Teacher Competence in

Introduction
You know that, as teachers, our main aim is to make students learn effectively and efficiently. For doing so, a teacher has to do several activities such as plan properly, provide effective instruction and evaluate the learning using appropriate methods and techniques. That means, a teacher has to perform a host of activities inside and outside the classroom. You also know that effectiveness or ineffectiveness of teaching is closely linked to teacher competence. Competent teacher would also create classroom conditions and climate, which are conducive for student learning.

In this unit, you will be studying the meaning and importance of teacher competence
in general and also with specific reference to teaching. Apart from this you would know how the competencies of a teacher at the tertiary level could be classified.

Learning outcomes
After going through this unit you should be able to: a
a
0

define the concept of teaching; analyse the various views'and points with regard to teacher competencies; assess yourself as to whether you possess the required teacher competencies; and plan to master the teacher competencies that are necessary in respect with the learners' group that you are'dealing with.

a

The concept of teacher competence
In order to understand what we mean by teacher competence, let us first examine the term "teaching" in more detail.

What b teaclzing?
In the Units of Block 1. we have beet1 using the terms "instruction" and "instructional process" to include all instructioniil experiences that are provided ta the students, irrespective of whether the teacher is involved with them or not. What then would the term "teaching" mean? Let us lcok into this in this section.

Some educationists consider teaching to be a broad concept which includes all itctivities to be carried out for orgaiiising learning experiences. In this Unit we shall consider '*teaching" in the narrower sense of the term - even narrower that the tcrlil "instruction".

1. Competency is a term used extensively by different people in different contexts. So it is defined in different ways. 2. Are all these teaching activities? We shall consider only the first two (I & ii) activities as part of teaching. Competencies are the requirements of a competency based teacher education. 4. whereas. they are also measurable. This would mean that 'teaching' will also include maintaining discipline. Some of these are. it is essential to know the meaning of competency. giving a demonstration.Communication Skills Let UB take an example. same competencies may be skill/performance loaded. Competencies. but only the first two can be considered strictly as teaching.be some c~mpetencies involving more of knowledge than skill and attitude. The effective organisation of these activities would require that a teacher possesses a certain amount of knowledge and also certain attitudes and . skill and atitude. It is possible to assess a competency from the performance of a teacher. all the three activities ape components of the instructional system. planning for the class. are observable atbd demonstrable. A competency has its linkage with all the three domains under which 3. You know that there are a large number of instructional and related activi. It is not necessary that all competencies of a teacher have the same extent of knowledge. A few charatteristics of a competency are as follows. since have a performance dimension of them. one may say that teaching is what the teacher does not only for providing instructional experiences. performance can be assessed. It is clear from the preceding discussion that teaching is what the teacher performs for thle organising of learning experiences as well as for providing the supporting climate necessary for effective learning. There may. It covers the domains of knowledge. These activities are of varied types. There may be some competencies of a teacher which have the same extent of knowledge. Because the competencies are observable. And hence. etc. consider the following activities: i) tbacher presents a lecture ii) teacher conducts a discussion session iii) students learn from the self-instructional material.ies to be performed by the teacher inside and outside the classroom. although it is allso very much a part of the instructional process. preparing the necessary learning matedal. skill and attitude. skills and values the trainee teacher must demonstrate for successful complletion of the teacher education programme (Houstan 1987). in this Unit. which includes knowledge. The third activity does not have the direct involvement of teachers. All of these comprise teaching activities. Hence. conducting seminars and supervising practical work. A competency consists of one or more skills whose mastery would influence the attainment of the competency. but also for generating a climate conducive for learning. Teaaher competence Before knowing the meaning of teacher competence. Teacher education and job performance of a teacher are the contexts in which this term is used. There are many more activities apart from these that the teacher has to perform in the classroom and outside it in order to provide the required learning experiences to students. skill and attitude. Therei are many more.

