Tesis: “Los jóvenes al usar las redes sociales escriben apropiada pero incorrectamente” Hipótesis: Con el uso de redes

sociales, donde obligadamente se tiene que resumir todo a 160 caracteres, por lo que se vuelve necesario acortar palabras, se eliminan acentos, se suprimen vocales que se sobreentienden, se aprovecha el sonido completo de las consonantes, se verbalizan los emoticones del chat; todas costumbres que comparten una falencia en común, la falta de un corrector ortográfico. Al no tenerlo, la mayoría de la gente ha cometido errores una y otra vez, dejándolos incorporados en su vocabulario. Gracias a esto, los jóvenes han ido desfigurándolo. Sin embargo, no son pocos los que consideran que dependiendo del contexto, este tipo de lenguajes son comprensibles o incluso recomendables.

Objetivos: Demostrar y plantear que a pesar que la comunicación es escasa en cuanto a léxico y que cada día los jóvenes alteramos mas el orden morfosintáctico de este, el mensaje a transmitir a un receptor siempre es entendible e interiorizado para su posible respuesta rauda en las redes sociales, ya que estos comparten una jerga con la que el mensaje transmitido permite una identificación y retroalimentación factible. Por otro lado, queremos demostrar que: • • • A pesar de que los jóvenes se expresen erróneamente en las redes sociales, estos si adecuan sus formas de locución según la situación comunicativa determinada. El hecho de que en redes sociales se usen alteraciones del léxico, eso no significa que esto afecte el nivel cultural o social de los jóvenes, no por ello son más o menos cultos. Las redes sociales han originado el empobrecimiento de las palabras, debido a que su formato requiere un lenguaje acotado para expresarse.

Introducción: El modo de la escritura abreviada y alterada morfológicamente es una forma en que el mensaje que se quiere hacer llegar al receptor, sea más rápido de entender y captar. Por ello, hoy en día el joven utiliza una cantidad mínima de letras para expresar lo que comúnmente las letras y palabras establecidas por las reglas lingüísticas denotan, con el objetivo de permitir una lectura más diligente. En este trabajo se demostrará el porqué de este problema. Se entrevistará a un Psicolingüista de la Pontificia Universidad Católica de Chile. Se crearán encuestas en las redes sociales como Facebook y Twitter. Además se entrevistará a jóvenes actores del problema y se investigarán las distintas causas de esta posible paradoja.

1.- Psicolingüística: f. Ciencia que estudia el lenguaje y la expresión verbal en relación con los mecanismos psicológicos que la hacen posible. http://www.wordreference.com/definicion/psicoling%C3%BC%C3%ADstica 2.- Redes Sociales: Las Redes son formas de interacción social, definida como un intercambio dinámico entre personas, grupos e instituciones en contextos de complejidad. Un sistema abierto y en construcción permanente que involucra a conjuntos que se identifican en las mismas necesidades y problemáticas y que se organizan para potenciar sus recursos. En las redes sociales en Internet tenemos la posibilidad de interactuar con otras personas aunque no las conozcamos, el sistema es abierto y se va construyendo obviamente con lo que cada suscripto a la red aporta, cada nuevo miembro que ingresa transforma al grupo en otro nuevo. La red no es lo mismo si uno de sus miembros deja de ser parte. Intervenir en una red social empieza por hallar allí otros con quienes compartir nuestros intereses, preocupaciones o necesidades y aunque no sucediera más que eso, eso mismo ya es mucho porque rompe el aislamiento que suele aquejar a la gran mayoría de las personas, lo cual suele manifestarse en retraimiento y otras veces en excesiva vida social sin afectos comprometidos. http://michfer.wordpress.com/2008/08/07/redes-sociales-definicion/ Red, un término que procede del latín rete, hace mención a la estructura que tiene un patrón característico. Esta definición permite que el concepto se aplique en diversos ámbitos, como la informática (donde una red es un conjunto de equipos interconectados que comparten información). Red Social, por su parte, es aquello perteneciente o relativo a la sociedad (el conjunto de individuos que interactúan entre sí para formar una comunidad). Lo social suele implicar un sentido de pertenencia. La noción de red social, por lo tanto, está vinculada a la estructura donde un grupo de personas mantienen algún tipo de vínculo. Dichas relaciones pueden ser amistosas, sexuales, comerciales o de otra índole. Por ejemplo: “La red social del pueblo funcionó a la perfección para canalizar la solidaridad con las víctimas de la inundación”, “La familia es la base de cualquier red social”. El concepto, de todas formas, se ha actualizado en los últimos años para señalar a un tipo de sitio de Internet que favorece la creación de comunidades virtuales. Estos sitios web son servicios que permiten desarrollar redes según los intereses de los usuarios, compartiendo fotografías, videos e información en general.

