= n = 0, 1, 2, .
p
n
(t) = probability of n events occurring during time t
Poisson distribution with mean = t events
Queueing system (parallel servers)
_ _
Departing
customers
Arriving
customers
1
2
3
System
Queue Service
facility
Schematic diagram of parallel queueing system
3
c
KendallLee notation
a / b / c : d / e / f
Main characteristics of queueing system has been standardized
in the following format:
where a = arrivals distribution
b = service time (or departures) distribution b = service time (or departures) distribution
c = number of parallel servers
d = service discipline
e = number of customers allowed in system ( in queue
+ in service)
f = size of calling source
Standard notation for arrivals and departures
distribution
M Poisson (or Markovian) arrival or departure distribution
D constant or deterministic interarrival or service time
E
k
Erlangian or gamma distribution of interarrival or
service time distribution with parameter k service time distribution with parameter k
For example
M / M / 4 : GD / N /
Steady state model of generalized Poisson queue
n number of customers in the system
n
rate of arrival given that n is the number of customers in
the system
n
rate of departure given that n is the number of customers
in the system in the system
p
n
the steadystate probability of n customers in system
n n1
n+1
n1
n+1
Balance equation Under steadystate condition, the
expected rates of flow into and out of state n must be equal
Expected rate of
flow into state n
=
0(p
0
++p
n2
)
n1
p
n1
+
n+1
p
n+1 =
Expected rate of
flow out of state n
=
n
p
n
+
n
p
n
Balance equation
Steady state model of generalized Poisson queue
+0(p
n+2
+.) +
n1
p
n1
+
n+1
p
n+1
n1
p
n1
+
n+1
p
n+1
n
p
n
+
n
p
n
, n = 1, 2, 3, ..
=
Balance equation
Transition rate diagram for n = 0
0
1
1
Balance equation for n = 0
0
p
0
1
p
1
, n = 0
=
0
p
0
+
2
p
2
= (
1
+
1
)p
1
Recursively
p
1
= (
0/
1
) p
0
For n=0
For n=1
Steadystate probability of n customers in the
system (p
n
)
0
p
0
+
2
p
2
= (
1
+
1
)p
1
For n=2
1
p
1
+
3
p
3
= (
2
+
2
)p
2
0
1 2
0 1
2
p p
=
0
1 2 3
0 1 2
3
p p
=
In general
For n
Steadystate probability of n customers in the
system (p
n
)
n= 1, 2, 3, ..
,
..........
..........
0
1 2 1
0 3 2 1
p p
n n n
n n n
n
=
The value of p
0
is determined by
1
0
=
= n
n
p
Steadystate measures of performance
p
n
= steadystate probability of n customers in the system
L
s
= expected number of customers in system
L
q
= expected number of customers in queue
Consider a service facility with c parallel servers
(Characterstics of queueing system)
L
q
= expected number of customers in queue
W
s
= expected waiting time of a customer in system
W
q
= expected waiting time of a customer in queue
Expected
waiting time
in queue
Expected
waiting time
in system
Expected
service time
=
+
Steadystate measures of performance
=
=
0 n
n s
np L
= ) (
n q
p c n L
From definition of p
n
+ =
=
1
) (
c n
n q
p c n L
s eff s
W L =
Relationship exists between L
s
and W
s
where
eff
effective average arrival rate
=
=
0 n
n n eff
p
(Littles formulae)
Steadystate measures of performance
Expected
waiting time
in queue
Expected
waiting time
in system
Expected
service time
=
+
Relationship exists between W
s
and W
q
1
+ = W W
1
+ =
q s
W W
eff
q s
L L + =
Steadystate measures of performance
Expected number
of busy servers
eff
q s
L L c = = =
Percent
utilization
100 *
c
c
=
=
=
0 n
n s
np L
eff
s
s
L
W
=
q eff q
W L =
c
n
p
1
=
s q
W W
Given p
n
, we can compute the systems measures of performance
q s
L L c =
M/M/1:GD//
n number of customers in the system
rate of arrival =
n
= for all n
rate of departure =
n
= for all n
n
= since it is independent of the number in the
system
Single Channel Queueing System
system
Defining = /
,
..........
..........
0
1 2 1
0 3 2 1
p p
n n n
n n n
n
=
n = 0, 1, 2, .
,
0 0
p
n
p
n
n
p
n
= =
n = 0, 1, 2, .
, 1
1
1
0
=


