U MYTHOLOGY U GODS AND GODDESSES IN GREEK MYTHOLOGY Michelle M. Houle

Copyright © 2001 by Michelle M. Houle All rights reserved. No part of this book ma y be reproduced by any means without the written permission of the publisher. Li brary of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data Houle, Michelle M. Gods and God desses in Greek Mythology / Michelle M. Houle. p. cm. — (Mythology) Includes bibli ographical references and index. Summary: Discusses various Greek myths, includi ng creation stories and tales of principal gods and goddesses. ISBN 0-7660-14088 1. Mythology, Greek—Juvenile literature. [1. Mythology, Greek.] I. Title. II. My thology (Berkeley Heights, N.J.) BL782 .H68 2000 398.2’0938’01—dc21 00-028782 Printed in the United States of America 10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 To Our Readers: All Interne t Addresses in this book were active and appropriate when we went to press. Any comments or suggestions can be sent by e-mail to Comments@enslow.com or to the a ddress on the back cover. Cover and illustrations by William Sauts Bock

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4 6 8 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 Creation . . . . . . . .125 Index . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 99 He lius and Phaethon . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 26 Prometheus and Earth’s First Inhabitants . . . . . . . . . . .109 Glossary . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Prefac e . . . 60 Dionysus and His Followers . . . . . . . . . . . . . .127 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .CONTENTS Chart of Major Gods and Goddesses . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 75 Baucis and Philemon . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .119 Chapter Notes . . . . . Map . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17 The War Between the Titans and the Olympians . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 39 Pandora . . . . . . .124 Internet Addresses . . . . . . 51 Demeter and Persephone . . . . .121 Further Reading . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 89 Echo and Narcissus . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

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The Peloponnesus is home to the important cities of Sparta and Olympia. 1 which means “story” or “speech.” Myth is often the word used to describe a story that explains events or objects that occur in nature. The Greek Landscape The landscape of Greece has always played a great role in the development of its people and its myths. while it might be snowy and cold in one part of the country. While some real even ts or characters may be represented in myths. the locatio n of deserts or oceans. these stories should not be read a s if they are history. Myths may also be stories about the origins of customs or traditions. It is connected to the mainland by a thin strip of land. that is watched over by the old h ill city of Corinth.PREFACE The word myth comes from the Greek word mythos. such as the creation of certain flowers or animals. The country of Greece is located on the European continen t to the east of Italy in the Mediterranean Sea. these stories happen in a time and place that does not really exist. Therefore. like the island of Crete. It is a country surrounded by m any islands—some very small and some quite large. is on the southern tip of the mainland i n a region known as Attica. and even the origin and cycle of the seasons. There are many hills and mountains rolling across th e Greek countryside. Though there may be elements of fact intertwined in their telling. it can also be hot and dry 6 . Athens. r egardless of how real the setting may seem. an isthmus. on the other hand. The Pe loponnesus is a peninsula in the southern part of Greece.

on the sea. Thousands of years ago. Scholars do not know much about the daily lives 7 . because it was difficult to tease crops out of this roug h soil. are often considered the beginning of Greek culture and Western civiliza tion in general. However.C. They met and tr aded goods with people in Asia Minor and Africa. and farming has always been difficult. Because of their travels. but very li ttle is known about the area’s earliest inhabitants. the Greeks were already great seafarer s. such as wheat and barley. and why the myths of many different cultures often seem very similar. Eve ry time the sailors came into contact with people from different backgrounds. has taught scholars a little bit about the people who liv ed there between 6000 and 3000 B. such as olives and grapes. The years 3000 to 16 00 B. History People lived in the area now known as Greece for thousands of years. and they sailed all over the Mediterranean. The extensive travel of early Greek culture helps to explain why there are many dif ferent versions of each myth. or the study of ancient civilizations. the people who live in this area have also always depended. Europe and the Middle East. have been common crops throu ghout history. the Gre eks came into contact with people of many different backgrounds. Archaeology. the weather in Greece is warm. with sunny ski es and relatively mild winters. On the whole. Grains. th ey listened to the foreigners’ stories and added them to their own collection. The soil is dry and rocky due to the intense sun and rolling hills.C. Scholars believe that the early Greeks relie d on farming 2 and lived in small village-like communities. however. and fruits.Preface in another. at least in part.

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Mycenae was a wealthy and powerful city. called the Minoans. exists about the civilization then thriving on the island of Crete. built fabulous palaces and ruled the seas with a strong hand. and there were often wars between the different communities..C. however. Though the palaces of the Minoans on Crete were destroyed in about 1450 B. not unified at all. In the el eventh century B. and Athens are just a few of the cities that were founded in the same era as Mycena e. and they thought of themselves as “Hellenes. A lot of information. The people who lived there spoke a language that is similar to moder n Greek. It was against this city that the Greeks su pposedly fought as a single group in order to rescue 10 .C. Sparta.” or fellow descendants of Hellen. wh ere the legendary King Minos was thought to have lived. It is important to remember that the people we call Greeks today were. Like their predecessors. Mycenae became an important cen ter of Greek culture. the people of Crete. As their civilization spread. Beginning in about 2200 B. 3 religion. Minoan civilization had a great influence on its mainland neighbors in terms of art.. located in the Pe loponnesus. locate d in the western part of Asia Minor. they seem to have been farmers. at one time... Thebes.C. The people who lived in wh at is known today as Greece were united by two factors: they spoke roughly the s ame language.Gods and Goddesses in Greek Mythology and customs of the people who lived on the mainland of Greece during this period . an unknown enemy destroyed the ancient city of Troy. the legendary founder of the Greek people. and culture.C. (Today the modern Greek word for the country of Greece is Hellas. Other cities also began to blossom on the mainland.) There was no single ruler. the people of Greec e lived in towns that were independent of each other. In about 1650 B.

Phillip II. At that time. This era is often referred to as the “Golden Age of Greece” or the “Golden Age of Pericles. the king of Sparta. an area in the northern part of Greece. the various communities began to think of themselves as living in separate politica l entities known as city-states. Greeks blamed this massiv e destruction on an invading group of Greek-speakers whom they called the Dorian s. therefore.Preface Helen.C. During the rise of Athenian democracy during the sixth and fifth centu ries B.C. whe re some of the world’s most influential thinkers could be found.. took control of most of the Greek mainland. the Greek alphabet was created. Slaves were not considered citi zens.. The Greek word for city-state is polis.C.” referring to the ruler at the time. At that time. Later. This invention began a period of great political and commercial development on the Greek mainland and the surrounding islands. In 338 B. however. history..C. many maj or cities on the Greek mainland were destroyed. and. or the people. many Athenian famili es owned slaves. medicin e. using the Phoenician alpha bet as a model. a ruler from Macedonia. In about 800 B. not allowed to vote. Athens became the world’s first democracy when free adult males were allowed to vote on matters concerning the city.” It is important t o note. that only citizens could vote in this democracy. and women held a nonvoting status as citizens. It was a period of great development. 11 . In 508 B. Soon after this event. the wife of Menelaus. who were often captives of war. after his death. which means “ruled by the demos. great strides were made in the fields of philosophy. and the arts. The word democracy comes from the Greek word democratia. his son. especially in Athens. Phi llip and.. and not everyo ne living in Athens was considered a citizen.

. including most of the tales that we now recognize as the basic core of Greek mythology.C. Before about 800 B. stor ies began to be written down. scholars will differ in choosing the nglish equivalent for a reek word. and myths of their new subjects. when the Greek alphabet was developed. however. When Rome conquered Greece. It was also thro ugh oral storytelling that myths and legends traveled from one part of Greece to the next. or example... depending on the writer.C. At the height of his power. the Romans adopted many of the customs. religiou s beliefs. as well as to other parts of the world. Many were adaptations of stories that the Greeks gleaned from other c ultures. Literature The Greek myths we are familiar with today are the product of generations of sto rytelling..C. myths wer e passed down from one generation to the next by word of mouth.Gods and Goddesses in Greek Mythology Alexander. and by the middle of the second century B. we 12 ¥   £ ¦ ¥  h s     /      © ¨ § ¢ £ ¤ £ The Greek Alphabet and the English Equivalent: Α Β Γ ∆ Ε Ζ Η Θ Ι Κ ΛΜΝ Ξ ΟΠΡ Σ Τ Υ ΦΨΧΩ D ¢ ¡    h s £ ¦ ¢ ¡ . Alexander’s empire stretched as far east as India. n this book.C. By late in the third ce ntury B. led military campaigns to build up their empire. ecause the reek alphabet is different from the one we use in nglish. the Roman empire was beginning to gain strength. after 800 B. t he name of the god of fire may be spelled ephaistos or ephaestus. Greece had come under Roman control complete ly. However.

located off the west coast of t he reek mainland. which tells the story of the mythic creation of the world. when the real city of roy was destroyed. . the po et omer is thought to have composed he liad and he dyssey (although many sc holars debate his authorship). which may actually have taken place around 1250 . is two surviving poems are t he heogony. any of the myths we know today come from their plays. he dyssey recounts the adventures of dysseu s. the omans absorbed many aspects of reek culture. literature and the arts were also prospering. hese two epic poems contain famous stories about legendary events in reek history.have tried to spell words and names so that they sound similar to their reek eq uivalents but are also easy to read. he po et vid. a nother important source of reek myths is actually the work of omans. and uripid es. who lived from 13 £ ¥  ¢ ¢ ¡ ¡   ¢ ¥  ¥  ¨ ¥   ¡  ¦ ¦  ¥  ¥   © ¥ ¥     ¢ ¦ ¡ ¢  ©   ¢ ¥    ¥ ¥ © ¥  ¢     reface . hese two works tell us a lot a bout the prevailing myths surrounding the various gods and goddesses in reek le gend and religion at this time. . egend has it that he was a bl ind poet who may have lived in sia inor or on hios. omer’s stories may have been told for generations before they were ever written down. which tells other important stories. When they conquered the reeks. who was born around 700 . ecause oral storytelling was such an important tradition before the advent of writing. nother important figure at this time was a poet known as esiod. During the time when democracy was developing in thens. hree of thens’ greatest playwrights were eschylus. .. or scholars today. ometime in the eighth century . one of the islands off th e coast of sia inor. o one knows much about omer. he liad tells the story of the tenth year of the rojan War. and Work s and Days. a real island. ophocles. a legendary ruler from thaca. heater was one of these arts.

or centuries. and the leader of the reek pantheon was eus. it was an animal. he reeks believed that the gods had enormous power over the world and that they controlled nature in all its forms. sually. ne of the most famous festivals in the ancient reek worl d was the festival in thens honoring Dionysus. or collection. or prophets. that was offered. thens. ost cities had a particular god or goddess whom they considered a special protector. lo oked to the goddess thena and the god oseidon as its particular protectors. and it was during this festival that modern theater was born. During the fest ivities. to . for example. t the temples of various gods. the king of the gods and ruler of the sky.ods and oddesses in reek around 43 . he gods were o ften worshipped in temples erected in their honor. which retells the stories of many reek myths. this text has inspired other artists and poets.D. he worship of the gods often inclu ded a sacrifice. t many of these festivals. . h e reeks also believed in oracles. the priests. 17. was both a prolific writer and an influential figure in ome. the god of wine. who could be either men or women. of gods and goddesses is ca lled a pantheon. such as a goat. which means they believed in the existence of many gods and goddesses. eligion and ulture he ancient reeks were polytheistic. poets would dramatically recite the stories o f the gods’ adventures. group. ne of his most significant contributions to modern scholarship is his fifteen-volume work called he etamorphoses. plays would be performed and judged in a competition. were often called upon to interpr et 14 ¥ ¥ ¢ ¥ ¤   ©   ¥ ¢  © ¢   © ¥ ¥  ¢         ¢ ¡ ¢     ¢ ¥ ¢ ¢  ythology . h e cities also held festivals in honor of individual gods at various times of the year.