La red social más popular de la actualidad es Facebook, que cuenta con más de 600 millones de usuarios que intercambian mensajes y archivos informáticos. Otras redes sociales son MySpace y Hi5. Es posible encontrar redes sociales en Internet que se especializan en ciertos sectores o que apuntan a captar a un grupo específico de usuarios. LinkedIn, por ejemplo, reúne a profesionales e intenta fomentar los negocios y la movilidad laboral http://definicion.de/red-social/

3.- Morfología: La morfología es el estudio de las formas que tienen diferentes cosas. Usualmente, la morfología se utiliza en la lingüística, para estudiar y analizar las palabras, los elementos que las mismas tienen, sus formas y estructuras. La morfología lingüística actúa en el universo de las palabras, de las formas que las mismas tienen en un texto. La morfología, a diferencia de otras ramas de la lingüística, no se interesará por el significado abstracto de las palabras si no de su forma, de la estructura a partir de la cual se compone una palabra, pero también una oración, un párrafo y finalmente un texto. Ejemplos de cosas que pueden estudiar la morfología lingüística son por ejemplo las alteraciones que tienen las palabras de acuerdo al género al que hagan referencia, de acuerdo a si están en plural o en singular, a las tildes, etc. http://www.definicionabc.com/general/morfologico.php 4.- Jerga: Lenguaje jergal: lengua especial de un grupo social o laboral diferenciado, usada por sus hablantes sólo en cuanto a miembros de ese grupo social. En este caso, las diferencias lingüísticas están condicionadas por la pertenencia a un determinado grupo social: por la edad, por el tipo de trabajo, por el lugar de residencia, por la afición… La jerga no es un lenguaje independiente sino que vive dentro de otra lengua. Sus rasgos específicos pertenecen al plano léxico. http://www.materialesdelengua.org/LENGUA/comunicacion/registros/lenguajerga.htm

5.- Lenguaje neurosicológico: el lenguaje surge y se desarrolla durante la vida del individuo en las condiciones de la actividad humana, cumpliendo varias funciones en ella. Además, el lenguaje se localiza de manera sistémica y dinámica en el cerebro, como sistema funcional complejo (Luria, 1969; Anojin, 1980), el cual está integrado por varios eslabones operacionales, cuyo trabajo común permite realizar las acciones verbales complejas. Estos eslabones se identifican como factores neuropsicológicos, los cuales se encuentran en la base de la clasificación de las afasias de Luria (1973). El diagnóstico Neuropsicológico se realiza a través de la identificación del factor o factores que dificultan o imposibilitan la ejecución, por lo que no se limita al análisis de un solo proceso, sino que considera a toda la actividad del paciente. Se analiza el significado de la teoría de Luria para la investigación de las alteraciones y la rehabilitación del lenguaje y sus posibles relaciones con otros procesos psicológicos. Asimismo, se analiza la afectación de

las esferas intelectual y afectivo-emocional en los casos de afasia, así como la aplicación de esta aproximación en la neuropsicología infantil. http://www.neuropsicologia.buap.mx/Articulos/Analisisneuropsicologicodelasalteracionesdelle nguaje.pdf

