ENGLISH IN TECHNICAL ENGINEERING

~

A revised edition

Rocío Aguado Piñero
Carmen Pérez-Llantada Auría

~~~

FICHA CATALOGRÁFICA
AGUADO PIÑERO, Rocío English in technical engineering / Rocío Aguado Piñero ; y Carmen Pérez-Llantada Auría. - Rev. ed. -Zaragoza: Prensas Universitarias, 1994 159 p. ; 24 cm. - (Textos docentes; 26) Índice ISBN 84-7733-420-X 1. Lengua inglesa técnica I. Pérez-Llantada Auría, Carmen 11.Título 111.Serie: Textos docentes (Prensas Universitarias de Zaragoza) ; 26 802.0:62/69(075.8)

No está permitida la reproducción total o parcial de este libro, ni su tratamiento informático, ni la transmisión de ninguna forma o por cualquier medio, ya sea electrónico, mecánico, por fotocopia, por registro u otros métodos, ni su préstamo, alquiler o cualquier forma de cesión de uso del ejemplar, sin el permiso previo y por escrito de los titulares del Copyright.

@ Rocío Aguado Piñero y Carmen Pérez-Llantada Auría @ De la presente edición, Prensas Universitarias de Zaragoza 2.~edición, 1994 1.500 ejemplares Editado por Prensas Universitarias de Zaragoza Edificio de Ciencias Geológicas C/ Pedro Cerbuna, 12 50009 Zaragoza, España Prensas Universitarias de Zaragoza es el sello editorial de la Universidad de Zaragoza, que edita e imprime libros desde su fundación en 1583.
Impreso en España D.L.: Z-3186-94

Prólogo
La ciencia y la tecnología son, por definición, internacionales y por ello requieren un medio de expresión internacional. Éste no es un fenómeno contemporáneo, ya que, durante muchos siglos, esta función vehicular la desempeñó el latín. También el predominio del inglés, como el del latín, se fundamenta históricamente en la hegemonía política y económica de determinados pueblos, pero en la actualidad este idioma es usado sin recelo por la comunidad internacional y constituye un poderoso instrumento de trabajo de utilidad indiscutible. Por otra parte, el uso del inglés en la ciencia y la tecnología ha hecho surgir un gran número de estudios sobre el léxico y las estructuras retóricas de estas variedades que han enriquecido nuestra perspectiva sobre los fenómenos lingüístico s en su conjunto, cuyo estudio forma el núcleo central del quehacer filológico. En este sentido, la filología inglesa ha visto ampliados sus horizontes en una doble vertiente: los profesionales que trabajan en el ámbito del inglés científico y técnico forman en dicho terreno una auténtica avanzadilla de formación humanística y colaboración interdisciplinar, pero, a la vez, aportan al campo filológico una nueva y fascinante dimensión junto con un ejemplar rigor metodológico. Por todo ello, el trabajo de nuestras compañeras Carmen Pérez-Llantada y Rocío Aguado es acogido con gran satisfacción en nuestro Departamento y es un estímulo para nuestra vocación de incardinación plena en las tareas de formación de científicos y técnicos, perfeccionando, al mismo tiempo, nuestra propia formación. Esperamos que la presente reedición de su trabajo sea igualmente fructífera. Zaragoza, septiembre 1994 Carmen Olivares Rivera Susana anega Jaén Catedráticas del Departamento de Filología Inglesa y Alemana Universidad de Zaragoza

Prólogo

9

El idioma inglés ha experimentado en estos últimos tiempos un auge inusitado, debido principalmente al enorme avance tecnológico impulsado desde países de habla anglosajona. Para los estudiantes, su conocimiento es un paso importante para su formación. Los intercambios con centros extranjeros, a través de programas propiciados por la CEE., son frecuentes y cada vez más numerosos. Así lo han entendido Rocío Aguado y Carmen Pérez-Llantada, nuestras profesoras de inglés de la Escuela Universitaria de Ingeniería Técnica Industrial, que, con una encomiable dedicación y un trabajo riguroso y concienzudo, han conseguido realizar su ilusión de dotar a sus alumnos de una herramienta de trabajo sugestiva y eficaz. Lejos de ser un clásico libro de texto, nos encontramos ante un moderno enfoque de la enseñanza del inglés técnico, lo que hará que tanto sus alumnos 'como todos aquellos lectores interesados por el tema, adquieran con rapidez los conocimientos necesarios para poder desenvolverse a nivel internacional. La edición del presente libro no es ajena, ni puede ser, al quehacer diario de nuestras profesoras. Su labor en alza, su dedicación a la noble tarea de la docencia y su sentido de la responsabilidad les han llevado a concretar sus lecciones en letra impresa. Su segunda edición, revisada y actualizada con textos específicos, es prueba fehaciente de la necesidad de dotar a los estudiantes de conocimientos especializados en esta lengua extranjera. Formar ingenieros técnicos es misión de la Escuela. Estamos satisfechos porque una parcela de esta formación, la que imparten las profesoras Carmen y Rocío, está perfectamente cubierta. Este libro es una buena prueba de ello. Zaragoza, a 8 de septiembre de 1994 Jesús Madre Casorrán Director de la E.U.I.T.I.

Unit 1. The general-specific structure
La estructura general-particular
De la frase al párrafo
A la hora de transmitir información técnica, ésta debe desarrollarse de manera lógica y ordenada. Por regla general, la organización de los contenidos en inglés técnico sigue un orden expositivo muy preciso. Así, el encadenamiento de varias frases -unidades básicas para transmitir información- forma una estructura mayor llamada párrafo. Un párrafo consta de una idea principal (<<topic sentence»), una serie de ideas subordinadas que expanden o clarifican la idea principal (<<supportingsentence(s)>», y una idea conclusiva que cierra el párrafo (<<concludingsentence»). El siguiente párrafo se estructura en estos tres apartados citados: (1) topic sentence, (2) supporting sentence(s), and (3) concluding sentence:
(1) A laser is defined as a device that generates and amplifies light of a single wavelength. (2) It creates a uniform, focusable light beam that can be concentrated and directed with great precision. The intensity of this beam can be varied by electrical modulation of the laser power supply and/or the use ofthe laser system's focusing opties. (3) Therefore, a laser can be perfectly maneuvered through complex configurations and patterns, and it can be focused into virtually inaccessible places.

Exercise 1 Write a short paragraph with one of the topies given below: 1. the use of nuclear energy 2. the impact of information technology 3. research and development in modern industry 4. environmental technologies Topic sentence ,............................................................

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English in Technical Engineering

Supporting sentence( s) ....................................................................................................... ............................................................................................................................................... Concluding sentence ........................................................................................................... ...............................................................................................................................................

La estructura general-particular
Un modo de organizar las ideas de un texto de forma ordenada es mediante el encadenamiento de varios párrafos que vayan de lo general a lo particular. Así pues, un texto puede componerse simplemente de un párrafo introductorio con información general (<<topicparagraph»), un párrafo o párrafos secundarios en los que se expande o detalla dicha información (<<supporting paragraph(s)>», y una conclusión (<<concludingparagraph»). Siguiendo esta estructura de lo general a lo específico la información queda ordenada en bloques lógicos, y el texto es por tanto coherente en cuanto a la . exposición de contenidos se refiere. La estructura general-específica o generalparticular se considera como una de las formas de desarrollo expositivo que más se emplean en inglés técnico a la hora de escribir artículos, ponencias, informes, etc.
Exercise 2 Read the following introductory paragraph and write a supporting and a conc1uding paragraph to develop a complete text. SOLAR ENERGY AND BUILDING An important characteristic of building s is that their surface areas are necessarily large, and so, by appropriate design, solar energy can be captured without need of additional separate land for energy collection. Supporting paragraph ......................................................................................................... ...............................................................................................................................................

..............................................................................................................................................

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14
English in Technical Engineering

Grarnrnar Review Patterns of cohesion
A written text does not on1y have to be coherent as far as the deve10pment of ideas is concerned. It must also seek for cohesion by making use of some grammatical devices for joining sentences and paragraphs together. In order to put ideas together into paragraphs, and to join paragraphs to form whole texts, several relationships can be established among sentences and paragraphs respectively. These relations are signalled by linguistic devices called cohesive linkers or markers (either connectors or subordinators), which make these logical connections explicit to readers. Here are some interpropositional relations so as to make cohesive paragraphs and texts: 1. Comparison or similarity
similarly, equally, similar to, like, in the same way, likewise, the same as, the same, in / by comparison with, by the same token, etc.

2. Contrast or difference
unlike, whereas, while, on the contrary, by contrast, on the one hand ... on the other hand, but, however, nevertheless, though, although, even though, despite, in spite of, etc.

3. Exemplification
for instance, for example, to put an example, such as, such, like, etc.

4. Alternative
either oo.or, rather than, on the other hand, otherwise, or else, etc.

5. Addition, reinforcement,

clarification

besides, in addition, moreover, not only... but also, that is, that is to say, in other words, etc.

The general-specific

structure

15

6. Exceptions
except for, but for, apart from, in contrast to, etc.

7. Temporal relationship (chronological order, listing, cataloguing, etc.)
first, second, then, finally, after, before, while, as, until, etc.

8. Deduction or result
so, thus, therefore, thereby, consequently, as a consequence (of), as a result (of), etc.

9. Finality
to + inf., for + gerund, in order to + inf., in order that, so as to + inf., so that, etc.

10. Means
by means of, by this means, by + gerund, with, with the help of, etc.

11. Transition (introducing new subjects)
as far as X is concemed, as for, with reference to, regarding, etc.

12. Summing up ideas
to sum up, in summary, in short, briefly, etc.

13. Reason
because, because of, as, since, due to, etc.

14. Condition
if, unless, on condition that, provided that, whether, etc.

...........

,...

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Exercise 3

English in Technical Engineering

Identify the type of relationship established in each of the following sentences. l. Both oxygen and hydrogen are useful gases. 2. Safety conditions are required in the workshop; otherwise, there may be serious accidents. 3. Steel, like cobalt, is a ferro-magnetic material. 4. The traffic density in the town is very high during peak hours. On the other hand, it is very low at midday and during the night. 5. The two methods are identical in results, but the first one involves less procedures than the second one. 6. By heating water, you obtain steam. 7. Steel has iron, therefore it is a ferrous alloy. 8. Except for ice, all solids expand when they liquefy. 9. Complicated procedures are needed in order to achieve the desired results. 10. Oxygen is an element, that is to say, it has only one type of atom.

Exercise 4 Fill in the gaps with the appropriate connector. l. The beaker fell down the floor. , it did not break. 2. Sometimes, the electrical current may exceed the safety time of a circuito the fuse will blow and the power will be disconnected. 3. Many modern appliances, dishwashers and washing machines, consume a lot of electricity. 4. The tap on the left controls the hot water flow. the tap on the right controls the cold water flow. 5. The new electronic system is not very effective. , it is rather expensive. 6. This lathe does not work properly, they are going to buy a new one. 7. The bearings are lubricated the engine could mn properly. 8. Lathes produce cylindrical items shafts and metal cylinders. 9. coal, gas and oil are the most important natural sources. 10. to the experiment, scientists did not mention any new advances.

The general-specific

structure

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Exercise 5 Fill in the blanks with the words given below. therefore

- because - by - contrast - as - moreover - case - to convert - when identical - i.e.

In the field of engineering the primary objective of an energy accounting study generally is to evaluate the efficiency of an energy transformation process that is used (1) one form of potential energy into another form of potential energy. In this (2) , the output ofthe productive process being analysed is intended to be used as a fuel input to drive another productive process. (3) , the heat equivalent method is the most useful energy accounting concept because expressing both the input and output in terms of their respective ability to perform work (4) burned makes it easy to determine how much potential energy is degraded (5L the energy transformation process. (6) , the heat equivalent value of the output is used (7) a fuel input to another productive process. In (8) , the field of biology is concerned primarily with analyzing natural systems. In this case, biomass ((9) , various forrns of sugars) is the primary input and output material circulating through the productive subsystems. (10) energetically all sugars are essentially (ll) and because the heat equivalent method avoids complex double-counting problems, most biologists prefer it over the energy-expended method.

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English in Technical Engineering

Developing Skills
Activity 1
Read the text and answer the following sections.

A LOOK AT LASERS Carbon dioxide lasers are used for cutting, welding, drilling, treating surfaces, cladding, and forming. These [asers offer substantial advantages over conventional techniques: they are not subject to wear and tear; they function rapidly and precisely; and they can easily be controlled by a computer. A 600-watt laser with a beam of light the width of a pinhead produces over a million watts per cm2, which is enough power to vaporize metal. By the same token, lasers make it possible to easily join dissimilar metals, and to selectively harden surface areas by fusing a thin layer of a granular alloy with a softer metal base. For instance, a 5000-watt laser is used by one manufacturer to fuse a cobalt alloy on jet engine turbine blades in order to produce a high hardness wear surface. Lasers are also ideal for cutting a wide range of non-metal materials. Because the precise heat input of a laser beam actually enhances cut edge quality, lasers can create fire polished finishes in acrylics, plastics and glass. Laser beams can seal the edges of cloth, carpet, and fiberglass; and they are able to contour cut virtually any pattern at a speed of up to 1 meter per second. Similarly, the ceramic substrates used in the electronics industry benefit from laser cutting. Because these items are extremely brittle, handling efficiency is maximized by the non-contact cutting and scribing capabilities of a O.15mm diameter laser beam, which vaporizes the fired alumina and eliminates the stress cracking resultant from conventional diamond wheel processes. By varying power density and feed rates, vaporization depth can be precisely controlled, thereby making it possible to engrave intricate artwork and lettering on wood, paper, and even leather, with absolute repeatable results.

The general-specific

structure

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Section 1. Answer the following questions.

1. What are the applications of carbon dioxide lasers?

2. Why are lasers gaining increasing significance in production engineering?

3. Why are lasers also suitable for cutting non-metal materials?

4. Why does electronics industry also use lasers?

5. What is the result of the control of vaporization?

Section 2. Define the following terms according to their meaning in context. l. advantages: 2. to enhance: 3. pattern: 4. brittle: 5. intricate:

Section 3. Say what the words underlined in the text refer to. 1. «These lasers» (paragraph 1): 2. «which» (paragraph 2):

-1

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20

English in Technical Engineering

3. «they»(paragraph 3): 4. «these items» (paragraph 4): 5. «which» (paragraph 4):

Section 4. Make a short summary of the text using your own words.

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Unit 2. The problem-solution pattern
La estructura problema-solución
Todo texto técnico puede desarrollarse mediante una estructura expositiva en la que se plantean unos problemas y se ofrecen unas soluciones a dichos problemas. Así, encontraremos numerosos textos técnicos relativos a la definición de un problema, su solución y la evaluación de la solución concerniente a dicho problema. Dentro de la estructura organizativa de un texto, se distinguen cuatro elementos principales: situación, problema, solución y evaluación. Situación, problema, solución y evaluación son, por tanto, los cuatro apartados principales de información dentro del texto. Todos ellos están estrechamente relacionados entre sí: problema y solución, la situación que localiza el problema y una evaluación que juzga los efectos de la solución adoptada.

Situación
Se refiere al estado general de la cuestión. Es una idea o ideas introductorias que ayudan al lector a localizar el problema que a continuación se va a plantear. Algunas veces, la introducción se omite, bien porque no es relevante, bien porque se quiere dar mayor énfasis al problema per se, así como a su solución. En un texto, la situación se localiza con preguntas como: cuál es la situación, dónde han ocurrido los hechos, cuáles son las circunstancias previas, etc.

Problema
El problema surge por una deficiencia, un efecto secundario, o una consecuencia de algo. Se puede encontrar en forma de problema técnico, científico o matemático, por insatisfacción ante algo que no resulta favorable o satisfactorio, ante alguna situación adversa o negativa, por requisitos formales, problemas por necesidad de obtener algo, etc. El problema responde, pues, a un aspecto de la situación que requiere una respuesta, a un por qué en general.

....

.,.........

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English in Technical Engineering

Solución
La solución proporciona la respuesta al problema que inicialmente se había planteado. A veces lleva implícita la situación y el problema, hecho que ocurre con relativa frecuencia en textos publicitarios en los que solamente se hace referencia a una solución a problemas previos, o dicho a la inversa, cómo un problema ha sido solventado.

Evaluación
La evaluación es un juicio valorativo, ya sea positivo o negativo, de la solución adoptada, con respecto a su capacidad de superar el problema, su importancia, su claridad (en un informe, análisis... ), su eficiencia (en un motor, un método... ), su efectividad (de una teoría, hipótesis... ), etc. Dentro de la evaluación podemos encontrar una referencia a la base («basis») de la misma, es decir, los fundamentos que se han tenido en cuenta a' . la hora de adoptar una solución, y la valoración (<<assessment»),que es el juicio favorable o desfavorable del resultado de la solución que se ha tomado. Leamos el texto siguiente para identificar de modo práctico los distintos elementos del llamado «problem-solution pattern»:
Plastic plating offers new approach to EMI shielding
New European guidelines on electromagnetic shielding,due to become legislation in the nearfuture, are driving a searchfor costeffective ways of meeting tighter standards in the shielding of enclosures for electronic equipment. Until nowthe availablemethods of achieving these standards have included conductive paint, spraying of metal arc particles or the application of foil. Al! of these systems currently require either intensive capital investment or are highly labour intensive. A technology pioneered in the sixties and perfected in the seventies is now set to change al! this in certain sectors of the computer and data communication industries.
The technique involves plastic plating, a process in which a plastic, in most cases the butadene in ABS or Bayblend, is etched to create pockets in the surface. An electroless Palladium coat is applied to this, followed by a coat of electroless Nickel. The component is then, to all intents and purposes. a conductive metal component able to be electro-plated in a conventional electroplating bath with copper. The tenacity of bond of the plated surface to the substrate is claimed to be similar to that of metal plate to metal. The metal coating can then be flashed with chrome for aesthetics, or left as a copper or nickel coating. This absorbs EM radiation and converts it to electrical eddy current.

The problem-solution

pattern

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Plaslic plaling offers new approach lo EMI shielding (Eureka on Campus, Spring 1991, p. 5)

Exercise 1 Read the following extract and identify situation, problem, solution and evaluation.

HEAT ENGINES Although steam can be readily generated by focused solar heat, small steam engines of IkW and less are very inefficient. A hot air engine operated with focused sunlight was proposed by Ericsson nearly a century ago. Stirling hot-air engines operated by solar energy are being planned for space use. An improvement is being studied by Finkelstein, Utz, and Braun in which the solar energy is focused directly into the interior of the engine chamber through a transparent window, thereby eliminating one ofthe chief difficulties in getting sufficient heat transfer through the opaque engine head and its accompanying air films. Small hot-air engines appear to be capable of higher efficiencies than small engines and they are simpler to operate. Still greater improvements in heat engines might be made if a radiation absorbing gas similar to iodine can be used instead of air. (Sun World, 1991, vol. 15, no. 4, p. 21)

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Exercise 2 Reorder the paragraphs to make a whole texto a. The development of some form of continuous beam monitoring system would aid in the rapid identification of machine malfunctions and, in time, allow a reduction in the amount of post weld inspection required, while maintaining product integrity, RollsRoyce is, therefore, actively looking at ways in which this can be achieved. b. The best solution is to use some means of measuring the power density of the beam at the joint surface. This can be done with existing equipment on a sampling basis by passing probes thraugh the beam, or by traversing the beam across a slit in a plate, but at present this cannot be done continuously. c. Any test piece system will suffer the same deficiency. Some form of continuous monitoring of machine performance is therefore needed. Monitoring of the output fram the console instrumentation is relatively easy, but due to the indirect nature of the signals is not too significant. English in Technical Engineering

The problem-solution pattern

25

Grarnrnar Review
Lexical signalling of the problem-solution pattern
Lexical signalling is used both by writers and readers to respectively organize and understand a text in a correct way. It normally appears together with grammatical signalling (that is, the so called cohesive markers or linkers). These are some examples of lexical signalling which often characterize each of the four different elements of the problem-solution pattem: (a) Situation: words like «fact», «observation», «c1assification», «quantitative ideas», etc., signal or refer to the aspect of the situation which requires a solution. In other words, they introduce a frame of reference to the problem which is going to be solved. (b) Problem: «problem», «unfortunately», «errors», «difficulties», «disadvantageous», «source of error», «introduction of something negative», etc., are words which signal what and how negative the problem is. (c) Solution: «to solve», «to overcome», «to come up with», «to / in order to / so as to + inf.», etc., may help to identify the solution to the problem referred to before. (d) Evaluation: it is signalled with words such as «to eliminate», «to improve», «to increase», «to provide», «safety», «improvement», «very convenient», «to assure», etc. If the evaluation or judgement is positive, words such as «successful», «qualified», «of high accuracy», etc., are commonly used. If, on the contrary, it is a negative evaluation, we may find terms such as «some margin of error», «quite unreliable», «unavailable», «still», etc.

