination. Y Alternate of E En-route Alternate E Dest. the amount of fuel required is the greater of ‘a’ or ‘b’ below: g. Contingency fuel of not less than 5% of the estimated fuel used from the decision point to the destination aerodrome xi. if a destination alternate is required xii. Contingency fuel equal to not less than 3% of the estimate fuel consumption (trip fuel) from the departure airport to the en-route alternate x. A321 Quick Reference Notes g. Extra fuel if required by the Pilot-in-command PP. Alternate fuel. Additional fuel. via the decision point x. Trip fuel to the destination airport. A320. Extra fuel. at the discretion of the Pilot-in-command xii. Taxi fuel viii. Alternate X A Departure D Decision Point B Destination 127 . Additional fuel. or h. at the discretion of the Pilot-in-command. The sum of: vii. Contingency fuel calculated as for a standard flight planning i.
via the predetermined point viii. Trip fuel from the departure aerodrome to the destination aerodrome. QQ. provided decision to B or diversion to E is taken before or when reaching D. The decision point (reclearance) fuel planning is the greater of F1 or F2: E.Airbus A319. via the predetermined point Contingency fuel (as for standard flight planning) Additional fuel if required. but not less than the fuel to fly for 30 minutes at holding speed at 1500 ft (450 m) above aerodrome elevation in standard conditions. A320. including final reserve fuel x. or e. M. the amount of fuel should be the greater of (a) or (b) below: d. Extra fuel if required by the Pilot-in-command. When planning to a destination alternate where the distance between the destination aerodrome and the destination alternate is such that a flight can only be routed via a predetermined point to one of these aerodromes. If not. Contingency fuel (as for standard flight planning) ix. Taxi fuel Trip fuel from the departure aerodrome to the alternate aerodrome. At the decision point (D). F2 = Taxi + Trip AE + 3% AE + EY + Hold + Additional fuel + Extra fuel j. k. A321 Quick Reference Notes i. holding …). alternate BX. but not less than the fuel to fly for two hours at normal cruise consumption after arriving overhead the destination aerodrome. The sum of: I. including final reserve fuel Extra fuel if required by the Pilot-in-command. the pilot will be proceed to the intended final destination (B) only if a normal contingency fuel (5% of DB) is still on board in addition to other normal fuel requirements (trip DB. L. Predetermined point procedure A. the pilot will proceed to the en-route alternate (E). l. K. J. The contingency fuel from departure airport (A) to the decision point (D) may be omitted on segment AD. F1 = Taxi + Trip AB + 5% DB + BX + Hold + Additional fuel + Extra fuel F. The sum of: vi. 128 . Additional fuel if required. Taxi fuel vii.
FL = 330. correction: 87 kg/1000 kg LTF = 0. which lead to fly at lower altitudes than originally planned. SS. The correction on fuel consumption is given in kg/1000 kg for different FL and different air distances. When a difference in fuel price exists between different stations. The LTF (in kg/kg or lb/lb) can be determined using correction on fuel consumption data provided in the FCOM “Flight Planning“chapter on tabulated distance calculation charts. Fuel transportation (Tankering) G. J. the commander shall write his name and sign the OFP confirming acceptance of the flight plan. Acceptance of Flight Plan c.087) F. These corrections are given in the charts to account for different aircraft weights. If any extra fuel is required. A320. It should be kept in mind that this formula is not applicable to large fuel transportation quantities. predetermined fuel planning is the greater of F1 or F2: iii.087 iv. E. H. LTF = Load Transportation Factor (additional kg of fuel burn-off per kg of extra load) I. FPR = Fuel Price Ratio (fuel price at departure / Fuel price at destination) d.Airbus A319. A321 Quick Reference Notes E Destination Alternate A Departure P Predetermined Point B Destination f. Example: iii. fuel transportation should be considered only if: Formula: FPR < 0. 129 .92 (=1/1. In these conditions. On completion of flight planning. If the FCOM does not give adequate information. Air distance = 1800 NM. F2 = Taxi + Trip AE + 5%(*) AE + 30 minutes holding + Extra fuel (*) contingency fuel as per standard fuel planning RR. fuel transportation could be considered. a simple formula for fuel transportation consideration is given below: Formula: FPR < 1 / 1 + LTF c. F1 = Taxi + Trip AB + 5%(*) AB + 2 hours cruise + Extra fuel iv. it must be annotated in the OFP.
VV. e. A320. 130 . Any additional extra F/A’s will be noted as XFA on the W&B. f. reserve and taxi must be loaded prior to departure. flight profile. Adequate oil quantity to cover the requirements of trip. plus the estimated oil consumption. Aircraft Performance Monitoring Programme: This programme analyses cruise performance deviations from baseline nominal for each individual aircraft. g.Preliminary Cockpit preparation" for the related aircraft/engine concerned. SS. RR. city/aircraft combination etc to identify operational trends and statistics.4. The minimum oil quantity requested for any flight is equal to the minimum quantity specified for a particular engine. The records have to be maintained in accordance with the requirements of CARs 1994. Based on this analysis a performance degradation factor for each aircraft is determined and applied for all fuel calculations. alternate. contingency. UU. The APD will be monitored from time to time. TT. Minimum F/A staffing (FOM 1. Fuel and oil loaded and consumed data will be entered into the aircraft technical log. The minimum and maximum oil quantities and the maximum average estimated oil consumption (if no data from maintenance available) are indicated in FCOM "Standard Operating Procedure . It is mandatory for crew to fill the Crew Used Copy of the CFP/OFP accurately and completely with all fuel data to enable proper administration of above programmes. The hourly oil consumption is normally determined by the maintenance. TT. OIL QQ. h. UU. A321 Quick Reference Notes Fuel Consumption Monitoring Programmes B. The estimated oil consumption should cover the flight time the aircraft can be operated with the minimum quantity of fuel requested by the fuel planning plus 15 minutes. Following programmes are used to monitor fuel consumption.Airbus A319. Fuel Efficiency Programme analyses fuel usage from other operational factors like sector.7) Standard Complement FAA Minimum for flight (including boarding / deplaning) 3 3 4 Through flights at gate with passengers onboard 1 1 2 A319 A320 A321 3 3 4 On certain flights the company may add additional F/A’s for service or language requirement above these minimums. Fuel and Oil records B.