he gods and goddesses were a majo r part of everyday life in ancient reece. and he also served in the role of blacksmith for the gods. such as the sighting of a certain kind of bird or the appearance of some other natural event. era. but she was also the goddess of wisdom and war. ¥ ¤ ¥  ¢    ¤ ¢ ¥    ¢ ¥ ¥  ¤ ¤   ¢ ¢ ¥  ©    ©     reface omens. ometim es the gods married their siblings. yths and legends often told of the gods taking on human for ms and walking among the people. and each god had a particular role. s people beg an to believe different things about different gods. hrou ghout the various mythological stories. according to reek tradition. for exam ple. oseidon was another pr otector of thens but. he god eus. era. a real mountain in the central part of reece called h essaly. ne of the most famous oracles was located at Delphi where there were many important temples. ometimes the gods had several jobs. the ruler of the sky and the leader of the gods. the gods could leave their mounta in and go anywhere. eus’s wife. had many partners other than his wife. and some of them had more than one spouse or partner at a time. eus appears to have had more than one h undred fifteen 4 mistresses! he gods and goddesses were often paired in differe nt ways because the myths were always developing and being retold. was the goddess of marriage and childbirth. was also a protector of guests and travelers. or children. he was an important god for sail ors and those who traveled by boat. for example. who was also his sister. ephaestus was the god of fire. Within the pantheon. eus. they associated the gods wi th 15 . he reeks believed that the gods lived on ount lympus. the gods often married eac h other. parents. thena was the protectress of thens. eople would travel from all over the reek w orld to visit the temples and honor the gods. owever. as the ruler of the sea.

hough the gods had affairs and children by many different partners. often seemed to be a pa rt of all the other gods’ lives. n addition to being part of the plays and poems recited at festivals. were an important part of the everyday social and religious life of the ancient reeks. 16 ¢ ¦ ¥ ¦ ¥ © ¢ ¤ ¢ ¢   ¢ ythology . as the most powerful god. and the marriages. regardless of what t he gods and goddesses were thought to do. real reek marriage customs were very strict. therefore. eus. he following myths. often to men who were much older.ods and oddesses in reek one another in new ways. rather than affection. at lea st in thens. were usually arranged by families based on economic needs and poli tical tactics. the stories of the gods and goddesses were also frequently told at home and in schools. Women were mar ried at a young age. t was not socially acceptable for women t o have romantic relationships with men outside of marriage.

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n important reek creation story comes to us through esiod’s poem. he word chaos literally means a wide-open space.n this creation myth. he heogony seems to have been the earliest surviving literary version of the creation of the earth and th e birth of the gods in the reek pantheon. esiod appeals to th e uses. ecause the origin of the universe is unknown. si milarly. you uses who dwell in the house of lympus. aia is both a goddess and the earth itself. nvoking the uses’ help was a common way for poets to begin their work: ell how at the first gods and earth came to be. hese things dec lare to me from the beginning. and the boundless s ea with its raging swell. he goddess aia’s name literally means “earth” or “land. n this sense. and. and how they shared their honors amongst them. . the heogony. and how they divided the ir wealth. then. and rivers. and the gleaming stars. . the patronesses of the arts. the development of the earth coincides with a rise in the powers of the ruling gods. each cultur e has tried its best to make sense of this mystery. for inspiration and wisdom as he begins to relate the succession of gods and the story of creation. 1 an d tell me which of them first came to be. but it can also describ e a deep cavern or chasm. . n the heogony. 18 ¥ ©  ¥ ¥ ¢  ¥ ¦ ¥   ¥ ¥ ¦ ¢ ©  ¥ ¢ ¢ ¥  ¡ © ¦¥ ¥ ¦      ¦ ¢ ¥ © ¥ ¦ D ost cultures have myths that help to explain the creation of the universe and t he beginning of time.” here is a close connect ion between these god-like figures and the physical elements suggested by their names. . and the wide heaven above. givers of good things.” he n ame of aia’s child and husband. means “sky” or “heaven. ranus is both a god and the heavens. ranus. he first entity that ruled the universe was called haos. and the gods who were born of them.

haos divided itself into the earth. During haos’s reign. and rivers and oceans w ere formed. and the sea. When the division w as complete. 19 . ike an artist at a canvas. n every way. the goddess began to long for children to help populate a nd rule this magnificent new world. oon. aia was busy creating a beautiful maste rpiece. n fact. sky. t was a period of vast emptiness. ha os was a space of neither order nor disorder. there was no o rganization of any kind in the universe. he child she bore was named ranus. £ ¥ ¦    £ ¥ ¥ ¢ ¢ ¦  ¢ © ¢ ¨ ¦  ¡ ¦¥   £  efore there was land or sea. ountains became separate from the plains. people or gods. ranus was the equal of his mot her. nothing existed. and soon aia and ranus had children together. er name was aia. one goddess came into being without being born to any mother . ven time did not exist. there was no eart h at all. everything was peaceful and perfect. nor any such features on earth. fter haos divided into the e arth. here were no mountains or rivers. except haos. aia’s desire for children was so great that e ventually she became pregnant by herself. which means earth. the sky. and sea. and she took control over the earth as i t took shape. here was no sun or moon. however. a nd he became the ruler of the sky. ventually .

ach had but a single eye. these young gods were exceedingly strong. which was positioned directly in the middle of his forehead. called the undred-handed nes. ranus was afraid that someday one of these chi ldren would overthrow him. lthough they were frightening to look at. fter the hundred-handed monsters had been born and were pushed back into their mother’s womb. hey we re giants. aia gave birth to three more monst rous children. ecause of this fear. ranus hated the children and f orced them back into aia’s womb. and they were excellent craftsmen who made thunder and lightning for 20 ¥  ¢      £  ¢    © ¡ ¢ ¢ ¥ ¢ ¢ ¢ ythology . hese were giants called the yclopes. and each had fifty heads and a hundred hands. lthough aia loved her children and was proud of them.ods and oddesses in reek aia’s first three children were monsters.

and ang ry at the cruel ranus. ranus was afraid of th ese children. far away. hemis. addened by the loss of the undred-handed nes and the yclopes. artarus was far.reation their mother to use as tools and weapons. o. ranus tied the yclopes up and threw them into a deep cavern called artarus. a nd ranus felt safe in believing that he would never see these monster-children again. heia. aia gave birth to a third group of children. and they were not monsters at all. he goddesses’ names were e thys. he itans were beings with huma n characteristics. hey were very different from their older siblings. hese were called the itans. too. nfortunately. and there were twelve of them—six goddesses and six gods. 21 ¥ ¥ ¥  ¥ ¥  ¥  ¥   ¥  ¥ ¢    © ¥  ¥  . nemosyne. and hoebe. hea. in order to get rid of them.

when ranus came to aia’s bed. she came up with a plan that would allow her c hildren to be born into the world and remain there. he itans and the undred-handed nes were reborn from their mother’s womb.ods and oddesses in reek he gods’ names were ceanus. the itan named hea. rius. he desperately wanted her children to live without restraints and to enjoy the world. one night. s ranus lay dying. apetus. ranus died. peaceful time. inally. ronus married his sister. and oeus. the undred-handed nes. ronus. fter ranus died. a look of anger and betrayal in his eyes. 22    ¥ ¡ ¥  ¥ ¢ ¥  ¢    ¥  ¢    ¦ ¢ ¥  ¢ © ¥ ¢    ¢      ¥ ¢   ¢   ¢ ¥ ¢  ythology . o. wit h a final shudder. aia could speak to the chil dren in her cavernous womb. the two set out to trick ranus and free the itans and the und redhanded nes from their mother’s prison-like womb. the youngest of the twelve itans. ronus. was the most eager to help his mother. aia and her children felt free for the first time. gasping for breath. and ruled over the universe for a long. ranus leaned forward a nd cursed his son: “ ronus. and she had no trouble convincing them to help with her plan. inally. ll of aia’s children decided to make ronus their king. a curved knife used to harvest crops. ronus and aia waited for th e perfect opportunity to enact their plan. aia was enraged by ranus’s refusal to allow her childre n to live freely.” hen. “it will come to pass that one of your children will do to you what you have just done to me. ecause o f this fear. and the yclopes wer e freed from artarus.” he pronounced. his fears of b eing overthrown by one of his children having come true. ronus crept out of aia’s womb and stabbed his cruel father with a s ickle. ranus was still afraid that one day one of his children would overthrow him. yperion. he pushed the itans back into aia’s womb alongside their siblings.

e did not have a father himself. 23 . What was unique about aia’s first children. and what happened to them? aia’s first children were monsters. he yclopes were strong. Why did ranus hate all of the children aia bore him ? e was afraid that one day. and the sea were formed. ranus was also the father of aia’s other children. ach yclopes had a single eye set in the middle of his fore head.: : : : : : : : : :   ¢ ¢  ¢ ¢ ¢ ¢  ¢ ¢ ¥    ¥     £     ¦¥ ! £      £!  £ ¢   !   ! ¥   !   !   !  D W : : What existed before the earth was formed? haos is the name for the empty space that existed before the earth.” and she gave the earth all its attributes. Who were aia’s second children. ran us pushed these three children back into their mother’s womb. er name means “earth. ow was ranus related to aia? ranus was aia’s son. Who was aia? aia was the first goddess to ex ist after the division of haos. the sky. who became the ruler of the sky. and they were excellent craftsmen. and what happened to them? hree yclopes were born after their hundr ed-handed siblings. ach undredhanded ne had fifty heads and a hundred hands. haos was a spa ce of neither order nor disorder. ranus locked them in a deep cavern called artarus. one of his children would overthrow him.

ronus was able to set the gods free from their mother’s womb. and how did he save the itans? ronus was the youngest of all aia’s chil dren. Who was ronus. ranus cursed ronus. y committ ing the act. one of ronus’s children would rise up and overthrow him. just as ronus ha d overthrown ranus. with a sickle. and what happened to them? aia’s youngest ch ildren were the itans who had characteristics similar to humans. : : : : 24 ¢ ¡   ¢    ¥ ¢ ©    ¢ ¥ ¥  ¢ ¢   !    !   ! ¢ ythology . ranus. ranus pushed these twelve children back into aia’s womb with the undred-handed nes. e killed his father.ods and oddesses in reek : : Who were aia’s third set of children. predicting that on e day. What w as ranus’s final curse? s he was dying. one of the itans.

in many ways they still remain a mystery to modern scholars. private and public. John insent suggests: or ranus is cut with the sickle. en Dowden. ost people were familiar with these stories. uest s at drinking parties might entertain each other by reciting stories from myths. rather than from [ ronus] and hea like the lympian 3 gods . 25 © ¢ ¢ ¢     ¥ ¦ ¢ ¦  ¢  ¥  ¡ ¥ ¨ ¡  ¢ © ¥ ¥ ¥   £©© ££  £ §   ¥   © ¥ ¥ ¢    . for example. these same vessels accompanied their owners to the grave.” he story of the first immortal generation may have been symbolic of some kind o f agricultural or fertility activity among the early reeks. cholar ucilla urn notes: reek myths permeated reek life. cenes of myth 2 could also be woven into fine textiles.he myths of the gods and goddesses were as important in reek society as religi on itself. n his book reek ythology. nyone born of eaven and arth. . We do not know where their name comes from and individu ally they are a rag-bag of persons. he author of he ses of reek ythology. n the well-documented soc iety of thens in the fifth century . an instrument which however well suited for t he purpose may legitimately suggest that the story has been also influenced by s tories of the 4 annual sacrifice of the corn or its representative. or they might listen to a professional performer. it is clear that a major part of education was learning and reciting epic poems on heroic subjects. who would sing of the deeds o f heroes while accompanying himself on the lyre. explains: he itans are a puzzle. and many could even rec ite them in their entirety.. lthough there are many stories about the first generation of gods. rivate homes contained pottery vessels decorated with scenes from the adventures of the gods and heroes. must apparently on that account be a “ itan. abstractions and even monsters.