...J......

,...

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Exercise 3

English in Technical Engineering

Identify the different elements of the problem-solution pattern. Say how they are signalled.

PARTICLECOUNTER
offers multiple sensor counting
The Model 8000 is an 8channel digital counter utilizing state-of-the-art electronics for processing and displaying of operator-selected formats. It is capable of controlling from one to four sensors simultaneousJy in any combination of aerosol and liquid configurations. Temperature, relative humidity, air velocity and differential pressure transducers can also be connected for a complete
FASTINFO: ENTER tl'1

environmental reporting system. The counter is completely menu-driven, providing keyboard entry for calibrationlvoltage settings.

HIAC/ROYCO. 2431 Linden Lane, Silver Spring, MD 20910, USA, Te!. (301)4957000

1339 ON READER CARD

(LPI March / April1990, p. 13)

Exercise 4 With the following information, write a text with a problem-solution structure. Situation: Problem: old machinery used in an industry frequent accidents, regular breakdowns considerable energy consumption cost effective maintenance purchase of new machinery less electricity consumption better safety conditions at work increase in production

Solution: Evaluation:

SITUATION ........................................................................................................................ ............................................................................................................................................... ...............................................................................................................................................

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N O I.LO'1 OS

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English in Technical Engineering

Developing
Activity 1

Skills

Read the text and identify the different elements of the problem-solution pattern. Explain how each of them is signalled.
From Ouy our BelgiOl1.coJTespondenl: Wambacq

Bulk handling of fruit and vegetables has traditionatIy been quite labour intensive. To produce uniform packages of apples or tomatoes, for instance, requires a complicated sorting procedure which ensures that sizes of individual pieces of fruit or vegetables are similar, so that a standard weight is achieved when they are packed together. Gradually, mechanisation and automation is máking its mark in the industry, though, and many new techniques are being introduced to cope with the extra demands brought about by increasing populations. There is also a new awareness in the general public that a healthy diet is one which is supplemented with fresh prQduce.
G. van Asch Electronics of SI. Katelijne Waver and N.V. Agra Sorteertechniek of Nieuwerkerken in Belgium are companies who are in Ihe forefronl of Ihe move towards Ihe use of new technologies in me handling of fruit and vegetables, and have recently introduced a new weighing device into their range of equipmenl. THE WEIGHlNG SYSTEM OPERATES ON THE BALANCE PRINCIPLE, AND QUICK, VERY ACCURATE RESPONSE IS REQUIRED

MOREACCURATE NOINTERFACEABlE A TIte company recendy consulted HoneyweU lo develop a new weighing system which would be more accurate and easily interfaceable with their computer contr01led system than that which ¡hey had previously used. The weighing system operates on the balance principie. and quick. very accurate response is required. as weU as the ability to be quickly reranged for new weight parameters. The solutiol1 for rhe application was provided by an SS94 Linear Hall effect transducer. The sensor is used in the balance 10 ¡¡ive an output as soon as Ihe presel wei¡¡hl is reached within a cerlain range. A smaU ma¡¡netic strip (see figure 1) is attached to ¡he balance arm, and rhis moves up and down under ¡he weight of pl'Oduce. the distance berween ¡he magnelic strip and Ihe sensor producing a proponional signal. .

Pigurd. /. Almllro,. 2. UDs 3. Bolance /. Se"sol' 5. MO~lIer6. Srifflles.r(,olllm/ TIte output signal is ampiified and used to drive 20 LEDs in a monitor which is attached lO the frame of the balance. 10 of Ihe LEDs (greeo) indicate various underweights; the olher 10 (red) indicate overweighl. TIte amplification of the output signal can be adjusled to sel the required weight pal'amereJ's for any type of produce.

The company's spedalisation is in mechanical or compuleJ' control syslems for automatic conveyors and sorting machines. TIte produce can be fed through Ihe syslems at a variety of speeds which will give 60 lo 200 compleled packs per minute on each conveyor, with a weighl capadty of 800kg per hour. Systems can be suppiied with 2,3,4,6,8. or 10 conveyors, and peripheral equipment for various sizes of container. ineluding filling machinery can be suppiied.

THE SENSOR IS USED IN THE BALANCE TO GIVE AN OUTPUT AS SOON AS THE PRESET \VEIGHT IS REACHED

WITHINA CERTAINRANGE

The problem-solution pattern

29

Sening up is simple. Suppose. for inslance Ihal a prederermined weighr of IOkg +/- 20 grams is required. A calibrated weighl of IOkg is placed on the scale. and ¡he balance stiffness is adjusted so rhat no LEO is lit. A funher ealibrated weighl of 20 grams is added lo Ihe seale, and Ihe sensor ourpul signal amplification is adjusred until al1 10 red LEO. are lit. Thereafter. al1 packages which do not cause al1 10 LEOs on either side of ¡he monitor,1O lighr up can be aeeepled and passed on'lhrough Ihe handling s)'stem. The sensor is very ea.y lo build in 10 sueh a system. is rugged and sensirive. and eXlremel)' reliable because il has no moving pans. The customer is ver)' impre"ed with Ihe results to date fmm his new S)'Slem. tmd is currentl)' evalualing Ihe possibiliry of applying a Honeywel1 colour sensor al Ihe inlake end of Ihe s¡,slem to appl)' quality control of produce inlenns of cipeness of produce based on its colour. VVewill be happy lo repon on Jevelopments in this application in a

future issue of OUTLINE..

'

Figure 2 The new balance system from G. van Asch Electronics, The linear Hall effect transducer provided new accuracy and interfaceability.

(Out/ine, vol.

3, n.' 3, pp. 16-17)

Activity 2 Write a short surnrnary of the text with your own words (5 lines). Then, write your personal opinion or cornrnent about the text (5 lines). ............................................................................................................................................... ............................................................................................................................................... ............................................................................................................................................... ............................................................................................................................................... ...............................................................................................................................................

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Unit 3. Vocabulary in technical English
Vocabulario en inglés técnico
Vocabulario técnico específico
LLamado en inglés «technical vocabulary». Son palabras que se utilizan únicamente en inglés técnico. Este tipo de vocabulario se caracteriza por su alto contenido léxico; dicho de otro modo, por su gran valor informativo. Sin embargo, su valor indicativo -esto es, en cuanto a importancia gramatical se refiere- es muy reducido.
Ejemplos: «sprocket» (piñón), «welding» (soldadura autógena), «capacitor» (condensador), «swarf» (desbastado), «oxygen» (oxígeno), «voltage» (voltaje), «girder» (viga), «flange» (brida, saliente), «diode» (diodo), «cathode» (cátodo), «electrode» (electrodo), «derricking» (movimiento vertical de la grúa), etc.

Dentro de este grupo cabría señalar que hay algunos términos que cambian su significado técnico según la rama técnica específica en la que se utilicen. Por ejemplo, la palabra «jib» significa «brazo de grúa» en ingeniería de construcción, y «foque» (o tipo de vela de un barco) en lenguaje marítimo.

Vocabulario general
En este segundo grupo vamos a distinguir dos grupos o apartados distintos. Al primero le llamaremos vocabulario sub-técnico y, al segundo, vocabulario procedimental. Se llama vocabulario sub-técnico (<<sub-technicalvocabulary») al vocabulario de inglés general (General English) que también se utiliza en inglés técnico (Technical English), pero con un significado distinto. Estos son algunos ejemplos:
«vice»: vicio, corrupción (G.E.); tornillo de banco (T.E.) «journal»: (G.E.: periódico (G.E.); cojinete (T.E.)

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«spring»: primavera, manantial (G.E.); muelle (T.E.) «conductor»: director de orquesta, cobrador de autobús o tranvía

(G.E.); conductor,en física y en electricidad (T.E)

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«sleeve»: manga (G.E.); manguito de aislamiento, camisa incandescente (T.E.) «nut»: avellana, loco (G.E.); tuerca (T.E.) etc.

El vocabulario procedimental (<<proceduralvocabulary») incluye todas aquellas palabras de inglés general que se utilizan en los textos técnicos a la hora de explicar conceptos y procesos específicos. Este tipo de vocabulario tiene un elevado grado de indexicalidad, es decir, un gran valor indicativo gramaticalmente hablando. Por el contrario, su valor léxico o informativo es muy escaso.
Ejemplos: «machine», «device», «instrument», «process», etc. «apparatus», «system»,

En este apartado hay que incluir también los artículos, las preposiciones, los verbos generales, las expresiones locativas, etc., en general, todas aquellas palabras que se emplean para señalar funciones comunicativas específicas (descripción, definición, clasificación, .oo).Se caracterizan por tener una lexicalidad mínima y la máxima indexicalidad; no obstante, son imprescindibles para poder elaborar un texto técnico completo.
Ejemplos:
«the», «ajan», «to take», «to consider», «to comprise», «to be composed of», «to be used fon>, «to c1assify», «at the side of oo.», «at the bottom», «at the top», etc.

Vocabulary in technical English Exercise 1

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Read the following extracts and identify the type of vocabulary which is used in each text. Then, write a short summary about one of them. THE STATUE OF LIBERTY For one century, this grand lady with arm outstretched and torch heId high has we1comed millions of foreigners coming to seek freedom and opportunity in America. An extravagant gift from France to a young America, the newly-repaired copper-c1ad statue on Liberty Island is 151 feet high (the index finger alone is 8 feet long). Located in the Statue 's massive base are two fascinating displays, the American Immigration exhibit and the Statue of Libertyexhibit. Statue of Liberty Ferry boats ply from Battery Park at the lower tip of Manhattan to Liberty Island. The trip to the island takes 15 minutes. Round trip fares are $6 for adults, $3 for children 3-16 years old, and free for children under 3 years old. The fare inc1udes the option to visit Ellis Island, which is located nearby. Boats leave seven days a week every half hour 9a.m.- 3p.m. and the statue remains open until 5p.m., when the last boat returns.

REDUNDANT«WATCHDOGS»

GUARDSAGAINST

FALSE SIGNALS

The scanner ensures personal protection with completely free access to a machine. Time in loading, checking, and setting-up can be saved because there is no requirement for a door or cover on the machine. After exiting the protected area, restart of a machine is only possible by activating a command device, such as a manual switch. The scanner forms a grille of parallel infra-red light beams, each of which is activated consecutively on the multiplex principIe. The repetition frequency is 4,8kHz. A signal from receiver to emitter ensures crystal-precision synchronisation, and constitutes an active component of the protective grille. As soon as the last emitterf receiver pair is activated, the receiver sends a synchronisation signal

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and the cycle begins again. Every signal received by the receiver, as well as that simultaneously sent by the quartz oscillator is monitored by a redundant «Watchdog». This patented dynamic Watchdog detects any initial signal fault or time lapse in an incoming signal.

Exercise 2 Classify the following words according to the different types of vocabulary explained above. dynamo carbon dioxide system feed speed circuit piece diode design joumal centrifugal process bore

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Grammar

Review

Word formation with suffixes
There is a great number of adjectives commonly used in the field of technical English which are formed by means of suffixes. These adjectives come from a verb (from which they take their root) and a suffix (which specifies the meaning of the verb root). Some of the most important suffixes to form adjectives from verbs in English are -ABLE, -IBLE, -UBLE (indicating possibility), -ED (indicating passive voice), and -ING (indicating active voice). Here are some examples:
To fission > fissionable
To control> controllable

= that can be separated, fissionated. = that can be controlled.

To heat > a heated metal = a metal which has b.een heated. To require > required characteristics = characteristics which are required. To work > the working volume = the volume of something when working. To burn > the burning fuel = the fuel which is burning.

Other common suffixes in English are -IVE, -ORY, and -ENT (-ANT) for adjectives, and -ION, -ENCE for nouns. For example:
To rotate > rotation > rotatory To gravitate > gravitation > gravitatory To consist > consistence > consistant To differ > difference > different To absorb > absorption > absorbent

Apart from verb derivation some other adjectives are formed by suffixation from a noun. In this case, the commonest suffixes are -AL, -AR, -IC, and OUS, among others. Most of these adjectives come from Latin or Greek words, and are widely used in specialised languages such as those of Science and Technology. Here are some examples:
technique > technical perception > perceptual nucleus > nuclear hydro > hydraulic gas> gaseous

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Exercise 3

English in Technical Engineering

Give the noun and adjective forms of the verbs below. 1. to expand 2. to react 3. to conduct 4. to converge 5. to absorb 6. to depend 7. to compress 8. to corrode 9. to instruct 10. to relate

Exercise 4 Give the no un form of the following adjectives. 1. resinous 7. synchronous 2. automatic 3. global 4. scientific 5. fibrous 6. solar 8. circular 9. essential 10. experimental 11. structural 12. dangerous

Exercise 5 Complete these sentences with the correct adjective formo 1. The exploitation of all (to regenerate) forms of energy depends on siting. 2. We should contribute to sol ve future (globe) energy and (environment) problems. 3. Technology will be able to reduce (to specify) costs. 4. Light is absorbed by semiconductor material to generate pairs of (to activate) (to charge) particles. 5. The ratio of maximum (to extract) electricity is the most important (physics) parameter for characterizing a solar cell. 6. The prime objective was to secure (to suffice) electricity (to generate) capacity. 7. They developed a (to measure) system to assess product quality.

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8. To protect the (to sense) substrates, a low temperature should be maintained. 9. (to operate) conditions can be displayed on the screen. 10. To treat non- (to recycle) residues, a (thermos) waste (to recycle) plant has been designed.

Word formation with prefixes
As said before, many technical words come from Latin, Greek or French. Some technical vocabulary is made up of prefixes which are added to a Latin, Greek or French root. Each prefix has its own specific meaning. Most of them are applicable to verbs, although some of them are also used with nouns and adjectives. Some common prefixes which are widely used in technical English are the following: COUNTER- (against, opposite) DE- (cause not) DIS- (separate, do the opposite) IN-, 1M-, IR-, UN- (not) IN- (within, internal) INTER- (between, among) OUT- (external) OVER- (excess) RE- (again) SUB- (beneath, less than) SUPER- (above, more than) UNDER- (too little, below)
Examples: disconnect, disassemble, dehumidify, impure, impossible, irregular, ineffective, incompatible, unefficient, unnecessary, unavailable, inside, infiltrate, input, inlet, outside, output, outlet, outf1ow, superheat, superactive, subtechnical, substratum, subatomic, interconnect, intermediate, intermittent, reheat, regenerate, reinforce, remove, counterbalance, counterweigh, counteract, overload, overwork, overheat, underweight, undersize, underrate, underline, etc.

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Exercise 6 Define the following words according to what their prefixes mean. 1. interface: 2. regenerate: 3. underground: 4. discharge: 5. supersonic: 6. demagnetize: 7. infiltrate: 8. unefficient: 9. subdivide: 10. reinforce: English in Technical Engineering

Exercise 7 Give the opposite of these words by using prefixes. stable inlet solvable avoidable certain elastic similar possible connect perceptible limited attainable accurate overload reversible

Noun compounds
Nouns are not only modified by adjectives. Sometimes, and especially in scientific and technical registers, they can also be modified by other nouns. This is the so called noun compound formation. Rere are some examples:
heat transfer = the transfer of heat from one place to another. steel bar =a bar made of steel. petrol engine = a car engine which uses petrol to run.

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Sometimes, the nouns forming a compound are joined by means of a hyphen. The hyphen signals which words come together, and it is mainly used in instances when the interpretation of the compound is ambiguous; for example, a «smallcar factory» is a factory which makes small cars, whereas a «'small car-factory» is a factory of cars which is small. Here are some more examples of hyphenated compounds:
ozone-Iayer chemistry a one-kilowatt power amplifier the space-time continuum thin-film metal-base transistors

The kind of relationship established between the modifying noun(s) and the main noun falls within the following types: 1. properties e.g. a long-wire antenna is an antena which consists of a long wire. 2. material e.g. a copper wire is a wire which is made of copper. 3. operation e.g. a petrol engine is an engine which works with petrol. 4. purpose: e.g. an air-conditioningsystem is a system used to cool the air in a space. 5. location e.g. flue gases are gases coming through the flue of a furnace. 6. time e.g. day shift is a ashift which takes place every twenty-fourhours. 7. shape or form e.g. a ball-pein hammeris a hammer whose point has the shape of a ball. 8. inventor, user e.g. Carnot cyc1eis a cyc1edevised by Carnot.

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Exercise 8 Classify the following noun compounds according to the different types of relationship lissted above. Then, define the compound according to such classification. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. condensation loss metal bar butt weld carbon dioxide Bunsen burner air compres sor dock crane needle-nose pliers furnace lining computer industry English in Technical Engineering

Exercise 9 Replace each of the sentences below by a noun-compound. Use a hyphen when needed. 1. centers for the control of traffic in the air: 2. a battery which has cells of twelve volts: 3. an alloy which contains nickel and iron: 4. a pump which is driven by means of gears: 5. a notch with the shape of a V: Exercise 10 Explain the following noun compounds. 1. infrared radiation detector: 2. turbo-prop engine: 3. a two-stroke engine cycle: 4. power transmission problems: 5. air-core inductors:

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Developing Skills
Activity 1
Read the text and answer the following sections.

ON THE HORIZON: SOLAR THERMAL POWER PLANTS In California a breakthrough has taken place in the field of concentrating solar thermal systems with trough collectors (solar farm principIe). A major reason for this is that such projects have the backing of locallegislation. California already has an installed capacity of 360 MW, and it has been possible to increase output to 80 MW per unit. Present R & D activities are focusing on replacing the thermo-oil, which is currently used as a heat transfer medium, with water that is evaporated and superheated under pressure in the focal line of the trough collectors. Success with this project promises better steam qualities, and the added attraction that it would no longer be necessary to use environmentally hazardous thermo-oil. It is likely that realization of this new principIe will bring with it considerable cost reductions, thus paving the way for economic feasibility. This latter condition is essential if the technology is to expand to other countries in the Earth's sun belt. The tower concept is also a focusing system. Solar tower power plants have a receiver mounted at the tower top onto which the reflected sunshine from a large area is concentrated by sun-tracking mirrors. In commercial terms, solar tower power plants have not

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yet come of age. The next few years will show whether it will be possible to develop a concept with sufficient technical and economic sophistication to replace conventional power plants or solar farms in sunbelt countries. (Siemens Review, Fall1991 p. 23)

Section A. Answer the following questions according to the texto 1. What does the text deal with?

2. What is exactly the «breakthrough» the text refers to?

3. What are the main advantages of this system?

4. What do solar tower power plants consist of?

5. What are the future prospects of this system?

Section B. Underline those noun compounds that appear in the texto

Section C. Identify both suffix and prefix word formation in the tex;tand explain their meaning.

Unit 4. Definition in technical English
La definición
En inglés técnico escrito las definiciones suelen ser breves, sencillas y, sobre todo, muy precisas. Fácilmente se encuentran definiciones cuando se presentan nuevos conceptos, ideas, tecnologías, métodos, instrumentos, dispositivos, etc. En otras palabras, siempre que se quiera especificar o detallar un concepto, objeto, etc., sobre el que posteriormente se va a hablar, se define dicho concepto u objeto con el fin de que el lector sepa exactamente a 10que se refiere el escritor. Las definiciones simples son aquellas que comprenden, por 10 general, solamente una frase. Cuando una definición simple se amplía, abarcando así uno o varios párrafos, hablaremos entonces de definición compleja. La definición simple, o «simple definition», se divide en tres tipos: formal, semi-formal y no formal, (<<formal», «semi-formal» y «non-formal definition»), de acuerdo con la amplitud de información que se proporciona y el grado de precisión de la misma.