6.- Análisis neurosicológico: Vigotsky (1995) señala que el lenguaje, como los demás procesos psicológicos, surge y se desarrolla durante la vida del individuo en las condiciones de la actividad humana. Considera al lenguaje como una función psicológica superior, la cual posee una naturaleza social, una estructura mediatizada por el uso de signos y símbolos externos e internos y una regulación voluntaria y consciente (Luria, 1969). El lenguaje cumple con varias funciones en la vida del hombre. Además de la comunicativa, que es la función primaria y tal vez la más amplia, aunque no la única ni la más importante, encontramos las funciones mediatizadora, reguladora, cognoscitiva (intelectual) y emocional. Con el lenguaje, el sujeto no sólo comunica la información a los demás, sino que mediatiza a toda su esfera psicológica; regula y organiza no sólo la memoria y la atención, sino toda su vida en general; adquiere conocimientos y experiencias, regula, organiza y expresa las impresiones emocionales y afectivas. El lenguaje desempeña una función fundamental en la ontogenia, debido a que el establecimiento de los significados garantiza el desarrollo de la conciencia del niño (Vigotsky, 1993). El significado de la palabra, además de constituir la unidad entre el lenguaje y el pensamiento, se relaciona inseparablemente con el desarrollo del sentido, el cual constituye el reflejo personal del significado (Vigotsky, 1993). Así, esta aproximación sistémica hacia la psique humana, muestra cómo se establece la relación entre el desarrollo lingüístico y la personalidad del niño. http://www.neuropsicologia.buap.mx/Articulos/Analisisneuropsicologicodelasalteracionesdelle nguaje.pdf 7.- Emoticones: By the early 1980’s, the Computer Science community at Carnegie Mellon was making heavy use of online bulletin boards or “boards”. These were a precursor of today’s newsgroups, and they were an important social mechanism in the department – a place where faculty, staff, and students could discuss the weighty matters of the day on an equal footing. Many of the posts were serious: talk announcements, requests for information, and things like “I’ve just found a ring in the fifth-floor men’s room. Who does it belong to?” Other posts discussed topics of general interest, ranging from politics to abortion to campus parking to keyboard layout (in increasing order of passion). Even in those days, extended “flame wars” were common. Given the nature of the community, a good many of the posts were humorous (or attempted humor). The problem was that if someone made a sarcastic remark, a few readers would fail to get the joke, and each of them would post a lengthy diatribe in response. That would stir up more people with more responses, and soon the original thread of the discussion was buried. In at least one case, a humorous remark was interpreted by someone as a serious safety warning.