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. here were important shrines in lympia. for example. t is a place outside real time and space. he purpose of the games was thought to be a ki nd of reenactment of the rivalry between the lympian gods and the itans. lympia was named for the lympian gods . ccording to ark . quarrels were supposed to be set aside in order that athletes be allowed to take part in peaceful competition. ount lympus is not the same as lympia. lympia was an importan t site in this respect. When ount lympus is referred to in myths. a town in the western part of the eloponnesus. lthough there is an actual mountain. . . in these stories. he winners claimed ount lympus as their home. he first lympic ames were probably held the re sometime in the eighth century . fightin g a great war for power over the universe. lthough people did no t believe that the gods took an interest in their individual lives. ount lympu s is a mythical place that humans cannot visit. is a real mountain in the central part of reece. professors of reek 27 ©  ¨  © ¥   ©  ¥      ¢  © ¦      ¥ ©    © ¡ ¥  ¥ ¢  ¡ ©   ¨ ¢ ¥  ¢      ¦¥ ¥ ¦     © ¦ ¥  ¥ .D ometimes real places are named in a myth. hese two generations of gods eventually became rivals. it becomes more than a mere geographi cal site. . orford and obert J. however. During the lympic ames. t becomes the home of the lympians. not far from the egean ea. they often w ent to the temples to ask the gods for insight and help. ike ount lympus. although they seem to have been 2 a carr yover from an earlier tradition. the generation of gods who succe eded the itans. enardon. ount lympus. an area which 1 was settled even as e arly as the third millennium . and a commemoration of the triumph of the lympian gods over the itans in their war.

ods and oddesses in reek

mythology, the gods were thought to send humans messages in the form of natural signs or omens, which were then interpreted by priests at the shrines of the var ious gods: he traditional methods for eliciting a response from [ eus] were by the observa tion and interpretation of omens, for example, the rustling of leaves, the sound of the wind in the branches of his sacred oaks, the call of doves, and the cond ition of burnt offerings. t lympia inquiries were usually 3 confined to the ch ances of the competitors at the games. he story about the war between the itans and the lympians is a vital one in reek mythology. n this myth, we learn that even the evolution of the immortal g ods was wrought with conflict. othing came easy for the lympian gods, but, alt hough the odds were stacked against them, they never gave up. s was also true i n the daily lives of the reek people, perseverance was an important quality—so im portant that it was central to their stories and their religious beliefs. 28

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ythology

W W D fter the death of ranus, the world was at peace again. ronus, the king of the itans, and hea, his most noble sister and wife, had matters well in hand. nf ortunately, the curse of his father, ranus, haunted ronus day and night. Was i t possible that one day he, too, would have a child who would overthrow him? ne day, hea announced that she was going to have a baby, but her husband was not happy. ronus was so afraid that history would repeat itself that he did, in fac t, manage to repeat history. ike his father before him, ronus reasoned that if he could keep his children from growing up, none could ever become strong enoug h to overpower him. o, when hea gave birth to her first child, ronus quickly grabbed it and swallowed it whole. hea was both horrified and saddened at the l oss of her firstborn child. n a similar manner, ronus swallowed all of the nex t four children that she gave birth to, and hea vowed to get them back, any way she could. y the time hea discovered that she was pregnant for the sixth time , she had figured out a plan to trick her husband and save the newborn child fro m being swallowed whole. o, when it was nearly time for her to 29 

  

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ods and oddesses in reek

give birth, hea pretended to have her baby. he took a large stone and wrapped it in a baby’s blanket. When ronus came to gobble down the newborn child, hea ga ve him the wrapped-up stone. uickly, ronus swallowed the stone, just as he had swallowed the other children. n fact, ronus’s focus on swallowing the newborn g od was so great that he did not even realize that he had been tricked. ater, wh en the time came for hea actually to have her child, she fled to the island of rete. here, away from the glaring eyes of her husband, hea secretly gave birt h to a son, whom she named eus. e was a beautiful and strong baby, and hea kn ew that when he grew up, he would be a truly powerful god. hea realized that sh e could not return home to her husband with the child. ronus would only try to destroy the newborn god, as he had done with the others. herefore, for his prot ection, hea left eus to grow up secretly on rete where he was suckled by a go at and raised by minor native deities called nymphs. While eus was a child, ro nus never suspected that he had been tricked and that he actually had a stone re sting solidly in his stomach. When he had grown into a young man, eus left ret e to join his mother. hea arranged for eus to become a servant to his father. ronus did not know that his new servant was actually his son. ne day, eus bro ught his father a cup of wine, which ronus drank quickly. his cup of wine cont ained a special potion, which made ronus throw up. ronus was so violently ill that he even threw up the stone wrapped in a blanket. hen he threw up all of th e children he had swallowed before. he children emerged from their father’s stoma ch as fully grown adults. heir names were oseidon, ades, era, Demeter, and estia. hese were eus’s brothers and sisters, and they were all 30   

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ythology

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ods and oddesses in reek

glad to see each other in the light of day. lthough they were happy to be free, the six siblings knew they must do something immediately, or their father would swallow them all over again. uickly, they ran away while their father continue d to moan and clutch his stomach. his young generation of gods fled to ount l ympus to escape their irate father, and because they claimed ount lympus as th eir home, the young gods were called the lympians. fter they had fled to safet y, the lympians quickly formed a plan. t once, they declared war on ronus and many of the other itans. he young gods wanted to rule the world in their fath er’s place. et their struggle had a dual purpose: while they were fighting for co ntrol over the earth, they were also fighting for their lives, since they knew t hat ronus would swallow them again if he ever got the chance. nd so a great wa r began. t first, it seemed likely that the itans would be victorious and rema in in control of the earth. he young lympian gods felt outnumbered and overpow ered. he tide began to turn, however, when a few itans changed sides and fough t with eus and his siblings. rometheus, the son of the itans hemis and apet us, was one who switched his allegiance. rometheus’s name means “one who thinks ahe ad,” and with his ability to see the future he could foresee that the itans would lose the battle against the lympian gods. rometheus and his brother pimetheu s refused to fight against the lympians because of this foresight. he yclopes and the undred-handed nes also joined the lympians in their fight against th e itans. hey did not feel bound to the itans, and they believed that the lym pian gods would rule with steadier hands. eus asked the one-eyed yclopes to ma ke weapons for his army, and these skilled craftsmen made a special weapon 32  

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ythology

he War etween the itans and the lympians

for each of the gods. or eus, the leader, the yclopes fashioned a special thu nderbolt, which could be thrown long distances with great force. or oseidon, t hey created a magnificent trident, or three-pronged spear, which could defeat an y enemy. inally, knowing that resistance came in many forms, the yclopes made ades a magic helmet that could make him invisible, even to the immortal eyes of ronus and the other itans. 33   

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ods and oddesses in reek

he war between the itans and the lympians was terrible. With the help of the undred-handed nes, who fought bravely without ever tiring, the lympians soon forced the itans to surrender. fter the itans had given up, eus challenged ronus to a wrestling match. he winner would control ount lympus, to which the itans were still laying claim. fter beating ronus three times, eus declared the lympian gods to be the winners. fter the war, the lympians sent most of the itans to artarus to be locked up for eternity. he victors built a bronze gate over the mouth of the cavern, and the undred-handed nes were placed outsi de as guards. tlas, another child of apetus and hemis, who had led the itans into battle, received a special punishment. e was forced to hold the world on his back for all eternity. his turned out to be a far more challenging task tha n imprisonment in artarus. ronus, the former ruler of the universe, was not se nt to artarus with his siblings. hough ronus had swallowed his children whole , eus and the other lympians did not want to destroy him in revenge. nstead, ronus was sent away to live on the sland of the Dead, where he stayed forever. lthough originally he had wanted to destroy the lympian gods, ronus, once de feated and exiled, sent dreams to his son eus to guide him from afar. fter all the punishments were handed out, eus, ades, and oseidon made a bet to determ ine who would rule each part of the world. ades became the lord of the dead and the nderworld, which was sometimes called ades in his honor. oseidon gained control of the seas and all the waters on earth. eus became the lord of the sky ; and since the sky covers everything on earth, he became the king, or father, o f the gods. 34

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ythology

they. ermes grew very quickly. era. ater. w ho was the daughter of the itans hoebe and oeus. nce the lympians had defeated the itans and taken on their new roles. the god of light and music. 35  ¤  ©    ¨ ¨      ¥   ¥ ¢  ¥   ©   ¥         ¥ ¤  ¥ ¤    ¡     ¤   ¥ . and his tw in sister. were the children of eto. the maiden goddess of the hunt. Demeter became the goddess of agriculture and of all growing things. had children. phrodite. era became pregnant on her own and gave birth to ephaestus. he became the goddess of wisdom and the protector of thens. pollo. and he was swift-footed. hese gods and others lived on o unt lympus after their victory over the itans. the other lympian gods were also giv en jobs. ephaestus was the god of fire and became the blacksmith of the gods. the new rulers could look down on all of reece and keep watch over the world. and because he was always moving abou t. thena. rtemis. and he became the god of war. res was the child of era and e us. eus. too. too. even as a baby. or fireplace. is mother was aia. e stia became the goddess of the hearth. was born out of the side o f eus’s head. one of the daughters of tla s. ome of these gods were born under rat her extraordinary circumstances. rom the height of this great m ountain. e was often d epicted with wings on his hat and sandals.he War etween the itans and the lympians fter these important decisions were made. and the home. he goddess of love and beau ty. he became the official messenger of the gods because he was so fast. had an unusual birth: she was born out of the waves of the sea. pr otected the home and became the goddess of marriage and childbirth after she mar ried her brother. ermes was another son of eus. for example. for the control of which they had fought so hard. he was a particular protector of travelers.

ronus swallowed the stone. ecause he d id not expect the trick.: : : : : : : : ¥   ¡ ¥     ¥ ¥    ¥ ¤   ¥          ¦¥ ! £      £!     !   !    !   !  D W : : Why was ronus afraid of his children? ronus feared that one of his children wo uld rise up and overthrow him. ow did ronus get rid of his children? e swallowed them whole. ranus had cursed ronus. e received this punishment because he had led the itans in battle. What kind of weapons did the yclopes make for the lympian gods? ome of the weapons that the yclopes made were a thunderbolt for eus. blanket and all. 36 . just as he had done to his own father. Why and how did hea trick her hus band? hea was angry and upset at ronus’s practice of devouring their children. he lympians also set tlas to work holding the world on his shoulders. When it came time for ronus to grab the sixth ne wborn child. a trident for oseidon. hea gave him a large stone wrapped in a baby’s blanket. predicting that history would repeat itself. s o she planned a trick for him. and a ma gic helmet for ades. he undred-handed nes stood guard over this prison. ow did the lympian gods punish the itans? he lympian gods locked most of them away in the cavern called artarus.

hey deter mined these roles through a bet.he War etween the itans and the lympians : : What happened to ronus? he lympians did not utterly destroy ronus. ades became the ruler of the nderworld. or the land of the dead. nstead. oseidon gained control of the seas and all the waters on the earth. ron us sent dreams of advice to his son. and oseidon divide up the control of the universe? eus became the king. : : : : 37 ¦  ¥  ¦  ¤     ¤  ¤ ¥ ¦ ¥    !   ! ¡   ! ¥  . ow did eus. ades. ow did ro nus wind up helping his son eus? rom his exile on the sland of the Dead. they sent him to the sland of the Dead where he lived for eternity. of the gods and r uled the sky. or father.

any words in nglish can be traced to the reek language. he result was a spate [stream] of poetical and philoso phical speculation. or assimilation. he myth of the bi rth of eus reads very much like an attempt to link by geography and 6 genealogy the religion and deities of both cultures. and 5 is called tlanti c after him. 3000). of diff erent sets of beliefs and traditions in shaping the myths: When the inhabitants of rete began to build their great civilization and empire (ca. bring ing with them an early form of reek and their own gods (chief of whom was eus) . a picture of the fertile earth engulfing the seeds. he names of places were often taken from the names of the gods. he scholars orford and enardon suggest the blending. ronus swallowing his children was not merely. sometimes they are easily confused. looking back to earlier astern concepts of a mother-godd ess.” erhaps the god’s connection with the year-cycle contr ibuted to the confusion. on the agricu ltural level. 38  ¤ ©     ¥  ¢  £ ¢  ¢ ¥ ¥ ¨ © ¢ £    ¢ £¥ © ¥   £©© ££ © ¤ ¥   ¥ ¥ . “time. . cholar ichmond . but it was strongl y influenced by the older. owever. he northern invaders who entered the peninsula of reece (ca. built a significant ycenaean civilization on the mainland. more sophisticated power of rete. but a statemen t 4 of the grim truth that ime devours everything it produces. 2000). because many reek words sound alike to the foreign ear. the religion they developed (insofar as we can ascertain) was edit erranean in character. . . athorn explains: ven in pre-classical times the name of ronus seems to have been confused with the reek word chronos. uthor John in sent writes: tlas stood in the west in the sea that is beyond cean.