Definición formal
La definición formal nos da la información más amplia y más precisa. Por el contrario, la definición semi-formal omite algún elemento importante, y la no formal es menos precisa que las anteriores, pues proporciona menos información. El esquema de una definición formal es el siguiente:
Term (T)

= Class

(C) + Differences

(D)

El término (T) se define mediante la clase (C) o el grupo al que pertenece y las características (D) que 10asemejan y 10distinguen de los otros miembros de su clase. Veamos la estructura de las siguientes definiciones:
An anemometer (T) is a meteorological instrument (C) used to measure the speed of the wind (D).

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A beaker (T) is an open glass vessel (C) which is used for chemical experiments (D). A clamp (T) is an appliance (C) for holding things together tightly by means of a screw (D).

La definición formal puede contener información de diversa índole, generalmente física (1), o bien se refiere a la función o finalidad del objeto descrito (2), tal y como aparece en los ejemplos siguientes:
(1) A triangle is a shape with three sides. (2) A thermometer is a device that registers the temperature of the atmosphere.

Definición

semi-formal

La definición semi-formal contiene sólamente dos de los tres elementos que componen la definición formal: el término a definir (T) y las características diferenciales del mismo (D). La clase (C) a la que pertenece el término se omite, ya porque es obvia, ya porque ésta es demasiado extensa. Por ejemplo, toda palabra con la terminación «-logy» indica de por si que es una ciencia; palabras como «device», o «instrument» se utilizan para definir un gran número de objetos pertenecientes a un grupo muy general, y por tanto, no nos proporcionarían ninguna información relevante. Al igual que la definición formal, la definición semi-formal normalmente suele contener información descriptiva física del objeto (1), o información sobre su función o finalidad (2). Por ejemplo:
(1) A triangle has three sides. (2) A thermometer registers the temperature of the atmosphere.

Definición no formal
La definición no formal nos da información muy generalizada y, por lo tanto, poco precisa. Este tipo de definición substituye el término a definir bien por una palabra de significado similar o una palabra más familiar para el lector, o bien por un opuesto. Por tanto, son definiciones no formales los sinónimos, los antónimos y las aserciones negativas.

Definition

in technical English

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Ejemplos: «Automatic» means «self-acting» or «self-moving». The opposite of «inlet» is «outlet». «Slacken» is the opposite of «tighten».

Exercise 1 Join each of the following terms with its corresponding definition. l. 2. 3. 4. 5. flowmeter condenser sedimentation quality control density

a. a process in which particles of solids suspended in a liquid are separated by allowing them to settle by the force of gravity. b. the process of assuring that products have the required physical and chemical characteristics. c. an instrument used for measuring the flow of fluids. d. the weight of a given volume of material. e. a heat exchanger used for cooling vapor and condensating it into liquido

Exercise 2 Make definitions for the words given below. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. a chisel: a car radiator: ductility: compressive strength: a voltmeter:

Otras maneras de expresar definición
Las siguientes son construcciones que con frecuencia se utilizan en el discurso técnico para expresar definiciones.

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A) Expresiones como «TO BE THE ABILITY TO + inf.»; «TO BE CAPABLE OF + gerund», «TO HAVE THE CAPACITYTO + inf.», «TO BEABLE TO + inf.», «TO BE USED FOR + gerund»; «TO BE USED TO + inf.», etc. Por ejemplo:
Hardness is the ability to withstand scratching or indentation. Corros ion resistance is the ability to resist chemical or electrochemical attack. A compass is an instrument used for determining direction. A hard metal is one which is capable of resisting corrosion.

B) Verbos que implican definición: «TO BE CALLED», «TO BE TERMED», «TO BE KNOWN AS», «TO BE DEFINED AS», «TO BE CONSIDERED AS», «TO BE REGARDED AS», «TO BE THOUGHT OF AS», etc. Estos son algunos ejemplos:
Pumps which obtain a higher specific speed through the action of a propeller are called axial-flow pumps. Heat treatment is known as the number of different procedures in which the properties of metals and alloys are changed. Electric current may be regarded / considered / seen as a flow of electrons through a medium.

C) Oraciones subordinadas relativas en las que bien se describe física o funcionalmente el término a definir, bien se hace referencia a sus distintas etapas o pasos (en un proceso, por ejemplo), o bien se clasifica, se compara, se contrasta, etc. Por ejemplo:
An anmeter is a device which measures the strength of electric current. Protractors are toolswhich are used for measuring angles.

Exercise 3 Read the following paragraph which defines the concept of «energy» and identify those words signalling definition. Energy may be thought of as that property of something which enables it to do work. When we say that something possesses energy, we suggest that it is capable in some way of exerting a force on something else and performing work on it. For example,

Definition in technical English

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when an object moves, it has the capacity for doing work. It is this specific property that defines energy, sine e energy means the ability to do work.

Exercise 4 Classify the following definitions according to the type they belong to: l. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. Gauges are used for measuring temperatures or pressures. Slide rules are instruments used to calculate rapidly. Valves are used to regulate the flow of fluids in piping systems. A barometer measures atmospheric pressure. Chlorine is used in water treatment for disinfection. Pumps with only one impeller are ealled single-stage. Computersenable to carry out complex calculations.

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Grammar Review
Defining through relative clauses
Two separate sentences can be joined together by making the second one a relative clause. For example:
(a) A dam is a kind of structure. (b) This structure holds back the water of a river. (c) A dam is a kind of structure which holds back the water of a river.

In order to link these pairs of sentences, we use the relative pronouns. As pronouns, they replace the name which comes before them in the sentence. These are some relative pronouns: WHO = quién (el nombre al que substituye es una persona).
WHICH = qué (el nombre al que substituye es una cosa o animal). THAT = substituye tanto a personas como a cosas. WHOM = a quién, para quién. WHOSE = cuyo, cuya, cuyos, cuyas (indicando siempre posesión). WHERE = en el/la cual, en los/las cuales, en donde WHEN = en el tiempo o momento que, cuando

Here are some more examples of relative statements:
The manager, who is now at a meeting, will meet the project engineers as soon as he finishes. The element which Berkeley discovered was called berkelium. This is the technician whom 1 met in the workshop yesterday. This is the company whose employees are on strike this month. This type of rivets is used for joints where strength is required.

Relative clauses can be classified as «defining» or «non-defining» relative clauses. Defining relative clauses (1) describe the name they follow by distinguishing it from the other members of its class. The meaning of the subordinate clause is essential in order to understand the meaning of the whole
sentence. .

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Definition in technical English

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Non-defining relative clauses (2) do not define or refer to the noun before them. Their meaning is not essential; that is, if we omit them, the whole sentence is still meaningful. This kind of relative clauses can be easily identified, since it always goes between commas.
(1) The wires which were not protected were broken. (2) The wires, which were not proteeted, were broken.

In sentence (1) only those cables which were not protected broke. The defining relative clause specifies what cables broke, and this is essential information. In sentence (2), on the contrary, the relative clause tells us that all cables were unprotected and that they all broke. This non-defining relative clause gives not essential information, but only provides additional information. Therefore, it can be omitted without modifying the impórtant meaning of the whole sentence; that is, the fact that the wires broke.

Exercise 5 Join these pairs of sentenees making the seeond one a relative clause. Say whether they are defining or non-defining. 1. The team designed a new template. This template was compatible with projeet requirements. ............................................................................................................................................... 2. The report eontained interesting information about new technologies. EMD published the report last month.
"""""""""""""""""""""""""""...................................

3. Speeeh and music produce audio frequeneies. We eannot transmit these frequencies direetly. ............................................................................................................................................... 4. A body is in stress when forees are applied to it. These forees cause its size and shape to ehange. ............................................................................................................................................... 5. Water eooling is a method. The temperature of an internal-eombustion engine is eontrolled by this method. ...............................................................................................................................................

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6. Ammonioum chloride solidifies at 00 F. Ammonium chloride is commonly known as salammoniac. ............................................................................................................................................... 7. The punched card was a major step in the development of the computer. The punched card was devised by Hollerith in the 1880s. ............................................................................................................................................... 8. Several procedures were involved in the experimento The report detailed the procedures. ............................................................................................................................................... 9. Manufacturers, distributors and suppliers provide the materials. These material s will be used in manufacturing and automation programs. ............................................................................................................................................... 10. A coating of diamond is used on optical surfaces. This coating protects from wear and tear. ...............................................................................................................................................

Relative clauses with prepositions
We may sometimes find relative c1auses with a preposition preceding them. These sentences are constructed as follows:
Riveting is a joining method. Two metal plates are fastened by means of this method. Relative clause: Riveting is a joining method by means of which two metal plates are fastened.

When we find a direct/indirect object with a preposition, the formal construction is (1) preposition + WHICH. However, the most common form is either (2) to place the preposition at the end of the sentence and to use the relative pronoun WHICH or THAT as a link between the main c1ause and the subordinate one, or (3) to omit the relative pronoun, leaving the preposition after the verb, as in the examples below:

Definition in technical English
(1) The ladder on which the worker was standing began to slip. (2) The ladder which/that the worker was standing on began to slip. (3) The ladder the worker was standing on began to slip.

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Exercise 6 Join the following sentences with a relative pronoun. Make the second sentence the relative c1ause. l. The machine code is made up of binary digits. The central processor unit deals with binary digits. ............................................................................................................................................... 2. Computers have magnetic disks. Data is stored on magnetic disks. ............................................................................................................................................... 3. An air-conditioning system has a supply-air line. The cool air flows from the supplyair. ............................................................................................................................................... 4. The point is called the fu1crum. The body is free to rotate about the point. ............................................................................................................................................... 5. Plastic plating is a process. In this process a plastic is etched to create pockets in the surface. ............................................................................................................................................... 6. The capacitor has a value of 27pF. The signal is passed through the capacitor. ............................................................................................................................................... 7. Entropy increases until it reaches a maximum. Temperature will be uniform at this maXlmum. ............................................................................................................................................... 8. The signal is amplified to drive 20 LEDs in a monitor. The frame of the device is attached to the monitor. ...............................................................................................................................................

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English in Technical Engineering

Short-form relative clauses
Sometimes relative clauses can be shortened by omitting part of the subordinate clause. Thus, they are called «short-form» relative clauses. A relative clause can be reduced or shortened in the following cases:

1. When the relative pronoun is followed by the verb TO BE either in a continuous or a passive formo In this case, both the pronoun and the verb TO BE are omitted:
Concrete consists of a number of substances (WHICH ARE) mixed together in certain fixed proportions.

The plane (WHICH IS) flying at an altitude of 2,140 metres is subjected to pressures of 80 kilonewtons per square metre.

2. If the relative clause is formed by WHICH and a simple present tense, the pronoun can be omitted, and the verb is changed into its gerund form (-ING). This rule is only applicable when the verb is a static one, that is, when it refers to states, but not to actions. Some of the commonest static verbs in technical English are «to measure», «to weigh», «to contain», «to consist of», «to hold», «to form», «to act as», among others. The steel beams which form the chassis of the truck are welded together. Short form: The steel beams forming the chassis of the truck are welded together.

3. When the relative pronoun acts as direct object of the subordinate can also be omitted. The amount of energy (WHICH) the collector can gather is transmitted to the storage.

clause, it

4. When the relative clause contains WHICH + HAVE, it can be shortened in two different ways: (1) omitting the relative pronoun and changing the verb

Definition in technical English

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TO RAVE into the gerund; (2) supressing both pronoun and verb, and instead using the preposition WITR.
Example: A telephone dial consists of a rotatable plate which has ten finger holes. (1) A telephone dial consists of a rotatable plate having ten finger holes. (2) A telephone dial consists of a rotatable plate with ten finger holes.

5. At times, a relative clause can be reduced to its shorter form by replacing it by an adjective: Example: High quality instruments use resistors which are wirewound. Short form: High quality instruments use wirewound resistors.

Exercise 7 Reduce the relative clauses whenever it is possible. 1. The tube is filled with mercury vapour, to which a small amount of argon is added. 2. These steels, which are mixed with one or more metallic elements, are known as alloy steels. 3. The amount of energy a flat-plate collector can gather depends on several factors. 4. Hydro-electricity is a kind of power which is produced by water. 5. A zinc case, which acts as a container, is used as the negative electrode. 6. These steels, which are mixed with one or more metallic elements, are known as alloy steels. 7. The research which is being carried out on this subject is extensive. 8. The steam from the boiler, which has to be passed through a super-heater, is wet. 9. The filament electrodes between which a stream of electrons flows heat. 10. The efficiency of an engine is the ratio of the work which is done to the heat which is received.

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Developing Skills
Activity 1
Read the text and answer the following sections. These ideas were made precise by defining a quantity called entropy, which can be thought of, very roughly, as a measure of the potency of heat energy. In a simple system such as a flask of water or air, if the temperature is uniform throughout the flask, nothing will happen. The system remains in an unchanging state called thermodynamic equilibrium. The flask will certainly contain heat energy, but this energy cannot do anything. It is impotent. By contrast, if the heat energy is concentrated in a «hot spot» then things will happen, such as convection and changes in density. These. events will continue until the heat dissipates and the system reaches equilibrium at a uniform temperature. The definition of entropy for such a system involves both heat energy and temperature, and is such that the greater the «potency» of the heat energy, the lower the entropy. A state of thermodynamic equilibrium, for which the heat energy is impotent, has maximum entropy. The second law of thermodynamics can then be expressed as follows: In a closed system, entropy never decreases. If a system starts out, for example, with a non-uniform temperature distribution, i.e. at relatively 10w entropy, heat will flow and the entropy will rise until it reaches a maximum, at which point the temperature will be uniform and thermodynamic equilibrium will be achieved. (Paul Davies, The Cosmic Blueprint London: Unwin Paperbacks. 1987, p. 15)

Section A. Answer the following questions: 1. How does the text define «entropy»?

2. How does the text support this definition?

Definition in technical English

55

3. What happens in a system until equilibrium at a uniform temperature is reaehed?

4. What faetors are direetly affeeted by entropy in a system?

5. How does the seeond law of entropy work in a system?

Section B. Write a short summary of the extraet above. Try to use your own words. ,.................... ............................................................................................................................................... ............................................................................................................................................... ............................................................................................................................................... ............................................................................................................................................... ............................................................................................................................................... ............................................................................................................................................... ............................................................................................................................................... ............................................................................................................................................... ...............................................................................................................................................

Unit 5. Description in technical English
La descripción
La descripción en inglés técnico se utiliza para introducir, exponer o presentar las características principales de un objeto, instrumento, dispositivo, método, experimento, etc. Hay tres tipos de descripción en el discurso especializado para el campo de las tecnologías modernas: descripción física, descripción funcional y descripción de proceso. A menudo encontraremos textos que combinan los tres tipos de descripciones, si bien sólo una suele ser la predominante.

Descripción física
Este tipo de descripción -»physical description»- proporciona tanto las características físicas de un objeto, aparato o instrumento (dimensiones, forma, peso, color, volumen, material del que está hecho, etc.), así como la relación espacial que existe entre cada una de las partes o de los componentes de los que se consta dicho objeto. El texto siguiente, por ejemplo, se ha desarrollado mediante una descripción física que se inicia con una breve introducción general, para pasar a detalles más específicos referentes a los distintos elementos que lo componen.

THE QUIET FLAT The design concept for the quiet flat was to limit to a minimum sounds travelling from one flat to another, with sounds from outdoors not completely eliminated, allowing residents to be free of the restrictions of regular flat living. The building s are constructed completely from standard prefabricated elements, but the structures between the flats are of double construction. The bearing walls between the flats are 150 mm thick with 30 mm of air space in between. All the walls rest on neoprene bearings. The floors consist of 200 mm hollow core slabs with a floating structure on topoThat very efficiently prevents footsteps being heard outside the flat and makes it possible for the residents to choose any floor material -even natural stone.

..

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English in Technical Engineering

Outside walls are structurally bearing, and are ordinary concrete elements surfaced with blue and white ceramic tiles. The balconies are made of white concrete with glass enc1osures. (Finnish Trade Review, 4/90, p. 35)

Design 01 Ihe quiel Ilal

Description in technical English
Exercise 1

59

Describe the following device. Give details about its size, shape, material, etc., and provide information about the spatiallocation of its different parts.

screen mount pivot springs vibrator arm motor coil
on/off switch

An electric shaver

Descripción funcional
La descripción funcional, en inglés «functional description», da información sobre el uso o el propósito de un instrumento, objeto, aparato o instrumento, así como sobre la finalidad de cada parte o componente del mismo. Una referencia funcional puede estar contenida incluso en una sóla frase, ya de forma explícita (1), bien de modo implícito (2):
(1) A micrometer is a device used for measuring very small objects. (2) An ammeter measures electric current in amperes.

Veamos a continuación un ejemplo de descripción funcional en un texto completo:

HEAD POSITIONING

CONTROL SYSTEMS

I

Two separate control systems are used to control the position of the heads. The linear position control system, or fine position servo, keeps the servo head at the center of the servo track, and is used when reading and writing data.

l

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English in Technical Engineering

A nonlinear position control system is used when the heads are moved from one track to another (a seek). This nonlinear system is designed to move the heads relatively long distances (0.0016 inch for a single-track seek, and 2.1 inches for the longest seek) in the shortest possible time. The fine position servo system is designed to keep the servo head as close as possible to the center of the servo track. In addition, the servo head must quickly settle on track at the end of a seek. For the 7933/35 the specific goals were to have a servo head tracking error of less than 75 microinches and a settling time of 2.5 milliseconds. (Hewlett-Packard Journal, January 1984, p. 14)
Servo Track Position

Position Signal

Current Command

+

Disc drive position control loop block diagram

Exercise

2

Choose one of the following instruments or devices and write a paragraph explaining its function. (1) feeler gauge (2) protractor (3) galvanometer
(4) thermostat (5) solar collector

...............................................................................................................................................

,............................................................. ............................................................................................................................................... ,...................................................................... ...............................................................................................................................................

..,..

Description in technical English

61

Descripción de proceso
La descripción de proceso, llamada en inglés «process description», hace referencia a las distintas etapas en las que consiste bien el funcionamiento de un objeto, máquina o instrumento, bien el desarrollo de un experimento o investigación que se lleve a cabo. Este tipo de descripción hace referencia a los distintos los pasos o estadios del proceso, al orden en el que éstos ocurren, y al objetivo final que se persigue con los mismos. Mientras que las descripciones física y funcional presentaban las características físicas y el funcionamiento de un instrumento, máquina, etc., respectivamente, este tercer tipo de descripción especifica, por lo general, desde el primer paso de cualquier proceso al último, es decir, desde el principio hasta la consecución de un fin. A menudo, la descripción de proceso viene acompañada de conectores que indican sucesión o secuencia temporal, y que sirven para unir las ideas que se incluyen en el texto con cohesión. Asimismo, este tipo de descripción se caracteriza por una frecuente utilización de verbos en voz pasiva. Lee el texto siguiente y diseña un diagrama de flujo con los distintos pasos del proceso.
PLASMA SPRAY COATING PROCESS Once the workpiece is mounted on the turntable, the operator presses the start button. The turntable indexes to position one grooved slot of the workpiece precisely under the vertically spray gun. Argon is then injected into the gun nozzle for a few seconds to initiate high frequency ignition between the cathode and anode. Seconds later, an automatic valve gradually mixes in the secondary gas, which may be hydrogen, helium, or, in some cases, nitrogen. As the pressurized gas stream strikes the are, instantaneous ionization occurs, generating temperatures up to 33,3000C. The gun then moves downward and, at a pre-set point, a controlled flow of CuNiln powder is fed into the gas stream instantly melted, and sprayed at high velocity in a plastic state onto the workpiece surface.

,...

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Exercise 3

English in Technical Engineering

The following diagram represents the different stages of the process of a solar system. Describe the process with the help of the sentences below.
collector loss heat loss

thermal storage

fluid pump fluid pump

auxiliary energy

A basic solar heating system

1. Initially, solar radiation ... 2. Then, the fluid which is inside the collector ... 3. As the fluid is heated, some energy of the collectar ... and ... 4. Once the fluid is heated, it ... 5. While the heated fluid enters the storage, a heating element contained in the storage tank ... 6. Before the heated fluid is pumped into the area where the heat is needed, ... 7. After this, ..., although some of the heat ... 8. Until solar radiation is again available, ... 9. Immediately afterwards, the cooled liquid ... 10. Finally, the liquid ... , and the cycle starts again.