whichever is greater Fuel Vendor Fuel Slip Tolerance (FOM 5. During low visibility operations only run checklists when aircraft stopped or on straight taxiway with no “complex” intersections. If low visibility use SMGCS if published for below RVR 1200.13) Variance: 1% or + / – 500 lbs. (FOM 5. A321 Quick Reference Notes Fuel (FOM 5.3. When able stop and re-seat passenger. Operations will cease when: (FOM 10. The captain may decide when visibility is sufficient. Use judgment to determine if stopping will create a greater possible hazard. A320.Airbus A319. Load forward compartment only. MIN Fuel When refueling with passengers on board a flight attendant must be stationed at main door and jetway or stairs must be attached to aircraft.4.15): Gallons: 150 Liters: 600 Note: Fuel slip may not be passed through sliding cockpit window (FOM 5.17) Captain may increase GATE RELEASE fuel as needed. taxied or towed from blocks for purposes of flight.5.5) Right engine must be shut down.3.3. If fuel decrease is needed then dispatch must agree. glossary) Aircraft pushed back. Taxiing The captain is NOT required to stop only because a passenger leaves seat during taxi. Dispatch will check new fuel amount for load problems then contact departure station.3.O.14) Loading Last Minute Baggage (FOM 9. (FOM 5.2) Dry snow exceeds 2 inches Wet snow/slush/standing water – exceeds ¼ inch (note: operations may continue with up to ½ inch with dispatch concurrence) 131 .6) Definition of Dispatch (FOM 5. The lowest reporting RVR on the airport is the controlling RVR for taxi out. Relay new fuel amount to dispatcher.3. See table in FOM for dealing with MX discrepancies after dispatch. Note: Do not takeoff with less than T.3.
000 ft.3. visibility (due to lack of reference if reject and change of control from Capt. Jepp lists ¼ mile for KLAS but Ops Specs show 500 RVR.3) 1 statute mile or RVR 5000 Note: If published Takeoff minimums are higher than standard you must use the higher published minimums. you are limited to ¼ mile. note required lighting and runway markings for specified RVR. Then only with concurrence of dispatcher and: Greater than 8. long are allowed only with captain and dispatch concurrence and: No runway contamination No tailwind Wind conditions make this the most desired operation Standard Takeoff Minimums (FOM 10. (FOM 2. Takeoff alternate must be within 1 hr. from departure airport with one-engine inoperative. Lower Than Standard Takeoff Minimums (QRH table pg. A321 Quick Reference Notes Nil Braking action: (FOM 10. For planning purposes use: 132 .7.5. runway Crosswind not over 5 kts.1) Takeoff Alternate (FOM 10. Runways less than 5.3.000 ft.3) Do not operate on any part of airport that has NIL braking action report unless by Non-USAirways pilot. Also. Airbus is allowed exception down to CAT IIIA minimums if available and useable at departure airport.5. For example.Airbus A319. usually 109) for airport and in QRH OPS DATA. Currently down to as low as 500 RVR Note: Captain must make takeoff if less than 1600 RVR or ¼ mi. Captain not on high mins.7. A320. You must use the higher of the two for given situation.000 ft.2) Operations on runways less than 5. QRH OPS DATA) Declare a takeoff alternate anytime weather conditions at the departure airport are below CAT I landing minimum. OD-1) This information is available on Jepp charts (back of airport taxi chart. to F/O) (FOM 5.
000 ft. 6. within defined grid sector. Airway centerline.10.11) When one pilot leaves their station the remaining pilot must wear an oxygen mask when above FL250. Flight Attendants should be notified to brief pax for overwater. 4 nm of airway centerline.000T Off Route: Route MORA.000 ft. number with “a”: 3200a Off Route: Grid MORA. 1 min.14) Headsets and Boom Mikes must be worn below 10. The captain is responsible to remain within 162/100 nm. Max Holding Speeds and Leg Timing (FOM 2. This can be seen on the North Atlantic planning chart. Oxygen (FOM 1.000 ft.3) Through 6000 ft.000 Overwater Operations (FOM 1. 10 nm of airway centerline. 1 min. within 25 nm of defined navaid: On approach chart Enroute: MEA. deviations are allowed due to weather or emergencies. 230 KIAS (210 KIAS where published). Both pilots must wear oxygen anytime cabin altitude exceeds 10. 200 KIAS.10.3) Overwater operations in non-EOW (Extended Overwater) aircraft are allowed up to 162 nm offshore south of 35o North latitude and 100 nm offshore north of 35o North latitude. 4.4. 265 KIAS. Above 14.4.7.000 Enroute: MOCA.Airbus A319. Headsets / Boom Mikes (FOM 4. KIAS 320 320 320 Distance NM 373 368 373 Fuel Flow lbs. number near center of grid 133 . A321 Quick Reference Notes Type Aircraft A319 A320 A321 Ave. A320. Dispatch is responsible to file the appropriate route.7) In terminal area: MSA. 1 min. Above 6.000’./hr.7.000 10. However.000 11. and 30 secs.900 6. All AIRBLUE aircraft are equipped with life vests. number with “T”: 4.200 Assumed Altitude 11.000 through 14.900 8. Standard pattern – right hand turns Non-Standard pattern – left hand turns Minimum Safe Altitudes (FOM 1.13. number on airway: 10.
For airports with at least two appropriate approaches the approaches must be to separate. A321 Quick Reference Notes Destination Weather (FOM 10. suitable runways (can be opposite ends of same physical runway). Alternates (FOM 7. A320. CAT I HAT of highest of the two approaches +200 ft. Once committed to an alternate airport.4) Alternate weather minima (AWM) apply for both destination and takeoff alternates. mins. Minima is based on straight in precision or non-precision approaches.5. to highest app.Airbus A319. CAT II – 300 ft HAT CAT III – 200 ft HAT Visibility CAT I visibility min. If you are already on the final approach segment and visibility is reported less than required for that approach.5. compatible with aircraft type. Weather Below Minimums You may not begin an approach (pass the FAF or begin final approach segment on approach without FAF) with out reported visibility (RVR) at or above the minimum visibility for that approach. A second alternate will be filed if weather at both the destination and first alternate is “marginal”. mins. + 1/2 sm CAT II – RVR 4000 or ¾ sm CAT III – RVR 1800 or ½ sm CAT II or III with 2 or more nav aids Domestic alternate is required unless weather for destination at ETA + 1hr. standard approach minima apply. is at least: Ceiling: 2000 ft. + 1 sm CAT I vis. Alternate weather must meet or exceed AWM for the planned approach at the ETA. above airport elevation Visibility: 3 sm. Facility 1 nav aid 2 or more nav aids Ceiling CAT I HAT + 400 ft. at ETA. you may continue the approach but you may not go below landing minimums unless the visibility is reported at or above the required minimum visibility. Note: IFR alternate weather minima are restrictive for dispatch (filing) purposes.5) Destination weather must be at or above the lowest authorized landing minima. 134 .