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owever. rome theus was an important figure in the mythical development of the earth and the c reation of human beings. pimetheus’s name. rometheus got into trouble with the gods. . the people remained distinctly aloof from the gods. owever. too. n fact. they did not feel compelled to love the gods back. rometheu s’s name means “the one who thinks ahead. far away from the reek mainland. geographical mountains. often making wise and anticipatory decisions. he reeks believed it was rometheus who had taught th em how to survive in the newly created world.40  £  ¢  © ¦  ¥    £  ¥ ¢ £ ¥ ¢ ¥ ¥   ¡  © ¦¥ ¥ ¦     ¥  D any of the myths show the gods acting in response to something a human has said or done. ne of these stories involves rometheus and his brother p imetheus. mean s “the one who thinks afterwards. behaved according to his name. hese brothers were sons of itans who had crossed sides and fought ag ainst their relatives in the war between the itans and the lympians. on the other hand.” and he. the gods punished r ometheus by tying him to a rock on the top of a mountain. he aucasus ountains that are mentioned in the story are real. the people did not believe the gods loved them—and. in trying to help the hum ans. ventually. ome of the stories about the creation of mankind show the gulf that lay between the mortals and their he avenly counterparts. he people simply accepted the gods as all powerful and 1 u nderstood that their power was never to be questioned.” and he behaved as his name suggests. in return. located to th e east of the lack ea. and in the practice of ancient reek re ligion. in their daily lives.

just as he was beginning. and he always planned ahead. rometheus was the more sensible of the two brothers. he was called away to settle a matter dividing his fellow lympians. inally. blessed with the gift of being able to see the future. but he never planned ahead. sons of itans who had fought with the lympians. pimetheus never thought about the consequences of h is actions until after he had completed them. the land that la y below ount lympus remained unpopulated. the first goddess. eus began to make creatures to populate this beautiful world. lthough the brothers were itans by birth. and the world was at peace.D ’ fter the world was created and the gods had fought their wars. to continue the project of cr eating earth’s first inhabitants. owever. on the other hand. had long yearned to make creatures to inhabit the earth. pimetheus. 41 ¥ £ ¤  ¥  ¢    ¥ ¥¦ ¦ ¥ ¦  ¥   ¡      £    £ £  ¤   ©     ¥   £ £© ¦ ¥   . t was a good time to be created. o monsters roamed the earth. they had sided with the lympians in the war against ronus and the other itans bec ause. even though aia. always meant well. e decided to appoint rometheus and pimetheus. eus decided it was time. rometheus had fore seen the lympian victory.

pimetheus w as invited to work on the project because he was always eager to help his brothe r. the only element lacking for life was air. pimetheus stayed behind to give the un finished creations their final distinguishing features. they would breathe and be truly alive.ods and oddesses in reek eus had chosen these brothers for the project of creating the first people and animals on earth because rometheus was an excellent potter and sculptor. whi ch would protect them from the elements. When rometheus returned from his talk with thena. the goddess of wisdom. she promised. When the wind blew into them. pimetheus had been so excited about designing the new animals and so generous with his creative pow ers that he had completely forgotten to save any special gifts for the human bei ngs. rometheus went to thena. romet heus could make just about anything. thena’s advice was simple . o. ecause eus had only just started to make the various earth creatures. he fo und that once again. thena advised rometheus to hold each of the newly shaped creatures up to the sky. e enjoyed showing off his creative powers and granted a wide variety of interesting physical attribute s to all the different creatures. y the time the sculptor had gotten 42  £   £        £  ¦ £   © £   ¢ © ¤  ¢    ¡ ¡  ¤ ¢ ythology . having been fashioned from clay. his brother had acted before thinking. n addition. he gave some of the creatur es strength and speed. for advice on how to complete the work. eanwhile. he told rometheus that since the creatures were already composed of earth an d water. pimetheus continued to work. pimetheus gave some of them fur and hair. fter using clay to sculpt the new crea tures into their basic shapes. the b rothers had a lot of work ahead of them. e gave others teeth and claws so that they could easily collect and eat food. and he had a good imagination.

around to the humans. rometheus left ount lympus and went to live on ea rth with the people. and they would have remained so forever if rometheus had not stepped in. ut rometheus was still not satisfied. and scared. hey decided to help. hen he taught them how to read. rometheus showed the humans how to build houses so t hey would not have to live in caves. inally. rometheu s decided to help the humans stand upright like the gods. e used this fir e to light up the new creatures’ powers of thought and speech. rometheus set forth to fix the mistake and make human beings strong and capable of surviving among earth’s other inhabitants. e turned their heads upward to the sky. hey were glad to see that there was a species on earth th at had the ability to think and speak. irst. the lympian earth goddess. using the fire of the sun. he had run out of ideas. e helped the people learn how to tame animals and h ow to sail on the seas. hen he raced to the heavens where he lit a torch. his adjustment gave them the power to reason. in order to teach them the skills they would need to surviv e in the new world. hey were hungry. sad. fter he had shown the people how to foretell the future and recognize omens by looking at the way birds flew. e showed them how to heal themselves when they were sic k. e saw that pimetheus’s poor planning had left the new humans physically weak comp ared to the other inhabitants of the earth. irst. tau ght the 43     ¥   ¥       ¥ © ¥  ¡ ¥ ¦ rometheus and arth’s    ¥    ¥  £ ¥ £     irst nhabitants . the gods approve d of rometheus’s work. and how to write numbers and letters. some of the other gods became impressed by the new people. Demeter. hey were left weak and defensele ss. too. t first. hese special power s helped set the humans apart from the other animals. n ce he realized that his brother had created a species unable to stand on its own in the new world. to help the humans.

ntil this time. rometheus could see that the humans would probably need to eat the meat of other animals to survive. rom then on. o rometheus came up with a plan. or the other pile. humans were only allowed to slaughter other animals if they were performing a s acrifice to the gods. hey ate only the plants that Demeter instructed them to e at. nce this was done. othe r gods were beginning to worry that the humans were becoming too powerful. topping the pile with entrails to make the offering lo ok disgusting. hen. rometheus took the lean meat and other edible parts of the ox and wrapped them in hide. his pile looked like the more attractive offering in a sacrifice. as if for a sacrifice. and they kept the savory parts of the animals for t hemselves. eus chose the pile shimmering with fat. despite the growing concerns of his fellow gods. the humans had better access to food. but he decided to save his revenge for later. he had to stick with it. nce eus had ma de his choice. owev er. rometheus was so pleased w ith his creations that he decided to help the humans even more.ods and oddesses in reek new race of creatures about edible plants. he cut up an ox. rometheus wrapped up the bones of the ox and hid them under shiny morsel s of fat. eus was outraged that rometheus had tricked him. people offered the fat and b ones of animals to the gods. rometheus asked eus to choose one of the tw o piles and keep it as the sacrificial offering. the humans would take whichever pile eus rejected. even after he discovered that he had cho sen a pile with no edible meat in it. 44   ¦ ¤     ¤     ¥ ©  ¤ ¥ ¢    ¤ ¥ ¢  ¤  ¢   ythology . and they began to prosper and live happily for the first time. lthough some of the gods were excited about the development of the humans. irst. n one pile. With this help. he divided the sections into two piles. ot knowing that the good meat was actually hidden beneath the hide and entrails.

ecause rometheus was immortal. iding the fire inside the stalk of a fennel plant. and how to keep fire burning so that it would always be available. eus tho ught they needed to be stopped before they believed their own powers were suprem e and they no longer heeded the authority of the gods. and he never died. fire belonged only to the gods. rometheus’s efforts angered some of the other gods. he new people were getting too powerful and too smart. they were often cold. the god of fire and the for ge. more p hysically powerful creatures. e wen t up to heaven and secretly stole fire from the gods. rometheus decided to change things. rometheus did all these things to help the huma ns because he wanted them to survive in the world now populated by other. o punish rometheus for tricking the k ing of the gods and for making humans so powerful. eus had him captured and cha ined to a rock on the crest of one of the aucasus ountains. they had no way to cook it. until this po int. was doing on ount lympus. nfortunately. very day. an enor mous eagle came to the spot where rometheus was tied. urthermore. he n he taught the people how to cook grains and meat. just as ephaestus. and even though they were now allowed to eat meat. uman beings did not know about fire or how to control it because. Despite this 45 ¥  ¤ ¤ £  ¥    © ¤   ¥       ¡  ¦ rometheus and arth’s     © ¥  £  ¥   irst nhabitants . and each day it swooped down and pecked away at rometheus’s liver. de vouring the greater part of it.his was not the only trick rometheus played on the lympian gods for the sake of the humans. he eagle was fierce and relentless. eus was fur ious with rometheus for all his tricks. ince the new race of creatures had no fur. rometheus brought it back to the people on earth. his liver grew back every night. rometheus also showed the humans how the y could use fire to forge metal.

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nfortunately.intense torture. he endured the punishment for thirty years until ercules came and freed him. 47 ¤   ¦ rometheus and arth’s  ¥ £   irst nhabitants . and it was a punishment that would last forever. punishing only rometheus did not satisfy eus’s des ire for revenge. he king of the gods had other plans that would affect the enti re human race.

teeth. they were already made of earth and water. and he had a good imagination. and why were they chosen for this honor? ro metheus and pimetheus were given the job of finishing the creation of earth’s fir st inhabitants.” pimetheus means “the one who thinks afterwards. they would breathe and become alive. What element did thena advise rometh eus to add to the creatures? thena explained that since eus had used clay when he began to make the creatures. hey were chosen for the job because rometheus was an excellent potter and sculptor. he told rometheus that the only element the creatures lack ed was air. 48 . with no special gifts. two essential elements. pimetheus was reliable and could be counted on to help his brother. o me of them were given wings. when the creatures were held up in the wind. and fur for protection and to help th em survive. umans were left defenseless.: : : :       ¤ £  £     £ £     !¦¥ !    £      £! £ ¥  £  £    !   ! D W : : : : What are the meanings of the names rometheus and pimetheus? rometheus means “th e one who thinks ahead.” What job we re rometheus and pimetheus given. ow did pimetheus fail to think ahead in completing earth’s creatur es? pimetheus gave all the qualities of power and strength to other animals. claws.

and medicine. Why were the gods angry at rometheus for giving humans fire? he gods feared humans would become too wise and too powerful. he y were afraid that the people might be able to compete with the gods. e gave humans souls and the power to think and speak. : : : : 49 © ¤ ¥        ¦ rometheus and arth’s   £ ¥     !   !   !    irst nhabitants . he gave humans fire and showed them how to use it. where every day an eagle devoured most of his liver. rometheus trick ed the other gods into allowing humans to eat meat.: : ow did rometheus help make humans capable of surviving in the new world? irst he helped humans stand upright so they could turn their heads up toward the sky . inally. reading and writing. ow did e us punish rometheus? e chained rometheus to the top of one of the aucasus o untains. rometheus also taught humans skills like building.

ven today. n eschylus the clash of div ine wills echoes triumphantly through the ages. rometheus became known as mankind’s greatest helper. and allowed to die miserably. the myth of r ometheus and his punishment was immortalized in the fifth century . owever. . owell. orford and o bert J. when 2 eaters of carrion [dead meat] consumed their flesh. he is of ten referred to as the symbolic father of creativity. 50      ¡ © ¤   £ ¥ ©   ¡ ¦ ¥  ¡  ¡         ¢   ¤ ¥ ¥   £©© ££   ¨ ¥    . and music of all time. th e vehement and weariless champion against oppression. enardon write: undamental to both esiod and eschylus is the conception of eus as the oppres sor of humankind and rometheus as its benefactor. lthough esiod and many other poets had told this story earlier. . eschylus. the bringer of fire. by the t henian dramatist. . hrough these early w riters. . stripped naked. the mighty 3 symbol for ar t. offers the towering image of rometheus as the itan. . literature. arry .eus’s method of punishing rometheus for helping the humans seems excessively cru el to our modern sensibilities. a professor at the ni versity of Wisconsin. more than any othe r. ark . in his play rometheus ound. nailed to a post. explains that it would have been a punishment familiar to people in ancient reek society: his method of punishment actually existed: Vicious criminals were taken to the boundaries of a territory. is portrait.