This problem caused some of us to suggest (only half seriously) that maybe it would be a good idea to explicitly mark posts that were not to be taken seriously. After all, when using text-based online communication, we lack the body language or tone-of-voice cues that convey this information when we talk in person or on the phone. Various “joke markers” were suggested, and in the midst of that discussion it occurred to me that the character sequence :-) would be an elegant solution – one that could be handled by the ASCII-based computer terminals of the day. So I suggested that. In the same post, I also suggested the use of :-( to indicate that a message was meant to be taken seriously, though that symbol quickly evolved into a marker for displeasure, frustration, or anger. This convention caught on quickly around Carnegie Mellon, and soon spread to other universities and research labs via the primitive computer networks of the day. (Some CMU alumni who had moved on to other places continued to read our boards as a way of keeping in touch with their old community.) Within a few months, we started seeing the lists with dozens of “smiles”: openmouthed surprise, person wearing glasses, Abraham Lincoln, Santa Claus, the pope, and so on. Producing such clever compilations has become a serious hobby for some people. But only my two original smiles, plus the “winky” ;-) and the “noseless” variants seem to be in common use for actual communication. It’s interesting to note that Microsoft and AOL now intercept these character strings and turn them into little pictures. Personally, I think this destroys the whimsical element of the original. Unfortunately, I didn’t keep a copy of my original post. It didn’t seem like a big deal at the time. By the time I realized that this smiley-face phenomenon was going to be long-lasting and that it would spread around the world as the Internet grew, it was too late to easily retrieve the post, and the original message was lost for many years. Several attempts to find the post on old backup tapes were unsuccessful. But in 20012002 Mike Jones of Microsoft, sponsored a more serious “archeological dig” through our ancient backup tapes. Jeff Baird and the CMU CS facilities staff put in a heroic effort with the support and encouragement of Howard Wactlar, Bob Cosgrove, and David Livingston. They found the proper tapes, located a working tape drive that could read the ancient media, decoded the old formats, and did a lot of searching to find the actual posts. I am most grateful to all who participated in this successful quest, which I call the “Digital Coelacanth Project.” So the message itself, and the thread that gave rise to it, are here. The exact date of the smiley’s birth can now be determined: 19 September, 1982. It was great to have this message back just in time for the 20th anniversary of the original post. As you can see, the note in which I suggested this thing was quite short and casual – just part of an ongoing discussion that involved many people. I apparently didn’t even read it over before posting, since a word or two were dropped in editing. I do remember writing a longer message in which I explained the need for a humor-marker in more detail, and suggested the :-) symbol, along with :-( to indicate anger or real unhappiness. But this longer message must have come later – perhaps a later bboard post or an E-mail message that I sent to someone. In any case, that more detailed post did not turn up in our search. Many people have denounced the very idea of the smiley face, pointing out that good writers should have no need to explicitly label their humorous comments. Shakespeare and Jonathan Swift and Mark Twain got along just fine without this. And by labeling the

remarks that are not meant to be taken seriously, we spoil the joke. In satirical writing, half the fun is in never being quite sure whether the author is serious or not. To a large degree, I agree with these critics. Perhaps the E-mail smiley face has done more to degrade our written communication than to improve it. But in defense of the idea, let me say two things: First, not all people who post on boards have the literary skill of Shakespeare or Twain, and even those luminaries had bad days. If Shakespeare were tossing off a quick note complaining about the lack of employee parking spaces near the Globe Theater, he might have produced the same kind of sloppy prose that the rest of us do. Besides, Shakespeare’s work is full of clichés and his spelling was atrocious. :-) Second, and more important, these authors were publishing their words in a different medium, with different properties. If 100,000 copies of a novel or an essay were distributed in printed form, and if 1% of the readers didn’t get the joke and were outraged at what they had read, there was nothing these clueless readers could do to spoil the enjoyment of the other 99%. But if it were possible for each of the 1000 clueless readers to write a lengthy counter-argument and to flood these into the same distribution channels as the original work, and if others could then jump into the fray in similar fashion, you can see the problems that this would cause. If the judicious use of a few smiles can reduce the frequency of such firestorms, then maybe it’s not such a bad idea after all. Again, we’re talking here about casual writing on the Internet, not great works printed in a one-way medium that is relatively inaccessible to the general public. One final point: I’ve seen various claims that the sideways smiley face, built from ASCII characters, was invented by someone else. I believe that I invented this particular glyph and the “turn your head to one side” principle independently. I don’t recall seeing anything like this before my 1982 post, though a few messages in the thread we just located come close. Leonard Hamey’s post suggesting (#) for humor might be taken as an example of “turn your head to one side” – it’s not really clear if that was his intent – and apparently \__/ was used by one of our research groups to indicate a smile. Some people have told me that the :-) or :) convention was used by teletype operators in the old days. Maybe so. Others have written to tell me that their father or uncle or they themselves used to type these symbols or something close to them, in private letters (or, in one case, on punch cards) long before 1982. I haven’t (yet) seen any hard evidence of this, but I have no reason to doubt their accounts. It’s a simple and obvious idea after all, and the independent invention of this idea by multiple people would not be implausible. So, the smiley idea may have appeared and disappeared a few times before my 1982 post. I probably was not the first person ever to type these three letters in sequence, perhaps even with the meaning of “I’m just kidding” and perhaps even online. But I do believe that my 1982 suggestion was the one that finally took hold, spread around the world, and spawned thousands of variations. My colleagues and I have been able to watch the idea spread out through the world’s computer networks from that original post. Let me close with a quote from an interview with Vladimir Nabokov, author of Lolita and other modern classics (thanks to Eli Brandt for calling this to my attention):

Q: How do you rank yourself among writers (living) and of the immediate past?