Description in technical English

63

Grammar Review
Pattems of technical descriptions
One of the most common pattems when making technical descriptions in English is the use of the passive voice. The passive voice of an active verb is formed with the verb «TO BE» (in the same tense the verb in the active voice appears) and the past participle of this verbo These are some examples:
1. Active: A spark from the ignition system ignites the mixture. Passive: The mixture is ignited by a spark from the ignition system. 2. Active: Centrifugal force produced intense stresses on the blades. Passive: Intense stresseswere produced on the blades by centrifugal force.

In technical discourse, passive statements are preferred to active ones, as in specialised registers the object or result of the action stated by the active verb is often regarded as more important than the subject who carries out the action. The passive construction of the main tenses in the active voice is the following:
ACTIVE
simple present present continuous simple past past continuous present perfect . past perfectsimple future future perfect simple conditional conditional perfect infinitive gerund

PASSIVE am/is/are + past participle am/is/are + being + past participle was/were + past participle was/were + being + past participle have/has + been + past participle had + been + past participle will + be + past participle will + have + been + past participle would + be + past participle would + have + been + past parto to be + past participle being + past participle

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Exercise 4

English in Technical Engineering

Change the following sentences into the passive voice. 1. Concentrating collectors concentrate the sun's energy so that a smaller area can be heated. 2. Some filter types have incorporated an antidrain check valve. 3. A micron and a micrometer wou1d indicate the same unit of measurement. 4. They have made the balconies of white concrete with glass enclosures. 5. We rarely find pure metal s in nature. 6. When Concorde was built, they needed a material which could withstand extreme aerodynamic conditions. 7. They are investigating this experiment in several1aboratories. 8. The use of a thermocouple normally regulates the temperature. 9. Water tubes which lined the walls had absorbed some of the heat of combustion. 10. An oxy-acetylene torch is going to produce an extremely hot flame.

Spatial order in physical descriptions
According to the range of information they pro vide, physical descriptions can be either general or specific. When a physical description provides some general information, we usually find terms or words indicating, by and large, the spatial situation or location of each part or component. These terms are mainly prepositions such as «above», «under», «next to ...», «to the left», etc. On the contrary, physical descriptions which are more specific use much more precise locative expressions as far as the position of the different parts is concerned. They usually give more precise information (with exact figures, measurements, etc.).
Exercise 5 Classify the following locative expressions as either general or specific.
«1 mm. directly above», «to the right», <<near the end», «at an angle of 450», «2 cm. out from the perimeter», 1000 Fahrenheit», «under the workpiece», «between the two axles», «at exactly

«close to the shaft», «1 mm. from the centre», «a 55 pound weight», «below», «150 mm thick».

«at the bottom», «in the middle», «right in the middle»,

Description in technical English

65
SPECIFIC

GENERAL
1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8.

1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8.

Expressing temporal relationships
Temporal relations are expressed in technical English with the so called time c1auses or statements. Time c1auses consist of two sentences: a main clause and a subordinate one. The temporal relationship established between them tells us whether these two actions are simultaneous (1), or one comes before (2) or after (3) the other. Read the followJng sentences and study their temporal relationships.
(1) The metal is still molten. It is poured into moulds. As/while the metal is still molten, it is poured into moulds. (2) The steam leaves the boiler. It is passed through a superheater. Before the steam leaves the boiler, it is passed through a superheater. (3) You finished your work. You went home. After you finished your work, you went home.

Very frequently, this type of sentences appears in process descriptions, as whenever we describe a process, some kind of temporal reference or relationship is established. In order to inc1ude temporal references in a process description, sequence connectors are used. Rere is a list of some of the commonest temporal connectors; each of them conveys a specific temporal relationship, that is, they introduce either previous, simultarieous or posterior actions:
«initially», «after this stage», «following this», «then», «during this stage», «during this process», «at the same time», «immediately afterwards», «subsequently», «as soon as», «once», «at this stage», «finally», «until», «before», «while», «as», «in + gerund», «on + gerund», oo.

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English in Technical Engineering

Time c1auses, either expressing previous (1), simultaneous (2), or posterior (3) actions, can sometimes appear in a shorter form; they are then called «contracted time statements». This reduction usually takes place when the subject of the main sentence and that of the subordinate c1ause is the same. In such a case, the subject of the subordinate c1auseis omitted and the verb is replaced by its gerund formo For example:
(1) Before it enters, the steam is at high pressure. or Before I Prior to entering the nozzle, the steam is at high pressure. (2) While it is passing through the fan, the air is cooled. or When I while I in passing through the fan, the air is cooled. (3) After it leaves the boiler, the steam gives up some of its energy. or After I on leaving the boiler, the steam gives up some of its energy.

However, there are some temporal structures in technical English which can also appear in its contracted form even if the subjects of the main c1ause and that of the subordinate one are different. This is quite frequent, for instance in instructionalliterature.
When we are installing a boiler, the temperature conditions of the place are very important. or When installing a boiler, the temperature conditions of the place are very important. When we handIe acids, rubber gloves must be worn to prevent burns to hands. or When handling acids, rubber gloves must be worn to prevent burns to hands.

Gerund forms in contracted time statements are introduced by the temporal connectors «after», «before», «since», «until», and «when(ever) (see example 1). Apart from this type of reduction, two other types of reduction are also used.

Description in technical English

67

Some connectors such as «once», «until», «when(ever)>>and «while», introduce past participle forms (see example 2). Verbless clauses appear after «as soon as», «once», «when(ever)>>,and «while» (see example 3). These are some examples of the three types of reduction:
(1) He studied Engineering while working for this firmo (2) Once finished, production parts are protected from damage or corrosion. (3) When in difficulty, consult the manual.

Exercise 6 Write down sentences expressing temporal sequence with the connectors given below.

1. After ...
2. Once ... 3. While ... 4. Until ... 5. Before ...

Exercise 7 Write down a short description about an industrial or manufacturing process or about the different stages of a study, research or experimento

............................................................................................................................................... ............................................................................................................................................... ............................................................................................................................................... ...............................................................................................................................................

r~~ ). , ¿ , ...

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English in Technical Engineering

Industrial production

Exercise 8 Change these statements to their contracted formo 1. When it leaves the furnace, the molten metal is channelled into moulds. ............................................................................................................................................... 2. Before we apply heat for a weld, the plates should be c1amped together. ............................................................................................................................................... 3. When rivets cool, they contract. ............................................................................................................................................... 4. Before the fuel enters the boiler, it is pulverised. ............................................................................................................................................... 5. After it leaves the discharge of one impeller, the water flows to the eye of the next. """"'......................................................................................................................................

Description in technical English

69

Developing
Activity 1

Skills

Read the followingtext and analysehow it has been developedby means of a pattern of description. Classify the type of descriptionthat appears in it.

THE PERFECT MATCH VISUAL DISPLAY
The system operates as follows. The sample given by me customer, say, a piece of Jeamer, wood, or wallpapet, is exposed ro me spectrophotometer which measures me light reflected from me sample. The spectrum of me sample is men transferred to me compUter for analysis. From computer me spectrum values, me

The end product, ¡.e. me requesr. ed shade of paint, is produced by transferring me tinting fonnulation to me tinting machine. conraining me pastes. Complying w¡m~e foro mulation, me machine dispenses me pastes into me can of paint mer which me paint is mixed in a shaker before going OUtto the customer. The whole process flOm sample anaIysisto end produCt rakes ooly a few minutes. This is a bonus for both me cUStomerand Tikkurila's salesmen, since the enrire syStemcan be demonstrated simpJy, visually,on the spot, anywhere in the world. The spectlOphoromerer JS COmpatible

calculates altemacive tint.
tO

ing rations, which are used
produce a shade corresponding

as

dosel y as possible to me shade re. quesred by me CUStomer. The alternacive ~hades appear on me como puter' s visual display, The cUStomer can men choose for rumself which al. temacive besr matches his own sam.

pie, which is a1so visible on me dis.
play. .

At mis Stageit is possible tO consider me lighting condicions in whieh me paint wil! be seen, for which me computer can adjUSt me tinting ra. cios. The fmal fonnulation is fre. quencly chosen on me basis of me inrended location and purpose of me parnt.

. wim the existing Monicolorand
T emacoJor sysrems.

(Finnish Trade Review, 4/90 p. 31)

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English in Technical Enf?ineering

The new spectrophotometer developed by Tikkurila measures the light rellected Irom a sample 01 leather, wood, wallpaper, or some other material.

Activity 2 Draw a chart of the different stages this process consists ai. Identify the cannectors that appear in the description,

Unit 6. Classification in technical English
La clasificación
Aparte de las dos funciones comunicativas vistas anteriormente (descripción y definición), se puede encontrar también una función clasificatoria en el discurso científico-técnico. En el inglés especializado la clasificación nos informa sobre el grupo o la clase a la que un objeto pertenece, o bien, si conocemos la clase, la clasificación nos presenta los distintos miembros o sub-grupos de la misma. Existen tres tipos de clasificación, de acuerdo con la cantidad de información que se nos proporcione: clasificación completa, clasificación parcial y clasificación implícita. En particular, en el caso de la clasificación implícita, no hay un propósito clasificatorio evidente; dicho de otro modo, la información viene dada de tal manera que la clasificación aparece ereflejada, pero no de modo explícito, en el discurso.

'Clasificación completa
La clasificación completa (<<completeclassification») proporciona la siguiente información, tal y como se refleja en el texto que aparece a continuación: (1) información sobre la clase o el grupo al que los elementos a clasificar pertenecen, así como información adicional sobre el tipo de relación que existe entre ellos. (2) la base en la que se fundamenta la clasificación. (3) información sobre el objeto u objetos que se clasifican, es decir, sobre las semejanzas y diferencias de los distintos elementos de la clase.

Chemical elements commonly used in laboratories can be divided into two great groups according to their carbon content. Gn the one hand, we find organic compounds, whose main characteristic is their carbon content. Gn the other hand, inorganic compounds do not contain carbonoWater is an example of inorganic compound. However, there are some compounds such as carbon dioxide which

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English in Technical Engineering

have carbon content, but are nevertheless considered as inorganic compounds. Organic and inorganic compounds also differ in the elements they are formed from. For example, organic compounds can contain only carbon, hydrogen, oxygen nitrogen and phosphorus, whereas inorganic ones can be formed from almost all the chemical elements. Exercise 1 Read the text and draw a c1assificatory chart with the information it contains. We can group measuring devices according to the type of measuring unit each uses. Therefore, these devices can fall into four main categories. The first category is the one called «linear units», which inc1udes measures such as metres, inches, miles, etc. The second and third categories of measuring devices are known as «volumetric units» and «weight units». Whereas the former is used for volume measurements such as litres, ounces, etc., the latter measures quantities (grams, pounds, kilograms, tons, etc. ). Finally, the last type of our c1assification is applied for more specialised measures used in technical work. Temperature, electric current, etc., are examples of this kind of measures.

Clasificación parcial
Llamada así (<<partial lassification») ya que omite la base de la clasificac ción, bien porque la clase a la que se refiere es demasiado amplia o general, bien porque se sobreentiende por el contexto. Por lo tanto, una clasificación parcial nos dará información sobre el nombre genérico de la clase y los miembros de la misma. En el siguiente extracto, por ejemplo, se da por entendido que la clasificación está basada en la función específica que realiza cada uno de los distintos tipos de válvulas a los que el texto se refiere.

L

Classification in technical English
TYPES OFVALVE Four particular valve types are commonly ued in piping systems: gate valves, globe valves, check valves and plug valves. Gate valves are usually operated closed or wide open. They are seldom used for throttling, Le., regulating flow, to any fine degree. Globe valves, on the other hand, are adaptable to throttling operations and are often fitted with a renewable disk. Check valves are used for limiting flow automatically to a single direction in a piping system, while plug valves operate in the open or closed position by turning the plug through 900 with a shearing action. This enables it to clear foreign matter from the seat. Exercise 2

73

Write a short text classifying the main types of plastics. Follow the information of the chart to develop your ideas in an ordered way. PLASTICS (a) thermoplastics

- made of coal
- types: nylon (combs), PVC (pipes), polythene (bags)

(b) thermosetting plastics

- made

of oil

- types:

melamine (tableware), polyurethane (foams), phenolic resin (plugs)

Clasificación implícita
En una clasificación implícita, la clase a la que se está haciendo referencia no se menciona. El texto o párrafo no tienen un propósito clasificatorio abierto, pero sí una estructura implícita de clasificación.

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English in Technical Engineering

I

Es el contexto lo que da la información -contenida de modo abstractosobre la clasificación. Incluso en algunos casos, se nos presenta un diagrama o árbol clasificatorio sobre el cual se apoya el texto, con el fin de que el lector pueda percibir de una manera más fácil la función clasificatoria contenida de modo implícito en el mismo.
Exercise 3 Read the following text and complete the chart below with the information given in it. Regenerable energetic sources are those which will never be used up, for example, solar radiation, eolic energy and hydraulic energy. The first one comes from the sun, the second is produced by the wind, and the latter is related to the use of water in dams. These different kinds of energy are clean, that is, they are not harmless to the environment. Gn the contrary, non regenerable energetic sources are those which may be used up, mainly extractable materials taken from the earth. This is the case of petrol, coal, iron or metals, among others. This type is called artificial energetic sources; they produce huge amounts of energy, but they are very polluting and therefore environmentally harmless.

A. oo. B. oo.

1. Types:

a. oo. b. oo.
c. oo.

2. Details:

a. oo. b. oo.

c.

oo.

3. Types:

a. oo. b. oo. c. oo.

4. Details:

a. oo. b. oo.

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Classification in technical English

75

Grammar Review
Expressing technical classifications
One way to identify objects is by c1assifying them according to types or categories. This kind of c1assification goes from the particular (a member of the class) to the general (the whole class) or viceversa. We say, for instance:
Tanks, boxes and beakers are kinds of containers. Spanners, wrenches and planes are types of tools. There are two types of engine: petral and diese1.

If we want to concentrate only on one single item, the singular is used instead of the plural. We then have a definition of the item according to the c1ass it belongs to. For example:
A vice is a type of too1. A mainframe is a type of computer. A VDU is a kind of TV screen.

Classifications are often expressed by means of verbs such as «to divide ... into», «to split ... into», «to c1assify ... as», «to separate as», «to break down into», «to fall into ... » , etc.. It should be noticed that the verb «to fall into» does not accept the passive voice. Here are some examples:
Rivet heads can be broken down into flat head rivets, countersunk rivets, mushraom rivets, pan head rivets and raundhead rivets. We can split plastics into thermoplastics and thermosetting plastics. AC-AC converter topologies can be classiffied into three categories: dc link, ac link, direct link. The principIe storage areas in a computer fal! into two types: the disk drives and the RAM (random access memory).

Another way of identifying objects is by c1assifying them according to their parts or components. We should then talk of a c1assification combined with a physical description. Again, if we want to emphasise or insist upon one specific part, the singular is preferred, as shown in the examples below:

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English in Technical Engineering

The two main parts of a computer system are hardware and software. A jib is a part of a crane. A flange is one component of a girder.

Some verbs also imply or contain the idea of c1assification. The most commonly used verbs in technical English are «to consist of» and «to comprise», which are often employed in physical descriptions, in sentences such as the following:
Peripheral equipment consists of input, output and storage. A computer system comprises hardware and software. Water consists of oxygen and hydrogen.

Exercise 4 Read the following passage, decide the type of c1assification it contains and say how this c1assification has been signalled. Draw a c1assificatory chart with the information given in the passage.
Varlatlons on a theme
In an earlier Eureka on Campus, I pointed out that the most important aspect 01 engineering thermoplastics is their enormous variation in terms 01 properties. More than anything else. this diversity makes the materials 50 uselul in the engineering.world. For many centuries. chemists have been increasing the range 01 metals by alloying them with other melals. Short-comings have been overcome and properties have been tailored lor specilic applications. Over the past decade. a similar process has been taking place with thermoplastics. When it comes to linding the righl malerial lor a specilic applicalion. the cheapest approach delermines whether the ideal material (or something near 10 ill exists already. II it doesn't. the alloying approach has many advantages. particularly in terms 01 speed and cosl, over the alternative route 01 synthesising a lotally new polymer. In the world 01 thermoplaslics. there are three common types 01 blend: miscible. immiscible and partially miscible. With miscible blenda. IWO types 01 polymer molecule intermix completely to lorm a single phase materíal. By varying the proportions 01 constiluent polymers. important characteristics, such as the heat

. Immiscible

01 the blend can be adjusted. blenda, on the other hand. are so-called because the polymeric elemenls each relain their phases inde¡jendenlly of one anolher. These materials can be seeh as a kind of reinforced plaslic. consisting of a polymer combined wilh a second polymeric reinforcing filler or modifl8r, BelWeen the IWO extremes are partially miscible blends. A multi-phase blend is produced. one which has some attributes of both components along with some shifts in property levels. Materials which combine a semicrystalline with an amorphous material are good examples 01 such blends. PCIPBT (Polycarbonalel Polybutytene Terephthalatel. lor example. combines a duclile. dimensi9nallystable mateñal with resislance 10 petrol. It is widely used. therefore. in the manufacture of automotive bumpers. In addition to the variety 01 generic polymer species and to the possible blending and polymer modificalion. a raft of reinlorcing fillers. stabilisers and additives gives rise to a huge array of commercial grades. From this evergrowing spectrum of materíals and grades. the design engineer or specifier can select according 10 specific requirements 01 the part under consideration. performance

(Eureka on Campus, Spring 1991, p. 28)

Classification in technical English
Exercise 5 Select one of the following subjects and write a classification according to types. (1) the different types of energetic sources (2) joining methods in industrial engineering (3) chemical elements commonly used in laboratories (4) sources of electromagnetic interferences

77

Exercise 6 Write a classification with a physical description (according to parts) of one of the following items: (l) (2) (3) (4) a telex a radar an electrical circuit a TV set

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English in Technical Engineering

Developing
Activity 1

Skills

Read the passage below and answer the following questions. TOMORROW'S NEWSPAPER Newspaper production is a manifold process. The newspaper itself is a medium of information in its news and editorial sections and a medium of communication in its advertising section. Interesting and up-to-date information must be researched, collected, edited and set for all sections. Moreover, for the production and marketing of their products, newspaper publishers require a suitable administration and management structure. In order for it to be fully effective, the performance range of an electronic newspaper system must be extensive. It must be employable in the editorial, advertising and management departments and aid activities such as text processing and layout, production, marketing, planning and administration. The system should bring the following advantages: more up-to-date information and faster processing more efficient make-up and production more reliable and efficient receipt of information (agency reports and advertisements) opportunity of electronic information management (archiving and retrieval) opportunity of linkage to worldwide electronic communication systems (databases, videotext)

1. What does the text deal with?

2. Why does the text say newspaper production is a manifold process?

3. Is an administration and management structure really necessary? If so, why?

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Classification in technical English

79

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4. What is the aim of the electronic newspaper system? 5. Can you summarize the main features of the system?

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Activity 2 Fill in the blanks with the words given below. centers - network - communication - supports - through - thus meet - carried - such - for

COSY 200 As a future-oriented newspaper system, COSY 200 (1) activities in the editorial, advertising and production areas. Archiving is also supported (2L use of the GOLEM database system. COSY 200 (3L represents an organizational framework ~ithin which all text editing and processing tasks for newspaper and magazine production can be (4) out. Due to its great flexibility, COSY 200 can be adapted or extended to (5) the needs of any type or size of organization. The most important components of (6) a system are: - a computer (for increased operational reliability a dual computer system is employed) - a dense (7) of terminals (also regionally branched) - data transmission to geographically distant production (8) - electronic storage (databas es) with retrieval via the computer - interfaces to (9) networks (e.g. videotext, agencies -literature reference hosts) Appropriate user training is vital (lO) the efficient use of COSY 200. A complete set of courses is provided by our Data and Information Systems Training Center.