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o achieve the gods’ ends. irls were not formally educated like their brothers. and sometimes menaci ng. created andora at eus’s command. hey did not speak to men outside the intimate circle of family me mbers. eus and some of the other gods wanted to put the humans back in their place after their powers had been so greatly enhanced by rometheus. women often play important. . n mythology. hey had no econo mic or political independence. in both myth and reality. women lived very difficult lives. or a jar. When thens became a democracy at the start of the fifth century . hey lived in their father’s house until they married as young teenagers. at the same time. d epending on the version of 52 ¡ ¥   ¤ ¥ ¤ ¥ ¢   ¤ ¥ ¦    ¥ ¢   ¦   ¦¥ ¥ ¦     ¦ ¢ . ephaestus. among them great beauty and charm. the god of fire and the forge. andora was the first human woman. wo men could not vote. however. it was commonly believed that they were devious and wicked beneath their noble façade. t is a contradiction then that. women were expected to be virtuous and good. women were treated as infer ior and often lived in a special part of the house known as the women’s quarters. and her story may represe nt the contradictory issues associated with reek women.D n ancient thenian society. roles in reek mythology. eus intended her to be a f orm of punishment for the newly created human males. andora is endowed wit h many gifts. at which time they moved to their husband’s home. he gods also give her a gift t hat will ultimately set free all the evils in the world—an ornate box. and even in the home. Despite the fact that thenian women were not offered equal opportunities in their society..

53  ¥        ¥ ©  ¥ ©  andora the tale. or misunderstan ding. uch of the contradiction surrounding this famous myth ological character is thought to come from esiod’s understanding. he story of andora and her intriguing but destructive box comes to us through esiod’s heogony. of her name.” .’ and as such it was an epithet 1 [name] o f the earth-goddess. “ he name ando ra does not mean ‘she who was endowed with all gifts’ [as in esiod’s version of the s tory] but rather ‘she who is giver of all. athorn explains. Despite her own good intentions. ythology scholar ichmond . andora is a figure who has been interprete d in many different ways. the first female causes much grief an d pain for mankind.

eus went to t he forge of ephaestus and asked him to design a human being that would be femal e. although certainly there were female gods. eus hoped that her beauty would make the male humans accept and trust her. and she had a smile precious to see. o far. he was human. e also wanted to remind the humans that they would never be as powerful as the gods. he was very beautiful and looked like a goddess. he had long flowing ha ir. arefully. ephaestus was happy to do eus a favor. Women did not yet exist. he new creature was named andora. rometheus had tricked him. ntroducing women to the human race was part of eus’s plan for revenge. but she was clearly a woman. and his new creation was no different. When he was finishe d with the creature he showed his work to eus. flawless skin. irst. yet someh ow slightly different. 54 . he god of fire and the forge was a very talented smith. verything h e made was beautiful. eus explained that she should be like the men on earth. who was very pleased with the re sults.¤ ¦ £   ¤   ¤ ¤ ¤    ¤   ¥  ¥      ¤ D eus was furious. or goddesses. and bright shining eyes. and he went righ t to work. and the king of the gods wanted re venge. he was as graceful as a soft breeze . there were only men in the human population.

he couple lived very happily after their marriage . mong the gifts was a box that was covered wi th jewels. aware of his brother’s infatuation with andora. and finally one day she co uld no longer resist the urge to open the box. pimetheus never thought to ask his new bride about the beautiful box she always carried with her. became suspicious that eus and the other lympians were planning a trick. andora would lovingly admire her beautiful box. but because the b ox was so pretty. and an dora was certain that such a beautiful object must surely contain something of e qual magnificence. and fragrant smelling flowers. very day. ro metheus. 5 5   £  £  £       ¥       ¥      £    £    andora . shining jewel ry. When she got there. and despi te his brother’s warning. he box was very pretty. but she was never to open it. e was very much in love with andora. the god s showered her with many gifts. pimetheus did not listen to his brother. oon. er curiosity became stronger and stronger. s usual. rometheus warned his brother to be wary of any gift sent to earth by the lympian gods. the gods had given andora the beautiful box on one condition: he could look at it as much as she liked. regardless of the consequences. oon andora wen t to live on earth with the other humans. pimetheus was ove rwhelmed by andora’s dazzling beauty. including golden-threaded clothes. however. intricate carvings. she agreed to follow the warning of the gods. looking at the box was no t enough. and decorations. and he fell in love with her instantly.¤ fter ephaestus had put the finishing touches on the first human woman. andora did not understand the reasoning behind this rule. owever. she met pimetheus who was living among the humans with his brother rometheus. he married the wonderful new creature and brought her to his home. but she obeyed the order of the gods and never opened it.

.

andora noticed that one spirit still remained in her box. nside the m agnificent box were all the evil spirits known to the gods. orrow. the people vowed to do their best to keep from angering the gods any further and were comforted by the fact that hope was safe in andora’s box. the people on earth understood that their time of peace had en ded. rom that time on. they all quickly flew out. madness. hunger. he people recognized the power of the gods’ revenge. andora became frightened. he knowledge tha t hope had not been destroyed gave the people faith that peace would return some day. and a hundred other horrible conditions filled andora’s room and. she knew at once that eus’s revenge had been accomplished. like smoke. 57 ¦  ¥           ¥  ¤  ¥  ¥    andora . his was the spirit of hope. but andora realized that it was too late to regret no t having obeyed the gods. anger. oon. when t hey felt the effects of the various plagues and evil spirits that had flown out from andora’s box. disease. owever. ow that the lid was open. s quickly as she could. heir revenge was final. and understood that for ces existed that were stronger than their own modest powers. they esc aped out into the world to plague mankind for the rest of time. s the evils swa rmed around her.When andora opened the box and discovered what was hidden inside its beautiful exterior. she slammed shut the lid of the box.

anger. where they plagued mankind for all time. and madness flew out of the box and into the world. . What happened when andora opened the box? vils of every kind. ephaestus.: : : : : : : : : : 58     ¤  ¤ £   ¥   ¦ ¥     !¦¥ !    £      £!  ¥   !   !   ! ¤    !   ! D W : : : : Why did eus want revenge against the humans? e feared that with rometheus’s hel p the people on earth had become too smart and powerful. made her at the request of eus. until that point. pain. hey also gave her a beautiful box covered with je wels and intricate carvings. t was filled with every conceivable kind of evil. What did the god s give andora? hey gave her many wonderful gifts. disease. grace. and fragrant flowers. Who was andora and how was she created? andora was the world’s first woman. lavish c lothes. all men. What remained in the box? ope r emained in the box. like sor row. like beauty. eus wanted to use a ndora to punish the humans who were. Why did andora open the box? er curiosity had grown too strong. What warning did the gods give andora? he gods warned her never to open the bo x they had given her. the blacksmith god and expert craftsman. hunger.

but there is also much confusi on regarding the contents of the box. f it too is an evil. or hatred of women. with only minor exceptions. h owever. ow ell recognizes this apparent misogyny. . although it is not different in message from the biblical story of v e. . ancient literature was composed by males for males in an environment 3 ruled by males (as was the ible). orford and enardon write: Details in the story of andora are disturbing in their tantalizing ambiguity [l ack of clarity]. . especially in an age when women’s rights are a prominent political issue. reek myth is obsess ed with hostile relations between the sexes. n reading such passages we need to remember that. andora’s box has co me to represent the temptations of curious minds. luring them on to prolong their misery? he story of andora and her role in the gods’ revenge against mankind suggests th at women were considered a mixed blessing in ancient reek society. 59 £  ¡ ¢ ¡     ¢ ¢ ¨ ¦  ©    ¡ ¦  ¥ ¥   £©© ££   ¦ ¦ ¥ ¦ ©  ¥ . as on a male resentment of the institution of monogamy [marriage with one partner] itself. as it is presented in esiod’s version of the story: odern readers are struck by the virulence [extreme bitterness] of esiod’s attack on women. whether a blessing or a cur se? s ope the one thing that enables human beings to survive the terrors of th is life and inspires them with lofty ambition? et is it also by its very charac ter delusive and 2 blind. he roots of misogyny are varied and not easily understood. misogyny seems to be based not so much on primitive magical terror. What is ope doing in the jar [or box] along with countless evi ls? f it is a good. human curiosity is a key ingredient. mong the reeks. why is it stopped at the rim? What then is its precise nature.n the story of andora. arry . it is a curious inclusion. or e conomic resentment as in esiod’s surly complaint. especially between married couples.

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even his name seems to come from the reek word m eaning “the unseen. who was also worshipped at harvest time. he was often associated with Dionysus. er followers prayed th at she would always be happy and therefore kind to the earth. ades. and he had few individual followers.” lthough ades played an extremely significant role in reek re ligion.” With eus. er name meant “earth mother” or “grain mother. fter the war between the lympians and the itans. was one of the first lympi an gods. which means “maiden.¤ D Demeter. another lympian god. the daughter of the itans ronus and hea. the lord of the nderworld. or when there w as a drought. the god of wine. ades was 61 § ¢   ¢    ¦  ¥  ¥  ¢     ¥       ¥ ¥ ¢      ¦¥ ¥ ¦     .” he people of ancient reece prayed to Demeter for healthy crops and abundant harvests. a nd to die in the winter. When the ground was fertile and the grains grew success fully. Demeter became an i mportant goddess of agriculture. her beloved daughter ersephone is abducted. n one of the most important myths about Demeter. eople thought that it was Demet er who allowed vegetation to grow in the spring. not many religious cer emonies were dedicated to him. wa s an important figure in reek mythology: e was the ruler of the dead and of un seen ghosts. During the war against the itans. Demeter seemed like a kind goddess. or kidnapped. by ades. hus. her brother. people thought she must be angry or upset. he was considered an unlucky god to invoke. but when winter came. the yclopes had given ades a h elmet that made him invisible. summer. Demeter had a daughter named ersephone who was also called o re. s the ruler of the world under the earth. and part of the fall.

very a utumn. ecause of his connection to the earth. and they were some of t he most famous celebrations in the ancient world. he myth of Demeter and her daughter er sephone is one way that the people of ancient reece came to explain this inhosp itable season. called “initiates. a town located near the sea not far from thens. 62  © £ ¥   £  ¡  ¥ £ ¢ ¥   © ¢ © £ ¢ £  ©  ¥ ¢ ¢ ythology . he wa s respected and feared as the governor of the dead. ntil the fourth century .” were sworn to secrecy about the sacred rites that we re performed.ods and oddesses in reek thought to give the earth richness in the form of crops. at the same time. he infertility of winter and its resulting hardships were undoubtedly a great mystery to the ancient reeks. any scholars believe that the main purpose of the leusinian yst eries was to thank the goddess for the 1 harvest and to pray to her for continue d bounty. ades is appropriately connected to Demeter and ersephone. the greatest temples to Demeter cou ld be found in leusis.D. there were festivals to honor Demeter in leusis. oday the f estivals are known as the leusinian ysteries. two godd esses who were thought to control the fertility of the land and the abundance of the harvest. nfortunately. he people who took part in the ceremonies.. no one knows ex actly what went on at these festivals because they were kept secret.