we shall include in . preparing the necessary learning material. the concept of teacher competence is highly situational one and involves value judgements w h e ~ one absolute set of co~npetenciesis effective in relation to all kinds of on learner groups. depends on the actual situation. there are Inally roles that a teacher is expected to perform bothinside and outside the classroom. c) All efective teachers are scholars in their own discipline. the culture and values held in the community. there are as many ways of being effective as there are effects. there could be disagreement even amongst ourselves over the effects that a teacher is expected to produce. In other words. we shall consider the work helshe has to put in. you would not be exl~au~stive. by itsez does not make one an efJective teacher. we shall limit ourselves to the teacher's roles inside tlie classroom. in order to know if we possess the necessary competencies in a given situation. who and what the purpose of each compete~icyis most likely to be useful to. the kind or repertoire that a teacher should have. indicate that there does not exist a single set of competencies which all the effective teachers possess or all the ineffective ones lack.. processes. d) Subject matter expertise. Which of the following statenients are true? a) There is one definite set of conipetencies which all teachers must possess. to become efeciive. The research studies conducted so far. could probably add to it. Nevertheless. Self-assessment Teacher C o m p e t e ~ ~ cie e H i g h e r Education I. This is known as teacher competence. g) Right way of conveying units of knowledge. The list that we provide. application and skills to students". For the purposes of this discussion. The riglit way here includes knowledge of content. other competencies that are relevant to yoilr situation. we have to be judged on the basis of our ability to produce certain effects. However. even outside one's institution. therefore. Any definition of teacher competence depends on teaching in a particular setting. As we mentioned earlier. application and skills to the students is considered as teacher competence. b) Teaching competencies refer to teachers' knowledge as well as skills. conducting seminars are teaching activities. teacher competence refers to "the right way of conveying units of knowledge. combining tlie content of tlie subject. methods and means of conveyi~ig content. as part of tlie teacher's repertoire. etc. Moreover. and at times. giving demonstration.skills. we sliall arrive at a set of teaching competencies that a teacher at the tertiary level needs to possess. But. with the materials needed for the class. It also depends on the innumerable teacher and student characteristics and the classroom context. hence they are not observable and measurable. It calls for value judgements and decisions as to how we with to view teaching. f) Planning for the class. how. Teacher competencies at the tertiary level In this section. by way of planning. In other words. in order to be effective. and the demands that it makes on the teacher. e) Con~petencieshave a performance dimension to them. In other words. There are many different sets that are relevant. We should collect information regarding when. As we know.

etc. ii) Tlie first we could term as the 'enabling' or management function and the second. one performs both functions simultaneously. i. the i~jstructionalfunction. and which may also have to be displayed outside the classroom. and constitute the process aspect of teaching.-. the teacher is often required to play a managerial role which includes motivating.e. These have certain antecedents to it that mainly include planning and knowledge of subject matter. the social side of teaching to impart. classrooln management (control and discipline) and evaluation. These contexts/opportunities include the different teaching modes (discussions. I Instructional function The instructional side of a teacher's role includes different presentations and com~nunication skills like lecturing. One has to look at it in terms of teacher functions. Class~jication teacher competencies of There seem to be different ways of classifying teacher competencies. 'knowledge' to their learners . motivation. questioning. explaining. demonstrations.Communication Skills our discussion. organising the learning group. it is very difficult to separate tlie two and often. evaluation.the task oriented side of teaching. classroom interaction involving the teacher. Table 1 : Function of Planning and Interaction in classroom Planning Setting objectives Need analysis Selecting content Selecting method Preparing teaching materials Preparing evaluation tools Interaction in classroom Diagnosing Motivating Presenting Qi~estioni~ig Controlli~~g Discussing Evaluating Providing feedback - Answering -.e. These complement each other as the latter would be. In practice.). Manhgement function What does tlie management of the learning group entail? Wliile setting up learning activities in the classroom. by a variety of means. the students and the different contexts/opportunities that are set up for facilitating learning. using audiovisual aids. more or less impossible without the former. Table 1 provides further detailing of the functioning of planning and interaction in classroom. those abilities and skills that make a teacher competent inside a classroom. lectures. teachers have two major roles in tlia classroom: i) to create tlie conditions under which learning can take place i. Essentially."---- - . Anbtlier way of classifying teacher competencies is to look at teaching e~se~itially as sometliing that is obtained in the classroom. etc. dramatizing.-- -. classroo~n management.