VOR/DME (with VNAV) Approach Minima (QRH OPS DATA) CAT I. alert height (AH). LDA DME w/ glideslope. ceiling 1000’ Pub. decision height (DH). ILS/PRM. uses radar altimeter Approach/ TDZ MID RO Min. MDA 1000’ HAA or MDA whichever is higher ASR RC A A Pub. uses radar altimeter CAT IIIA (Dual.3) 135 . Alt. Circling/ 3 sm visibility. LDA PRM DME w/ glideslope. DA inop CAT I ILS/ RC A A Pub. Fail-Passive). A320. min.Airbus A319. alert height (AH). A = advisory RA Use CAT C for straight in approaches (A321 AP-BRJ CAT D). Authorized Instrument Approaches (FOM 5. CAT C for circling unless app. then use CAT D (FOM 5. Req.10. Vis. uses radar altimeter or inner marker as published CAT IIIA (Single. ASR/SRA. Fail-Operational). speed is greater than 140 KIAS. RNAV.10.4) ILS. A321 Quick Reference Notes Takeoff Alternate is required anytime weather at departure airport is below CAT I minimums except Airbus when CAT II is available. LDA w/ glideslope. R = required. DA 1800 – ½ May sub if TDZ is inop CAT II / RC A A Nominal 100’ DH 1600 (as published) CAT II / RC A Nominal 100’ DH 1200 May sub if RO is (as published) inop C = controlling. uses barometric altimeter CAT II. decision height (DH). ILS/DME. MDA 2400 – ½ May sub if TDZ is inop CAT I RC A A RNAV / 2400 – ½ May sub if TDZ is Pub. then Takeoff Alternate not required until weather minimums below CATII. VOR (with VNAV). uses radar altimeter CAT IIIB (Dual. Fail-Operational). decision altitude (DA).
from flight plan value. Min fuel. a change is made in: T.O.Airbus A319. This is a planned change in a release and is co-ordinated with dispatch.4. New aircraft. Remarks Flight takes off and returns to airport of departure (except when part of original release) A re-release is an amended release which changes the destination airport.3. MEL/CDL. Loss of navigational or communications ability Any information regarding safety of flight 136 .6. Decrease in Gate Release fuel. Time and altitude upon reaching holding fix or last cleared fix. Alternate. Unable to climb or descend at 500 fpm or greater Missed Approach Change in true airspeed of 5% or 10 kts. A321 Quick Reference Notes Amended Release (FOM 5. Destination (requires rerelease). 1.6. A320.9) A release must be amended or re-released when: 6 hrs.5) Company – • • • Over 10 minute change in ETA (not including taxi time) Change in altitude or routing that may significantly affect arrival fuel Weather conditions that may affect safety of flight including moderate or severe icing or turbulence and winds aloft that vary greatly from planned. passes from ETD without aircraft proceeding under its own power (International only). FAA– At any time: • • • • • • • • Leaving previous altitude or flight level for newly assigned altitude or flight level. A re-release point will be designated and no earlier than two hours prior to the re-release point and no later than the re-release point the dispatcher will send a message containing: Re-release point Re-release destination Re-release alternate Min re-release fuel at re-release point Weather and field conditions if any changes from original Position Reports (FOM 1. Leaving an assigned fix.
Pilot can use phone patch to (602) 2393627. usually given at about 500 ft. 5.2) Request clearance no earlier than 20 mins. Takeoff Performance System (PH 5. past scheduled departure time. The revised segment is what should be programmed into the FMGC.26. As long as a valid W&B message for the correct runway is received the TPS is not needed.7) The TPS departure plan is highly recommended but NOT required for departure.1. F/A Emergency Notification – TEST Questions (FOM 4. A320.4): LRBL is center of RH aft cabin door Medical Diversions (FOM 7. If ATC changes the routing from what is filed the changed routing is shown as: *****REVISED SEGMENT***** on the PDC printout.5. The TPS contains airport performance data and will help the crew in determining what power and flap configurations will be needed for departure. Please note this service is available during layovers for crewmembers as needed at (602) 747-9622.5) Signals (FOM 1. pink MedLink insert in route manual): Captain must contact MedLink prior to diverting.12) T – how much Time E – type of Emergency S – brace Signal T – Take special instructions Emergency – 6 bells Brace Signal – Prearranged signal. 5. prior to departure time.1.6.3. If the W&B is sent with proper weights but not the correct needed runway the pilot may use the TPS data for the needed runway assuming that the actual W&B takeoff weight is at or less than the TPS data. Least Risk Bomb Location (FOM 7. Call Clearance Control to extend valid clearance time if necessary.Airbus A319. Departure clearance is good for 2 hrs.6. PTOW stands for Planned Takeoff 137 . Change in ETA of more than 3 minutes. A321 Quick Reference Notes When not in radar contact: • • Leaving final approach fix or outer marker when on final approach. ATC Clearance (FOM 5.6.
2. status if High Mins. margin from the planned weight built in. Get V speeds from PH chapter 5a. A320.6 to determine if new W&B is needed.Use table on FOM 11. The ATOW weight is the assumed takeoff weight and will be valid for any numbers with assumed temps.2. heavier than the PTOW so if there is an ATOW it has a 2000 lbs. the pressure setting is within minus 0. Use TOGA thrust. Captain must make the takeoff or landing if: Contaminated runway RVR less than 4000 or ¾ mile vis or less Braking action less than GOOD Crosswind exceeds 15 knots Special Qualification Airport 138 . The PTOW is the planned takeoff weight.2. will affect operations. A321 Quick Reference Notes Weight and ATOW for Assumed Takeoff Weight (2000 lbs. The ATOW will be 2000 lbs.Airbus A319. If pilot wishes to use a TOGA setting instead of the given FLEX you may just set TOGA and use given numbers otherwise. (FOM 11. High Min Capt. Find needed runway and configuration that is at or below Weight and Balance weight. Use TPS quick reference guide on PH 4.1 “ or higher (higher is more conservative) of given and the temperature is at or below the given for TOGA or at or below the assumed temp for FLEX. During first 100 hrs.7) Note: Notify Captain at beginning of trip. difference).8) Note: Notify dispatcher of High Mins.2.8 to determine status High Mins. Low time F/O may fly a “monitored” CAT II/III approach. The TPS is valid if aircraft weight is at or below given weight for power setting. b or c. CAT II/III limits: No CAT III For CAT II . CATCREW will show LOW TIME status During F/O’s first 100 hrs. is on High Mins High Mins. CAT I limits: use table on FOM 11. If upper Thrust / V speed section weight is not valid lower Airport Analysis section may be used if Weight and Balance data does not include needed runway.8 to determine status Low Time F/O (FOM 11. as PIC (does not include IOE time) Capt.