63   ¦  ¨       ¤    ¤   ¦  ¦  ¤  ¥ ££ £   £ £©£   ¡   ¤  ¤  . the ruler of the nderworld. the mother and daughter would be separated indefinitely . am in love with your daughter. ades fell in love at the very first sight of her. With two powerful gods as pare nts. will make her the queen of my kingdom in the nderw orld. ades was a fair and powerful god.D D Demeter and eus had a daughter named ersephone. f the mai den were to marry ades. e knew he wanted to marry no one else. e said. “ rother. fter she had grown up and become a young woman. er mother loved the child more than anything else in the world and cringed at the idea of ever being apart from her. the goddess of growth and fertility. ades went to eus. ersephone’s beauty caught the eye of ades. it is not surprising that the little girl grew up to be a beautiful maiden. his brother and ersephone’s fa ther. eus also knew that Demeter would never allow h er daughter to marry ades and go to live far away in the nderworld.” eus thought that ades would be a good husband for ersephone. ersephone. vercome with love. would never wish her daughter to live in the stark. eus also knew that Demeter. owever. et me have your consent to marry her.

cannot approve of a marriage between you and ersephone. e wanted to please his brother and allow the marriage. lthough he was king of the god s. e did not want to upset her. “ rother.” e us was telling ades that although he could not officially approve the marriage. eus found a clever way to grant his brother’s request without actually saying so.ods and oddesses in reek bleak world of the dead where nothing ever grew. he was not forbidding it 64 ¤    ¤ ¤  © ¦ ¢  ¡  ¢  ¤ ¤ ¢ ythology . arefully wording his response. inally. eus was wary of Demeter’s powerful influence over all the things that blossome d on earth. but he did not wish to cause a conflict with Demeter. eus pondered his dilemma for quite so me time. eus said.

e understoo d that eus was just trying to keep the peace by officially saying neither yes n or no to the marriage proposal. ne day. ades returned to the nderworld to p lan the details of exactly how he would go about kidnapping ersephone. o one expected trouble in the peaceful mead ow.Demeter and ersephone either. and the girls were looking forward to 65    ¤       ¤ ¤  £ ¤     ¤ . ades understood eus’s intention. e realized that eus was encouraging h im to mary ersephone without her parents’ blessing. eus would not be angry with him. atisfied. soon after ades’s meeting with eus. ades felt certain that if he acted in this prescribed manner. ersephone went to pick wildflowers with he r friends near the town of leusis.

out of sight and earshot of her friends. Dreamily. Distraught. the roaring noise of his chariot filling the air. picking flowers here and there and adding them to her basket. ogether. p on ount lympus. ecate offered to help Demeter look for her daughter. Demeter roamed the earth for nine days and nine nights. he next morning. uddenly. but no one could tell where she had gone. fter a little while. acing off to the nderworld. he hurried to the area where the girls had been playing. he god of the nderworl d raced out of the chasm. er sephone spotted a beautiful narcissus that she thought would make a lovely addit ion to the bouquet she was making for her mother. the goddesses came upon elius. elius could see everything from his 66  ¦ !   ¥     ¥        ¥ ©     © ¢     ¥ ¢  ¢  ythology . ersephone wandered away from her friends. n a small wooded glen near the meadow. he was surprised to find that its roots were so deep that she could not wrench it out of the ground. ersephone knelt to pick the flower. the god of the sun. the two goddesses set out on thei r search. a huge hole opened up in the middle of the glen. searching in vain for her beloved daughter. uic kly. ades grasped the frightened maiden by the wrist and pulled her up beside h im onto his chariot. Demeter met ecate. but alas. ersephone cried out in fear to her mother and her friends. n the tenth day. Demeter heard her daughter’s t error-filled cries. e rsephone’s friends had been frightened when their friend failed to return. hough she could offer no new information about ersephone’s disappearance.ods and oddesses in reek an amusing and relaxing day. a goddess who lived in a cave near the spot where erse phone and her friends had been playing. ecate had indeed heard ersephone’s cries for help. as she tugged mightily on the f lower. she had not seen what had happened to the girl.

he allowed th e grain harvest to fail and the fields to become parched. the girls asked if she would be interested 67 ¦   ¥       ¥    £           ¥ £ ¥  © . and all four were kind and well-man nered. “ y beautiful daughter? Why should she be taken so far away among the sunless de ad?” hinking about her daughter’s situation all over again. Demeter became so upset that she left ecate and elius and began to shun her fellow immortals. “ know you are sad to be separated from your daughter. so Demeter begged him for information about her daughter’s disappearance. the king of leusis.Demeter and ersephone lofty perch in the sky. he cried . rying to help the old woman. Demeter came again to the tow n of leusis where she stopped to rest by a well. hey had no idea that she was really a goddess. they pitied her because she looked so sad and wear y. he was so transformed by her grief that no one could recognize her. as sad and weak as the parched and unyielding fields that were beginning to patch the earth. he looked like a gnarled. hey were t he daughters of eleus. Demeter would not be consoled. e tried to console Demeter by saying. and that the girl had cried uncontrollably when she was made ades’s bride. old wo man. While she was sitting in the s hade of an olive tree. but the powerful ades is a good match for the fair ersephone. fter wandering for many months. elius was sorry for Demeter’s loss. ades exerte d power over a third of the world.” owever. but he hurried to point out that as ruler of the nderworld. oon De meter took to wandering the earth in the guise of a mortal woman. e confessed that he had seen ades kidnap ersephone. four beautiful princesses came to draw water. When they saw Demeter. elius pitied Demeter and promised to tell her everything he kne w.

ueen etanira. her sk in was wrinkled and loose. ueen etanira was glad to see that her newbor n son was comfortable in the arms of his new nurse. When he was well oiled. her golden hair had turn to gray. nstead. sensed that the new nu rse was not an ordinary old woman. he royal family was amazed at the baby’s rapid develo pment. ue en etanira became suspicious 68 !  ¦ © ¥ © ! © ¥ ! ¡ ¥ ©  ¢  ¥ ¢  ¥ © ¢ ythology . o each night. he queen noticed a special glow about the ne wcomer. eventually. he began to love the child so much that. hen Demeter asked to see the c hild for whom she would be caring. at the same time. despite her dark robe and sad face. Demeter hoped to thank the royal fami ly for their kindness and. evertheless. Demeter gladly accepted this offer. etanira offered Demeter her best ch air and asked one of the servants to bring some sweet wine. Demeter watched him intently. after the family was asleep. the princesses’ mother. she sat on a low st ool and drank only water mixed with barley mead. she decided to make him immortal. refused the chair and the wine. oon. Demophoon.ods and oddesses in reek in being a nurse to their baby brother. she pl aced him in the heart of the hearth’s fire to burn away all traces of his mortalit y. and all her inner radiance was hidden beneath a dark robe. to relieve some of the sadness of l osing her own child. too sad to accept comfort. When Demeter first took the baby Demophoon in her arms. and the baby grew strong er and healthier every day. he ambrosia treatment worked wonders. hough the baby was in the fire. Demophoon was growing much faster than a normal child. y doing so. Demeter was happy watching o ver the young prince. When Demeter entered the palace. however. but Demeter. and the flames never hurt him. he smiled and gurgled. an ointment of the gods. Demeter lathere d the boy with ambrosia.

Demeter and ersephone of her son’s remarkable growth. oon it seemed like every living thing on earth w as in danger of starving. hough she was furious with etanira for the interruption. far from ount lympus and the other gods and goddesses. after all. whose grief once again became focused on her lost daughter. nterrupted at her magic. here was the nurse. earing his wife’s scream. turning her baby in the fire like a pig on a spit! etanira screamed at the sight. she sat silently in her t emple for an entire year. n this way. he could still be hono red. ing eleus came running into the room. and although he could never be come immortal without continuing the ambrosia treatments. the town continued to appease and pay tribute to the i nconsolable goddess. When etanira peeked into Demeter’s room. s her form changed. since a goddess had been his nurse. While it was being built. Demeter went to live there. hoping to see what the nurse was doing each night to her youngest child. Deme ter’s anger quickly turned to sadness. just in time to see the old nurse transform herself into a towering. ne night she did not go to bed. no crops grew. sh e told the townspeople how to grow corn and how to perform special ceremonies at her temple. and the people became hu ngrier with every passing day. When the temple at leusis was completed. loved the baby. nstead. he decided not to punish the family for th eir reaction. Demeter told the king and queen to have the people of leusis build a temple in her honor. she hid. While she sat. a blaze of light burst forth and filled all the gloomy corners of the palace room. he had. the goddess angrily jerked the child from t he fire and threw him to the ground where he began to cry— unhurt but frightened. beautiful goddess. 69 ©   ¥ ¦ ©  ©    § £ ¥ £  ¦  ¦   © . she was shocked at what she saw. adly.

the official messenger of the gods. When their chariot finally reached leusis. ersephone jo yfully embraced her mother. but before she left. which is the greatest gift of all. she would have to return to h is kingdom someday. eus sent erm es. When ermes reached the nderworld. With a heavy heart. e begged her to end the famine. he said she would neve r grant her life-giving power to the earth so long as ersephone remained so far away in the nderworld.ods and oddesses in reek eus feared that Demeter’s mourning was becoming destructive. ersephone looked miserable. inally. ades knew that he had no choice but to obey eu s and let ersephone go home to her mother. ades said. and talke d as they had before. although his wife did not. “ y beloved wife. th at if she ate anything from the world of the dead. remember that here you are the queen. ades knew. ades prepared to let ersephone go. she cried out in joy. he was weeping be cause she missed her mother and the world above. to the nderworld to deliver a message t o ades. th e most powerful woman of all. Do not think ill of me or this kingdom when you are far away from here. because you have control over what happens to people when the y die.” eluctantly. eus realized that ades would have to give up his bride so that the world could be healed. s the queen of the nderworld. you have the power to be merciful. he mother and daughter laughed and cried. When she heard ermes’s message f rom eus. aving eaten the seeds. he g ave her four pomegranate seeds to eat. Demeter asked her 70  ¤   ¤    £           ¤      ¥ ©  © ¢         ¢ ¡  ¤  ¤ ¢ ythology . inally. e begged his wife not to think of h im harshly. ecause of this. he found ades and his bride sittin g side by side on their thrones. but Demeter repeatedly refused the request. ersephone rode happily out of the nderworld with ermes. you even have powe r over the living.

when ersephone returned to her mother. the king of the gods decreed that e rsephone must return to the nderworld. ppeased by eus’s compromise. hat rule was u nbreakable. ersephone replied. the earth bloomed and the crops flourished. every spring. ll ate was four pomegranate seeds. eus had witnessed the happiness of mother and daughter when they we re reunited. evertheless. Demeter allowed the crops on earth to g row again. the world would become green again in celebration of their joyous reunion. Demeter explained to ersephone that because she had eaten food from the nd erworld—the seeds of the pomegranate—she would have to return there. ut when ersephone returned each year to spend four months with ades in the nderworld. 71      ¥ ©     ¤ ¦ ¤         ¤ ¤ ¥ ¤ ¥    ©   ¡ . ersephone need only liv e there for four months out of the year. During their time together. eus offered a compromise: inst ead of returning permanently to live in the nderworld. owever. eus had to respect the rules of th e universe. what a strange question. one month for each pomegranate seed she had eaten. herefore. Why should that matter?” Demeter became so upset by this news that she took her da ughter directly to eus to discuss what could be done. hen. the earth became as cold as ice while Demeter mourned for her daughte r’s lost company. to follow the rules. rom that time on. “ other.Demeter and ersephone daughter if she had eaten anything during her stay in the nderworld. mother and daughter spent two thirds of the year t ogether. n the way to ount lymp us. and now he could see the unbearable sadness in their eyes at the th ought of having to part again.

: : : : : : : : : :  ¤ ¥ ¤      ¤                   ¦¥ ! £      £!   ¤   !   !   !   !    !   D W : : What was Demeter’s role as a goddess? he was the goddess of agriculture. e also realized that although eus wou ld not grant his consent for ades to marry ersephone. ersephone’s mother and the goddess of agriculture . e knew that Demeter would never allow her daughter to ma rry someone who lived in the nderworld. nce she had eaten food from the nderworld . or the world of the d ead. What is the significance of the four seeds? he four seeds came from the nderworld. who could cause the earth to become barren. Why did ades kidnap ersephone? e wanted to marry her. Without her parents’ official consent. What did ersephone eat while in the nderworld? he ate four pomegranate seeds. Demeter was responsible for providing healthy crops. eus did not precisely f orbid the marriage. ersephone would be bound to return there. Why did eus refuse to give his consent for ades to marry ersephone? eus did not want to anger Demeter. Who was ades? ades was the god who ruled the nderworld. ades knew he had no ch oice but to kidnap ersephone. 72 . fertility. and bountiful harvests.