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(Siemens Review, XLIX 1982, no. 1, pp. 8-9)

Unit 7. Cause-effect relationships in technical English
Relaciones de causa
Podemos explicar un suceso, hecho, etc. bien haciendo referencia a la causa que lo produce, al efecto, resultado o consecuencia que del mismo se deriva, al medio o a la finalidad de llevar a cabo dicho hecho, etc. Estos son algunos ejemplos de relaciones causales interproposicionales:

Variations in speed bring about loss of efficiency. The accident was brought about by inadequate safety precautions. Copper is produced by a series of chemical processes. Heat dissipates according to the second law of thermodynamics. Cables are composed of thousands of wires which are galvanized to resist corrosion.

En los textos técnicos, la relación causa-efecto (<<cause-effect elationship») r suele encontrarse combinada con otras funciones. Así, la encontraremos en descripciones, en definiciones, en textos de carácter argumentativo o expositivo, etc. Estudiemos por ejemplo la relación causa-efecto en el siguiente párrafo:

VALUE OF ENERGY We are able to travel great distances in short times by using a choice of conveyances; we can communicate instantaneously with persons anywhere on earth; and we controllarge amounts of energy at our personal whim in the form of automobiles, electric tools, appliances and comfort conditioning in our dwellings. How did these changes come about? They have resulted from a combination of inventiveness and ingenuity, coupled with a painstaking construction of theory by some of the great scientists and engineers throughout the years. ( oo.) As a result of the development of the science and application of thermodynamics, our ability to obtain energy, transform it, and

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apply it to society's needs has brought about the change from agrarian to modern society. (Fundamentals 01Engineering Thermodynamics, John R. Howell and Richard O. Buckius. New York: Me Graw-Hill Book Co. 1987, p. 5)

Exercise 1 Match each cause with a corresponding effect. l. air pollution 2. reduction of power 3. carelessness 4. metal fatigue 5. temperature increase a. metal deteriorates b. wheels rotate more slowly c. metal expansion d. diseases e. industrial accidents

Exercise 2 Make sentences giving explanations to the following topics. l. A broken drill: ................................................................................................................. 2. Evaporation: ..........

3. Excessive fuel consumption: ......................................................................................... 4. Expansion of metal: ........................................................................................................ 5. Development of nuclear energy: ...................................................................................

Para estudiar de un modo más concreto las estructuras de causa-efecto que comúnmente aparecen en inglés técnico, se podría establecer la siguiente clasificación en tres grandes grupos: relación causa-efecto, relación medio-fin y medio-resultado, y relación razón-resultado.

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Relación causa-efecto
Este tipo de relación expresa la causa o hace referencia al efecto resultante de una ación determinada. Identifica cuál es la causa y cuál el efecto en los siguientes ejemplos:
Heat dissipation brings about loss of efficiency. Many industrial accidents are due to carelessness. Technology always leads to an increase in productivity. Careful studies have given rise to the implementation of solar energy in several areas of the country.

Relación medio-fin y medio-resultado
En este tipo de relación, la oración subordinada hace referencia bien al medio o modo empleado para la consecución de un hecho, o bien la finalidad o el propósito de la acción expresada por el verbo. Estos son algunos ejemplos:
Friction wear is avoided by using lubricating oil. Air conditioners are installed in order to avoid excessive heat. Temperatures below 00 are needed so that frozen food may be stored. Safety precautions are taken in order that industrial accidents may be avoided.

Relación razón-resultado
La oración principal expresa el resultado de la razón planteada en la oración subordinada. Estos son algunos ejemplos:
Electricity comsumption will not increase because of the implementation of heat recovery and waste heat technologies. As the structure is self-regulating, latching mechanisms are not required. The electronic equipment was damaged since is was not kept in the appropriate conditions.

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En el caso de que no exista una subordinación entre las dos proposiciones, sino dos oraciones principales (véase el ejemplo siguiente), la primera oración expresa la rezón y la segunda es el resultado de la primera:
The degree of humidity had to be maintained. humidifier was used. Therefore, a

Exercise 3 Decide which type of relationship is expressed in the following extracts. A. Because of their excellent absorption coefficients, these substances can be applied in micrometer-thick films to achieve total absorption of all incident solar radiation. (Siemens, Fall1991, p. 22) B. Energy consumption has been increasing throughout history. Invariably, two forces have spurred this development: growing population, and improved living standards. The latter has largely been the result of the widespread introduction of machines, which, however, also consume energy. (Siemens. Fall1991, p. 16) C. By varying joint dimensions on screen it is possible to arrive at an optimum design in order to fulfill a particular set of requirements. This has been claimed before, but many designers are presently unwilling to venture into adhesively bonded joint technology, because they are uncertain about the performance they can expect, particularly in the long termo (Eureka on Campus, Spring 1991, p. 62)

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Grammar Review
Expressing cause-effect relationships
Cause-effect relationships are made explicit in technical discourse by means of certain verbs, expressions and sentence linkers. We call causative verbs those verbs which are used to introduce a «cause-effect» relationship. The most commonly ones used in technical English are, among others, «to bring about», «to cause» «to result in / from», «to lead to», «to give rise to», etc. Here are some examples:
Heating the metal in air brings about oxidization. Any kind of movement between surfaces causes friction. Subsequent cooling of the material results in solidification. Implementation of state-of-the-art technology can lead to a major reduction in energy use. Improvements in computer technology have given rise to their greater commerciality.

1t should be noticed that the verb «to result in» always goes after the cause and before the effect. On the contrary, if the effect comes at the beginning of the sentence and the cause at the end, the preposition «in» is replaced by «from», as in the example below, which is the same sentence but expressed in a different way:
The non lubrication of the car components in corrosion. Corrosion is brought aboUt by / resultsfrom the car components. brings about / results the non lubrication of

Some other verbs in English may also indicate some kind of effect in an implicit way. These verbal structures are those introduced by verbs such as «to enable», «to allow», «to permit», «to cause» and «to make» followed by a direct object and an infinitive with the particle «to». Notice that after the verb «to make», there always comes a bare infinitive; that is, without the particle «to». Here are some examples:

1.

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A thermometer allows us to measure the temperature. Rapid cooling makes metal contract. The use of computers and other technologies causes a considerable saving of time in modern life. The use of gauges enables engineers to read temperatures or pressures.

Apart fram the so called causative verbs and those verbal structures seen above, technical English also uses some other words and expressions taken from the general corpus of English, which also express cause-effect relationships. Por instance, expressions ofthe type «the effect of», «the cause of», «the consequence of», «as a consequence», «consequently», «as a result», etc., are widely used to refer to these relationships.

Exercise 4 Make sentences expressing relationships of cause and effect with the help of the,
following statements.
.

1. A rise in temperature. ............................................................................................................................................... 2. Insulation of electrical wires. ............................................................................................................................................... 3. Intensive research in engineering issues. ............................................................................................................................................... 4. Use of corrosive chemicals. ............................................................................................................................................... 5. The development of the chip. ...............................................................................................................................................

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Exercise 5
Deduce from the meaning of the sentence the implied cause(s) or effect(s) of each of the following statements. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. The machine needs repairing. No specifications are required for the use of this tool. It is necessary for a running motor to be cooled by a fan. Major efforts will be needed to solve the decrease in energy production. A nuclear reactor necessitates a large amount of water for cooling. Enterprises need to be promoted by the government to ensure the country's international competitiveness. It is essential for the valves to open and close correctly. The drill must be positioned correctly. Goggles must be worn to avoid damage to the eyes. Seat belts must be fastened when travelling by planeo

Patterns of means, end and purpose
The following are some of the most common forms used in technical English to express the means by which a given effect can be obtained or achieved: «(by) + gerund», «by + noun», «by means of + noun», «a means of + gerund», «by this means», «with», «with the help of», et,c.All these expressions state the means used to obtain some final or specific results.
Examples: The lenses are protected by organic gas against sparks. Quality control and production have been improved by installing a process control system. Electromagnetic induction is a means of making better metal matrix composites. Power supplies must be safeguarded with (he help of a more efficient use of coal and nuclear power.

Apart from the means, we can also express the purpose or the finality of a given action. Purpose c1auses are expressed in English in different ways. For instance, with expressions such as «the aim of», «the purpose of», «the object of», etc.. Infinitives of finality or grammatical structures such as «so as to + inf.», «in j I ...

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order to + inf.», and «for + gerund» are also used to introduce this type of relationship. Besides, there are several connectors to express purpose, for example, «so that» or «in order that». Rere are some examples:
The aim of the motor car is to provide transport for people. The cryptochip can be used to implement high-grade security functions in networks and equipment. Scientists have developed this test for calculating the total temperature rise in the process. Steam is allowed to enter in order that the pressure is sufficiently high. Turn the electric power off so as not to produce a short-circuit.

Exercise 6 Complete or rewrite the sentences below expressing relationships. 1. either means or purpose

a gas in a cylinder, temperature is raised. (to compress). girders.

2. The framework of the building was supported --3. CAD is used for 4. New discoveries are needed '

better results in the industrial

field.

(to achieve) 5. Air is allowed to flow into the filter. The inlet valve opens. (to open) 6. The purpose of using photoelectric control s is
7. Pure feed water is used the formation
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of deposits may be avoided.

8. Some of the stresses in metal s are prevented ---

a method called annealing.

9. The crude ore is purified so as to be used for industrial purposes. (so that) 10. Many modifications were done to improve the performance of the engine. (for)

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Rewrite the following sentences using the word(s) given in brackets. 1. They reset the thermostat to increase the temperature. (with the purpose of) ........................................................................................................................................ 2. The high level of system reliability is ensured. Permanent self-monitoring of the electronic circuits ensures it. (by) ........................................................................................................................................ 3. Bearings are lubricated. Reduction of friction. (in order that) ........................................................................................................................................ 4. Natural resources are protected. Low-energy systems should be established to protect them. (by) ........................................................................................................................................ 5. An engine provides power to drive and turn the car wheels. (the purpose of) ........................................................................................................................................ ,6. Metal bars are cooled slowly in order to avoid distortion. (so that) ........................................................................................................................................ 7. A trace of cuprous iodide serves as a catalyst to accelerate the reaction. (the aim of) ........................................................................................................................................ 8. Commands are sent sequentially to each of the processors so that malfunction instruments are activated. (so as to) ,.............................................. 9. To eliminate the need for a separate signal, the dock information is encoded with the data. ........................................................................................................................................ 10.This method is recommended to avoid decomposition at high temperatures. (in order that) ........................................................................................................................................

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Patterns of reason and result
The commonest connectors for expressing reasons in English are, among others, «because», «as», «since» (the three of them followed by a subordinate c1ause), and, «because of», «owing to», «due to», «for reasons of» (all followed by a noun or nominal expression). Here are some examples:
As only one valency stage is involved in the reaction, the equivalent weight is the same. Losses may occur beca use the reaction is not instantaneous. Since this industry uses solvent-free coatings, there are no environmental problems. The steam pressure fell due fo condensation in the cylinder. The results were not accurate beca use of slight atmospheric oxidation. Owing fo their static stress situations, metallic structures are widely used.

To express result, the commonest connectors and expressions are «so», «therefore», «thus», «thereby», «hence», «consequently», «as a consequence», «as a result», etc. For example:
Capacitance is usually measured in microfarads or picofarads; fherefore, the farad is too large a unit. PVC is used for covering cables. Thus, it is a good insulator. The most efficient manufacturing techniques are used. As a consequence, production costs are maintained. The molten metal did not corrode. Thereby, a flix-cored wire was used.

Exercise 8 Join the following sentences by means of a reason-result connector. Copper is used for cables. Copper is a good conductor. 80ft iron is used in electromagnets. 80ft iron magnetizes easily. The beams fail. The top layers are crushed and the bottom layers torno The moon's force of gravity is less than that of the earth. People weigh less on the moon. 5. Water was sprayed into the steam causing condensation. The condensate is not contaminated. 1. 2. 3. 4.

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6. The aim of dampers is to control the flow of outdoor air and recirculated air. To regulate the mixture. 7. A flux was applied to the metal. Oxidation was prevented. 8. The oil filter was not changed. It became blocked. 9. The building broke down because strong materials were not used. Circulation became impossible. 10. The flow of electrons through an insulator is very small. It can be ignored. Exercise 9 Join or rewrite the following statements with the words given in brackets. l. Laboratory equipment must be used carefully because the cost of replacing it is very high. (for reasons of) ...................................................................................................................................... 2. Only solids have to be disposed of. Most of the liquid cool is from evaporation. (as) ...................................................................................................................................... 3. The worker did not pay attention to what he was doing. He cut himself. (because) ...................................................................................................................................... 4. They turned on the air conditioning. It was hot. (due to) ...................................................................................................................................... 5. The batch size is fairly small. Multiple loading of this particular component is not necessary. (because of) ...................................................................................................................................... 6. Rapid evaporation at the heating surface tends to make the steam wet. (thus) ...................................................................................................................................... 7. Worldwide standards are introduced. Vendors can focus on particular neighbourhoods within the realm of mechanical engineering. (as a consequence of) ...................................................................................................................................... 8. Implementation of good methods. The firm increases the production for the next year. (thereby causing) ......................................................................................................................................

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9. An air-conditioning system allows indoor temperature to be conditioned. (the result of) ...................................................................................................................................... 10. The continuing improvement in hardware technology has caused CAD, CAM and CAE to expand. (result from)
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Developing Skills
Activity 1
Read the text and find the different types of cause-effect relationships that appear in it.

A NEW LOOK FOR THE OFFICE WORK-PLACE The constant evolution of computer technology has created the need for the adoption of flexible office layouts in order to accommodate the ever changing material or physical requirements dictated mostly by new electronic innovations. This development has brought about the continuing disappearance of «office rooms» and the setting-up in their place, of open office space and the creation of personal «islands». The compact nature of computers and related equipment has brought about the creation of a restful sense of orderliness by eliminating the unsightly view of miscellaneous accessories. It's interesting to note that design in the office follows the requirements of necessity much more than in the home. Those who use designer modelled equipment and offices have played no part in their choice. Decisions carne from above and selection criteria were undoubtedly functional: state-of-the-art, reduced running costs, improved productivity. Choice of office furniture is conditioned by employee status, space available and, lastly looks and finish. (Times Magazine, October 1989, p. 5)

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The new look al modern offices

Activity 2 Write a summary or give your own opinion about the text (10 lines). ............................................................................................................................................... ............................................................................................................................................... ............................................................................................................................................... ............................................................................................................................................... ............................................................................................................................................... ............................................................................................................................................... ............................................................................................................................................... ............................................................................................................................................... ............................................................................................................................................... ...............................................................................................................................................

'Cause-effect relationships in technical English
Activity 3 Group discussion about one of the following subjects: 1. The effects of nuclear power p1ants in our environment. 2. Reasons for the appearance and deve10pment of computers.

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Activity 4 Complete the extract below with the following words: by - improving - avoid - or - to - meet - therefore.

TOWARD MORE EFFICIENT USE OF FOSSIL FUELS It will be impossible to (1) shortages of oil and natural gas. Power supplies must (2) be safeguarded to a substantial extent (3) making more efficient use of coal

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and nuclear power. Continued expansion of nuclear power programs is imperative in order (4L mitigate environmental problems, since it will be impossible to (5) demands for a considerable cut in global C02 emissions either by (6L the efficiency of fossil fuel utilization (7)-by increasing the contribution of renewable energies supplies. (Siemens Review, Fall1991, p. 20)

Unit 8. Hypotheses and conditioJ)s
Hipótesis y condiciones
Relación de condición-consecuencia
La llamada relación de condición-consecuencia, expresada por medio de oraciones condicionales, está constituida por una condición o hipótesis y su consecuencia lógica. Las oraciones condicionales se estructuran de la siguiente manera:
(1) oración subordinada: en ella se establece la condición, hipótesis o predicción. Viene introducida por la conjunción condicional (<<if»,<<unless», etc.). El significado que describe esta oración es lo que va a condicionar la oración principal. (2) oración principal: es la consecuencia formulada en la oración subordinada. directa de la condición o hipótesis

Veamos con el siguiente ejemplo cómo se construye una oración condicional:
If batteries are low, the electrical device does not work at all.

La oración subordinada viene introducida por el conector «IF»; es la que establece la condición o hipótesis a tener en cuenta: «Si las baterías (pilas) están bajas, oo.».
If batteries are low, oo.

La oración principal es la consecuencia de la condición planteada en la oración subordinada. El resultado o la consecuencia de que las baterías (o pilas) estén bajas es lo que viene dado en esta segunda oración; el resultado es que el mecanismo eléctrico no funciona.
oo.the electrical device does not work at al!.

En resumen, toda oración condicional está constituida por la siguiente estructura: condición (oración subordinada) + resultado o consecuencia (oración principal).

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Es importante recordar que, por lo general, las oraciones condicionales se utilizan en inglés técnico para expresar hipótesis, predicciones o posibles argumentos a partir de los cuales se puede o se pretende obtener un resultado concreto. Veamos ahora un texto desarrollado con este tipo de estructuras. Como acabamos de ver, todas las condiciones o hipótesis que aparecen están introducidas o señalizadas por el conector condicional. De cada una de estas condiciones podemos deducir una consecuencia en particular.
PROCESSOR SYSTEMS The communications processor has a watchdog timer which is continually reset by software during normal operation. If the watchdog timer is not reset, signaling a fault, the communications processor is automatically prevented from exercising control of the HP-IB. If the communications processor malfunctions, display of the ECG waveform and other parameters continues, but the controls on the display and the strip chart recorder will not function. If the display processor fails, no meaningful display is provided, but alarm and manual recordings (using the keys on the display) remain operational. (Hewlett-Packard Journal, November 1980, p. 16)

Exercise 1 Fill in the chart identify the results or consequences given in the fragment above. CONDlTION 1. 2. RESULT (a) (a) (b) (a) (b)

3.

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Write hypotheses or conditions for the following consequences. 1. If steam. 2. If developed. 3. If
checked. , the electrical circuit in the distributor must be

, water becomes , solar energy will have to be

4. If a dial one. 5. If you damaged when working with a grinding wheel.

, the reading will not be the correct

, your eyes will not be

Exercise 3 Now, write a consequence or result for the following statements. l. If the rivets are too near the edge of a metal surface, it 2. If pressure increases, the refrigerant 3. If a condensation process takes place, liquid 4. If the electricity supply is switched off, 5. If finished parts are not protected,
'''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''' .

. . . .

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Grammar Review Patterns of conditions
When we want to express a conditional statement about something that may or may not happen, we use a subordinate clause introduced by «IF» or other connector of condition. The subordinate clause will always be accompanied by a main clause in which the result or consequence is stated. If we want to place more emphasis on the result or consequence, we place the main clause first (the consequence), and then, the subordinate clause (the condition); if not, we do it the other way round. Look st the following examples:
If there is no petrol in the tank, the car will not move. (condition) + (consequence) The car will not move unless there is petrol in the tank. (consequence) + (condition)

Conditional sentences fall into three main types, according to the verb tenses which are used in both the conditional clause and the main clause. (1)We use the simple present (both in the main clause and the subordinate one) whenever the result takes place once the condition has been accomplished. The imperative form is mostly used when giving orders (direct instructions). IF + SIMPLE PRESENT... SIMPLE PRESENT / /MPERATIVE Examples: If a body is immersed in a fluid, its loss of weight is equal to the weight of the fluid displaced. If the electric power is off, the machines do not work. If the carburettor does not work, check its condition.

An alternative form to these general conditions is to use the simple future tense in the main clause, especially when we are sure (100% certainty) that the result stated in the main sentence will take place if the condition is accomplished.

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IF + SIMPLE PRESENT .0. SIMPLE FUTURE Examples: If we use a flexible coupling, we will avoid many troubles. If the sluice gates are opened, water will flow out of the lock. If a beaker is dropped, it will break into pieceso

(2)If the result af the canditian is uncertain ar daubtful, that is, when we are nat sure whether the result ar cansequence is gaing ta be fulfilled ar nat, the simple past is used in the subardinate c1ause and the simple canditianal (WOULD + inf. withaut TO) is the tense used in the main c1ause.
IF+ SIMPLE PAST, oo.SIMPLE CONDITIONAL Examples:

If we doubled the voltage, we would halve the current required. If they used a strong metal, the strength of the alloy would be higher. If a coupling were used, fatigue failure would be avoidedo

(3)Whenever we refer ta past canditians that did nat take place, the past perfect tense is used in the subardinate c1ause, and the perfect canditianal (WOULD + have + past participle) appears in the main c1ause.