Position Monitor to determine NAV accuracy.5) If M notation then Maintenance will complete required actions and if O notation flight crew will complete required Operational items. White page stays in logbook.7 ADIRS accuracy – (PH 3.16 to determine acceptable limits. MEL number translation: Example . unsuccessful or not attempted) must be noted in the logbook (FOM 2. in type and position. if exceeds 21 knots enter logbook entry for IRU removal. Hot Brakes – (PH3.MEL # 1433C24 First number 14.5 & FOM 11. A320. OK if 5 miles and 15 knots or less in all cases. A321 Quick Reference Notes Windshear Always at Captains Discretion Note: Captain must always make takeoff if less than 1600 RVR or ¼ mi. The pilot will be notified in the release paperwork if a maximum thrust takeoff is required by the phrase “MAX THRUST DEMO REQUIRED” on the TPS departure plan. The result (successful. Full power takeoffs must be logged every 30 days or 150 takeoffs.2. May be extended to 150 with Line Check. (PH 11. Pilot MUST make logbook entry for MEL items if FR is noted for Follow up Required.1). Use chart on PH 3.2. by midnight of that day CAT II/III Recertification – see FOM 11.5. If ground speed on ND’s & IRU 3 TK/GS exceeds 15 knots. the number MEL for the day C.Airbus A319. visibility (PH 2d. the category of the MEL 24. to be done within two minutes of aircraft stop.3. Date MEL applied Second number 33.16) this check is done by Captain on every Parking Checklist. Use Data Key.2. in type and position (including IOE) within 120 days of Type Rating or Proficiency Check.6) US Airways will not pair two pilots together who individually have less than 75 hrs.1) Pairing Limitations and Consolidation of Learning (FOM 11. Pilot must accumulate 100 hrs.15) Maintenance action is required if there is: 139 . enter logbook entry for maintenance to track and verify. the date the MEL must be repaired by. Logbook Stuff Ensure that yellow page has been removed for any item signed off by mechanic.
1 Airbus Gotcha: Never pull the following CB’s in air: SFCC (Slat/Flap Control Computer) ECU and/or EIU Reset MCDU / FMGC Captains – on overhead panel – MCDU – CB# B1. Line Fixes NOTE: on ground Flight Crew can reset any computer EXCEPT (PH 3b. SEL NAVAIDS 4. Printer “spewing” maintenance codes after shutdown MCDU Menu AIDS Programming Password SFIM *ENTER PASSWORD 140 . A320. Data Key 2. Turn on ENG FADEC GRND PWR on overhead maintenance panel.2. FMGC – CB# B2 F/O’s – behind F/O – MCDU – CB# N20. A321 Quick Reference Notes 150° C difference in brake temps on the same strut and one brake 600° or greater or 60° or less a mean 200° C difference between different trucks fuse plug melted brake temp exceeds 900° C (800° .2. Reset Engine Mode selector to NORM for 10 secs.1): ECU (engine control unit). then IGN/START If this doesn’t work then: 3.Airbus A319. Position Monitor 3. DESELECT *GPS showing (if SELECT *GPS is showing press LSK to change it) this line shows what WILL BE selected. BSCU (Brake Steering Control Unit) while taxiing. Engine Master OFF 2.. FMGC – CB# M17 Reverser unlocked message on engine start 1. EIU (engine interface unit) while engine running.A321) Any higher inspection will take the place of a Daily check. set parking brake first To reset CB in air check chart listed in PH 3b. then off GPS Primary Lost showing on both ND’s after IRU’s align If the GPS signal is not available after the IRU’s align a possible fix is: 1.
4. If red SYSTEM INOP light is on then press the WTR SYSTEM DEPRE button. A320. Then wait at least 3 mins. Ensure all sun screens are stowed and cool cockpit. ANTI ICE Windshield (or Window) amber FAULT when on ground may be caused by heating of window by sun. A321 Quick Reference Notes Programming Menus Report Inhibit Print NO (green) Note: when changing printer paper roll make sure that the printer latch is completely secured or printer will not function. 2. On the F/A panel across from forward F/A jumpseat above the video player there is a PED POWER p/b in the upper left hand corner near ceiling. 141 . No data showing on RADNAV page (after GNADIRS is aligned) Make sure that the STBY NAV guarded NAV pb is not on (green light off). When on this p/b should light up ON. and CB# W13 for F/O. 5. See Chap. Press this p/b and see if lights change to green. 21 for details. No Water Pressure If water has been serviced and there is no water pressure on ground (with APU bleed on) then check the F/A CIDS panel. Reset CIDS – Reset CB’s: G1. Press SLEW to check.Airbus A319. 3. Press MCDU MENU key on FMGC Select <ATSU Select COMM MENU> Select MAINTENANCE> Select <TEST Select * REQUEST VHF 3 LINK You can also rest CB’s L15 & L16 (ATSU 1 SWTG & ATSU 1) on back panel if needed. Sometimes this p/b may have a burnt out bulb in it and not light properly. M5 and Q14 for more than 10 secs. ACARS in standby – if ACARS is not available (showing ACARS STBY in ECAM) 1. 6. Then reset the WHC (Window Heat Computer) using CB# X13 for Capt. after reset. If PED lights in passenger seats in cabin are red this shows that the powerport plugs for laptops are not powered.
there is no automatic APU shutdown.10.1. 25. the AC ESS bus is automatically shed. When the speed decreases below 50 knots.1. the Ram Air Turbine (RAT) automatically deploys and pressurizes the blue hydraulic system. detection of an APU fire causes automatic APU shutdown and extinguisher discharge. After landing. the batteries supply power to these buses. and the extinguisher must be manually discharged. on the hydraulic panel. This is the MAINT BUS switch and you can press it ON.7 Emergency Generator: If both AC bus 1 and 2 are lost and the airspeed is above 100 kts.3 On the ground. Reference: Airbus Training Manual 724. In flight. This will keep the lights on in the cabin and cargo bins with External Power plugged in but selected OFF. BAT 1 & 2 must remain ON to ensure _fire_ _protection_. This pb will cause only the pressurization of the blue hydraulic system and NOT provide emergency electric power. turn the lights back on! When shutting down for an overnight you can keep the lights on when turning off the APU and External Power by going into the forward galley and finding the overhead panel. You will see one hole in the plastic cover over the breakers. This pb will cause only the pressurization of the blue hydraulic system and will not provide emergency electrical power. The RAT can only be stowed on the ground. detection of an APU fire causes an automatic APU shutdown and extinguisher discharge. All other buses continue to be powered by their normal channels. it will assume electrical supply of the AC and DC ESS and ESS SHED buses. during flight under normal electrical supply. The RAT can also be deployed manually by pressing the EMER ELEC PWR MAN ON pb on the overhead panel. If the pilot activates the RAT.Airbus A319. A321 Quick Reference Notes Hey. Reference: PH 2h. the DC BAT bus is automatically connected to the batteries when airspeed drops below 100 knots. (True or False) On the ground. The RAT can also be extended by depressing the RAT MAN ON pb. 8. During RAT deployment and emergency generator coupling (approximately eight seconds). which drives the hydraulically driven emergency generator. and power is lost to the CRTs. Reference: Airbus Training Manual 7-26. If the APU is operating. A generator control unit controls generator output which is considerably lower than that of the main generators(5KvA). 7. (True or False) The RAT can be extended manually by depressing the RAT MAN ON pb on the hydraulic panel. A320.1 142 . Once the emergency generator is up to speed it will supply power to the AC ESS BUS and DC ESS BUS (via the ESS TR).