Demeter grew sad. eus allowed ersephone to spend two thirds of the year on earth with her mot her. the earth became fertile again. he did not let anything grow on earth. when ersephone left the nderworld to return to her mother. and spring returned. eus allowed this compromise because h e wanted to keep Demeter happy. ow does the myth of Demeter and ersephone help to explain the seasons? ach year.Demeter and ersephone : : What compromise did eus make for Demeter and ersephone. and winter set in. one month for each seed she had eaten. : : 73  ¥     ¤     ¤ £      ¤ ¦   !   !  . e knew that if she remained sad. hen. the earth woul d dry up and become barren. and why did he make it ? nstead of forcing ersephone to return permanently to ades and the nderworl d. when ersephone went to the nderworld. ersephone had to return to the nderworld for four months out of every yea r.

before she finally accepts that. writes: he tale of Demeter and ersephone. provide the nglish language with some important words. perhaps more than any other classical myth. into the 3 temple of Demeter to participate in the secret rit ual. although things have changed. ichael rant. .his myth and the celebrations of the leusinian ysteries. initiatus. a re spected historian. any reek women would easily have identified with this 4 sequence of emotions. t anticipates both aster (in which life and death co-exist) and 2 hristmas (th e time of annual rebirth and hope). rofessor arry . “one who ha s gone in. . comes our word initiate. he myth of Demeter and ersephone is also significant to modern scholars becaus e it helps to illustrate the fate of women during this period in reece. which has entered our language from this leusinian cult to De meter. whom they scarcely knew. at age fourteen.” that is. s Demeter lost a child to ades. so did many lose a child to war or disease. owell writes: ersephone’s fate resembles that of reek girls who. the world will go on. the lor d of death. has embodied and directed man’s accumulated thoughts about being born and dying. n the myth we see that Demeter’s loss causes her first to grieve and to rage. comes from the reek [word] mystês (plural mystai) meaning “one who closes hi s eyes. including some stories in modern hristianity.” in order to enter the temple or during the sacred rites. were married to war-hardened men twice their age. ¨  £ ¢   ¢ ¢ © £ © ¦  ¡ © ¡   £  ¢ ¢    ¢ £ ¥ ¥ ¥   £©© ££ ¥ ¥ ¥ ¥  . rom the atin t ranslation of the word. 74 ¦ he story of Demeter and ersephone is often considered to be the basis for many other myths. Demeter’s fat e is also typical of many reek women. . literally. owell explains: he word mystery.

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had fou r daughters: utonoe. for example. and after battling the race of men who had sprung out of the ground from these seeds. e was an imp ortant god of agriculture. the hero ad mus had come to the land of oeotia by following a cow there. an area to the northwest of thens on the reek mainland. and he is often connected to scenes of madness or various form s of wild behavior. gave.. theater as we kno w it was born during the thenian festivals dedicated to Dionysus. no.) e had sown the teeth of a dragon into th e earth like seeds. the daughter of res and phrodite. and he was often closely associated with other earth gods. ccording to legend. hese festiva ls placed a heavy emphasis on 76 . Dion ysus was the son of eus.¥ ¢ ¥ ¡  ¥ ¥ ¥  ¡   ¡ ¢ ¢ ¡     ¥    ¢ ¡      ¡ ¦£ ¤ ¢         ¦¥ ¥ ¦     ¥ D lthough thens may have been the most important. ancient reece had many other cities that were significant to the development of culture and religion. and the story about the foundation of he bes may 1 reflect the influence of a foreign group on the area. hebes was thoug ht to be the birthplace of a very significant member of the reek pantheon. ( he word oeotia is related to the reek word for cow. the reek s believed that Dionysus could control a person’s state of mind. . hebes. he character admus is believed t o have originated in astern religion. and emele. the god of wine. During the fifth and sixth centuries . in the same way t hat alcohol does. one of ad mus’s daughters. the ruler of the lympian gods. was the major cultural and military center of oeotia. ecause he was affiliated with grapes and wine. Dionysus. admus took control of the area and built the city of hebes. was also called acchus. and emele. such as Demeter. admus and his wife armony.

and the development of his importance. and the theatrical forms of comedy and tragedy that we know today developed out of the performance of this poetry. his story a bout Dionysus. ophocles. n the story. and uripides. eus makes a promise a nd seals it by pledging an oath on the name of the iver tyx. not even by a god.Dionysus and is ollowers the recitation of poetry. has been passed down to us through the play he acchae by uripides. ny promise sworn upon it could never be broken. 77   ¥ ¥ ¥ ¤   £  ¦  £   ¡ ¥   . his is the mytho logical river that must be crossed in order to enter the nderworld. who often based t heir plays on the prominent myths and historical events of the day. he most famous pla ywrights of the time were eschylus.

when a god wis hed to show himself to a mortal. everyone remarked on their outstanding beauty. aught up in her new romance. eus was v ery much in love with the beautiful. emele ignored the fact that she did not know much about her lover. f he were to reveal his true self. no. ife seemed perfect for th ese lovely princesses. and somewhat solitary princess. along with her sisters utonoe. handsome s tranger. since no human could look on an immortal in his or her t rue form without being consumed by the immortal’s power. quiet. th e king of the gods. owever. he needed to cloak his glory. none suspected her f requent absences. until the day emele fell in love with a tall. an d although her sisters noticed a new radiance about emele. s the girls grew older. he kept him a secret from her family and friends. king of hebes. and gave. after e mele and eus had continued their love affair for some time. emele would die. eus finally 78  ¤ ¤    ¤ ¥   ¨  ¦ ¦     ¥   £ ¨¨  ¦    ¦      ¤  . herefore. who was visiting her in the form of a mortal man. but he could not visit her in his true godlike state. emele had no idea that her secret lover was actually eus. he lived a happy and luxurious life i n the palace.D D W emele’s father was admus.

emele jump ed up and threw her arms around his neck. When eus entered the room through a door from the garden. he agreed an d said. o emele sent the servant out of the room and awaited the arrival of h er lover. When she learned of her hus band’s affair with emele. era still always reacted with the same intensity. era became enraged with jealousy. lthough she was shocked. the queen of the gods. he was. disguise d as a servant. With mock sympathy. eus often pursued other women. n fact. but because he was so much in love with her. itting down. em ele had just discovered that she was pregnant. “ swear on the iver tyx in ades that will do whatever you ask of me. era told the girl that she knew all about the secret romance. eus was caught off-guard and did not know what to d o about this new dilemma. she now became persuaded to be certain about the identity of her unborn child’s father. Darling. and although she trusted her love r.” eus was surprised at the princess’s ardent tone of voice. ven though eus was in love with emele. she begged t o see him in his true form. paid a visit to emele’s bedchamber. wear to me that you will grant me the favor am about to ask you. e knew that emele would not 79   ¡ ¤    ¦   ¥   ¦ ¤   ©   ¤   ¦  ¤   £  ¦     ¤    ¦  .Dionysus and is ollowers decided to reveal his true identity to emele.” she said. he often to ok out her revenge on her husband’s various accomplices. “my servant knows all a bout us. already married to era. era.” emele took her lover’s hand and led him into the room. and although she was used to her husband’s affairs. omehow she convinced the princess that it would be wise for her to behold her lover in his true form. both mortal and immortal. We must be very careful or my father will discover our affair! ut this is not my only news. his time. the pri ncess believed her lover. in f act. am going to have a child. “ y love.

emele’s child was born out of eus’s thigh. her own bo dy was engulfed in flames. e was often followed a nd worshipped by groups of wild-looking women called acchae or bacchantes. the princess insisted that. and often he look ed like he would be more comfortable in the wilds of the forest than in the citi es and towns that he visited. for any promise sworn on the iver tyx must be fulfilled. and he asked some nymphs to raise the baby and keep him a safe distance away from uee n era who was still angry at eus for his affair with emele. emele screamed as the sight of her lover burned into her eyes. herefore. after Dionysus had grown up. he bade a tearful farewell to the nymphs who had m othered him and set off to travel the world.ods and oddesses in reek be able to look at him without dying. When nine months had fully passed. hes e women also 80  ¥ ! ¥ ¡ ¢   ¤  © ¥  ¥  ¡ ¤ ¥ ¤  ¥  ¤   © ¥ ¢   ¤ !  ¤ ¢ ¥   ¤ ¢ ythology . the room filled with light. although she t ruly loved him. hen. reluctantly. hough eus tried t o explain the consequences to emele. uickly. he showed the reeks ho w to grow grapes and how to use the grapes to make wine. and he left the heban palace in the same sec ret manner by which he had come. any years later. and fl ames shot out from his immortal body. e was a handsome young man with long flowing hair that fell in waves about hi s shoulders. eus snatched emele’s unborn bab y from her womb. consumed by the fire of eus’s immortality. slowly making his way toward hebes . she still needed proof of his identity. s the young god wandered. and now he could not refuse her request. ut the g od had also made an unbreakable promise. eus kept his word. he king of the gods named his son Dionysus. hen eus wept for his love. e wore clothes made out of the skins of animals. he sewed the baby into his thigh to keep it safe from harm. Just before she died. s he began to transform. and he did not want to hurt her.

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fter many years of travel. gave. enraged by ent heus’s behavior. extraordinary things began to happen at the palace prison. he guards were amazed when they realized that it was impossible to lock up their peculiar prisoner. entheus commanded his guards to ar rest Dionysus and his disciples. 82   ¥  ¥   ¥   ¥    ¥ ¥     ¥  ¥ © ¥ ¢ ¨ ¥     ¢   ¥ ¢ ythology . owever. he people of hebes did not believe that Dionysus was a god. entheus thought that thi s stranger was merely a troublemaker whose wild and unruly followers were distur bing the peace of his orderly city. t this time. entheus did not believe that Dionysu s was a god. suddenly. Dionysus finally arrived in his moth er’s hometown. nor did they believe he was em ele’s lost son. Dionysus also learned that his mother’s memory had been dishonored b y the people of hebes. the son of em ele’s sister. he hebans considered emele to have been a disrespectf ul daughter. and the doors of his jail cell refused to stay closed. ften the bacchantes would sing and dance like unta med animals in their rituals of worship. hen . a huge earthquake rocked the city of hebes.ods and oddesses in reek wore clothes made from the skins of animals. and he was shocked at the poor reception he received. the god went to prison peacefully. lthough Dionysus was. o matter how many ti mes they worked the locks attached to them. the king of hebes was Dionysus’s cousin entheus. and they caused quite an uproar whereve r they visited. ike the other hebans. nor would he recognize him as his cousin. and they usually had flowers or lea ves scattered in their hair. ngrily. the chains on Dionysus’s wrists always fell to the ground. in fact. they disapproved of her secret affair and felt she had received a j ust punishment in her death! Dionysus was furious at the heban people for both their disbelief of his immortality and their cruel treatment of his mother’s memor y.

Dionysus and is ollowers flattening both the palace and the prison to the ground. Dionysus convinced entheus that he needed to climb the hill and see f or himself how the women were behaving. and after the earthquake. whom they n ow recognized as a god. even after the prisoner had walked out of the rubble of the pris on without a scratch on his body. irst. entheus was furious at thi s news! e paced in front of his crumbling palace. jumping and dancing in praise of Dionysus. they joined Dionysus’s followers. 83   ¥    ¥ ¥ ¥   © ©    ¡  ¥ © ¡              . “ y own mother!” he cried . the women chased the men away. he guard ad ded that the women had torn the woods apart with their bare hands and ruined all the villages in their path with their wild revelry. a messenger came to entheus to tell him that his mother. became convinced o f Dionysus’s powers. oon. nly then would entheus be able to figu re out a way to make them stop their outrageous behavior. entheus refused to believe that Dionysus possessed any super natural powers. any heban women. ft er dressing in animal skins. but when they had approached. “ cting like one of those crazy acchae! Whatever will happen next?” s entheus g rew visibly more and more upset. any hebans came to re alize that this devastation must have been the work of an angry god. entheus still did not believe that Dionysus was a god. and his aunts were among the acchae dancing in the hills. already planning his reven ge. Dionysus approached. but soon he fell int o a trance and agreed with everything Dionysus said to him. however. fuming. the women went to the hills outside hebes where th ey cavorted like animals. no matter how strang e. he me ssenger also told entheus that guards had tried to talk to gave and the other women. gave. Despite the se strange events.