IF + PAST PERFECT, Examples: If they had followed avoided the accident. the safety instructions, they would have oo.PERFECT CONDITIONAL

If they had lubricated the bearing, it would not have been damagedo

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Exercise 4 Read the following sentences and classify them into according to the three types of conditionals seen above. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. If the switch is pressed, the bell will ring. If we increased the thickness, the steel plate would be stronger. If a stronger material had been selected, losses would have been minimised. If we used this method, production costs would be reduced. If springs are used to hold the pannel, instability will be the result in the horizontal position. 6. Students fail their exams if they don't work hard during the year. 7. Teachers would have given good marks if students had studied more than usual. 8. If workers are not more careful, the number of accidents will inevitably grow.

Other ways of expressing conditions
We can also express conditional statements by using the following words or" structures: 1. UNLESS: its meaning is similar to «If not». «Unless» cannot be used in the third type of conditional clauses. Let us see how a sentence can be changed from an «if-conditional» to a condition introduced by «unless»:
Example: If there isn't too much material in the die, the hydraulic pressure does not increase. Unless there is too much material in the die, the hydraulic pressure does not increase.

2. PROVIDED (THAT)>>,«PROVIDING (THAT)>>,and «ON CONDITION (THAT)>>also introduce conditional statements: they are translated into Spanish as «con tal (de) que», «a condición (de) que» etc. Here is an example:
If welding is allowed to proceed, the error warnings are automatically reset. or Provided (that) / providing (that) / on condition that welding is allowed to proceed, the error warnings are automatically reset.

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Exercise S
Make similar sentences in meaning to the statements given below. l. If all delta registers reach their zero state, the movement completion signal is set. ........................................................................................................................................ 2. We may have a solution for you if you have a heat treating productivity problem. ........................................................................................................................................ 3. Full technical support and customer training is available if it is required. ........................................................................................................................................ 4. If any of the processor systems fails, the remaining processors do not continue to operate. ........................................................................................................................................ 5. Water cannot be formed if hydrogen and oxygen are not mixed together. ........................................................................................................................................

Hypotheses, predictions and recommendations
In technical English we usually come across with conditional structures whose main clauses have a modal verb (can / could, may / might, must, should, ought to, etc.), indicating degrees of probability, possibility, certainty, likelikess, etc. These structuras are widely used to express hypotheses, arguments or predictions, to make recommendations, etc.
Examples: If not installed properly, the radio equipment may cause interferences with radio and TV reception. If you have any question about the configuration of cache memory, you should consult your local dealer.

Besides, we should also remember that indirect instructions in technical English used the modal «MUST» in their structure. Very frequently, a conditional clause accompanies both direct and indirect instructions. For example:

--L

,--

,...

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Direct instruction: Change the brushes if they are worn. Indirect instruction: The brushes must be changed if they are worn. Exercise 6 Make hypotheses or predictions about one of the following subjects: 1. the use of nuclear energy 2. the development of computers 3. effects or results of friction in engineering systems 4. pipeline corros ion

............................................................................................................................................... ............................................................................................................................................... ............................................................................................................................................... ............................................................................................................................................... ...............................................................................................................................................

Exercise 7 Write the possible consequences of the following hypotheses or predictions. 1. If the temperature is too high, 2. Provided that additional problems are solved soon, 3. If the transmission systems did not work proper1y, 4. If fatigue failure appeared, 5. If the connected shafts had been in the proper place, . . .

.
.

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Developing
Activity 1

Skills

Read the text and answer the following sections. THE CHARACTERISTICS OF STANDARD ELECTRICAL PRODUCTS Electric motors covering the range from drives for data-processing equipment and machine tools to high-voltage motors for pumps, compressors and blowers have become indispensable to the modern economy. Low-voltage switchgear used as main switchboards, subdistribution boards and motor-control centers ensures that power distribution is suitably adapted to modern production processes. Switching devices that process instructions, monitor machines or make and break circuits constitute the links between the power source and the loads. Common to them all is that they are subject to international and national regulations, they are manufactured in large numbers and can be employed independent of the production technology. They are therefore defined as standard electrical products for industry. The reliability requirements for these standard products are very high because they see increasing use in complex installations where the failure of a single part can cause considerable damage. The great demand for this equipment necessitates short delivery times at prices that offer good value. These conditions have prompted manufacturers in the last 30 years to pay particular attention to the field of standard products. In fact, standardized ranges of motors and switchgear for almost every requirements have been created. High production volumes justify greater sophistication in production up to fully automatic production lines and testing facilities. Quality control carries particular importance here because it guarantees that the customer's technical requirements will be met even in large production runs. The Standard Products Division within Siemens' Power Engineering Group is mainly product and system oriented, in contrast to most other divisions oriented primarily towards various branches of industry; the universal applicability of standard products accounts lor this.

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Section A. General comprehension questions. 1. What are the main characteristics of standard electrical products?

2. What is the reason why requirements for these products are so reliable?

3. What does the great demand ask for?

4. Has there been any effect of such demand? If so, which one?

5. Where does the relevance of quality controllie?

Section B. Vocabulary development: Link each of the following terms with its corresponding definition: blower - switchgear - delivery - to prompt - to account for a. b. c. d. e. a. to be the reason of the act of handling over device for making, breaking or changing the connections in an electrical circuit a device for producing a current of air or gas to cause, to move to action

Activity 2 Expand the following notes into a longer paragraph. Growing concern about increase of carbon dioxide in the

atmosphere. Thought that this increase can rise the average temperatures in the world. Then, North and South Poles melt. Level of sea water rise. Countries flood. Other economic disasters take place.

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Activity 3 Make a list of observations and results about any mechanical, electrical or chemical system or device you know. Try to use as many conditional structures as possible of those seen in this unit.

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Unit 9. Technical instructions
Instrucciones técnicas
Resulta relativamente fácil encontrar en el inglés para las ramas técnica y tecnológica estructuras en forma de instrucción, pues son éstas unas de las construcciones que más se emplean tanto en el ámbito científico y de investigación como en el laboral. Libros de texto, manuales de laboratorio, folletos para el manejo de aparatos, etc., contienen todos ellos estructuras instruccionales. Como su nombre indica, las instrucciones técnicas nos proporcionan el conocimiento sobre el uso o manejo de instrumentos, máquinas o dispositivos, la puesta en marcha de un determinado método, práctica, experimento, etc. Existen tres tipos de estructuras en inglés técnico: instrucciones directas, indirectas, y la llamada información instruccional.

Instrucciones

directas e indirectas

Las instrucciones directas (<<direct instructions») se forman con el verbo en imperativo, seguido de un complemento directo. En las instrucciones indirectas (<<indirect instructions») el complemento directo de la estructura directa pasa a ser el sujeto de la instrucción indirecta. La forma verbal de imperativo se remplaza por un verbo modal (generalmente el verbo «MUST») seguido de un infinitivo en voz pasiva. En los dos ejemplos siguientes, la primera frase viene dada en forma de instrucción directa, mientras que la segunda es una instrucción indirecta. No obstante, ambas construcciones significan exactamente lo mismo.
(1) Unplug the device after using it. or (2) The device must be unplugged after being used.

(1) Do not mix water and sodium. or (2) Water and sodium must not be mixed.

Las instrucciones directas suelen aparecer en forma de listados, siguiendo un orden de numeración o una ordenación lógica. Las instrucciones indirectas,

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por el contrario, pueden formar párrafos o incluso un texto completo donde se incluya, por ejemplo, información adicional en relación con el aparato, dispositivo, etc., del que se trate.
Exercise 1 Say whether the following instructions are direct or indirect and change them to indirect or direct forms respectively. The VDU mounting should be provided with a rigid horizontal plate. Close the filter holder properly. Press the second pedal to stop the caro This machine must be kept out of the reach of children. Before plugging in, check the main voltage. If the main cord is damaged, it must be replaced by a special one. To remove the obstructions, let the air stream in opposite direction through the hose, pipe or nozzle. 8. Pull the handle in the direction of the arrow. 9. The limit should not be exceeded by the height of the water in the filter. 10. When the pilot light lights up, activate the steam outlet button. l. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7.

Información

instruccional

La información instruccional (<<instructionalinformation») es todo aquello que ayuda al lector a entender mejor las instrucciones, completando la información anterior. Acompaña tanto a instrucciones directas como indirectas, y puede añadir los siguientes tipos de información: precauciones (<<cautions»), avisos (<<warnlngs»), recomendaciones o sugerencias (<<recommendations», «suggestions»), notas addicionales «<notes»), especificaciones (<<specifying statements»), finalidad de la instrucción (<<purpose statements»), etc. He aquí algunos ejemplos que comúnmente aparecen en manuales o folletos informativos:
The balance will break under heavy loads. This part of the device should be handled with great careo Do not touch a plug with wet hands. This instrument also avoids short-circuit in the system. Only manual gearboxes need a pedal to be used; automatic gearboxes do not need any. Use an insulated wire-stripper to strip the cables to avoid direct contact with the electric current.

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Exercise 2 Complete the following sentences with their corresponding endings. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. a. b. c. d. e f g. h. Put the fire out ... Do not use cold water to flush the system when the engine is hot; ... Follow manufacturers' ... The bolts should not be ... The cylinder head must be protected so that ... Use a humidifier ... Prevent leakage ... Stick the label ... ... in compressors. ... on the correct item. ... recommended instructions. ... otherwise, it will break. it does not crack between the cylinder-head bolts. with the fire extinguisher. ... to increase the humidity in the air. ... slackened.

Exercise 3 Put the verb in brackets in the correct formo

SCAN SELECT QUICK MEMORY When the QUlCK button (1) (to press), stations (2L (to receive) beginning from the low and (3) (to move) in order to the high frequencies. When a station (4) (to receive), after (5) (to search) (to pause) for five seconds, it resumes (6) for the next station. This (7) (to repeat) until the (to reach). upper limit of the broadcast band (8)

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Grammar

Review

Patterns of technical instructions
Apart from giving orders, the imperative form of a verb is used in technical English for expressing instructions and instructional information (in user's manuals, warnings, suggestions, cautions, etc.).
Examples: Unplug the machine before cleaning it. Check the ignition system before starting the motor. In English, the imperative form of a verb is made with the bare infinitive (inf. without the particle «to»). Notice that the imperative does never have a subject.

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Examples: Check whether the connections have been made correctly. Tighten the bolts with a spanner.

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For negative sentences with an imperative form, we use the auxiliary «DO NOT» (or its contracted form «DON'T») before the bare infinitive. Examples:

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Do not open the safety valve. Do not handle chemical products without wearing gloves. Exercise 4 Look at the picture below and write instructions using both direct and indirect structures.

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Variations of modality in technical instructions
In order to change a direct instruction into an indirect one, the steps below should be followed: (l)the object ofthe imperative form in the direct instruction becomes the subject of the indirect statement. (2)after the subject of the indirect instruction, there comes the modal verb, usually the modal «must». (3)the modal is then followed by the main verb of the direct instruction, but this time, as an infinitive in the passive voice (be + past participle). Examples:
Switch the TV oo. The TV must / should be switched oo. Do oot allow water to draio ioto the filter. Water must / should oot be allowed to draio into the filter.

In General English, the modal «should» also indicates an idea of obligation, but much less strong than that of «must»; it is rather a kind of suggestion. Likewise, in technical English the verb «should» implies a given option, that is, the reader/user is free to follow or not what the instruction says. Let us further explain it with the examples below. In the first two examples the modal «should» implies an obligation, although it is not so strong as it would be with the use of «must»; it is a kind of obligation, but suggested in polite terms. In example 3, however, «should» implies that it is advisable to follow the instructions, but it is the reader/user's choice to do it or not:
(1) Work in a factory should be carried out taking into account a minimum of safety conditions. (2) Fragile items should oot be haodled with carelessness as they easily break. (3) Instructions for the use of such a complicated device should be read carefully.

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Exercise 5 Change the following instructions from direct to indirect form or viceversa. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. Protect your face with a mask. Switches must be turned off to prevent accidents. Do not touch the machine unless the power is off. Research should not be carried out without financial help. Copper cables must be replaced by optical cables in the nodes of telecommunication network. A fan must be installed to avoid excessive air pressure. Use a thermostat to regulate temperature. The flow of liquid must be regulated by an expansion valve. Car bodies should be protected from corrosion by means of several coats of paint. Filtration should be used in water treatment.

Exercise 6 Identify each of the following headings with its corresponding set of instructions. a. b. c. d. e. Setting the variable steam control. Setting the temperature for steam ironing. Iron ready for steam ironing. Filling with water. Connecting the iron to the electrical supply.

1. Steam is produced as soon as the iron is held horizontally. 2. Plug the iron into the electrical supply. The Temperature Light comes on and indicates that the iron is heating up. 3. Rest the iron on its heel and using the plastic measuring jug supplied, fill up to the 'max' mark with water. 4. Turn the Temperature Control Dial to the coloured steam section. Only very delicate synthetics should be ironed with the Temperature/Control dial set at the beginning of the coloured section. 5. Set the Variable Steam Control to the required level 0= lower steam, 10= high steam).

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Interpreting additional information in instructions
As seen before, instructiona1 information -in the form of observations, warnings, safety precautions, recommendations, etc.- provides a better understanding of a technical object, apparatus, device, method, etc., with respect to its use, performance or maintenance. This kind of information should therefore be interpreted as complementary data. This information is not essential in order to understand the main points when using a given machine or device, but it somehow he1ps to expand and further specify the strictly technical instructions given in a manual.

Exercise 7 Explain the additional information given in the following sets of instructions. a) SOLAC ESPRESSO BAR
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Do not switch on the coffee machine without making sure that
the voltage on the characteristics plate coincide with that in your house. Do not tum on the coffee machine without water in the reservoir. Do not immerse the machine or allow it to get wet. Keep it out of the reach of children.

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(b) REPLACING MOTOR PROTECTION SYSTEM IN A VACUUM CLEANER After some time, the motor protection filter will need replacement. For that reason a new motor protection filter is provided with each set of original Philips HR 6938/0slo dustbags. You can simply replace this filter when placing the first of this set of dustbags.

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Developing Skills
Activity 1
Follow these instructions: 1. Select an instrument, device, apparatus, etc., from the drawings below. 2. Write instructions about the object you have chosen. 3. Write some instructional information to complement the instructions.

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Activity 2 Complete the following two extracts regarding the handling of a record player unit with the words given below.

excessive

- in - unit - not - it - location

- to - may - sunlight - or

A. Location Install the (lL in a well ventilated location where (2) will not be exposed (3) high temperature (4L humidity. Do (5L install the unit in a (6) which is exposed to direct (7) , or near to hot appliances or radiators. (8) heat can adversely affect the cabinet and internal components. Installation of the unit (9) a damp or dusty environment (10) result in malfunction or accident.

as - cause

- such - for - be - performance
generating - installed

- off - placing -

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B. Precautions regarding installation Placing and using the unit (l1L long periods on heat(12) sources such (13) amplifiers will affect (14) . Avoid (15) the unit on the heatgenerating sources. Install the unit as far as possible from TV sets. The unit (l6L in close proximity to such equipment may (17) noise or degradation of the picture. Such noise may (18) particularly noticeable when an indoor antenna is used. In (19) a case, make use of an outdoor antenna, or turn (20)_power to the unit.

Unit 10. Visual-verbal relationships
La relación visual-verbal
Se llama relación visual-verbal (<<visual-verbal»relationship) a la que se establece entre una ilustración (diagrama, dibujo, tabla, gráfico, etc.) y un texto. La información visual tiene como principal objetivo clarificar los contenidos expuestos anteriormente, proporcionar una información adicional, o dar una explicación más detallada. A menudo, el material ilustrativo viene dado en forma de funciones comunicativas específicas, es decir, se describe, se define, se clasifica, etc. Todo texto que acompañe a una información visual debe mencionar cuándo tiene el lector que mirar a la ilustración, por qué se ha introducido dicho elemento visual, y cuál es la relación que existe entre el texto y la aportación visual.

Tipos de relación visual-verbal
Podemos encontrar los siguientes casos: (a) si el texto es más importante que la ilustración y, por tanto, la ilustración viene determinada por la información del texto, nos encontramos normalmente con ilustraciones (dibujos o fotografías) de objetos descritos, diagramas de procesos, cuadros clasificatorios, etc. Este tipo de información visual suele aparecer bien junto al texto, o bien en apéndices adjuntos al mismo. De esta forma, el elemento visual clarifica o respalda los contenidos expuestos en el texto, por lo que las ilustraciones se suelen colocar junto al mismo. (b) si la información viene dada primordialmente por el elemento visual, éste puede ser información a modo de resumen (en gráficas o tablas), información locacional (en mapas), recopilación de datos o porcentajes (tablas numéricas), etc. En general, es todo tipo de información difícil de describir de forma detallada con palabras y que queda mejor explicada visualmente.

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Read the text and answer the following questions. 1. Does the visual give additional or relevant information? 2. Which communicative function does the visual develop? 3. What is the function of the visual? Figure 3 shows the number of nuclear power plants and the proportion of generating capacity they account for in a number of countries. With 111 nuclear power plants, the USA has more than any other nation; but France, which generates 75% of its electricity from nuclear sources, has the greatest installed nuclear generating capacity. Germany is somewhere in the middle: in the former Federal states 20 nuclear power plants are in operation, generating almost 40% of all electricity supplied to the public grid. In the new German states, the five nuclear power plants that were in operation contributed a meager 10% to the public grid. For the moment, these plants have been shut down for safety reasons and are not likely to resume service.
Proportion of electricity produced with nuclear power
Nuclear power plants in operation

World total 424 USSR U.SA Great Britain Japan Spain Germany (former Fed. states only) Switzerland Sweden Belaium France 55 111 40 39 10 20 5 12 7 54

Nuclear power plants and relative installed nuclear generating capacity in various countries. (Siemens Review, Fall1991, p. 19)

Visual-verbal Exercise 2

relationships

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Look at the diagram below and interpret the information given in it.

Japan's present industrial production. The upper left quadrant proves the most attractive because productivity and income are greater in high-technology industries, and competitive industries generate greater profits. The size of the boxes indicates the relative importance of each industry. (Siemens Review, 1981. nQ2, p. 27)

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Grammar

Review

Cornrnunicative functions with visual-verbal relationships
Visual information can provide us with the physical characteristics of any given object, device or instrument. In this way, visuals give us information about the main parts or components the device or object consists of. As far as process description in technicallanguages is concerned, the so called «flow-charts» or «flow-diagrams» visually display information about the performance of any kind of machine or instrumento They also provide us with an explanation of the different stages (or one stage in particular) of the development of a given process. The following example may illustrate how the visual-verbal re1ationship can be grounded, for instance, on a physical description.
A MILLING-MACHINE A milling-machine is composed of two main assemblies: the overarm and the knee assembly. The former consists of three parts: a cutter, an arbor and an overarm. The first one is located on a shaft (called the arbor) below the overarm and between two vertical arms. The lower assembly is also formed by three parts: the work table, at the top of the knee assembly, the saddle, and the knee, which is at the bottom of this assembly.

A knee-assembly type milling machine

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Other ways or functions for developing contents (that is, through c1assification, instructions, cause-effect relationships, etc.) are usually accompanied by visual information. In the example below, the information conveyed in visual terms (the diagram) summarizes the c1assification of rivets developed in it:

RIVETS
We can c1assify rivet heads according to their different uses. Rivets which are used for joints where little strength is necessary are called «fIat head rivets». On the other hand, where a fIush surface is required, both «countersunk» and «mushroom» head rivets are preferred. The latter can also be used for strong joints. Apart from these three kinds, there are two more types of rivets: «roundhead» and «pan-head» rivets, which are recommended for joints which must be very strong. This last type is specially designed for heavy constructional engineering because of its exceptional strength.

