23 Years of Railroad/Transit Engineering

Former Metrolink Public Projects Engineer Former ACE Technical Advisor Over 320 Grade Separations/Crossings/Stations Strong relationships with local agencies & railroads
Began JMD as Expert Engineer t UPRR (C lif i ) B E tE i to (California) Railroad Advisor to Local Agencies

Call for Projects/CPUC Funding Applications

Unique analysis design and construction of: analysis,
Mainlines Grade Separations Grade Crossings Commuter Rail Stations Quiet Zones and Soundwalls

Overview Why railroads built? Economic Reasons – Profit through Freight Military Reasons – To move soldiers to strategic destinations Development – UPRR wilderness west of the Mississippi River Freight To F i ht .T make available stores of raw materials k il bl t f t i l Migration – To move people to new land Nature of Railroad Traffic Freight Passenger .

com .World Railway History The history of the railroad begins in 1825 in England First steam train carried passengers from Stockton to Darlington Cost: one shilling Source: Brewster Railroad History Source: American-Rails.

Early U. venture carried goods from Quincy. First successful U. rail cars were pulled y p along tracks by horses. Most heavy loads were sent by boat or rivers or canals. In the early 1800s.S. the United States was a new country with lots of land. they walked.S. When people traveled. Massachusetts to Boston in 1827 Source: Rough and Ready Railroaders .The First Railroads The First Steam locomotives came smoking out of E l d i ki t f England in the 1820s. rode horses. and pioneers were just beginning to explore the western frontier. or traveled in stagecoaches and horse-drawn g wagons.

the Mohawk and Hudson Railroad connected the upstate New York cities of Albany and Schenectady. 5. .) Horatio Allen fired up the Stourbridge Lion in Pennsylvania looked like a giant mechanical grasshopper drove the Lion safely over six miles of track for the first locomotive ride in the United States States. By 1840.000 miles of railroad track in the U.S.The First Railroads (cont. Americans were discovering that locomotives were cheaper and faster than other means of transportation transportation. 1830: 1830 Baltimore and Ohio Railroad and the So th Carolina South Railroad opened for service Soon thereafter. August 1829: the first passenger railroad built by the Delaware and Hudson Canal Company.

. From His Stone Saw-Mill and Quarries on Crum Creek to His Landing on Ridley Creek.History of American Railroad John Thomson 1809: Drew the earliest survey map in the United States Entitled "Draft Exhibiting . the Railroad as Contemplated by Thomas Leiper Esq. . Creek. construct the first practical wooden tracks for a tramroad Source: American Memory Railroad maps . the project engineer and a wellknown mapmaker." Helped Reading Howell.

History of American Railroad John Edgar Thomson Son of John Thomson 1873: donated father's 1809 map to the Delaware County Institute of Science Substantiated the claim that the map and Leiper's railroad were the first such work in North America. America Source: American Memory Railroad maps .

American Railroad (cont) John Stevens Considered to be the father of American railroads 1826: demonstrated feasibility of steam locomotion on a circular experimental track 1815: the first railroad charter in North America granted to Stevens Gridley Bryant 1826: a commercial tramroad surveyed and constructed at Quincy. Massachusetts Machinery for it developed by Solomon Willard Used horsepower to haul granite needed for building the Bunker Hill Monument from the quarries at Quincy .

American Railroad (cont) 1787: John Fitch adapted James Watt's improvements in the steam engine to propel a ship on the Delaware River. Use of steam power for vessels became firmly established . and James Rumsey in the same year on the Potomac River. Fitch published his "Map of the Northwest" two years earlier to finance the building of a commercial steamboat.

US History of Railroads Railroads brought together the young United States and allowed f unprecedented growth and d ll d for d t d th d prosperity The "Golden Age" of railroading lasted from 1880s to the 1920s Earliest beginnings dating back to 1815 when Colonel John Stevens gained the first railroad charter in North America to build the New Jersey Railroad Company Not actually constructed until 1832 Eventually became p of the Pennsylvania Railroad y part y 1826: Tested the first steam locomotive in the country Showcased "Steam Wagon" design .