Furthermore. . it is learning to think in a way that is characteristic of that discipline be it Mathematics."One-more way of classifying teacher competencies. the teacher's repertoire would seein to constitute the following: i) Knowledge of subject matter ii) Planning for the coursellesson including teaching strategies. acquired are organised conceptually to provide a conceptual structure to the discipline of Physics. handling evaluative discussions. Physics or History. which have not been discussed elsewhere in this course. dramatizing. . The acquisition of knowledge and understanding o'f any subject would not be just a matter of collecting facts and information about the subject. more importantly. teaching materials. eliciting response. In the following we shall look more closely at some of the competencies. reading. Competencies Related to other Educational Activities Evaluation Competencies Management Competencies Competencies Related to working with Parents Competencies related to working with Community and other Agencies Repertoire of teaching competencies. thus. e~icouraging etc. diagnosing learning peerlself-evaluation. and % Different units in this course have dealt some of these competencies in detail. the way a teacher 'handles' a subject or a discipline is influenced by hisllier beliefs and attitudes with regard to the subject. discussing. Whicheverway we would like to classify teacher competencies. which is typical of tlie way in which the knowledge in Physics is built. and classroom organistion. read through the statements given below and indicate whether or not you agree with them and whether or not you believe in them. difficulties. v) Evaluation includes infonnal observations of student progress. according to the National Council for Teacher Education (NCTE) is as follows: a a a a a a a a a Teacher Competence i n H i g h e r Education Contextual Competencies Conceptual Competencie. using audio-visual aids. etc. questioning. demonstrating. vi) Classroo~n ~lla~lageme~lt discipline. These are not absolute opposites but are persons with tendencies towards one extreme or the other. Researches have identified two basic types of teachers. the knowledge. explaining. Also. iii) hi~tivating learner groups iv) Presentation and communication skills including lecturing. Now. which is coherent and stable. For example. Content Coinpetencies Transactional Competencies. a teacher of Physics expects knowledge about tlie physical world or arrives at generalisationsregarding the physical phenomena not by authority of another person or a book but by a verification process. Knowledge of Subject Matter Adequate kiiowledge i n the content areas would be essential for any teacher to perform competently.

'I'here are very distinct boundaries between these disciplines and one should nbt try to intermingle them. have distinctly different stn~ctures. to interpret facts. Chemistry. is more important than the knowledge of facts or the widening of information base. Learners' performances can be evaluated according to the standards laid down by that discipline. Disciplines such as Physics. Learners are intrinsically interested and naturally inclined to explore new worlds. . Learners are as capable of setting up the criteria for assessment of performance as the teachers. There are appropriate standards of performance in each discipline.Communication Skills Figure 1: Now. The other type of teacher believes that: The ability to organize thought. ad Languages. Anthropology. and to apply them. where did I stop my lecture yesterday? Qne type of teacher believes that: . b c h discipline has a large 'content' and 'information base' which has to be learnt. Sociology. he teacher's main task is to set up dialogues in which learners reshape and reiorganise their existing knowledge through interaction with others. The teacher's main task is to evaluate and correct learners' performances.