Figure 1: CLASSIFICATION OF RIVETS AND THEIR USES RIVETS fIat head countersunk mushroom roundhead pan head USES little strength fIush furnace fIush furnace & strong joints very strong joints very strong joints & exceptional strength

Exercise 3 Complete the text with the missing words and the help of the information given in Fig. 2. speech, output(s), voice, exerciser, application, words, computers, vocabulary, package

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SPEECH LIBRARY SOf'TWARE Fig. 2 illustrates the speech software (1) used by HP 1000 and HP 3000 (2L to generate speech output with the 27201A Speech Output Module. This package provides severa1 useful features. First, it provides a (3L------of over 1700 commonly used words and sounds in a form ready to be downloaded to a module and spoken. Second, the package provides easy access to these (4L and sounds. Third, the speech software provides a data base structure for the speech data and a program for managing the data base. Fourth, the software makes it easy for a user to include speech (5) in the user's application programs. The VX ((6) (7) ) program lets the user control the 27201A without having to code module commands and speech data in a programo The interactive access provided by VX 1ets the user clear the module, download se1ected (8) data to it, and cause it to speak by using only a few keystrokes. Thus, a user can listen to different (9) quickly to choose the best sounding one for the user's (lO) (Hewlett-Packard Journal, January 1984, pp. 35-36)
Word Library (Raw vocabulary)

VSCHMA (IMAGE schema lile)

VMNGR-Data

Base

VX-Voice Exerciser Utility (Speech output, speech lile development)

Manager Utility (Word editing and generation)

IMAGE Vocabulary Data Base (Word and sourod library)

Fig. 2. Outline 01the Speech Library software package lor HP 1000 and HP 3000 Computers.

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The use of modality in technical English
Some verbs and auxiliaries from the common core of general English receive a special treatment when they are used in technical contexts. Here are some of these instances. The auxiliary «will», for example, apart from expressing a future time as in its general use, is also employed in a technical context to indicate absolute certainty, that is, to imply that the thing or event stated will certainly be fulfilled.
If a beaker faUs, it will break. The construction of the new building will be reinitiated as soon as financial problems are solved.

On the other hand, when expressing possibility, the modals «can», «could», «may» and «might» are used when there is not 100% certainty. The modals «can» and «could» are also used to express possibility or ability to do something. When ability is expressed, some other expressions can also be employed, such as «to be able to + inf.», «to be capable of + gerund», «to have the ability to + inf.», «to have the capacity to + inf.», etc.
You can get a better salary if you work very hard. This computer has the capacity to perform several functions in a short time. This state-of-the-art machinery is capable of increasing / able to increase production up to 20%.

The modal «can» is also used when asking for permission in an informal way. The past form of «can», «could», is rather more formal:
Can I open the window of the workshop? It is very hot inside. (a worker addressing another worker) Could I open the window of the workshop? (a worker addressing the boss)

When the permission is not granted, the negative form is used (<<cannot», could « not «, «couldn't»):
Workers cannot leave the factory till six o'clock. The firm could not signed the contract because the shareholders didn't want to accept its conditions.

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The modals «may» and «might» (the past form of «may») are mainly used to express probability, that is, not absolute certainty about something to happen. As said before, we use the auxiliary «will» when it is absolutely certain that something is going to happen; when it is almost or quite certain, we use «can»; if it rarely happens, «may» is used, and when it is almost impossible to happen, «might» is preferred.
Lubrication of the main parts will reduce friction. A crane can lift heavy loads. The testing of the new machine may take a long time. The government might invest in research and development, but it is almost impossible it is going to do so because of the critical state of the country's economy.

The modals ~<must»and «have to» (<<had as the past tense of both modals) to» are both used to express obligation. Nevertheless, whereas «must» suggest an obligation imposed by the speaker, «have to» implies an external obligation (imposed, for instance, by an authority or external circumstances). Here are some examples:
We must handle electrical devices with careo We must follow the safety instructions to prevent accidents. You have to pay attention if you want to learn how to solve these problems. You have to accept the employer's conditions if you want to get the job.

It is important to remember that in technical English, the modal «must» is widely used in indirect instructions. For example:
Careful must be taken when handling poisonous substances. etc.

The modals «should» or «ought to» are both used to indicate suggestions, and in technical contexts, for giving recommendations:
This type of rivets should / ought to be used when there is a flush surface. This method should be used when strong joints are required. Guards should be correctly positioned to be fully effective.

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The verb «need» is used to express necessity.
The company needs a huge amount of money to buy the new machinery. A great investment is needed to carry out this important research. The negative form of «need» can be either «needn't» (when the one who speaks gives his/her permission not to do something, as in example 1), or «do not need» (when there is no need to do something, but it is done, as in example 2). (1) You needn't finish all your tasks right now. You can finish them tomorrow. (2) You don't need to worry so much about the managers' dispute; otherwise, you will get a headache. Exercise 4 Complete the following sentences with the appropriate modal verbo .1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. A force cause an object to shift its position. If the bearings are not lubricated, they become damaged. Power plants generate thousands of watts of electric power. This problem be approached from several points of view. The reactions of chemical substances be represented by chemical equations. Water turn into steam at 1000 C. If the oil filter is not changed regularly, it become blocked. This new type of computer solve many problems in the field of industrial designo Some material s resist the passage of electric current through them. If a metal cools rapidly, it fracture.

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Developing
Activity 1

Skills

Read the text below and answer the following sections.

FUEL EFFICIENCY AND COGENERATION Fuel efficiency is an effective way to decrease emissions throughout most of the world. The energy input to products can be decreased through integration of different energies through recyc1ing, production modification, more efficient transportation, etc. In energy production the key factor is cogeneration rather than condensing power production with fossil fuels as shown in figure 3, which compares these two approaches. Cogeneration takes place when heat is liberated from the fuel. It is first used in turbines to produce electricity. After that the waste's heat is used for district heating or other heating purposes. When the heat is gained from the waste, no extra fuel is needed as in separate electricity and heating production. In Finland most of the heat loads are utilized for cogeneration and development work is taking place to increase the power-to-heat ratio (see table 2). When the ratio is increased from 0.5 to 1, a plant producing 200 megawatts of heat for district heating is increasing its high efficiency electricity from 100 to 200 megawatts. Through combined cyc1epower production more cogenerated power with high efficiency can be produced. The combined cyc1e, where instead of a steam cyc1e the plant has gas turbines and a steam cyc1e using waste heat from gas turbines, is available for natural gas distillates and other «easy fuels». For solid fuels, pressurized combustion or gasification is required. Development work is taking place in many countries around the world. (Environmental Engineering Education Bulletin, Autumn 1993, pp. 6-7)

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C02 emission due electricity production 9 C02/kWh electricity
1000 Coal, conventional technology

500

Finnish average (including hydro, nuclear)

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Condensing power plant
TECHNOLOGY Figure 3. Cogeneration is an effective way to reduce COz-emissions.

Cogeneration

T abi¿ 2. The efficiencies and power to heat ratios oi various power production systems. Power/heat ratio Effiency (LHV) % 85 85 85 85 85 85 38-44 52-56 45-48 44 - 47

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DISTRICT HEATING POWER PLANTS conventional: coal

natural gas (Combined cycle) - gasification IGCC: coal - pressurized combustion - PFBC: coal INDUSTRIAL POWER PLANTS - conventional: wood waste, peat, coal - gasification IGCC: wood waste, peat, coal CONDENSING POWER PLANtS - conventional: coal natural gas (Combined cycle) - gasification IGCC: coal - pressurized combustion PFBC: coal

0.48 - 0.58 1.0 0.75 0.65 0.1 - 0.25 - 0.35 0.5 - 0.65 - 0.75

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Section 1. Answer the following questions. 1. Why is fuel efficiency effective when trying to decrease emissions?

2. What two approaches does figure 3 show?

3. How does the text define the word «cogeneration»?

4. How is fuel efficiency and cogeneration being used in Finland?

5. What is needed for the special case of solid fuels?

Section 2. Discuss the following points. 1. Which is the purpose of the visual information of Fig. 3? 2. What kind of communicative function does the text contain?

3. Does the text indicate when the reader has to look at the visual information? How?

4. What kind of relationship is there between the text and the visual?

Unit 11. Technical reports, abstracts and articles
Informes técnicos, abstracts y artículos
Son muy diversas las actividades profesionales de hoy en día que requieren el uso del idioma inglés. Podríamos citar por ejemplo la redacción de informes, abstracts, conferencias, ponencias, artículos, etc., entre otros documentos empleados en los ámbitos profesional, académico y de investigación. No obstante, cabría mencionar que existen también otras muchas situaciones prácticas en las que el inglés escrito se hace imprescindible. Así, por ejemplo, aparte de actividades orales como conversaciones telefónicas, entrevistas y reuniones o encuentros con otros colegas extranjeros, etc., un especialista necesita un lenguaje formal para comunicarse a través de cartas comerciales, faxes, impresos, etc.; en general, todo tipo de cuestiones burocráticas.

Informes

técnicos

Siempre que se nos pida un informe sobre cualquier máquina, instrumento, aparato, experimento, proceso, método, etc., debemos tener en cuenta los siguientes apartados. En primer lugar, hay que utilizar un lenguaje sencillo, con frases cortas, y con una clara construcción gramatical. Ante todo debe primar la sencillez y la objetividad expositivas. Seguidamente se debe fijar un orden a seguir en nuestra exposición, es decir, empezar hablando de lo más general para pasar a continuación a lo particular o a lo más concreto. Además de esta estructura lógica, es muy frecuente también que los informes se ajusten a la llamada estructura problema-solución, donde, como ya hemos visto, se plantea un problema y se ofrece una solución y un juicio valorativo -bien positivo, o bien negativo- sobre dicha solución. Si se trata de una máquina, instrumento, dispositivo, etc., daremos una descripción o definición general del mismo, para luego pasar a una descripción detallada -física, funcional, etc.- de cada uno de sus componentes. Asimismo, también se pueden utilizar otras funciones comunicativas tales como la clasificación en partes o en tipos, la definición de cada uno de los componentes que lo

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integran, etc. Al mismo tiempo, se puede hacer uso, por ejemplo, de instrucciones, de relaciones causa-efecto, de construcciones condicionales, etc. En resumen, de todas las distintas estructuras lingüísticas o formales propias del inglés especializado. Si sobre 10que estamos informando es un experimento o hecho, en primer lugar señalaremos la hipótesis a demostrar o los planteamientos iniciales de los que se parte, así como el propósito a conseguir. Seguidamente, haremús una descripción o referencia a cada uno de los pasos que se han seguido en dicho experimento u observación. Finalmente, se llegará a unas conclusiones o soluciones con respecto a lo que anteriormente se ha ido exponiendo. Finalmente, podemos añadir información adicional o complementaria mediante inserción de elementos visuales junto al texto, con el fin de que dicha información visual pueda servir de ayuda -a modo de aclaración o información complementaria- a la persona que lea el informe.

Cómo redactar un informe técnico

.

El siguiente es un informe sobre un sistema informático, y se ha desarro-

llado de acuerdo con la estructura general que acabamosde explicar.
1. The new computer system A-34 consists of the usual software but a state-of-the-art hardware. This hardware comprises the different types of equipment or devices available together with the computer. In the software, the last programs that have recently appeared in the computers market in the U.S. have been inc1uded. 2. (a) As usual, two components form hardware: the central processing unit (CPU) and the peripheral equipment. The former not only controls all the devices, but also processes the information which is introduced to and taken out of the computer. The latter is used, first, to give information to the computer as input; secondly, to store this information. And finally, to get this information from the computer, that is, the so called output. 2. (b) As for the first category of peripheral equipment, input, we should point out that its most complex and sophisticated mechanism is the keyboard. This keyboard has been designed with the latest technology. Moreover, it has been given an anatomical configuration in order to facilitate the typewriting to a great extent.

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On the other hand, storage devices fall into two categories -tape and disk. Both kinds have been provided with the most advanced technologies that have been developed in recent years. Finally, two important parts of the computer, the visual display unit (VDU) and the printer, can be c1assified as types of output devices. By means of them we can obtain all kind of information required at any time or any given momento 3. The computer system also contains a guide intended as an introduction for beginners. In it, many commands, functions, keywords, and other elements have been explained in detail.

A-34 Computer System

La siguiente es la estructura seguida en el informe anterior: (1) Descripción general sobre el sistema informático. Está desarrollada mediante una definición por partes y una descripción física de cada uno de sus principales componentes. Dicha descripción viene señalizada por palabras como «consists of», «means», etc. Existe también una evaluación positiva señalizada por el adjetivo «state-of-the-art». (2) Descripciones física y funcional de los distintos componentes del ordenador. Esta descripción sigue un orden lógico. En el apartado (a) se definen las dos partes principales del sistema: el CPU y el sistema periférico. El

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apartado (b) explica con más detalle el segundo de estos componentes. También aparece una posible señalización clasificatoria, así como una evalación positiva indicada por términos como «complex», «sophisticated», «latest technology», «anatomical configuration», «to facilitate», etc. (3) Una vez que el sistema ha sido descrito, el punto tercero proporciona información adicional o complementaria. En él se nos explica, por ejemplo, que existe un manual del usuario para una mejor y más fácil utilización del ordenador.

Exercise 1 Complete the following World Market Report with the past tense of the verbs given below. to be to increase to drop to reach to bring to reflect

The U.S. Machine tool industry (1) its output ofbasic metal-cutting and metal-forming tools by 21% in 1980, according to NMTBA. Machine-tool shipments for the year (2) $4.7 billion. However, new 1980 orders for machine tools (3) 16% for the year. Their value (4) $4.66 billion, but «this modest order decline, which (5L orders more nearly into balance with shipments, (6L high interest rates and recessionary fears during the year», according to Association president James A. Gray. (IAMI, 3/1981, p. 94)

Exercise 2 Write down a short report on one of the following devices: 1. an electric circuit 2. a microcomputer 3. a bar-code reader 4. photocopier 5. printer

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Electronic

devices

Exercise 3

Fill in the blanks with the words given below. to been

accuracy computer

digital developed

mechanical measuring

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English in Technical Engineering LARGE-SCALE THREE-DIMENSIONAL MEASURING MACHINE A 1arge-sca1e, three-dimensional OL machine has recently been developed that makes it possible (2L--record the coordinates of 1arge surfaces and objects with 10x the (3) of previous such machines. The machine was (4) at the Center for Mechanical Engineering and Process Technology, U.S. Dept. of Commerce, Gaithersburg, Maryland, U.S.A., by (5) engineer William Haight and physicist Robert Hocken (pictured below). It is built around three (6) theodolites, a laser projector,

and a desk-top OL

,

The machine is completely

portable and has (8L used, for example inside a 36-m diam. LNG (liquified natural gas) cargo tank. (IAMI, 311981, p.15)

Picture

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Abstracts y artículos
A la hora de elaborar por escrito un tema especializado hay que tener en cuenta, por un lado, que la información esté expresada de la forma más concisa y objetiva posible, y, por otro, que el texto que elaboremos sea no sólo coherente en cuanto a sus contenidos sino que también tenga cohesión gramatical. Asimismo, hay que prestar especial atención al estilo del texto escrito (dependiendo de si éste tiene que ser formal o no formal), así como al propósito con el que se escribe (informar, evaluar, persuadir, etc.) y al tipo de público al que va destinado (público general, especialistas, etc.). Todo artículo especializado en inglés científico-técnico sigue la siguiente estructura a la hora de presentar los contenidos: 1. título (<<title») 2. resumen (<<abstract») 3. introducxión (<<introduction») 4. desarrollo (<<main body») 5. conclusiones (<<conclusions») 6. agradecimientos (<<acknowledgements») 7. bibliografía (<<ibliographical references») b 8. apéndices (<<appendixes») El título del artículo tiene que ser claro, simple y lo más conciso posible; palabras como «study», «approach», «findings», «reference», «analysis», «description», etc., suelen introducir los títulos de artículos. El «abstract» es un breve resumen o presentación de las ideas sobre las que el texto va a tratar. De esta forma, el lector puede conocer si el tema que se aborda es o no de su interés. Por lo general, el abstract se refiere al experimento o estudio que se ha llevado a cabo, así como a las hipótesis de las que se parte, los métodos empleados y los procedimientos seguidos. Normalmente no se suelen incluir conclusiones con el fin de que el lector lea el texto completo. El siguiente sería un ejemplo de abstract para un artículo o ponencia:
A modern ultrasonic inspection system is finding increased use as a replacement for conventional ultrasonic equipment in many of its present applications. This article describes the P-Scan System and its applications in quality control of new welds, a field where documentation of quality is subject to ever-increasing demands by buyers and certifying authorities.

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Tras el abstract comienza propiamente el artículo en sí. Este consiste en una introducción o presentación de lo que se va a tratar (<<introduction»),seguida del desarrollo (<<mainbody») o explicación detallada del estudio, experimento, análisis, etc., llevado a cabo (instrumentos y métodos empleados, posibles errores o problemas que han aparecido, pasos del proceso, etc.). Por lo general, este apartado se desarrolla mediante contrastes, comparaciones, ejemplos, datos, elementos visuales, etc., con el fin de respaldar, detallar y clarificar los contenidos que se están explicando. El artículo debe terminar con las conclusiones (<<conclusions» a las que se ) ha llegado, así como con los resultados (<<results»)que se han obtenido. A veces, el artículo incluye también recomendaciones y sugerencias, evaluaciones personales sobre los resultados obtenidos, etc. Finalmente, los apartados con los que todo artículo especializado debe concluir son los siguientes: los agradecimientos (<<acknowledgements»)a personas o instituciones por la ayuda prestada, las referencias bibliográficas (<<bibliographicalreferences») que se han empleado para el estudio o experimento y, con frecuencia, un apéndice (<<appendix»)en el que se incluyen todos los datos numéricos, etc., que se han obtenido en dicho estudio.

'Exercise 4 Write a short abstraet with the help of the following notes. 1. Survey on the use of clean energy. 2. Need for alternative sourees of energy. 3. Advertising campaign against environmental threats. ............................................................................................................................................... ............................................................................................................................................... ............................................................................................................................................... ............................................................................................................................................... ............................................................................................................................................... ............................................................................................................................................................... ...............................................................................................................................................................

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Exercise 5
Read the text below and answer the following sections.
SPECIAL ADVERTISING SECTION

ARTIFICIAL REAlITY

Illuslraled: Ipermilano Multimedia Aeeess program cleveloped al Ihe University oi Milall. A map oi Ihe cily showillg its roadlrail syslem, ele. shows up Oll computer sereens.

MAKING KNOWLEDGE LIVE WITH COMPUTERS
by G;ann; Dcgli Antoni Information Sciences Department Un;versity of Milan

omputers are becoming more powerful and cheaper. Every day new announcements and new companies are astonishing experts and non-experts alike. Selling computers is getting ever more diftkult: margins decrease, the cost of computer units decrease. To survive, companies ha ve to employfewerpeople to sell more units. The buyers are faced with a bewildering variety of products, hardware and software. Computer users scarcely have time to leam how to use a computer model before an improved version appears. Frequently the maintenance cost of the old computer dictates changing to a new model. But the process has its bottleneck: the cost of training new people in the computing field. How to solve the problem 7T echnology produced it; technology will solve it. And the solution seems immediate: to minimize the instruction needed to use computers. Obviously experts will always be needed and more experíence is required by them. In fact, experts in designing computers and information systems have to give continuity to different generations of computer technology: the migration of data, software

C

and organizations froffi1the past to the future through new technologies is the experts' diff~cult problem. If they fail, cost incr~ases and the competitiveness of the organizations, whether public or pnvate, suffers. But it has been shown that if things are represented on the video display and are handled directly as if they were real objects, the cost of instruction can be reduced: the user can relate directly to concepts represented on the video. No complex communication languages are required: the video is a theater in which the user is identified with a pointer moved by his hand. Technology made popular by the Apple Mackintosh is giving a new dimension to computing Artificial reality is made possible by the new o~ject-oriented programing technologies by powerful graphical microprocessors, by immense storage

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units based on optical discs and by the introduction of TV technologies into the personal workstations. An example is that of the mayor ofMilan.In his desktop video computer, the map of the city will appear. On it various projects under way wil! be represented. The mayor will cal! up some of them by touching with the mouse pointer. A bridge under construction will appear: cost, designers, regulations,. difficulties, suggestions and other information related to the bridge wil! be immediately accessible to the mayor. It is easy to imagine the rest: it is om futme that artificial reality is making more visible. With the artificial reality approach and with al! the multimedia technology available, infoffilation technology will becomc multimedia. Speech, graphics, images, animation and moving pictures wil! be integrated with computer networks. It wil! be difficult to classify future products - TV, voice recorder, calculator, data bank, image bank, intelligent tutoring system, number cruncher, problem solver, distance \-vork coordinator, support to reading and composition, game machine...! NOl It wil! combine all.