Railroads began to sprawl westward. 1830s Railroading in this country g y kicked off in 1829 August: Delaware & Hudson Canal Company tested a British Britishbuilt steam locomotive called the Stourbridge Lion Railroads began to pop up all along cities up and down the east coast. Source: .Early Railroads.

i ifi S th significant i f t t t infrastructure was damaged or destroyed Differing track gauges were g g affecting traffic interchange and the number of bridges crossing major waterways.Railroads in the 1850s.70s Railroading set the stage for what would transpire during the Civil War The North would hold a commanding advantage in the war Most of the country's industrial base was centered in the Northeast Most of the railroads with most of the trackage centered in the Northeast and Midwest Much of the war was fought in the South. Source: . 60s.

Railroads in the 1850s. Source: American-Rails.000 miles between 1871 and 1873 1873.000 miles a year or 17.70s 1873: financial panic The industry was building fast leading l di up to the panic h i Averaging almost . 60s. Northern Pacific Railway went bankrupt Railroads far too overextended into western regions Empty lines had no means to earn a profit Filled with angry Indians Not happy about the encroachment of the White Man onto their lands Promptly destroyed track and infrastructure when possible.

and each crew had its own job. Surveyors ○ Explored the land ahead of the building crews ○ Decided which parts would be easiest to build through ○ Made maps for the builder to follow Grading crew ○ made a sturdy roadbed on which to d d db d hi h build tracks ○ Evened out bumps and dips Tracklayers y ○ Put down ties on the roadbed ○ Each rail was 30 feet long and weighed 600 pounds. Source: Rough and Ready Railroaders .S. Each worker belonged to a crew.Working on the Railroad 1860s: railroaders began laying tracks that would stretch across the U. from Boston to San Francisco.

tools. spikes. .Working on the Railroad (cont. and food. work trains took supplies to the builders at the end of the line Pulled up to 12 cars filled with rails.) A piece of iron called a “fishplate” was used to bolt the ends of the rails together and keep them straight Spikes kept the rails connected to the wooden ties Workers had to be sure that the two rails were exactly the same distance apart so that the train s wheels would site directly on top of train’s them. Distance between the rails were called gauge 1886: all tracks were built to a standard gauge of 4 feet 8½ inches Allowed locomotives from one railroad to run on the tracks of any other railroad. Work Trains: As soon as one section of track was finished.

or in boxcars.Better Trains and More Track Baltimore & Ohio first tried using ties made of stone but realized wood ties rode more smoothly The first rails were made of wood with flat iron bands strapped to the top. By the 1860s. or even on train car roofs Source: Historical Travels . stronger steel rails replaced the iron ones Train passengers rode in stagecoaches attached to train wheels.

flags. and lanterns t communicate b t fl dl t to i t between stations By 1850s. electric telegraph signals were being used to direct traffic . signal poles.Better Trains and More Track (cont). p g g at 60 mph pulling as many as thirty cars Train crews learned to use whistles. locomotives were speeding along tracks y . By 1840s.

S. the President Lincoln and Congress passed the Pacific Railway Act Promised to pay the railroads in money and land for each mile of cross-country track built The Civil War was world’s first railroad war ar Both armies used trains to bring troops and supplies far into enemy territory In 1862. Military Railway – USMR Source: Historical Travels . the Union Army formed the U.Trains in the Civil War 1862.

.Trains in the Civil War (cont.) Source: Historical Travels Source: Historical Travels Both armies tried to stop the enemy by ruining their railroads. railroads In the end it worked The Union Army won end. worked. the war by destroying the South’s railway.

which forced eastern tribes to move west of the Mississippi to territories known as “Indian country” Tens of millions of acres were claimed by the government.Native Americans and the Railroad During the 1600s and 1700s. and the tribes were pushed west into Nebraska and Kansas Source: Rough and Ready Railroaders . 1830 Congress passed the Indian Removal Act. European settlers conquered Native American peoples in the East and took most of their land 1830.

July 1. 1862Union Pacific Railroad Creation of the Pacific Railway Bill Designated the new Union Pacific Railroad (westward from the Missouri River) Central Pacific Railroad (eastward from Sacramento) Theodore Judah (Engineer) – special interest in Transcontinental RR ○ 23 trips to Sierra Nevada (hardest segment to build the Trans RR) Completed the transcontinental railroad May 10. Utah Industry exploded in terms of mileage and by the 1890s there was over 163. 1869: line completed at Promontory Point. 8 1/2 inches in the 1880s Development of the automatic coupler and air brake. which revolutionized efficiencies railroads could provide along with allowing for much safer operations .000 miles in operation Many other advances Agreement on the standard track of 4 feet.