relevant and interesting things to do. This may not uniformly relate to the entire class. you would have to think of where all students have come from. an important function of the teacher in implementing it. It is an activity that is typically carried out in the absence of students and before the actual teaching. But. Long range planning or planning for a semester or a year. will need to maintain a high degree of control over the learners in order to create the conditions under which the subject can be right. depending particularly on (a) the entry behaviour of the learners. You have already studied tlie different aspects of Unit and lesson planning in Unit 5 of Block 1 . called the interpretation teacher.Learners already know a great deal and also have the ability to extend and refashion their knowledge.their previous knowledge and tlieir ability to comprehend and learn on their own. the number of years of formal training in English of each has to be considered. and by appeal to the better judgement of the learners. Motivation Even when tlie plan is good. like say. include decisions on what to teach ad how to teach the chosen content. is to motivate tliose learners wlio are de~notivated the task of learning and nurture to those wlio are already well motivated. in actual practice one has to arrive at some synthesis of both these sets of beliefs. by involving learners in the classroom activities that demand inter-student communication and co-operative efforts on tlieir part. There are several ways in which one can achieve tliis: by giving students meaningfi~l. The other type of teacher. The co~npetencies required to perform those tasks involved in planning are mostly cognitive and can be mastered by practice. But even here. by adopting a positive attitude towards learners (praising and encouraging the positive efforts by learners will help to keep up motivation). which ones need more time and effort on the teacher's and student's part and which don't. Teacher Competence in Higher Education Planning Teachers' planni~lgrefers to that aspect of teaching where teachers formulate a course of action. It also includes some kind of (probably an informal) assessment of what students come to teachers for. For example. it would still involve deciding what to teacli first. and (b) the structure of the topic that one is being introduced. etc. So also. which serve as 'scripts' (whether they are done on paper or in one's mind). what would be the likely proficiency level of each of them. and what next and also planning for other supplenientary activities that might act as a 'bridge' or a "gap-filling exercise". These two different sets of beliefs have several implications in the teaching style and classroom management activities.if the course of study is prescribed for a given level. would prefer to allocate the Control is maintained by persuasion responsibilities for learning anlongst tlie lear~iers. . whether they belong to an English medium stream or are from different regional languages medium. if it is the first year undergraduate General English class. the Long range planning also i~ivolves (re)structuring of the cdurse and the kind of treatment that each unitftopic/lesson should receive. also called the transmission teacher. then. Teachers' plans. deciding on which one(s) should be dealt with in details and which cursorily. by giving encouraging feedback to their responses to oral questions or written assignments. If it is the latter. The first type of teacher. may not involve deciding what to teach.

all these may be categorised into skills for effective presentation and communication in the instructional situation. what would these evaluation skills include? Preparing question papers? Taking viva voce? Yes. The teacher is expected to communicate with the students in a number of ways so that the learners attain various types of learning outcomes. however proficient he may be: . helshe will not even be able to stand up or stay for a while in a class to manifest his presentation or evaluative skills. This helps him to judge the extent to which the expected terminal behaviour has been achieved. etc. Evaluation Evaluation of the students' achievement of a pre-specified objective is part and parcel of a teacher's function. unless a teacher possesses these to a reasonable extent. first of all. All these activities mentioned. A teacher has to. a teacher in the classroom is to transact with the students in the context of a specific subject matter. Let us call them Evaluation Competencies (More about these. The gap between the two indicates the areas in which the students have not learnt. select the suitable tecltniques and tools of evaluation. He has to observe the students in many different situations in order to judge the extent to which the expected terminal behaviours have been actually achieved by them. Thus. not frustrating their efforts. using audio-visual aids. 8 . one has to set about measuring the concerned behaviour. The teacher should make use of this feedback to improve his teaching as well as to provide the necessary remedial help to the students. A teacher should compare the actual terminal behaviour of the students with their expected behaviour. This includes so many activities. the teacher may have to manifest various types of skills including lecturing. This would give the actual achievement of the terminal behaviour. demonstrating. all these are included in the evaluation process. Classroom management and discipline Instructional process in the class can go on effectively only when there is a healthy and conducive climate in the class. one cannot have a written examination. so that learners with varying abilities and experiences find them challenging enough even while. some amount of flexibility. These skills are so important that. reading. But these are only a part of the total evaluation function of a teacher.Presentation and communication After ensuring the students' interest in the learning. Similarly. Onde the tools are decided on. for measuring the skills of performing experiments. dramatizing. eliciting through questions. you will know in Block 3 and 4). In order to achieve this effectively.Communication Skills 8 by linking the day's lesson with that of the next and also (if possible) to other subjects by drawing from their past experiences and proceeding at a pace that is most suitable to them. by building into the tasks. Hence the teacher has to select the suitable techniques and tools for measurement according to what he would like to measure. It is obvious that one cannot measwe the length of a stick by using a weighting machine.. The teacher has to possess various skills which would help him in managing the class in such a way that a healthy and conducive climate prevails. classroom management becomes a very critical function of a teacher. explaining. conducting discussion. need competencies on the part of the teacher.

