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HS Jang

Scanning
Scanning Acoustic
Acoustic Microscope(SAM)
Microscope(SAM)

H.S. Jang
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What
What is
is Ultrasonics
Ultrasonics ??

• Sound waves which have


a frequency over 20kHz. 16Hz - 20,000Hz

(Audible frequency: 16Hz - 20kHz)

• The sound waves which can not be heard by the human ear.

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Types
Types of
of Ultrasonic
Ultrasonic Waves
Waves

1. Shear Wave
1) The vibration direction and propagation direction are
perpendicular.
2) Transmission in liquid or air is impossible.

Vibration

Propagation

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Types
Types of
of Ultrasonic
Ultrasonic Waves
Waves

2. Longitude Wave
1) The vibration direction and propagation direction are same.
2) Transmission in liquid is possible.

Vibration
Propagation

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Characteristics
Characteristics of
of Ultrasonics
Ultrasonics

1. 100% reflection when it meets air(delamination)


2. Reflects at interfaces
3. Travels straight as light because of the very short
wavelength.

EMC
Air
Die

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Advantages
Advantages of
of Ultrasonics
Ultrasonics

1. High resolution :
Detectable minimum gap thickness of Sonix : 0.13 micro meter

2. High sensitivity :
The measuring of size, location, shape of fine defects is possible.

3. Real time inspection is possible.

4. Safe : Harmless to human body.

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Weak
Weak Points
Points of
of Ultrasonics
Ultrasonics

1. Difficult to inspect samples that have a rough surface or bubbles.


2. Liquid is required to transmit ultrasonic
3. Needs expertise(Solution:TAMI)

rough surface bubbles

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Uses
Uses for
for Ultrasonics
Ultrasonics

1. Nondestructive test equipment.(S.A.M.)


2. Sonar to find submarine, fish-finder
3. Medical examination equipment
4. Cleaner(15~50KHz)
5. Humidifier
6. Welding(15~40KHz)

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SONAR(Sound
SONAR(Sound Navigation
Navigation Ranging)
Ranging)

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SONAR(Sound
SONAR(Sound Navigation
Navigation Ranging)
Ranging)

1000m

4 deg.C

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Examination
Examination of
of Human
Human Body
Body

Fetus Liver Pancreas

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Reasons
Reasons for
for Use
Use of
of Ultrasonics
Ultrasonics

1. Evaluation of semiconductor reliability


•Existing the only estimation method of semiconductor reliability

2. Nondestructive inspection of internal defects


•Keep fine defects which can be lost by destructive inspection

‚Reuse of good samples after inspection

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Structure
Structure of
of QFP
QFP

EMC Gold Wire

Silicon Chip
Cu L/F Cu L/F
Epoxy
Cu Lead Frame

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Detectable
Detectable Defects
Defects

1. Delamination
2. Package Crack
Void PKG Crack
Delamination
3. Die Crack
Chip Crack

4. Void
5. Tilt PKG Crack

6. Foreign Materials

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Structure
Structure of
of Flip
Flip Chip
Chip

Die

Bump

Underfill
Substrate

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Inspection
Inspection using
using Ultrasonic
Ultrasonic

Signals in Digital Oscilloscope


Gate

Transducer

Die
Bottom
Die
Ultrasonic
Package Surface
Surface
Package Surface

EMC Die Surface


Die Die Bottom
Die Attach Adhesive

Inspect defects using reflected signal


in each interface

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Inspection
Inspection Methods
Methods

1. Pulse Echo Methods


1) A-scan : Inspection with waveform displayed on oscilloscope.
2) B-scan : Inspection with vertically x-sectioned 2-d image.
3) C-scan : Inspection with horizontally x-sectioned 2-d image..
4) TAMI : C-Scan with multiple(2~999) gate

2. Thru-Transmission Method

1) T-scan : Inspection with transmitted signal.

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Pulse
Pulse Echo
Echo &
& Thru-Transmission
Thru-Transmission

Pulse Echo Thru-Transmission

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Structure
Structure of
ofaaScanner
ScannerWhich
Whichuses
usesboth
bothPulse
Pulse
Echo
Echoand
andThru-Transmission
Thru-Transmission

Transducer for Pulse Generation


and Receiver for Pulse Echo

Water

Transducer for
Thru-Transmission

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A-Scan
A-Scan

1. Inspect defects with the phase and the magnitude of


reflected waves on oscilloscope.
2. Merit : The most accurate inspection method.
3. Weak Point : Only one point analysis is available not plane.
4. Used to confirm the inspection results.

Ultrasonic

PKG Surface
PKG Surface Die Surface Die Bottom
Die Surface

Die Bottom

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A-Scan
A-Scan

Stethoscope

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A-Scan
A-Scan

PKG Surface Die Surface


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A-Scan
A-Scan

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B-Scan
B-Scan

1. Show the x-sectional image from each interface.

2. Detectable defects : Crack, Tilt and Void.

3. Merit : Analysis of the level of defects are possible.

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B-Scan
B-Scan

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B-Scan
B-Scan

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B-Scan
B-Scan

PKG Surface

PKG Crack
Die Surface

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B-Scan
B-Scan

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EMC
EMC Void
Void Insp.
Insp.

Void

Void

No Void

PKG Surface

Void Void
Die Surface

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Void
Void Size
Size Measuring
Measuring

Void

Void

No Void

Void
Size

PKG Surface

Die Surface
Void
Void

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Die
Die Crack
Crack Direction
Direction Insp
Insp

B-Scan Image
Die Crack
PKG Surface
Die Surface
Die Bottom

B-Scan

Die Surface

Die Bottom

Die Crack Direction

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C-Scan
C-Scan

1. Shows the horizontally x-sectioned images after focus at


an interface.
2. Detectable defects : Delamination, Die crack.

3. Merit : The most precise inspection method.

4. Weak point : Needs expertise(Solution : TAMI).

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C-Scan
C-Scan

EM
C

EMC

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C-Scan
C-Scan

Die Surface of QFP Dimple Pad Bottom of TSOP

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