Tracks across the Prairie Over the next 15 months. crews 1867 worked to cover 245 miles of Indian country with railroad track Source: Rough and Ready Railroaders . crews graded roadbeds and laid track across 250 miles of prairie As the year ended tracks reached 300 miles west of Omaha Through 1867.

Native Americans and the Railroad In 1867 Indian war parties attacked workers on the p Union pacific and Kansas Pacific lines Government sent out soldiers on horses to guard railroad workers. tribes were forced to move farther west and north . soldiers with bigger weapons As the railroad pushed into Colorado and Wyoming.S. workers Railroads tried to starve the Indians out of the region by destroying the huge buffalo herds they depended on for survival Indians could not succeed against thousands of U.

the Southern Pacific leased the Central Pacific Railroad until eventually merging with it in 1959.Blasting through the Sierras January 1863: owners of the Central Pacific led groundbreaking ceremonies at Sacramento. Source: Rough and Ready Railroaders . desert In 1885. CA for the railroad they hoped would cross th th h d ld the country Would run east from Sacramento Climb 7.000 f into the Sierra C ft S Nevada mountains Decline down to the Nevada desert.

who worked for lower wages and were more orderly and reliable By N B November 1866 covered 94 miles and climbed 6 000 ft t Ci b 1866.650 1 650 foot Summit Tunnel By August 1867 Last of the Sierra tunnels were finished Crews began laying track down the eastern slop of the Sierras June 1868 : Tracks reached Reno.Blasting through the Sierras (cont d) (cont’d) By February 1864. d il d li b d 6. only 18 miles of track had been laid east of Sacramento Hired Chinese immigrants to become railroad workers.000 to Cisco on the western slop of the Sierras Tunnels Varied in length. NV 1869: Tracks crossed the Nevada desert to Utah . from the 271-foot Emigrant Gap to the 1.

CPR Source: UPRR Original Construction dates of the Central Pacific Railroad Route .Sacramento to Ogden .

Race to the Finish The Pacific Railroad Act Did not state where the Central Pacific and the Union Pacific rails would meet Both companies rushed to lay more track and collect more in g government p y payments Source: Union Pacific Train .

) May 10.Race to the Finish (cont. Promontory. 1869: Celebrating the completion of the transcontinental railroad.” Source: Rough and Ready Railroaders . Utah The final spike linking the two lines was made of solid gold g with the following inscription: “May God continue the unity of our Country as this Railroad unites the two great Oceans of the world.

History of Transcontinental Railroad Source: Reflections California: A Changing State .

Huntington Mark Hopkins Charles Crocker Facts: F t Coast to Coast = one week ride Fancy Ride = $100 ($1.340*) Hard Bench = $40 (=$536*) * Today’s dollars Source: Reflections California: A Changing State .History of Transcontinental Railroad Big Four: Leland Stanford Collis P.

showing the alternate sections of public land granted to the Little Rock & Fort Smith Railway Used by land speculators to advertise railroad lands for sale to the public public. Source: American Memory Railroad maps .History of Transcontinental Railroad A large-scale grant map g g p dated 1893.

Railroading in the 1890’s 1890 s Continued to see slow Knuckle (AAR Type "E") couplers in use Source: Wikipedia . Source: American-Rails. Knuckle couplers and air brakes federally mandated on all trains drastically improving safety and efficiency. Dizzying web of trackage would come back to haunt railroads due to drain on profits.

Railroading in the 1920s Began switching to steel rails i t d of i il instead f iron Much stronger Longer lifespan In the end it meant a better bottom line Introduction of the electric locomotive. first used by the B&O 1960s: branches were highly profitable in agricultural traffic since railroads were the only viable means to move goods to market Source: .