English in Technical Engineering
And Europe has a great opportunity from multimedia systems: entering a praject and an organization via a multimedia system reduces instruction and the need for language competence, and makes access to data easy and pleasant.

Perhaps more technology is needed. Perhaps Emope will buy more from the United States and Japan. But one thing is certain. Eurapean quality and cultme will survive only if these qualities are built into the European artificial reality worlds. To forget this dimension is to neglect the Renaissance and the wealth of tradition and history. Once stone was a key material. Again a stone (silicon) is crucial and once more the stone will have to reflect European culture.

Making knowledge live with computers (Time Magazine October 1989. Special Advertising

Section)

Section A Analyse the structure of the article, and explain how ideas have been developed.

Section B Answer the following questions according to the text. l. What does the text deal with?

2. What is the present situation of the computer market?

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3. Which is the main obstac1e when using computers?

4. What do you understand by «multimedia»?

5. What are the future prospects of computers?

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Developing
Activity 1

Skills

Read the following report about pipeline corrosion and write a short summary about it.

Studies Are Aimed At Pipeline Corrosion
Two studies aimed at reducing corrosion of underground gas pipelines are being conducted by researchers at BattelIe's Columbus, Ohio, U.S.A., Laboratories for Gas Research Institute. The fírst study is designed to gain a basic understanding of how corrosion occurs in buried pipelines. Through it, researchers hope to develop a better fundamental understanding of techniques which control corrosion of mild steel which has been buried underground. This knowledge should provide insights necessary for designing better corrosion control systems. The second study wiIl be on the effectiveness of cathodic-protection systems in preventing corrosion in gas pipelines. The researchers wiIl study the current and future status of cathodic protection systems designs, and the present practices for monitoring the effectiveness of these systems. Researchers will then evaluate worldwide techniques used to measure pipe-to-soil potential and then identify factors which contribute to the corrosion of cathodialIy protected pipes. Both studies, Battelle spokesmen say, could result in a reduction in the annual number of gas leaks attributable to corrosion in gas pipelines. (IAMI vol. 9, nQ7, 1981, p.23)

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Activity 2 Write a short article on one of the following topies. 1. Eleetronie data proeessing has opened new applieation areas in industry. 2. Inflation has reaehed one of the highest levels in history. 3. Use of eontaminants in industry.

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Activity 3

Oral diseussion about any given method or test used in the field of Industrial Engineering. Points to follow in the argument: l. 2. 3. 4. 5. the purpose of the test, method, experiment, ete. the equipment used the method(s), means, deviees, ete. for earrying it out eonclusions: advantages and disadvantages reeommendations and further suggestions

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Unit 12. Miscellaneous correspondence
Correspondencia formal
Correspondencia escrita
Además de informes, ponencias y artículos, de indudable naturaleza especializada, es necesario conocer otros documentos que también se emplean en los ámbitos profesional y académico. Cartas solicitando un trabajo, un catálogo o lista de precios, información sobre cursos, órdenes de envío o de pago, invitaciones, etc., son algunas de las ocasiones en las que se requiere el inglés escrito como forma de comunicación en el contexto laboral. Como documentos de carácter formal, las cartas se ajustan al siguiente diseño (<<layout»):
1. LETTERHEAD 2. REFERENCES 3. DATE 4. ADDRESSEE'S NAME AND ADDRESS 5. SALUTATION 6. SUBJECT TITLEIREFERENCE 7. BODY OF THE LETTER 8. CONCLUSION AND COMPLIMENTARY CLOSE 9. SIGNATURE 10. COMPANY POSITION 11. ENCLOSURES / COPIES

Organización de contenidos
La organización de los contenidos de una carta tiene que ajustarse tanto de acuerdo con una estructura interna (presentación o introducción de contenidos, desarrollo, conclusiones) como a nivel de dicsurso (coherencia y cohesión). Para transmitir información de la forma más precisa posible, los contenidos que se presentan deben seguir un orden expositivo lógico. Veamos el siguiente ejemplo:

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EDN Computer Center 2310 CA Hoffddorp, The Netherlands Starlight Enterprises 11 New Fetter Lane London EC4P 4EE Dear Sirs, We are delighted to enclose the 1994 EDN catalogue. You will find that it includes an innovative selection of new products suited to your own technical research interests and to the needs of your company. In particular, this year's catalogue sees some outstanding news on the field of electronic technology. For example, the new MathCAD stand s as the answer to problems involving engineering calculations or scientific analysis. This program includes such built-in features as matrix operations, simultaneous equation solver, real and complex numbers, dynamic error flagging, automatic unit conversions and fast fourier transformo Math CAD eliminates tedious programming and debugging, display s instant answers as you change variables, and generates quick plots to help you view results. We are, in addition, extremely proud to announce our new data acquisition software machine DT2831, our unique hardware design that eliminates all manual adjustments by means of a software control that handles instantly and automatically both data acquisition set up and calibration. Complementing our commercial policy is a substantial marketing and sales operation, ensuring that we meet your needs not only in the products we offer, but also in the services we provide. Therefore, to order any of our products, you will find order forms in the centre pages of the catalogue, or you can order direct on our Custom Hotline - 1264 342921. We aim to dispatch within five working days of receipt of your order. In case you have any comments or suggestions, or if you are interested in receiving more information on any particular item, please write to Math Soft, Inc. Kendall Square, Cambridge, Mass. 02139. We look forward to receiving your order or your suggestions. Yours faithfully John McCarthy Sales Director

20 May 1994

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Los contenidos que en en la carta anterior se desarrollan siguen una estructura lógica: introducción (se expresa la intención por la que se escribe la carta; en este caso, mandar el catálogo anual), desarrollo (detalles, especificaciones, etc., sobre los nuevos productos e innovaciones que aparecen en dicho catálogo), y conclusión (se pide una respuesta al mensaje transmitido en la carta; esto es, solicitar más información, pedir alguno de los productos anunciados, etc.). Dentro de este marco general hay diversas formas de desarrollo más específico de los contenidos en una carta: pasar de lo general a lo particular, detallar, dar una generalización para después especificada mediante ejemplos, hacer un listado de especificaciones, plantear un problema y sugerir u ofrecer la solución al mismo, etc.

Exercise 1 Complete the following letter with the information given below. WATSON LIMITED Berkeley Road London E8 (1) Broadway New York U.S.A. Dear Sirs We are pleased to advise you that order M/621684 has now been despatched. The (3L are in five separate (4) numbered 1 to 5. The consignment is on the M.V. Mediterranean, which left London on (5L and is due in New York on 11 August. We have sent to Barc1ays Bank at 168 French Street, c1ean, shipped on board (6) of Lading in triplicate endorsed and marked as requested, (7L Certificates in duplicate, a Certificate of (8L and our invoice in (9)___. We hope that the drills prove suitable for your customers' needs and look forward to receiving your next arder. Yours faithfully (10) Sales Manager Your ref: CH/MY Our ref: ABILD (2)_____---

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Company to be notified: Swanson's Incorporated Sender of the letter: Charles McClink Date: 4 August 1995 Goods sent: electric drills Details of package: crates 1-5 Shipment's departure and arrival: 2-August / ll-August Documents enclosed / copies: Bill of Lading (3 copies), Insurance Certificates (2 copies), Certificate of Origin, Invoice (3 copies). Exercise 2 The following is a jumbled letter. Reorder the paragraphs correctIy.

A. This year several courses -short courses, full time courses and part time courses- leading to European Welding Engineer Qualifications and Post Graduate Degrees in Welding and Joining Technology are offered. B. The following courses are designed to meet the European Welding Engineer Requirements: 1Year (full time) MSc in Welding and Joining Technology; 2 Year part time MSc in Welding and Joining Technology; 2 Year part time diploma in Welding and Joining Technology. C. Cranfield Institute of Technology has an established reputation in welding education and research. Our qualifications are recognised internationally, and many of our graduates now hold senior positions throughout industry. D. Apart from these, there are also several courses available for existing engineers wishing to up date themselves on recent developments. These are short courses on Welding Automation and Robotics, Monitoring and Control, Equipment Calibration, Joining of Advanced Materials, Welding Metallurgy, Computer Aided Welding, Advanced Welding Processes, among others. E. For further details and a prospectus of all Cranfield courses, please contact D. J.P. Chubb, School ofIndustrial Science, Cranfield Institute of Technology, Cranfield, Bedford MK43 OAL; or for informal details call John Norrish or Bill Chambers on 0234 700111.

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F. The courses provide essential basic studies in welding metallurgy, design, welding processes and procedure management but are constantly updated with state of the art technology from Cranfield 's own research efforts which currently inc1ude: Hyperbaric Welding, Mathematical Modelling, Welding Automation, Robotics, Process Monitoring and Computer Application. G. To enable industry to release staff for continuing education the latest course options have been designed to minimise the required attendance at Cranfield to only 10 to 12 weeks. This is normally supplemented by an industrially based research project.

Exercise 3 Complete the following letter of application with the correct prepositions. 116 Rockway Hill East Hampton Long Island Personnel Manager Robert Morris Ltd. 33 Beech Road Portsmouth - Hampshire HR 3 6LT Dear Sir/Madam I have seen your advertisement (1L-a Marketing Manager advertised in yesterday's edition of the Telegraph and would like (2) apply for the post. I am 26 years old and was educated (3) Worthing Grammar School and Lancaster University. I have an honours degree in Structural Engineering and masters degree in Industrial and Technological Marketing. I studied French (4). A level, and I also speak German fluently. (5)_the last four years 1have been working (6)_the Assistant Export Manager at General Motors in Vauxhall. However, I now feel ready to take on a post with greater responsibility and would particularly like to work (7) the West Country. Both Mr. Walker and Mr. Platt of GM are willing to provide references (8)_me. 1 would also we1come the opportunity to learn as much (9L I can (lOL the important technological research your company is carrying out.

July 22, 1993

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I endose my currículum vitae and would also like to have the chance to discuss the post in more detail (11)__an interview. I can be available for it (12) any Friday but would have to give one month's notice to my present employer before I could take up a new appointment. If, meanwhile, you require any further information, piease contact me. I look forward to your reply. Yours faithfully Thomas Pynchon

Exercise 4 Write down a letter referring to an error made in a delivery. Explain how the problem has been solved and present your apologies to the addressee.

Organización discursiva
Además de la organización de contenidos, todo documento debe tener un correcto encadenamiento de frases y párrafos. Con el fin de que las ideas se expongan de forma encadenada se emplean varios elementos discursivos tales como referencias pronominales, elipsis, paráfrasis, repetición (cohesión léxica) y relaciones lógico-semánticas (los llamados conectores). De este modo, frases y párrafos quedan relacionados entre sí gramaticalmente, facilitando así la correcta comprensión de los contenidos.

Exercise S Identify the different types of discourse references in the letter below: underline pronoun references, put brackets to lexical repetitions, and cirde the connectors. METALWORKING MICROCOMPUTER AND MONEY SAVES TIME

A small, high-technology machining company uses a commerciallyavailable microcomputer to design and program laser cuts, saving time and money. The company, Cocem Laser Center, Torrance,

M iscellaneous

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California, U.S.A, uses industrial lasers for precision material cutting and welding applications. These lasers, able to cut through 6.3 mm of stainless steel in less than a second, require computer control. Rather than use a computer services, or acquire a large computer, the company's managing director, Harvey Cogen, bought a microcomputer, the Apple 11,of the sort sold not only to business but individuals for their personal use.
Mr. Cogen says he uses the Apple 11to generate the programs and code for the computer numerical control (CNC) systems, which allows him to write programs while the lasers are in operations. The programs are loaded to the various machines during the set-up for the next job. This loading only takes a few seconds and is done electronically using an RS-232 serial interface.

The Apple 11 microcomputer Cocem uses has 48 kilobytes of memory, a floating point card, an RS-232 serial communications card, a printer, and a digitizer. Cocem uses two laser systems, one with an Aerotech controller, the other with a Bridgeport. Although there are diferences in the programming codes of each, Mr. Cogen has written a program to translate for the different systems. Mr. Cogen looks for direct communications between his microcomputer and his customers' computers in the future. Computerized design and engineering information from customers will be sent via telephone to the Cocem microcomputer, which then composes the programs for the lasers-eliminating the need for hand-drawn blueprints. The advantages of this system are quite good: with a laser for cutting materials, complex pattern cutting is often done with up to 2,000 X-Y coordinate pairs of each designo By hand, this might take a day or two to program, but by using the Apple 1, it only takes fifteen minutes. We should therefore consider this offer.

Estilo: propósito y audiencia
Cabría destacar finalmente dos aspectos de vital importancia a la hora de redactar un documento escrito: el propósito con el que se escribe y el contexto o situación en la que la comunicación escrita va a tener lugar. Por lo que respecta a la finalidad de una carta, ésta puede ser la de describir, informar, presentar, sugerir, aconsejar, aVls~ar;persuadir;-etc,EH€Ual1to contexto interpersonal en al

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el que la comunicación escrita tiene lugar, cabría puntualizar que la relación entre el remitente de la carta y el destinatario (entre amigos, colegas, superiorinferior, etc.) es un factor determinante del estilo -grado de formalidad, para ser más precisos- de la propia carta.

Exercise 6 Identify each letter from the following report with its corresponding function.

Dear Mr. Thompson (a) 1 enclose with this letter the proposals of the Construction Company for the new town within the Nuclear Plant Project. As you know, (b) 1 am not completely happy with this plan, but 1 have decided to send it to you in its present formo (e) 1 have asked the construction company to revise the plan and they agreed to finish the revision by the end of the month. (d) 1 hope to send you the revised plan at the beginning of next month. (e) The plan was inadequate because the construction company failed to understand the importance of this part of the project. Besides, (f) we simply cannot afford to submit a second class proposal for this part of the project, as a great amount of money has been invested in it. (g) 1 am confident that we will manage to find a satisfactory solution. (h) 1 look forward to hearing your comments on the present plan and my proposals, and remain, John Wilkinson a. anticipating future action b. judging, evaluating c. sending proposals d. expressing disapproval e. giving reasons f. asking for an answer back g. expressing hope as for future prospects h. informingof a course of action

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The Managing Director of Bonanza PLC, Mr. Ron Steward, is preparing a special reception and dinner to mark the tenth anniversary of the firmoDinner will be served at the Ionian Club on 4 July. Complete the following letter accepting the invitation with the words given below. Then write down a formalletter refusing the invitation. unfortunately sincerely speak send unable that July planned invitation marking

BONANZA PLC 17 Shooters Walk, LA B6 2LD Dear Mr Steward

31 May 1993

Thank you very much for your (1) to the reception and dinner (2) the tenth anniversary of your company at the Ionian Club on 4 (3L____. (4L , 1 have already agreed to (5L at a conference in Venice on l July and therefore will be (6) to attend your dinner. Please (7L my apologies to the other directors and tell them (8L 1 hope to visit your company during a (9) visit to U.S.A. in February 1994. Yours (10)

R. SCOTT

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Developing
Activity 1

Skills

Fill in the following application form and write down a formalletter (<<coveringletter») applying for a post as a technical engineer advertised in a local or national newspaper. APPLlCATION FORM (COMPLETE IN BLOCK LETTERS) NAME: SURNAME: ADDRESS: DATE OF BIRTH: PASSPORT NUMBER: NATIONALlTY:

STUDIES / QUALlFICATIONS:

WORK EXPERIENCE:

REFERENCES:

LANGUAGES / OTHER SKILLS:

HOBBIES AND INTERESTS:

Contenidos
Unit 1. The general-specific structure ................................................................................. La estructura general-particular :..................................................... De la frase al párrafo oO""""'oO""'"''''''''''oO'oO''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''' La estructura general-particular.......................................................................... Grarnmar review ...................................................................................................... Pattems of cohesion ............................................................................................ Developing skills ...""oO... ............ Unit 2. The problem-solution pattem .................................................................................. La estructura problema-solución ............................................................................. Situación. .... Problema. ... ... ... ... ... ........... Solución ...... ... ...... Evaluación . Grammar review ...................................................................................................... .Lexical signalling of the problem-solution pattem............................................. Developing skills ... ... Unit3. Vocabulary in technical English .............................................................................. Vocabulario en Inglés Técnico ................................................................................. 11 11 11 12 14 14 18 21 21 21 21 22 22 25 25 28 31 31 31 31 35 35 37 38 41 43 43 43 44 44 45 48 48 50 52 54 57 57 57

Vocabulario técnicoespecífico

oO......

Vocabulario general ............................................. Grarnmar review ... ...... ... ... ... ...... Word formation with suffixes ............................................................................. Word formation with prefixes ............................................................................. Noun compounds ................................................................................................
Developing skills oO oO oO'oO"'"''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''

Unit4. Definition in technical English ""''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''oO''............................ La Definición ......................... Definición formal............................................................................................... Definición semi-formal....................................................................................... Definición no formal .......................................................................................... Otras maneras de expresar definición ................................................................. Grarnmar review ... ...... ... .................... Defining through relative c1auses :........................................................... Relative c1auseswith preposition ....................................................................... Short-form relative c1auses.oO''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''

Developing skills.
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Unit 5. Description in technical English "oO............... La Descripción ......................... Descripción física ...............................................................................................

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English in Technical Engineering
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Descripción funcional......................................................................................... 59 61 Descripción proceso de ... ..... 63 Granlmarreview... ... ... ... ... 63 Patterns of technical description ......................................................................... 64 Spatial order in physical descriptions ................................................................. 65 Expressing temporal relations ....... 69 Developing skills '"''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''
Unit 6. Classification in technical English .......................................................................... La Clasificación ......................... Clasificación completa .......... Clasificación parcial... ... ... ............ Clasificación implícita ... ........ Grammar review .."....................................... Expressing technical classifications ................................ Developing skills ............ Unit 7. Cause-effect relationships in technical English "................. Relaciones de causa... ...'"'''' ... .............. Relación causa-efecto......................................................................................... R elación medio-fin y medio-resultado .............................................................. Relación razón-resultado ... ....... Grammar review ...................................................................................................... Expressing cause-effect relationships ................................................................. Patterns of means, end and purpose .................................................................... Patterns of reason and result '"'''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''' Developing skills "....................... Unit 8. Hypotheses and conditions .... Hipótesis y condiciones ........................................................................................... Relación de condición-consecuencia .................................................................. Grarnmar review ...................................................................................................... Patterns of conditions ......................................................................................... Other ways of expressing cQ!1ditions................................................................. . Hypotheses, predictiQns-an~mmendations .................................. Developing skills ... ... UNIT 9. Technical instructions ;.................................................................. Instrucciones Técnicas ... ... Instrucciones directas e indirectas ,............................ Información instruccional ....... 71 71 71 72 73 75 75 78 81 81 83 83 83 85 85 87 90 93 97 97 97 100 100 102 103 105 109 109 109 110 112 112 114 116 118

Granlmarreview

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Patterns of technical instructions '''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''' Variations of modality in instructions """'"''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''
Interpreting additional information in instructions .............................................

Developing skills..

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Contenidos

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Unit 10. Visual-verbal re1ationships "''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''""'''''''''' La relación visual-verbal......................................................................................... Tipos de relación visual-verbal """'''''''' Grammar review ...................................................................................................... Comunicative functions with visual-verbal relations ""'"'''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''' The use of modality in technical English ........................................................... Developing skills ,...............................................................

121 121 121 124 124 127 130 133 133 133 134 139 144 147 147 147 147 152 154 156

Unit 11. Technica1reports, abstracts and artieles Informes técnicos, abstracts y artículos Informes técnicos................................................................................................ Cómo redactar un informe técnico Abstracts y artículos........................................................................................... Developing skills """"""'"''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''
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Unit 12. Miscellaneous correspondence Correspondencia formal.......................................................................................... Correspondencia escrita ""'"'''''''''''''''' ............................................................... Organización de contenidos ................................................................................ Organización discursiva ..................................................................................... Estilo: propósito y audiencia .............................................................................. Deve10ping skills .....................................................................................................
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