f) While selecting methods for teaching. which issues directives for changes in the existing practices. c) Evaluation of students' progress is not the job of a teacher. a teacher needs to consider this role expectation seriously in order to be effective in classroom practice.Self-assessmen t 2. d) The most inlportant ftlnction of a teacher is to cover the prescribed curriculunt. Therefore. Apart from these. e) One of the important functions of a teacher is to interpret the prescribed syllabi in the context of long-term goals of education.of tlie classroom in various ways. mediates the change. the teacher. improve classroo~npractice. does not have to be an orator. a teacher should check the background and interest of the students. Teacher C o m p e t e n c e in Higher Education Which of the following statenlents are true? a) A teacher to be effective. It may be prompted by the findings of research on teaching or it could also be due to sonie policy decisions taken by tlie administrative body. which would probably be different from that of other teachers. In other words. or handling an unexpected. the teaclier co~npetenciesdiscussed in the previous section. etc. probably. .in the ~nethodology and theory of teaching or not. h) The transmitter model of teaching is more usefil to learners than the interpreter model of teaching. we teach the way that we were taught or the way we are used to. would help considerably. wlio is tlie practitioner at the classroom level. g) It is possible to transfornt a lecture into a two way communication by introducing the question and answer method. They are discussed hereunder. Teachers translate pri~iciplesinto practice and turn ideologies into realities in the classroom. Improving classroo~npractice depends solely on the competencies of a teacher. Hence. be it just lecturing on a particular topic. it is the function of an external examining body. i) Even an experienced and senior teacher should plan his lecture before ~lddressinga group. How to improve classroompractice I . disruptive behaviour of the students. Under both these circumstances. a teacher should take into account certain other aspects. we do have certain (strong) ideas as how we should teach. or whether we are trained. from our experience of being students. solve problems. - Mediating between theory and practice Any change or i~nprove~nent the classroom practices occurs in more than one in ways. Whether we are experienced teacl~crsor not. like helping students to learn to think for themselves. Hence. we cope with complexities. b) Classroonl management is the job of a principal or a similar administrative authority and not that of a teacher.

