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(IJCSIS) International Journal of Computer Science and Information Security, Vol. 9, No. 9, September 2011

Identifying Harmonics by Empirical Mode Decomposition for Effective Control of Active Filters During Electric Vehicle Charging

B. V. Dhananjay and T. Senthil

B.V. Dhananjay,

Research Scholar, Vinayaka Mission’s University, Salem,India

Dr.T.Senthilkumar,

Professor, Automobile Engineering, Bharathidhasan University, Trichirapalli, India

Abstract-This paper provides Hilbert Huang Transform(HHT) method (an empirical mode decomposition(EMD)) for identifying the presence of harmonics during electric vehicle battery charging when harmonics are generated into the electric line, due to switching actions of the power electronics. Activation of the active filters based on the difference between load current and fundamental current measured from the line is done. By using active power filter (APF) injection of the required current to minimize the harmonics is done. As part of simulation, the accuracy of the HHT is above 95%. By correctly recognizing the harmonics using HHT and injecting the compensating current into the line, the charging time of the battery can be reduced. The reduction in the charging time also depends on the battery condition. Keywords-Hilbert Huang Transform; active power filter.

I

INTRODUCTION

The battery is the primary source of electrical energy. It stores chemicals. Two different types of lead in an acid mixture react to produce an electrical pressure. This electrochemical reaction changes chemical energy into electrical energy. A battery can be of primary cell, secondary cell, wet charged, dry charged and low maintenance type. A fully charged battery contains a negative plate of sponge lead(Pb), a positive plate of lead dioxide(Pbo2) and an electrolyte of sulphuric acid (H2So4) and water (H2o). During charging, sulphate leaves the plates and combines with hydrogen(H2) to become sulphuric acid (H2So4). Free oxygen combines with lead on the positive plate to form lead dioxide. Gassing occurs as the battery nears full charge and hydrogen bubbles out at the negative plates, oxygen at the positive. Factors

affecting charging are temperature, state of charge, plate area, impurities, gassing. Electric vehicles (EV) will become an attractive alternative to internal combustion engine vehicles in the event that their range can be extended. One way to achieve this in the short term is to provide a fast charger infrastructure. Such a structure would provide greater mobility for the EV user, since during short stops (<1 hour) the EV batteries could be charged from typically 20 to 80 % of nominal charge. This would significantly extend the EV range.Fast charger infrastructure cost is high. Chargers adversely affect the grid power quality due to presence of power electronic loads like diode rectifiers and thyristor bridge converters in the distribution network that result in voltage distortion and current harmonics, (Akagi 1996). High increase of problems in the electric power distribution networks due to the presence of harmonics. Loads that use switching control with semiconductor devices are the main cause. One of the most important tools for correcting the lack of electric power quality are the active power filters (APF), (Udom et al. 2008). The objective of this work has been proving that back propagation neural networks, previously trained with a certain number of distorted waveforms, are an alternative to the rest of the techniques used and proposed at the present time for controlling the APF's, as the ones based on the use of the Fast Fourier Transform (FFT). A large number of these control techniques are based on ANN’s, (Pecharanin et al. 1994). II A MATERIALS AND METHODS

Materials

109 http://sites.google.com/site/ijcsis/ ISSN 1947-5500

(IJCSIS) International Journal of Computer Science and Information Security, Vol. 9, No. 9, September 2011

Figure 1shows a three-phase diagram of an HHT controlled shunt APF. A load current signal iLis acquiredand used by the ANN to obtain the distortion current waveform as reference signal for the control of the APF.The power converter injects the necessary compensation current iLin the power circuit, achieving thus a sinusoidal source current.

M=

(a + b) 2

(1)

Where a = Maximum_envelope and b = Minimum_envelope. 4. Obtain a new signal using the following equation: (2) h 11 (t) = X(t) − M 11 (t) Where h11(t) is called first IMF. Subsequent IMF’s had to be found if there are some overshoots and undershoots in the IMF. Hence, the envelope mean differs from the true local mean and h11(t) becomes asymmetric. In order to find the additional IMF’s, h11(t) is taken as the new signal. After nth iteration, we have: (3) h1n (t) = h1(n −1) (t) − M1n (t) Where M1n(t) is the mean envelop after the nth iteration and h1(n-1)(t) is the difference between the signal and the mean envelope at the (k-1)th iteration. 5. Calculate C2F as follows:

Figure 1

APF control using HHT

C2F1 = IMFn

(4)

Where

B Methods

IMFn =

**final IMF obtained
**

C2F2 = IMFn + IMF(n −1)

(5)

Empirical Mode Decomposition (Huang) and Hilbert Transform A signal can be analyzed in details for its frequency, amplitude and phase contents by using EMD followed by HT (Jayasree et al. 2010 and Stuti et al. 2009), The EMD produces the mono components called IMFs from the original signal. In a given frame of signal, there can be many IMFs. Each IMF will contain a wave form of different amplitude. Hilbert Transform is applied on an IMF to obtain, IF and IA. It is mandatory that a signal be symmetric regarding the local zero mean, and should contain same number of extreme and zero crossings. The steps involved in EMD of a signal X(t) with harmonics into a set of IMFs are as follows. 1. Identify all local maxima of X(t). Connect the points using a cubic spline. The interpolated curve obtained. The upper line is called the upper envelope (Maximum_envelope). 2. Identify all local minima of X(t) connect the point using a cubic spline.. The lower line is called the lower envelope (Minimum_envelope) obtained by cubic spline. 3. Compute the average by:

Similarly,

C2Fn = IMFn + IMF(n −1) + ....... + IMF 1

(6)

**Where C2Fn is the original signal. 6. Calculate F2C as follows:
**

F2C1 = IMF1

(7) (8) (9)

F2C 2 = IMF1 + IMF2

F2C n = IMF1 + IMF2 + ....... + IMFn

Where F2Cn is the original signal. 7. Hilbert transform is applied for each IMF and analytical signal is obtained. A complex signal is obtained from each IMF: (10) Analytic(I MF) = real(IMF) + imag(IMF)

110 http://sites.google.com/site/ijcsis/ ISSN 1947-5500

(IJCSIS) International Journal of Computer Science and Information Security, Vol. 9, No. 9, September 2011

**8. Instantaneous frequencies are obtained from analytical signal using 0.5 × (angle( − X(t + 1) × conj(X(t − 1))) + π) (11) IF =
**

2× π

9. Instantaneous amplitudes are obtained from the analytical signal using the following IA = real(IMF) 2 + imag(IMF) 2 (12)

III EXPERIMENTAL SIMULATION

a simulation are presented where a step load change occurs at time 60 ms. One additional resistance is connected in parallel with the load, increasing the total load current. Figure 4 shows the EMD process. In the sample harmonics signal considered, only one instantaneous mode function is present. A flat residue signal is also presented. This plot is only for 1000 samples. This will be repeated for the remaining length of the signal. Figure 5 shows the extraction of different signals present from the fine level to coarse level. Similarly, Figure 5 shows the extraction of different signals present from the coarse level to fine level. Figure 7 presents the instantaneous frequency present in every sample of the signal. Figure 8 presents the instantaneous amplitude present in every sample of the signal. Figure 9 and Figure 10 presents statistical values of instantaneous frequencies and instantaneous amplitudes. Based on the statistical values, the amount of harmonics will be estimated and appropriately, required compensating current will be injected into the line. V CONCLUSION A Hilbert Huang Transform method has been used at the control of a shunt active power filter. Based on the amount of harmonics recognition, the APF is activated. By correctly injecting the compensating current into the line, the charging time of the battery can be reduced. The circuit has to be verified with the implementation of HHT in real time for improved charging of the EV battery. The reduction in the charging time also depends on the battery condition.

v=0.1pu,cy=50 v=0.1pu,cy=50 v=0.1pu,cy=50 v=0.1pu,cy=50 v=0.1pu,cy=50

Figure 2

Power circuit with HHT controlling active power filter

The model of Figure2 has been created using Matlab 10. Different sets of parameters have been employed at the power circuit and APF. In most cases the reference current obtained by the HHT controller was accurate enough to enable the APF to compensate harmonic distortion. If an elevated content of high order harmonics were present in the load current, the HHT controller helps in obtaining reference signal. System parameter used: Power circuit:Phase voltage = 220 VRMS , Frequency = 50 Hz , Source resistance = 0.1 Ω, Load resistance = 20 Ω, Load inductance = 30 mH APF:Vdc = 500 V, R = 10 Ω, L = 30 mH, Switching frequency = 40 KHz. IV RESULTS AND DISCUSSION More than 500 different harmonics waveforms (Figure 3) have been used in HHT analysis with different load changes.The results of

400 200 V o l ta g e (V ) 0

-200 -400 6 4 2 Signal patterns 0 0 0.5 Time(Sec) 1

Figure 3

Sample plot of signals for harmonics

111 http://sites.google.com/site/ijcsis/ ISSN 1947-5500

Empirical Mode Decomposition s ig n a l

50.1

In s ta n ta n e u o s F re q u e n c y s p e c tru m

50.05

50

200

im f1

49.95

0

49.9

-200 200

re s .