\

p
p
0
(1++
2
+
3
+.) =1
Assume < 1
M/M/1:GD//
p
o
= 1 
, ) 1 ( ) 1 (
n
n
n
p
n
= = n = 0, 1, 2, .
=
=
0
) 1 (
n
n
n
=
=
0 n
n s
np L
M/M/1:GD//
2
) 1 ( ) 1 (
=
=
1 1
=
=
0 n
n s
np L
eff
s
s
L
W
=
q eff q
W L =
1
=
s q
W W
q s
L L c =
Littles formulae
M/M/1:GD//
=
1
s
L
) 1 (
1
= =
s
s
L
W
= =
1
2
s q
L L
) 1 (
= =
q
q
L
W
Single Channel Queueing System M/M/1:GD//
Average length of nonempty queue
=
>
=
0) length (queue p
L
q
Probability that an arrival will have to
dt e
t
=
) (
) 1 (
=
) (
) 1 (
=
) (
) (
M/M/1:GD/N/
Single Channel Queueing System
Maximum queue length = N1
=
, 0
,
n
n=0, 1, 2, ., N1
n=N, N+1, ..
n
= for all n=0, 1, 2,
Let = /
=
, p
n
n N
1 ) ..... 1 ( 1
2
0
0
= + + + + =
=
N
N
n
n
p p
Let = /
=
, 0
,
0
p
p
n
n N
n > N
p
0
=
,
1
1
1 +
,
1
1
+ N
=1
1
p
n
=
,
1
1
1
n
N
,
1
1
+ N
=
=
N
n
n s
np L
0
=1
1
n=0, 1, 2,..N
=
+
=
N
n
n
N
n
0
1
1
1
M/M/1:GD/N/
) 1 )( 1 (
} ) 1 ( 1 {
1
1
+
+
+ +
=
N
N N
N N
=1
1
,
2
N
,
) 1 )( 1 (
} ) 1 ( 1 {
1
1
+
+ +
+
N
N
N
N N
L
s
=
M/M/1:GD/N/
N N eff
p p p p p 0 ) ....... (
1 2 1 0
+ + + + + =
) 1 (
N eff
p = ) (
q s
L L =
Effective arrival rate (
eff
) is
) 1 ( p
eff
s q
L L =
) 1 (
N
q
eff
q
q
p
L L
W
= =
) 1 (
1
N
s
eff
s
q s
p
L L
W W
= = + =
) 1 (
N
s
p
L
=
Multichannel Queueing System
M/M/c : GD//
p p
n
=
n
n
= for all n=0, 1, 2,
=
,
,
c
n
n
n c
n c
Compute p
n
for n c
n
 
0
) )......( 3 )( 2 (
p
n
p
n
=
0
!
p
n
n
n
=
Compute p
n
for n c
( )
0
) )........( )( )( ( ) 1 ( )..... 3 )( 2 (
p
c c c c c
p
n
n
=
0
!
p
c c
n c n
n
=
(nc) times
0
!
p
n
n


\

=
0
!
p
c c
c n
n


\

=
M/M/c:GD//
1
1
0
0
! !
)
`
+ =
c
n c n
c n
c n c n
c c n
p
,
1
1
! !
1
1
0




\

+ =
c
n
c n
c
c n
MultiChannel Queueing System
1 <
c
=
=
c n
n q
p c n L ) (
0
0 0
!
p
c c
k kp L
k
k
c k
k
c k q
=
+
=
+
= =
1
0
0
!
\

=
k
k
c
c
k p
c c
(
(
1
c
Let nc=k
1 c
+
(
(
(
=
2
0
) 1 (
1
!
c
c c
p
c
Here
eff
=
+ =
q s
L L
q
q
L
W =
1
+ =
q s
W W
0
2
1
) ( )! 1 (
p
c c
c
=
+
Multichannel Queueing System
M/M/c : GD/N/
Maximum queue size = Nc
=
,
,
c
n
n
n c
c n N
=
, 0
,
n
n=0, 1, 2, ., N1
n=N, N+1, ..
c n N
,
!
,
!
0
0
p
c c
p
n
p
c n
n
n
n
n c
c n N
,
) 1 ( !
) ) ( 1 (
!
1
1
0
1
=
+
(
(
(
c
n
c N c
n
c
c
c
n
, ) 1 (
! !
1
1
0
=
(
+ +
c
n
c n
c N
c n
/c 1
/c = 1
p
0
=
Multichannel Queueing System
M/M/c : GD/N/
=
=
N
c n
n q
p c n L ) (
Let nc = j
1
0
0
0
!
=
+

\

= =
j
c N
j
c
c N
j
c j q
c
j p
c c
jp L
, ) 1 )( 1 ( 1
) ( )! 1 (
1
2
1
0
\

+

\

+
+
c N c N
c
c c
c N
c c c
p
,
! 2
) 1 )( (
0
c
c N c N
p
c
+
/c 1
/c = 1
L
q
=
Multichannel Queueing System
M/M/c : GD/N/
eff
q s
L L + =
) 1 (
N eff
p = ) ( c c =
=
=
c
n
n
p n c
0
) ( = c Expected number of idle servers
) ( c c L L L
q
eff
q s
+ = + =