Teaahers self-improvement ' The seed to improve one's performance and to excel in one's own job is felt by most of us-as adult intelligent persons. Now read a competency scale given in Table 2. tliey need to ~ ~ ~ i d e r s t tlie i d a ~ principles on which such techniques are based. is that teachers should see all the established metliodologies and techniques only as a framework for pedagogic activity and not as a set of fixed formulae. are based on some pri~ic/ple other. This understanding will enable 11stc mediate changes in pedagogic practice. analyse and think critically about what is with themlgiven to them by way of technique or methodology. however. What this amounts to then. and in general. They are research minded in tlie sense tliat tliey question. And if they are to see tlie~nas such. which in turn is accountable to theory.Communication Skills The ~ n u ~ i d a nature of the tecli~iiques ~ie tliat we e~nploy often makes them simple to LIS. These techniques. however mundane or trivial they might seem. modify plans. These observations could be through (i) a video camera (ii) an audio tape recording (iii) peers/'c~i~eagues/ supervisors and /or (iv) students. Many similar scales are available to help a teacli&rto collect the data regarding hisfher teaching behaviour. Micro-teaching and Compete~icy Based Teacher Education (CBTE). Tliera are Inany procedures to collect such data. colleagues. testing each one out against the other in a continuous process of experimentation. The important point here is that. etc. this spirit of enquiry. the teacher has to collect data regarding his own teaching perforiiiance and it. The question then is how does one go about it? Tlie key to the self-improvement programme is self-monitoring and self-correcting. Otherwise the tecli~iiquescannot be modified to accommodate new insights and experiences. It is this understanding of theory that enables a teacher to effectively play the role of a mediator of changes in pedagogic practices. Tlie important point here or is that. Tlie co1ii1iio1i elements in all these three procedures are: i) ii) Explicit statement of tlie competencylskill in terms of the teacher's behaviour Some explicit procedure of recording ad coding that behaviour objectively iii) Usually the procedure involves observing the teacher in actual teaching situation or in a simulation situation. Competent teachers adjust the teaching procedures. we teacli~ersshould be able to understand the relationsliip between theoretical principles and practical techniques. . These tecliniques.s impact on others -students. we teachers should be able to understand the relationship between theoretical principles and practical techniques. simple they may seem are based on some principle or theoretical standpoint. For this. Some of these are utilized ~uider techniques such as Flander's Interaction Analysis. Thus. They refer techniques relate1an i~isti~ictive back to principle. hypotheses to actual classroom setting. Tliis scale is restricted to o~ily an instructional process in the classroom. is a pre-requisite to good teaching.someti~nesso trivial that we tend to use them as a set of routine proceidures.

1 2 3 Content is appropriate to objectives and level of students Content is broken into small bits in order to enable students learn step by step. . aterials is appropriate I -u . 3. Teacher is clear about his instructional objectives 2. d 5 r to his peers/supervisors for Sudk a -s& o ~ a n . M o v e average.given by own behavim.Table 2: Classroom Teaching Competency Scale Items Rating Remarks 4 5 1.arrel'la&r'he a n s with the observers the speci indictors/skills which he should improve uprJn..3*13vae~-. Essentially all these sum up to getting unbiased and specific data for assessing one's own behaviour and then planning one's own trainingllearning in terms of the strengths and weaknesses revealed by that assessment.

6. facilitate this in the class?" can lecturing for example. What is the objective of training students? . On himlher depends the meaning of tducatioli vis-a-vis teaching-learning taken on in their real contexts. But we should also be aware of the gradual shift that is occurring in the focus of education. "wliat should we train our students for?" as we have learnt in the previous section. be an effective way to achieve this end? Lecturing could be an effective way of teaching students who listen actively. Objectives of training students A last but a very -important question. The questions that we should ask ourselves are: i) ii) Do we want our students to think for themselves. we might belong either to the transmission type or to the interpretation type of teaching. which we see a lot of students do. a facilitator of learning.1). We are engaged in the continuos process of unraveling and refining our implicit theories. it may take longer. if a teacher covers the materials. or do we want them to merely memorize what other people have thought? Do we want our students just to reproduce facts from books (or our lecture notes). (But people who are not listening at all also cannot take any notes. then we may want to (re)define our role with that as the goal of education. The teaching emerges as an instructional systemist who decides how the goings-on of the classroom should be shaped. or choose to remain somewhere in the middle. But unless we question the established practices (we ourselves are a party to them in the classroom). creep in easily. depending on the subject we teach and what the examinations demand of students."Are we doing enough to make our students think critically?" Do the teaching strategies that we plan for them to be engaged in. therefore.. we will not be able to shake off the feeling of adequacy and complacency that will. otherwise. it may be too much hard work. or just as creator of conditions conducive to learning. Can we make them more skeptical and research minded (as we discussed earlier under 6. we 'competent' teachers should ask ourselves is.. Whether we would like to view a teacher's role as that of a knowledge transmitter/ imparter. or do they develop their abilities to think ad reason for themselves? If the intention is that we want our students to think for themselves. on the other had. Do you agree with this view? And again. The more we question. How can a teacher improve himselj/herself so as to foster better teaching learning? 4. Some say that the temptation to cover content with didactic knowledge is the major barrier to real learning at the college level. the more we will need to question. etc. so let us not get mislead!). and which is very necessary for professional development. Self-assessmen t 3. Then the next questions for us would be . How is active listening different from passive listening? Active listening involves subliminal questioning like -how does this relate to that? Is this more important than that? Active listeners don't try to take everything down.the shift from memorizing and hoarding of information to thinking and assimilating. Or does our lecture tend to be an inquiry centred learning? Can we think of some questions (to be interspersed with a lecture) which might help students focus on some crucial aspects and probe into them even further? If we adopt only discussion methods. does it mean that the students have learnt their lessons? Or does learning mean just engaging the students all through their class hours? How do we reconcile the two? These questions go on.Communiention Skills . we may not be able to cover the entire text book or syllabus.