000+ Miles .021 Miles .597 Miles 1900: 193.267 1890: 163.000+ Today: 160. both passenger and freight.Railroad Mileage throughout the years It was during this time through roughly the 1920s g g g y that railroads enjoyed their greatest dominance and profitability.387 Miles 1995: 170 000+ Miles 170.696 Miles 1963: 214. 1945: 226.346 Miles 1916: 254.922 Miles 1880: 93 267 Miles 93. Below is a timeline of railroad mileage through the years: 1840: 2.037 Miles . 1860: 30.000+ Miles 1870: 52. The year 1916 saw peak mileage at over 254 000 and railroads held virtually 100% 254.808 Miles 1850: 9.000 of all interstate traffic.

and overall rail mileage Had improved technology to move freight in the 1940s such as heavier freight cars and locomotives and the new diesel-electric locomotive Year Avg. cars.027 .7 14. net tonnage per train Avg.Railroading in WWII Phenomenally more efficient than in WWI Moved more tons of material and goods Did so with fewer locomotives locomotives.7 448 37. Freight Car Capacity Tons Daily Mileage Per freight Car Daily Ton-Mileage per freight car Avg.4 661 49. Train Speed Net Ton Mileage Per Train Hour Source: American-Rails. size of Freight train.7 651 11.0 38.8 1940 1921 42.506 849 16. by car Avg.5 7.5 25.

0 38.7 448 37. to set .5 7.7 14.506 849 16.027 . known as a block. size of Freight train. Train Speed Net Ton Mileage Per Train Hour Source: American-Rails. by car Avg. switches and watch over signals Allowed for a single track main line to achieve 75% capacity of a fully doubletracked line Originally implemented in 1927 Allowed for much more efficient railroad operations Year 1921 42.4 661 49.Railroading in WWII Centralized Traffic Control (CTC) Gave a dispatcher complete control over a section of track.5 25. Freight Car Capacity Tons Daily Mileage Per freight Car Daily Ton-Mileage per freight car Avg. net tonnage per train Avg.7 651 11.8 1940 50.

5 trillion in 2006. disappear into merger. Burlington Northern. most notably the Atchison. Topeka & Santa Fe Railway 1994: the Santa Fe agreed to merge with northwestern giant. Market analysts and experts expect this number to continue to rise as shippers look for more efficient and faster means of transporting their products with highways steadily becoming more clogged Between 1990 and 2000.Railroading after the 1980s Rail freight ton-miles have steadily increased f i d from 932 billi i 1980 t over billion in to 1. to form the Burlington Northern Santa Fe Railway Recently changed its name to simply BNSF Railway Ended one of the most famous railroads to ever operate worldwide although its legend will forever live on in the products bearing its name and famous "Warbonnet" livery Source: . famous railroads .

Source: JMD Source: UPRR Source: UPRR Past Present .Union Pacific UPRR merged with the Southern Pacific Transportation Company (better k T t ti C (b tt known as the Southern Pacific) in 1996 making it one of the largest railroad in the nation.

Union Pacific (Facts) Source: UPRR Source: UPRR Source: UPRR .

BNSF Railway Source: JMD Source: .

Present Today's BNSF Railway is the product of some 390 different railroad lines that merged or were acquired during more than 150 years.BNSF . Source: JMD Source: BNSF .

749 24.172 460 172 2007 94.003 450.440 161.323 24.Railroading Today Resources Miles of Road Operated less Trackage Rights Miles of Track Operated Less Trackage Rights Miles of High-Density “A” Track maintained Locomotives in Service Freight Cars in Service Source: Association of American Railroads 2006 94.209 160.297 450 297 .143 460.114 70.734 69.

Freight Railroad Statistics U. All U.361.385.U.490 171.S. Freight Cars in Service.S.S.513 580.250 2007 140. Railroad Owned Freight Cars in Service. Revenue Ton-Miles 2006 Operating Statistics Miles of Road Operated less Trackage Rights Miles of Track Operated in the U. Owners 2006 140.709 Source: Association of American Railroads .635 1.103 1.077 596.S.S. U.695 171.

.Railroad Class Types Three Types of Railroads: Class I. and yp Class III (Regional/Shortline Railroads) Class I railroads operating above $250 million in revenues. Norfolk Southern. There are five in the United States: CSX. Class II railroads are smaller. The most prevalent type of railroad are class III railroads. with revenues between $20 and $250 million. They are under $20 million in revenue. also known as shortline or regional railroads. BNSF. and Union Pacific. Kansas City Southern. Only 12 exist in the United States million States. Class II.

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