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Professor Dinh xuan Ba Director of SECOIN Applied Biology Center
Distillation system is an equipment that usually consists of three main parts: vessel, condenser and Clevenger oil trap (see Appendix 1) Feedstock is raw material can be fed in the vessel of a distillation system making essential oil Companion feedstock is a feedstock which accompanies with other feedstocks for a longer or shorter period aiming at predetermined purposes (in scientific terminology the name “companion” is usually utilized, for example: companion plant in agronomy) Agarwood is an aromatic resinous wood naturally or artificially formed in heartwood (or inner parts) of several species of the family Thymelaeaceae Jussieu., the trees of those species are hereinafter called agarwood-producing trees. In the appendix 2 and appendix 3 agarwood is described by black part located in the centre of log section. The contiguous area is hereinafter called transitional zone. Tiny transitional bits are also located in Agarwood (see appendix 3). Agarwood has been considered to be a pathological product by infection, so the white part of this log is referred to as healthy wood. In the black part there are both endogenous secretory cells (glandulars) and resin ducts. Secretory cells may also found in transitional zone, even in healthy wood. Please be noted that in several cases agarwood is not concentrated to heartwood of log but dispersed in inner part of log. Agarwood oil is essential oil obtained in Clevenger oil trap after the condensational process of evaporated volatile aromatic compounds (VACs) S312 and S088 is SECOIN companion feedstock that is utilized in Agarwood oil distillation Intact distillation of agarwood oil: is such a hydrodistillation in which a whole log of agarwood-producing tree is cut, chopped and ground into tiny bits (splinters) which are used as feedstock of this hydrodistillation (see appendix 4). Selective distillation of agarwood oil: is such a hydrodistillation in which only Agarwood pieces selected from the central black part and the remains of transitional zone (including shavings) are chopped and ground into tiny bits (splinters) which are used as feedstock of this hydrodistillation (see appendix 2). 1
The evolvement of chemicals during the process of agarwood formation
During the process of agarwood formation several chemicals to be on the decrease in content even disappeared and a number of chemicals to be on the increase in content even newly appeared. For example, Tamuli P. and his colleagues has discovered this finding in their scientific research (see J. Essent Oil.2006, Res 17, 601-604) when studying essential oils obtained from Aquilaria malaccensis tree. In appendix 3, the decreasing chemicals are written in blue letters and located mainly in healthy wood and transitional zone, the increasing chemicals are written in red letters and located mainly in black part of log (agarwood). In intact distillation of agarwood oil, apart from agarwood oil in liquid form we usually obtain congealed matter that is similar to solid fat (see appendix 4), the reason is a significant quantity of healthy wood and transitional zone located in feedstock, it results so many decreasing chemicals to be composed in finished products of intact distillation. The congealed matter must be removed from finished products of intact distillation and has a very low value in market. Please be noted that a small quantity of congealed is also found in finished products of selective distillation of agarwood oil because in agarwood chip there is also tiny transitional bits, moreover a number of shavings of transitional zone are also located in feedstock of selective distillation.
Features and effects of SECOIN companion feedstocks S312 & S088
Companion feedstock S312 (the same for S088) is a biological additive in distillation, but it is not a common additive in usual meaning because it has consanguineous relationship with all agarwood feedstocks. S312 has special properties and effects on distillation, namely: S312 is material made of the tree whose species belongs to the subfamily Thymelaeoideae. All other agarwood-producing species also belong to this subfamily (see appendix 5). This means that S312 has phylogenetic relation with all other agarwood feedstock, in other words it is a congener with all agarwood-producing species. The chemical composition of essential oil derived from S312 contains compatible and uncompetitive compounds with other agarwood oils. Please pay attention to the existence of big content of 10-epi-gamma-eudesmol (30%) (it is also an increasing chemical stated in appendix 3) and alpha-eudesmol (26%) (see appendix 6). Moreover it also contains compound having dissolving effect. Thanks to this feature, all or a part of congealed matter to be dissolved. Distillation yield of S312 essential oil is about 0.3% (while for other agarwood oil it is 0.05% to 0.1% only), thanks to that yield of finished product is significantly augmented. Density and viscosity of essential oil derived from S312 is higher than the one of other agarwood oils, relying on that density and viscosity of finished agarwood oil to be augmented. The smell of essential oil derived from S312 is faintly aromatic that is not in contrary with other agarwood scent, although it has not particular fragrance of other agarwood oils. The production cost of S312 is very low, it is equal to tenth (1/10) – hundredth (1/100) the price of other agarwood feedstock, thanks to that the production cost of finished agarwood oil is significantly reduced, especially for expensive agarwood feedstock. territories. 2
- The tree species used for making S312 is not available in Vietnam, but abundant in other
Clevenger Oil Trap