49.85 0.015

0.02

0.025 0.03 Time (sec)

0.035

0.04

Figure 7

231.5

Instantaneous frequency

0 0.01 0.02 0.03 0.04 0.05 0.06 0.07

Am plitude

-200

Figure 4 Empirical mode decomposition

f2c s ig n a l

231

230.5 0.015

0.02

0.025 0.03 Time (sec)

0.035

0.04

200

f2 c 1

Figure 8

150 M ean of F re q u e n c y 100 50 0 0

Instantaneous amplitude

S td o f F re q u e n c y 10

0

-200 200

s ig n a l

5

0 0.01 0.02

Figure 5

1

Imf

2

3

0 0

1

Imf

2

3

-200 0.03 0.04 0.05 0.06 0.07

N o rm o f F re q u e n c y 1500 1000 500 0 0 1 2 3

150 F re q u e n c y 100 50 0 0

Maximum Frequency Minimum Frequency

Fine to coarse signals

c2f s ig n a l

200 0 0.01 1 0.02 0.03 0.04 0.05 0.06 0.07

Imf

1

Imf

2

3

Figure 9

-200

300 M ean of A m p litu d e

**Statistical values of the instantaneous frequencies
**

10 S td o f A m p litu d e

c 2 f1

0 0.01 0.02 0.03 0.04 0.05 0.06 0.07 0.08

200 100 0 0 1 Imf 2 3

5

-1 0 500

s ig n a l

0 0

1

Imf

2

3

0

N o rm o f A m p litu d e 4000

300 A m p litu d e 200 100 0 0 1

-500 0

Maximum Amplitude Minimum Amplitude

0.01

0.02

0.03

0.04

0.05

0.06

0.07

0.08

Figure 6

Coarse to fine signals

2000

0 0

1

Imf

2

3

Imf

2

3

Figure 10

Statistical values of the instantaneous amplitudes

112 http://sites.google.com/site/ijcsis/ ISSN 1947-5500

REFERENCES

[1] [2]

[3]

[4]

[5]

HAkagi., ”New Trends in Active Filters for Power Conditioning”, IEEE Trans. on Industry Applications, vol. 32, No 6, Dec. 1996, pp 1312-1322. TJayasree., DDevaraj., RSukanesh.,”Power quality disturbance classification using Hilbert transform and RBF networks”, Neurocomputing , Vol 73 Issue 7-9, March, 2010, pp. 1451-1456. NPecharanin., MSone., HMitsui., “An application of neural network for harmonic detection in active filter”,IEEE World Congress on Computational Intelligence.,IEEE International Conference on Neural Networks, Vol.6, pp. 3756-3760, 1994. StutiShukla, S. Mishra, and BhimSingh,”Empirical-Mode Decomposition With Hilbert Transform for Power-Quality Assessment”, IEEE transactions on power delivery, Vol. 24, No. 4, October 2009. Udom. Khruathep, SuittichaiPremrudeepreechacharn, YuttanaKumsuwan,“Implementation of shunt active power filter using source voltage and source current detection”, IEEE, pp.2364-2351, 2008.

113 http://sites.google.com/site/ijcsis/ ISSN 1947-5500

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by ijcsis

This paper provides Hilbert Huang Transform (HHT) method (an empirical mode decomposition(EMD)) for identifying the presence of harmonics during electric vehicle battery charging when harmonics are...

This paper provides Hilbert Huang Transform (HHT) method (an empirical mode decomposition(EMD)) for identifying the presence of harmonics during electric vehicle battery charging when harmonics are generated into the electric line, due to switching actions of the power electronics. Activation of the active filters based on the difference between load current and fundamental current measured from the line is done. By using active power filter (APF) injection of the required current to minimize the harmonics is done. As part of simulation, the accuracy of the HHT is above 95%. By correctly recognizing the harmonics using HHT and injecting the compensating current into the line, the charging time of the battery can be reduced. The reduction in the charging time also depends on the battery condition.

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