.....OFF......3 The first officer.. Note: During single engine taxi.. without the APU........ will accomplish the following to shut down engine #2: 1..........3 7.. Reference: PH 2h..... Reference: PH 3....... the flap lever should be positioned to _1_ _detent_ to avoid AIR L(R) WING LEAK caution message.. or check APU on ECAM)... OFF Caution: Prior to selecting ENG 2 MASTER ........... Y ELEC PUMP...4....... IDLE Run the engines at IDLE for approximately three (3) minutes to allow for engine thermal stabilization before shutting down an engine. consider using X BLEED to operate both packs when necessary to meet cabin temperature control requirements........ you may shut down the engines after one minute instead of waiting three). ENG 2 MASTER .. (True or False) After landing to conduct single engine taxi when applicable the Captain will direct the First officer to shut down the #2 engine........... 4...... at captains command................. A320... Reference: PH 6.... During taxi........... nose wheel steering is available through the _YELLOW_ hydraulic system....Airbus A319.... such as a short taxi to the gate (i........... ON 3...1 and Bulletin 04-08 pg 2 of 16 143 .. if OAT is above 30ºC... the first officer will verbally communicate with the captain to ensure no brake or steering inputs are being made............ Time may be reduced to a minimum of one minute for operational considerations............... Thrust Lever (as appropriate)...................5... The captain should return the X BLEED to AUTO after engine shut down at the gate.... A321 Quick Reference Notes Caution: Do not turn the batteries to OFF until the APU flap is fully closed (about two (2) minutes after APU AVAIL light extinguishes....... 2........... Following a Landing Gear Gravity Extension on an "Enhanced" or new delivery aircraft... 2.e..
the aircraft can be dispatched. Reference: PH 2g. If the second engine is started within 40 seconds following the end of the cargo door operation. which is below the missed approach altitude. If.3 Maintenance action is required before flight if the leak is still present after five minutes.2 5.2 3. advance the operating engine's thrust lever to obtain _30_% N1 and _30_ PSI before start initiation. and will be available after a landing gear manual extension if yellow hydraulic system pressure is available. 6. Bulletin 04-08 A "V" bar is displayed on the PFD whenever the aircraft is below 400 feet AGL. (True or False) During a go-around the aircraft will climb to the FCU altitude and will not comply with lower altitude restrictions. Reference: PH 2g. A "V" bar is displayed on the PFD whenever the aircraft is below _400_ feet AGL and represents the maximum pitch allowed. 144 . One of the many system differences associated with new Airbus (Enhanced) aircraft is tail strike warnings.11. run the engine at idle for _5_ minutes. Cycling the _YELLOW ELEC PUMP_ ON then OFF will clear this ECAM.3 and QRH pg. 92 1. the FD bars will be _automatically_ restored in _SRS | GA | TRK_ modes. whether or not FPV is in use. If a crossing altitude restriction is present on the missed approach. Reference: PH Ch 6. Exceeding the "V" bar pitch guidance will result in a tail strike. When conducting a Crossbleed Start.8. 2. the crossing altitude must be set in the FCU altitude window. a HYD PTU FAULT is triggered. A320.2 Adjust to obtain at least 30% N1 and 30 psi at start air valve before start initiation and at least 25 psi during start. Reference: PH 4. A321 Quick Reference Notes NWS on Enhanced aircraft A-319 uses the yellow hydraulic system instead of the green system. 2.2. during engine start. Reference: PH 2b.Airbus A319. the ground crew reports a fuel leak from engine drain mast. 7. If the leak disappears.2.11. Reference: PH 2b. 6. The "V" bar represents the maximum pitch allowed. In the event a go-around is required after disconnecting the autopilot.
13. slush. that green hydraulic pressure has taken over. select _CAPT_ during radar use below 2500 feet AGL so as to optimize predictive windshear performance. or standing water). When brake fans are selected on. For cold weather operations with moderate to severe icing conditions present. Do not takeoff if brake temperatures exceed _300_°C (brake fans OFF) or _150_ °C (Brake fans ON) Reference: PH 2c.6 The relationship between the actual disc temperature and the indicated temperature on the ECAM WHEEL page can vary by as much as 50° to 150°C. A320. This is due to temperature sensor location. Reference: PH 2c. a delay of several minutes may be noted before the ECAM WHEEL page displays accurate brake temperatures. Reference: PH 2c-12.3. This condition could result in a BRAKE HOT advisory message shortly after takeoff. the indicated temperature drops rapidly. A321 Quick Reference Notes 2.e. Reference: PH 2c. The purpose of the brake check is to check brake efficiency. if brake fans are used during taxi out. crews should use the brake fans to manage indicated brake temperature within a range of 100°C to 150°C. Similarly. crews may depart with indicated brake temperatures less than 300°C. as the reading will represent actual temperature. 18. ice or greater than 1/8 inch of snow.Airbus A319.3. Crews should not takeoff if brake temperatures exceed 150°C with brake fans on (or shortly after brake fans are used) or 300°C with brake fans off. and the result of direct fan air on the sensors. When initiating taxi. the captain accomplishes a brake check. FLEX thrust IS permitted on wet runways but is NOT permitted on _contaminated_ runways. As a result.6 12.. When taxiing out.3 16. Takeoff at FLEX thrust is not allowed on contaminated runways (i. the actual temperature may be higher than indicated. If fans are not used for taxi.10 • • FLEX thrust is permitted on wet runways because accelerate/stop distance is adjusted for the wet condition.3. periodic engine run-ups should be 145 . and that yellow hydraulic pressure is at _zero_ on the brake pressure triple indicator. when the brake fans are selected off. The use of FLEX thrust for takeoff significantly increases engine reliability and efficiency while reducing fuel consumption. For aircraft equipped with dual tilt radar controls.
4 The following items are not inhibited when the ECAM “TO INHIBIT” memo is displayed: • ENGINE FIRE • APU FIRE • ENG FAIL (ENGINE SHUT DOWN) • ENG OIL LO PR • ENG REV UNLOCKED • L + R ELEV FAULT • AP OFF (AP is not engaged for takeoff. AP OFF warning should never occur) • CONFIG • FWC 1 + 2 FAULT (without aural warning or caution light) • PWS caution or warning (inhibited at 100 knots) 5.05_ EPR (IAE). Following a loss of thrust on takeoff. the PF will apply full forward sidestick. initially advance the thrust levers to _50_% N1. Therefore.2. accomplish static engine run-up to: • CFM: 70% N1 for 10 seconds • IAE: 50% N1 for 10 seconds Takeoff 1.8. then _70_% N1 (CFM) / _1. IAE: _50%_ N1 for 30 seconds in intervals of less than 30 minutes.6. Reference: PH 2d. When crosswind components exceed 20 knots or a tailwind exists for takeoff. the ECAM inhibits the warnings/cautions that are not paramount from _80_ knots to _1. after liftoff the rudder should be _trimmed_ prior to autopilot engagement.10 146 .500_ feet AGL (or two minutes after lift-off. FLX or TOGA should be selected no later than 40 knots.6 Periodic: • CFM: 70% N1 for 30 seconds in intervals of less than 30 minutes • IAE: 50% N1 for 30 seconds in intervals of less than 30 minutes Prior to takeoff. Reference: PH 2d. During takeoff.6. A320. Reference: PH 2d.5 4. In addition. Reference: PH 3. A321 Quick Reference Notes conducted as follows: CFM: _70%_ N1 for 30 seconds in intervals of less than 30 minutes.Airbus A319. to be progressively neutralized between 80 and 100 knots. whichever occurs first).