Nabokov: I often think there should exist a special typographical sign for a smile – some sort of concave mark, a supine round bracket, which I would now like to trace in reply to your question. Autor: Scott E. Fahlman http://www.cs.cmu.edu/~sef/sefSmiley.htm

8. - Elementos online By Joan Gajadhar and John Green Communication is often not so much what we write or say but how we write and often what we do not say.1 Thus, meaning in real-world chat messages depends not only on the words we use but also on how we express meaning through nonverbal cues. Online chat is simple, direct, and unrestrained. While it contains many of the elements of face-to-face conversation, it differs from ordinary chat in that it is a textual representation of conversation.2 At the Open Polytechnic of New Zealand we conducted a study involving a chat group specifically set up for a course in computer concepts. Chat provided a nonthreatening environment to enhance the existing asynchronous forums.3 The facilitator actively encouraged student networking as an essential part of creating a learning community similar to the real-time student common room. The chat room functioned as a place where students could “meet,” ask questions, talk about the course, and generally get to know their classmates. Because of the chat group’s voluntary and informal nature, with no incentives for participation, usage numbers fluctuated throughout the 17-week semester. By analyzing student online messages, we could determine whether students were using textual elements to express feelings. This excerpt from a chat log early in the course illustrates the first stages in online group building. Digressions and interruptions demonstrate the flow of ideas as participants leave and newcomers are greeted and welcomed to the group, just as in real-time group discussion. Excerpt: • • • • • • • • • • Student #1> This isn’t very fast is it, it seems to be a delay. Lecturer> It’s going via the US! Student #2> just joined (4 members now) Lecturer> not bad for 24,000 miles! Student #3> no delay here, its as fast as I can type and read! Lecturer> Welcome, (Student #2) Student #1> No wonder there’s a delay, it has to turns itself upside down adn back again to go tehre and back. Lecturer> :-) Student #2> thanks Student #5> joins....

• • • • • • •

Lecturer> Ah (Student #5) welcome!! Student 3> luvmudub.luhtehname!lo!! Student #5> mmmmmmm Cheviot here! . LOL Student #1> I’m from Blenheim, usually suny but cold today, and grey. Student #3> I’m in Timaru and by the looks of the list may be the only one there. Student #2> I’m from ChCh deep in the cold Student #1> Plenty of mainlanders here anyway!