(1989). (1 982). as an input and as a systemist. and B. Biddle (1974). S. (1 970). I 3. Kulkarni. Jangira.S. Evaluate your teaching performance with the help of that scale. (1986). List a few activities. Micro Teaching Approach. instructional planning. New York: Holt Rinehart and Winston.. Classify them into various categories of teacher competencies. N. B.J.Microteaching Approach. Effective Teaching. Lorin W. The Study of Teaching. M. Analysing Classroom Behaviour. The Art and Craft of Tewhing. can this be improved? 2. skills which you perfom. In the end.D. which according to you. Analyse your functions as a teacher in under-graduate and post-graduate classes and list out the various activities. we held the view that teaching competence is a crucial component which has signiiicant implications while the instructional process is organised.J. Introduction to Educrrtional Technolo~y. Develop a classroom teaching competency scale like the one mentioned in the Unit.e.K. The Effective Teacher: Study Guide and Reading. New York: Addision Westey. it is in the manifestation of these in an integrated manner that makes him effective in the classroom context. 2. I . Bopbay: Oxford & LBH ~ u b l i s l l Co. Ahmedabad : Sahitya Mudranalaya. student motivation. Points for discussion I 1. students.) (1962). Gullette. Core Teaching Skill .Let us sum up In the beginning.Phil. This cuts across both roles of a teacher i. NCERT Kourilsky. i~ Passi. Suggested readings Anderson. Flander. evaluation competencies and classroom management skills. Margaret Morganroth (ed. or P1i.K. It has various dimensions such as content knowledge. Teaching competencies that are required for various levels of teaching would differ . N. come under good teaching. we discussed how to develop classroom teaching practice. presentation and communication skills. Principles and Practice. (1976). Marilyn and Lory Quaranta (1987). Cambridge: Harvard University Press. Illinois: Scott. New York: Random House. Delhi. Becorning Better Teacher. Dunkin. If an experienced teacher is not proficient in certain teaching competencies.Do you agree? What could be the difference between a set of competencies required for teaching under-graduate students and that of guiding M. Also.A. While the teacher would require all these dimensions to a reasonable extent. I 1 Unit-end activities 1. we provided an example of classroom teaching competency scale to evaluate one's teaching performance. Foresmall and Company.

In other words. 4. the teacher may take the help of standardized scale or develop a scale of hisher own through which helshe can assess his1 her own teaching performance. . The objective of training students is to help our students to reason and think for themselves. For this. the main objective of classroom teaching should be to develop students' independent thinking. A teacher can improve himself-herself. if helshe monitors hisher teaching parformance regularly.Answers to serf-assessment 3.

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