etc. (True or False) If an engine is on fire and still producing normal thrust. full rudder trim may be required. otherwise.3. normally. adverse flight characteristics. is to accomplish the applicable ECAM/QRH procedure after the flaps are up and the desired climb speed has been attained. Reference: PH 2d. A320. The flight guidance system automatically limits bank to 15°. aircraft performance should not be adversely affected. At V2 with TOGA thrust.4 Predictive Windshear Procedures ADVISORY CAUTION INDICATIONS: ND PFD Windshear icon Amber W/S AHEAD WARNING AURAL (N/A) “MONITOR RADAR DISPLAY” Red W/S AHEAD “WINDSHEAR AHEAD” (Twice on takeoff) “GO AROUND WINDSHEAR AHEAD” (On approach) 147 . Adjust rudder input/trim to center the blue sideslip index (β target) with the roll index (β target = 0).8. Keep the β target zero with rudder and control heading through bank. Under compelling circumstances such as severe vibration. The appropriate pilot action should be to select _TOGA_ and _continue_the_takeoff_. 6.Takeoff" procedure if published.3 8. If F/D is not available.Airbus A319. Following a loss of thrust at or above V1. fly runway heading. Reference: PH 2d. it may be necessary to accomplish the ECAM/QRH procedure(s) as early as _400_ AFE. do not exceed 15° bank if IAS is less than green dot (VFTO).8 7. Reference: PH 2i. the pilots receive a Predictive Windshear ADVISORY (windshear icon on ND with no accompanying aural warnings). follow the normal climb profile except comply with runway specific "Engine Failure . A321 Quick Reference Notes After Liftoff Directional Control: The first indication of engine failure will be a yaw towards the failed engine.. If this condition exists during takeoff at or above V1. Use rudder conventionally to prevent yaw. the safest course of action. While on takeoff roll at 80 KIAS. The rudder should be trimmed prior to autopilot engagement.
7 With the MODE SEL pb in AUTO. c. b. Aft ACT transfers fuel into the _center_ tank. fuel from the wing tank pumps flows through the jet pump and creates suction. • Execute a normal go-around using TOGA thrust. d. A321 Quick Reference Notes PHASE OF FLIGHT: Aligned for Takeoff Prior to V1 Delay the takeoff until the alert no longer exists.000 feet of runway remaining • Follow SRS commands • Retract gear and flaps on schedule If a PWS Warning occurs – roll wings level unless terrain is a factor in order to maximize aircraft performance. Wing tank overflow must be 148 . Reference: Airbus Training Manual 7-28. Center tank transfers fuel into the _wing_ tanks. takeoff • TOGA • Rotate no later than 2. Wing tanks feed the engines.Airbus A319. Forward ACT transfers fuel into the _center_ tank. The FLSCU automatically closes the associated center tank transfer valve when the wing tank is full. When the transfer valve is open. the center tank transfer valves open.1. the Fuel Level Sensing Control Unit (FLSCU) has automatic control of the transfer valve. Reject the takeoff if sufficient runway Continue the remains. approach If a PWS Warning occurs – roll wings level unless terrain is a factor in order to maximize aircraft performance. The transfer valve reopens the center tank transfer valve when the engines have used 550 lbs of wing tank fuel. At or Above V1 During Approach 7. A320. The normal fuel feed sequencing for the A321 is: a. TOGA. This suction moves the fuel from the center tank to the related wing tank. Continue the • Retract gear and flaps on schedule. With the MODE SEL pb in MAN.
They must also be selected OFF when the center tank is empty. With the ACT pb in AUTO. terrain and instrument approach facilities • number. ACT2 transfers first. A321 Quick Reference Notes prevented by selecting the CTR TK XFR pbs OFF when the wing tanks are full. fire. a step climb of 1000 feet would be justified by cruising at least 15 to 30 minutes at the higher altitude. Reference: FOM 10. closing the ACT vent valves.1 Factors to consider: • in-flight hazard created by non-normal • time to diversion airport and aircraft performance • enroute weather and terrain • terminal weather. (True or False) As it relates to fuel efficiency. It is initiated if the center tank high level sensor has been dry for 10 minutes and fuel remains in either ACT. automatic control of the transfer occurs after takeoff at slats retraction. length and condition of runways • pilot airport familiarity • airport NOTAMs • facilities including crash. During transfer. transfer from the ACT stops.12. The transfer valve opens when the center tank high sensor is dry for 10 minutes. if the center tank high level sensor gets wet. 8.5 9. and opening the air shutoff and inlet valves.1. and rescue capabilities 149 . For Non-ETOPS operations. the nearest _suitable_ airport should provide the _highest_ level of safety while considering the exposure to the non-normal procedure. Reference: FOM 4.Airbus A319. ATC controllers have charts and directories which are helpful in determining the best alternatives. A320. Fuel transfer from the ACTs to the center tank is made by pressurizing the ACT.
The direct route to the enroute airport is analyzed within five sm on either side of the route. then proceed to the enroute airport.9 • Calculation Process: An analysis is performed when terrain along and within five statute miles (sm) either side of the route exceeds 6. 10. Reference: PH 2i.5. _FLIGHT_ _DIRECTORS_ . The pilots' correct response to this Preventative RA is to accomplish/callout "AUTOPILOT_-_OFF_ . The aircraft must driftdown clearing all terrain by at least 2. Driftdown . The system verifies terrain clearance capability ahead and behind the aircraft in the event of engine failure. During cruise.Airbus A319. Maintain or adjust the vertical speed as required to avoid the red area of the vertical speed scale. no diversion airports and no dispatcher action are required. it must proceed to an enroute alternate airport.000 feet. Terrain Clearance – Method 1 Level Off: The system first determines if the aircraft can drift down and maintain a positive slope clearing all terrain along and within five sm either side of the route by at least 1. Reference: FOM 12. it will generate a message on the flight plan advising the crew that terrain clearance is the captain’s responsibility. A320. • • • 14. If so. If the drift down program detects limiting terrain during the climb or descent phase.Method 2 Driftdown Alternates: If the aircraft cannot maintain terrain clearance while continuing or returning along the route of flight. a TCAS Traffic Advisory ("Traffic. An engine failure drift down terrain analysis is performed on all filed routes when terrain along and within five statute miles either side of the route exceeds 6. Diversion airports are required when there are two or more decision points.000 feet.000 ft._OFF". it must _ proceed to an enroute alternate airport _ provided in the Body/Scratchpad of the flight release.2 150 . Traffic") is quickly followed by a Preventative Resolution Advisory ("Monitor Vertical Speed"). Climb or Descent.000 ft. clearing all terrain by at least 1.000 feet. The point at which the failure becomes terrain critical is called a decision point. and to refer to appropriate charts. A321 Quick Reference Notes Note: The nearest suitable airport in this context is not the same as the ETOPS definition of a suitable airport. If the aircraft cannot maintain terrain clearance along the route.