The lecturer’s use of exclamation points early in the passage (three times) is then repeated by students later in the log. In fact, Student #3 uses three exclamation points, possibly to reflect enthusiasm. Student #5 follows with “Cheviot here!” Student #1 makes a comment “plenty of mainlanders here anyway” followed by an exclamation point. The use of place names such as Cheviot, Blenheim, Timaru, and ChCh illustrates students developing rapport and building identity. By disclosing their locations, they start to build a community. “Mmmmmmmmmm,” a spoken pause used by Student #5, has several possibilities. It could show thinking, uncertainty, or agreement. The lecturer uses an emoticon :-) or :) (smiley face) to denote a friendly person and to encourage friendly discourse. Student #5 uses LOL (laughing out loud) in much the same way. Neuage argued that chat rooms are reader/writer-driven interactive sites.4 He suggested that when human beings enter into cyberspace, they do not leave behind their gregariousness or their inventiveness. We found this lent support to our research results, especially in chats near the end of the semester. While students did use emoticons in the chat sessions, the majority did not attempt to develop new tools, instead constantly reinventing the tools they had at hand to fit the developing social community. Analysis Many of the students frequently used onomatopoeia, words such as whizz, eek, eh, aaarrr (suggesting relief, frustration, annoyance, or an injection of humour), or beep beep beep (expressing a desire to get into the conversation—“make way, I’m coming” or “let’s move on”). Negative emotions and exclamations (73) were used less frequently than positive, happy, agreeable exclamations (142, shown in Table 2). The student who commented in one log (“man I am so stupid”) might be searching for a disclaimer from classmates such as, “no you’re not.” This possibly illustrates the students’ need for upbeat, encouraging, supportive feelings from the group. While we recorded 152 expressions that could be construed as agreement (14 Yep, 27 OK, 6 Wow, 5 Hey, 22 :), 73 Multiple !!!!, shown in Table 1), there was little evidence of disagreement (45 uses of Multiple ????, shown in Table 2). This could be due to the nature of the group and the presence of a lecturer at the sessions. Conclusions Nonverbal communication adds nuance or richness of meaning that cannot be communicated by verbal elements alone. Given time and experience, some of the same richness of real-time, face-to-face communication can occur in a virtual, text-based medium. The following actions can foster this virtual communication.

* Encourage the use of nonverbal elements. More encouragement and use of nonverbal support in the orientation and emergence phases of group building can aid in building rapport in groups. * Consider size when designing an online support group. In smaller groups, more students take an active part. They tend to want to express feelings as well as content. * Develop incentives to encourage participation. Because of the voluntary nature of this course’s chat, we could encourage participation but not give any incentives for taking part. This could have affected the nature of the contributions. * Consider providing help for those new to the environment. A number of students logged on but took little or no part. Perhaps just as in real-time conversation, it is sometimes easier to wait and listen. However, it can also signify an unwillingness to enter unfamiliar territory. An encouraging note from our study6 was that chat-room facilitators will not need to undertake a course in orthographic pictures and trendy acronyms to lead effective chat groups. Students already communicate effectively by appropriating old typographical symbols and putting them to new uses. http://www.educause.edu/EDUCAUSE+Quarterly/EDUCAUSEQuarterlyMagazineVolum/TheImpo rtanceofNonverbalElemen/157368

Variables: -Edad. -Nacionalidad. -Estrato social.

Encuesta
Nombre: _________________________________ Edad: ____años

Nacionalidad: _____________

*Elija la opción que concuerde o se acerque más a su preferencia

1.- ¿Ocupa redes sociales?

° ° ° ° ° °

Si

°

No

°

A veces

2.- Marque la red social que ocupa Facebook Twitter MySpace Flixster Otro (Especifique): _____________

3.- ¿Escribe de forma incorrecta (eliminación de tildes, letras)?

°

Si

°

No

°

A veces

4.- ¿Utiliza emoticones para representar emociones?

°

Si

°

No

5.- Marque el/los emoticones que más utiliza.

° ° ° ° ° °
Otro (Especifique):_____________

6.- ¿Entiende cuando recibe un mensaje en donde se escribe incorrectamente?

°

Si

°

No

°

A veces

7.- ¿Ha empeorado su léxico debido al uso de redes sociales?

°

Si

°

No

8.- ¿Se comunica con personas de otras nacionalidades que utilicen incorrectamente el lenguaje mediante redes sociales?

°

Si

°

No

9.- Marque las diferentes nacionalidades con las que se vincula por redes sociales.

° ° ° ° ° °

Chileno Argentino Peruano Estadounidense Chino Otro. Especifique:________________

10.- ¿Considera que las redes sociales han empobrecido su lenguaje?

°

Si

°

No

11.- ¿Considera que las redes sociales han empeorado su cultura al escribir erróneamente en ellas?

°

Si

°

No

12.- ¿Varía su lenguaje según la persona con quien establezca una conversación en redes sociales?

°

Si

°

No

°

A veces

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