Wing anti-ice should be selected ON whenever there is a visual indication that airframe icing exists. Wing anti-ice should be selected ON. apply a landing weight climb penalty. During the go around. if wing antiice is required prior to the first thrust reduction. If in severe icing conditions. (True or False) The RAT can be extended manually by depressing the RAT MAN ON pb on the hydraulic panel. Reference: Airbus Training Manual 728. In the event of a go around. This pb will cause only the pressurization of the blue hydraulic system and NOT provide emergency electric power.000kgs . 24. or on the windshield wipers. and Descent: Wing anti-ice may either be used to prevent ice formation. Operational maximum fuel imbalances will be indicated by an ECAM Advisory condition. therefore. The Fuel Mode Sel pb FAULT (A319/320) light will illuminate when the center tank has more than _550_ lbs /250kgs of fuel and the left or right wing tank has less than _11.7 151 . whenever there is an indication that airframe icing exists.1.000_ lbs/5. Reference: PH 1. A321 Quick Reference Notes 15.6. wing anti-ice may be left on for landing. Reference: Airbus Training Manual 7-24. wing anti-ice is normally selected on after the first thrust reduction.Airbus A319. This can be evidenced by ice accumulation on the _visual_ _ice_ _indicator_ or _windshield_ _wipers_. no wing anti-ice takeoff weight penalty is required. wing anti-ice is normally selected off at the FAF.1 25. Cruise. A320. or to remove ice accumulation from the wing leading edges. The visual indications presented to the crew to alert them of this condition include the ECAM FUEL page displayed automatically with the fuel quantities _pulsing_. no wing anti-ice landing weight climb penalty is required. Approach: If required. Climb. This can be evidenced by ice accumulation on the visual ice indicator (located between the two flight deck windshields).8 Departure: If required.3 23.2. wing anti-ice is normally selected on after the first thrust reduction. therefore.6. Reference: PH 3.
Airbus A319, A320, A321 Quick Reference Notes Emergency Generator:
If both AC bus 1 and 2 are lost and the airspeed is above 100 kts, the Ram Air Turbine (RAT) automatically deploys and pressurizes the blue hydraulic system, which drives the hydraulically driven emergency generator. A generator control unit controls generator output which is considerably lower than that of the main generators (5KvA). Once the emergency generator is up to speed it will supply power to the AC ESS BUS and DC ESS BUS (via the ESS TR). During RAT deployment and emergency generator coupling (approximately eight seconds), the batteries supply power to these buses. After landing, the DC BAT bus is automatically connected to the batteries when airspeed drops below 100 knots. When the speed decreases below 50 knots, the AC ESS bus is automatically shed, and power is lost to the CRTs.
The RAT can also be deployed manually by pressing the EMER ELEC PWR MAN ON pb on the overhead panel. The RAT can only be stowed on the ground. If the pilot activates the RAT, during flight under normal electrical supply, it will assume electrical supply of the AC and DC ESS and ESS SHED buses. All other buses continue to be powered by their normal channels. The RAT can also be extended by depressing the RAT MAN ON pb, on the hydraulic panel. This pb will cause only the pressurization of the blue hydraulic system and will not provide emergency electrical power. Airbus Gotcha: If an engine-out condition is detected by the FMGC the appropriate performance page will be brought up on the MCDU with an amber EO CLR* on LSK 1R (PH 17.6.39 & 18.3.7). This is asking if you wish to force the FMGC back to normal two engine data. If you press the EO CLR you will clear out the engine-out condition and the FMGC will revert back to the normal two engine data. Of course if you get a spurious EO CLR* during 152
Airbus A319, A320, A321 Quick Reference Notes normal operations then you would want to clear the engine-out performance from the FMGC, which is why the prompt is there. The point here is during engine-out operations do not press the amber EO CLR* LSK! Airbus Gotcha: Both Flight Directors should be turned off when cleared for visual approach and hand flying. This will ensure SPEED is showing for Thrust on the FMA and will help avoid unwanted “thrust excursions”. Once established on the final if you have instrument guidance (either ILS or RNAV) you may turn the F/D’s back on and select APPR if you will follow the Flight Director. Airbus Gotcha: If you cannot get the proper ILS frequency and course showing on the PFD when you select the ILS pb, then check your RAD/NAV page and see if a navaid has been entered and is locking out auto tuning. Also be sure that an RMP NAV pb is not selected as this will turn on the NAV backup mode and disable FMGC tuning. This can simply “glitch” and not display when it should. We were able to fix it by reselecting the runway/approach. Airbus Gotcha: Delete the pseudo altitude waypoint for the runway (not for FMS departure routes). Be sure to leave a discontinuity between the runway and the first fix (again, not if using FMS departure). ` Airbus Gotcha: If not within 200 nm of destination then aircraft will not initiate descent in PERF DESCENT mode. Descent will be made in PERF CRUISE mode as a “cruise descent”. During descent in cruise mode the FMGC will not “see” crossing restrictions in the flight plan. Airbus Gotcha: The aircraft will not initiate descent automatically from cruise altitude when reaching a descent point (known as T/D or Top of Descent). The pilot must set in new altitude and then push the ALT knob to enter Managed Descent.
Airbus Gotcha: The pilot cannot change the Descent data once the FMGC is in Descent Phase. If you wish to make a change to the FMGC descent speed once you are in Descent Phase, enter a new cruise altitude below your current altitude into the PROG page. This will cause the FMGC to revert back to Cruise Phase and allow you to enter a new descent speed in the PERF DES page.
The FMGC may plan a much slower speed for descent in Descent Phase than in Cruise Phase. If the aircraft begins a descent and enters the Descent Phase when you wish to make a faster cruise descent you can enter a new cruise altitude on the PROG page below your current altitude. The FMGC will now
Airbus A319, A320, A321 Quick Reference Notes revert back to Cruise Phase until crossing the new altitude. Be aware, however, that the FMGC does not “see” crossing restrictions when descending in Cruise Phase and will only descend at a set vertical speed. Airbus Gotcha: Managed Climb/Descent is not available on heading. You must be on NAV to use Managed Climb/Descent. Airbus Gotcha: When the aircraft is in HDG mode and the pilot enters direct to a waypoint the autopilot will automatically engage NAV with no other action on the pilot’s part. In other words, the autopilot will change modes automatically from HDG to NAV when a DIR is entered in the FMGC. The point here is to be sure of where the waypoint is when you enter DIR as the airplane will automatically turn to the new waypoint as soon as it computes the new course. DIR will always turn the shortest distance to the point. If the aircraft begins to go the wrong place or turn the wrong direction (for example turn left instead of an assigned right turn) use HDG mode until you can correct the problem. Airbus Gotcha: WARNING: Do not use UPDATE AT on the PROG page! The Update At feature (PH 17.6.44) will shift the FMGC to the new position. This will destroy the accuracy of your FMGC. Note: does not affect IRU’s. Airbus Gotcha: Changing the arrival or runway after putting in crossing restrictions will delete pilot entered crossing restrictions and you will have to re-enter them. Airbus Gotcha: Do not use external conditioned air when using packs (PH 1.7.2). Unfortunately, there is no cockpit indication of external air connected! You can turn off the cabin fans pb and if air continues to blow from the vents then external air is connected. Airbus Gotcha: Autopilot must be in Heading Select to delete a TO or FROM waypoint. You can’t delete the current NAV leg. Airbus Gotcha: The FMS2 DOES NOT have the “imaginary centerline” feature. Actually I believe this was a “bug” in the original FMS software that turned into a feature. However, the FMS2 will actually handle this differently. You cannot capture the extended centerline in APPR mode (such as for the RNAV approach). However, there is a fix for this in FMS2. In the DIR TO page you can use the RADIAL IN feature to build the inbound course the needed fix. This will serve as an extended centerline. Airbus Gotcha: Just to make things interesting Airbus has used the same pb’s for the APU Start pb as the External Power pb. However the APU blue ON is the “Master Switch” and just indicates the APU is prepared to start. The blue ON for the Start pb means the APU is starting. The green AVAIL in the Start pb shows that the APU is available for use and power is OK and the APU will automatically pick up the electrical load unless you are on external (remember, EXT PWR requires a manual power shift). So for the APU green AVAIL can be showing in
This is just a reminder as the APU panel is not part of the Electrical panel. Airbus Gotcha: on ground with Ditching pb ON and all doors closed & external low pressure connected a pressurization differential will build. This will cause the FMGC to revert back to Cruise Phase and allow you to enter a new descent speed in the PERF DES page. During descent in cruise mode the FMGC will not “see” crossing restrictions in the flight plan. Suddenly climb thrust is commanded even though you are now wanting to continue descent. Be sure power is at the intended setting when A/THR is disconnected to avoid power surge. Descent will be made in PERF CRUISE mode as a “cruise descent”. The pilot must set in new altitude and then push the ALT knob to enter Managed Descent. Airbus Gotcha: Warning: If auto thrust is disconnected by pressing the A/THR pb on the FCU the aircraft won’t know if the pb was pressed off or signal was lost and will give an ECAM warning to move thrust lever. If you wish to make a change to the FMGC descent speed once you are in Descent Phase. A321 Quick Reference Notes the pb when powering the aircraft. You are getting ready to level off just prior to the Final Approach Fix on an approach. Bottom line here. enter a new cruise altitude below your current altitude into the PROG page. However. Airbus Gotcha: or How to be an Air show Pilot: You are hand flying with the flight director on (bad thing!). the opposite of the EXT PWR pb. It will think you are in a Thrust Lock situation. you are not quite level at the set altitude and the FMA does not yet show ALT* for capture. Speed decays to below VLS. Airbus Gotcha: The pilot cannot change the Descent data once the FMGC is in Descent Phase. just use the instinctive disconnects (or idle when at flare) to disconnect the auto thrust.Airbus A319. Sounds like a flyby to me! 155 . A320. You are slowly leveling off just a little high without realizing it and as you have been in Open descent the thrust remains in the commanded idle. Airbus Gotcha: If not within 200 nm of destination then aircraft will not initiate descent in PERF DESCENT mode. Airbus Gotcha: Warning: If auto thrust is disconnected and then thrust levers are pulled back from CL detent the thrust will immediately go the power selection commanded by the thrust levers and indicated on the TLA donuts. Airbus Gotcha: The aircraft will not initiate descent automatically from cruise altitude when reaching a descent point (known as T/D or Top of Descent).
The FMGC will now revert back to Cruise Phase until crossing the new altitude. however. A321 Quick Reference Notes Airbus Gotcha: If not within 200 nm of destination then aircraft will not initiate descent in PERF DESCENT mode. If you wish to make a change to the FMGC descent speed once you are in Descent Phase. In other words. enter a new cruise altitude below your current altitude into the PROG page. The pilot must set in new altitude and then push the ALT knob to enter Managed Descent. DIR will always turn the shortest distance to the point. Airbus Gotcha: The pilot cannot change the Descent data once the FMGC is in Descent Phase. If the aircraft begins a descent and enters the Descent Phase when you wish to make a faster cruise descent you can enter a new cruise altitude on the PROG page below your current altitude. Airbus Gotcha: When the aircraft is in HDG mode and the pilot enters direct to a waypoint the autopilot will automatically engage NAV with no other action on the pilot’s part. Airbus Gotcha: The aircraft will not initiate descent automatically from cruise altitude when reaching a descent point (known as T/D or Top of Descent). A320. Airbus Gotcha: Managed Climb/Descent is not available on heading. 156 . The FMGC may plan a much slower speed for descent in Descent Phase than in Cruise Phase. the autopilot will change modes automatically from HDG to NAV when a DIR is entered in the FMGC. This will cause the FMGC to revert back to Cruise Phase and allow you to enter a new descent speed in the PERF DES page. During descent in cruise mode the FMGC will not “see” crossing restrictions in the flight plan. Airbus Gotcha: WARNING: Do not use UPDATE AT on the PROG page! The Update At feature (PH 17.44) will shift the FMGC to the new position. This will destroy the accuracy of your FMGC.Airbus A319. that the FMGC does not “see” crossing restrictions when descending in Cruise Phase and will only descend at a set vertical speed. The point here is to be sure of where the waypoint is when you enter DIR as the airplane will automatically turn to the new waypoint as soon as it computes the new course. If the aircraft begins to go the wrong place or turn the wrong direction (for example turn left instead of an assigned right turn) use HDG mode until you can correct the problem.6. Descent will be made in PERF CRUISE mode as a “cruise descent”. Note: does not affect IRU’s. You must be on NAV to use Managed Climb/Descent. Be aware.
Airbus A319. 157 . A320. A321 Quick Reference Notes Airbus Gotcha: Changing the arrival or runway after putting in crossing restrictions will delete pilot entered crossing restrictions and you will have to re-enter them.
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