when they looked up at the tree. n tribute to their proud victory. he looked very silly. not like cries for help from their ow n king. Dionysus had endowed the women with superhuman strength. hen Dionysus dressed ing enthe us in a long. nc e they reached the top of the hill. errified at the sight of what she thought was a vicious. he king was surprised that Dionysus would leave h im so suddenly. with t heir bare hands. entheus begged Dionysus to help him find a disguise so that the women on the hill would not recognize him. they did not see entheus hiding th ere but a mountain lion readying for attack. hen. hough he begged for mercy. the women tore entheus to shreds. hus. man-eating creature. parading the head of the victim above her like a trophy. Dionysus disappeared. multicolored dress. still in a trance. Dionysus led the king to the hill where the acchae were celebrating. When the women e ntered the city carrying entheus’s head before them. gave led the march. the women attacked entheus and pulled him from the tr ee. and now. the women marched back to hebes. nfortunately for entheus. the people of hebes were so horrified that they stood in silence as the shocking parade passed by. “ ill the lion!” ike ani mals stalking their prey. the women could not understand him since his wor ds sounded like the growls of a wild lion. Dionysus had put the women in a trance as well. hen. in fact.ods and oddesses in reek till in a trance. nder Dionysus’s spell. gave shouted. entheus thought he looked quite dashing when. i nally. but he was confident that the women could not see him hiding in the tree. 84   ¨  § ¥    §  ¥ ¡ ¥   ¥  ¥  ¦ ¥ ©   ¥ ¢   ¢ ¥ ¥  ¢  ythology . flowing wig and a wild. when entheus had settled himself in th e tree. Dionysus convinced the king to climb a tree to get a better look at the scene.

why do you weep? ook how have killed a moun tain lion! ook how strong and brave your daughter is! Why are you not proud?” Wee ping for his dead grandson. his face paled. and for his daughter who loved her son entheus more than anyone in the world. gave wept. h er proud laughter quickly turned to terror.Dionysus and is ollowers When the marchers reached the grounds of the palace ruins. gave said. he saw that she had killed her own son! alling to the ground. “ ather. to show off their prize. 85    ¦   ¦ ¨              ¨  . finally coming to understand the powers of the god Dionysus. gave called out to h er father. admus. olding the head of her victim h igh above her. “Dear gave. When admus saw what gave held in h er hands. whom her family had so vilely offended by their disbelief. look again at what prize you have been blessed with. and then you will understand why am weeping. and he began to weep.” admus’s sad words broke gave’s trance. and when she looked again at the head in her hands. admus said.

W hy did gave kill her son. When she persuaded eus to reveal himself in his true form. the king of the gods. eme le. the daughter of ing admus of hebes. em ele. Why did Dionysus become angry with the people of hebes? he hebans did not respect the memory of his mother. Why did entheus arrest Dionysus? entheus thought the young visitor was a troublemaker. eus took the unborn baby from her womb and sewed it into his thigh. the baby was reborn out of eus’s thigh. entheus? nder a spell induced by Dionysus. ent heus thought Dionysus and his followers were disturbing the peace of the city. emele was unable to withstand the power of the god’s immortality. die? ecause she was mortal. and she was burned to ashe s. emele could not look at eus unless he was di sguised.: : : : : : : : 86  ¨         ¤ ¤     ¥   ¤  § ¤  ¥ ¥    !¦¥ !    £      £! ¥ ¤ ¤ ¡         !   !   !   ! D W : : : : Who were Dionysus’s parents? Dionysus was the child of eus. gave was s hocked and horrified by what she had done. nor did they respect his godlike powers and nature. not a god. ow did eus save the baby emele was carrying? s emele’s body was engulfed i n flames. ater. ow did Dionysus’s mother. When she came out of the trance. gave mi stook entheus for a mountain lion. and emele. .

ichmond . editor oy Willis ex plains: he mythical male followers of [Dionysus] were the satyrs. he “filled the devotee with the god . is female followers. both in myth and re ality. n ythology. he was sometimes only reluctantly accepted. n fact and in fiction. the supporters of Dionysus were associated wi th nature and insanity. as through the consumptio n of wine. or set o f gods. Dionysus was also known in reece by the name acchus. more often directly. and it is from this name that we have derived the term bacchanalia. he people who worshipped Dionysus were considered wild and out o f control. e was known as the god of wine and of al tered states. n llustrated uide.Dionysus was often thought to be a late addition to the reek pantheon. but also the intoxication of the spirit. which is a riotous celebration or sce ne of revelry. s was true in this story. t is important to note that people believed that Dionysus had the power not only to cause the intoxication of the body.” sometimes through the medium of wine. as through ecstatic or frenz ied behavior. athorn writes: n his myths Dionysus invades from without because it was his nature as a god to apparently invade the individual from without: of all deities he was the one wh o most characteristically “possessed” his devotee. 87  ¢ ¢ ¡ ¦ ¡     ¢ ©   ¦ ¡   ¥ ¥   £©© ££ ¥ ¦  ¦ ¦ ¥ . since he was essenti ally the wild spirit of intoxicated joy that thrills throughout the whole realm of 2 nature. a nd often he was viewed as an outsider. were called acchants (“women of acchus”) or maenads 3 (“mad women”). creatures who were pa rt man and part goat with horses’ tails.

. . ome elements in reek drama seem to be traceable to the cult of Dionys us.ods and oddesses in reek he worship of Dionysus is also connected to the birth and development of Wester n theater.. 88 ¡ ¨ ¡   ¢ ¢ ¡  ¡ © ¢ ¢ ¡ © ¢   ¢  ¥ ¢ ythology . tragedi es were performed at a spring festival of Dionysus in thens known as the enea. owell writes: Dionysus also played an important role in reek culture through his association with the theater. in whose honor these festivals were held. . rofessor arry . eginning in the sixth century . . but more than a hundred years of i ntensive scholarship have been unable to clarify the precise rela4 tionship betw een the cult and reek drama. thers were performed at the more important ity Dionysia [or festivals t o Dionysus]. probably reorganized sometime in the middle of the sixth century . . . . any of the bestknown reek myths are preserved as the plots o f tragedies performed in his honor. .

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a dis guised king or god sometimes visits common people. n the ancient world. visit the area as if it were just another part of their reek landscape. he story of aucis and hilemon probably crossed the cultural divide. even if th ey were strangers. or example. gods who are reek in origin. and ermes. hese stories remind people a lways to offer kindness to strangers. ll guests were to be respected and treated kindly. n the myths and folktales of many cultures. eus was the particular protector of guests. and the people of reece often had much in common. the land where aucis and hilemon live. they had many opportunities to shar e myths and religious beliefs. hrygia . eus and ermes. vid. was considered to be a protector of traveler s and the god of the highway. Due to trade and travel. he story of aucis and hilemon demonstrates the importance of the custom of respecting visitors. there were many customs related to the treatm ent of guests and travelers. the fleet-footed messenger of the gods. ecause travel was so central t o the lives of the ancient reeks. but in thi s story. he myth was written down by the oman poet. was located in sia inor. he groups of people in sia inor. . it was considered an honor to have a g uest in one’s home. a great part of which is now urkey. since the true identity of a stranger can never be known. the civilizations in sia inor had an important role in the development of reek religion and culture.90   ¢  © ©   ¥     ¥ ¡ ¡ ¥  ¢ ¢ ¥ ¦  ¡ ¢  ¢ ¥   ¤  ¡ ¥ ¢ ¦¥ ¥ ¦     ¦ ¤ ©   D reece has always had a close and tumultuous relationship with its neighbors to the east.

e turned to ermes 91 . the gods w ent from house to house in hrygia. ometimes conditions made it difficult to coax any crops out of the l and. heir farm was small. eus. wanted to see if the people in hrygia were being kind to visitors. the protector of guests. ut each door was slammed rudely in their faces. t the door of each house the ragged strange rs asked the owners if they could rest by the fireplace and have something to ea t and drink. ne day. but it acted like a watchdog. he goose not only laid eggs. hey had been marrie d for many years. so they often relied on the eggs of the single goose that lived on the farm . eus and ermes wore ragged clothes so that no one would recognize them.¤    ¥  ¥ ©        ¤     ¤ ¡ ¦  ¦ ©£¨     ¡ ¥ ¤ ¡  ¥ ¥ D aucis and hilemon lived in hrygia. eus and ermes decided to visit hrygia. and they could grow only enough to feed t hemselves. protecting the cou ple’s meager possessions. fter this had hap pened many times. but they wanted to see how they would be welcomed as ordinary travelers. and although they were very poor. a part of sia inor. hus disguised. eus began to worry. hey knew that as gods they would be treated royally. they were happy and loved ea ch other dearly.

aucis and hilemon asked neither the visitors’ names no r their origins. While she cooked the evening meal. after knocking on hundreds of doors and being refused hospitality at each one. the couple invited their guests to sit near the warm hearth. 92 ¥   ¡ ¡ ¦ ¡  ¡ ¥ ¥ ¥ ¤    © ¦ ¡ ¢   ¥ ¢  ¡ ¢ ythology . the disguised gods found themselves before a hut that was smaller and more rundo wn than any of the houses they had yet visited.” she said. was hard-working and strong despite his years. the gro unds were well-tended.ods and oddesses in reek and asked. aucis was a small woman with graying hair. hen aucis heated up the fire a nd began to boil water. he house was situated near the bottom of a tall hill. “ ow can anyone travel in such an inhospitable country where everyone s eems so rude and disrespectful? re there no people in hrygia who are kind to s trangers? ravelers far from home should not have to go hungry. they invited the stra ngers into their home. a sweet face. and a friendly sm ile. mmediately and with open arms. a ragged couple appeared. Ducking under the low doorway. wonder how the se rude people would feel if they were treated the same way they have been treat ing us?” ermes had no ready answer for eus. the disguised gods entered into the small but spotless single room. hilemon. When the strangers knocked on the door of the modest hut. and her husband. the couple understood that it was up to the visitors to offer t his information only if they so chose. and although the farm around the house was small. inally. he couple’s names were aucis and hile mon. aucis spoke happily with the guests. With sincere attention to their visitors’ c omfort. and aucis threw a thin pillow over the single hard bench. “We are so glad to have you with us. hey were kind and happily went to work preparing a meal and trying to make their guests feel comfortable. and the pair trudged along.

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eus and ermes said. eus laughed. he god assured the couple that he did not wish to eat their only goose. the couple was dismayed to see that all the hous es in the village—except 94 ¤    ¡   ¡  ¡  ¡  ¦   ¡ © ¤  ¥ ¢ ¦   ¢   £ ¢ ¤  ¢ ythology . “ ome with us. uch a miracle must be the magic of immortals. and told the old man to stop his chasing. aucis and hilemon fol lowed as the gods hiked to the top of the hill behind their house. mbarrassed at his poverty. radually. ou have been won derful hosts. and you shall be rewarded. the wine jug was as fu ll as ever. their guests could not be the poor travelers they appeared to be. begging the go ds’ forgiveness for the meager dinner they had served and the shabbiness of their tiny home.” ervously. her husband smiled and nodded in agreement.” s she said this. aucis and hilemon. but we are happy to share whatever we hav e with our friends. learly. aucis propped up their rickety table with a broken dish and served her guests. When they tur ned to look down at the valley. he couple were so busy enjoying their company that nothin g seemed unusual. the couple fell to their knees. ut the goose sensed the old man’s purpose and ran away. however. hilemon and aucis both noticed that alth ough they had already used up their small supply of wine. the goose ran straight into the house and jumped into e us’s lap for protection. inally. inally. hilemon made sure that the guests had what ever they might need. owever. the meager meal was ready. my hilemon and . till sm iling. hoping to catch the couple’s goose in order to cook it as a more ap propriate dinner offering for the gods. hilemon got up quickly from his knees an d ran outside. even though it had been emptied several times. the rest of the people in this country shall be punished for their rudeness.ods and oddesses in reek ¥ “We do not have much. mmediately.

aucis and hilemon looked down again at t heir farm. aucis and hilemon could not see a soul left in their town. n the hig h hill. unable to speak. he couple lived happily there for many years. ne d ay. a nd you shall have it. they watched as their house changed before t heir eyes into a magnificent temple made of gold and marble. “ ou shall have your reward now. while standing outside the temple.” or a moment. safe and dry above the flood. eus granted th e couple their first wish right away. ell me your wish. they asked the g ods if they could be priests in the shiny gold temple that now stood in place of their house. aucis was shocked. the floodwaters lapping at its doorway. aucis and hilemon whispered together. g rowing very old but remaining ever faithful to the gods and to each other. aucis saw her husband’s body stiffen. efore returning with ermes to ount lym pus. he couple had only a moment to say a loving 9 5    ¥  ©   ¤ ¥ ¥      ¡ ¡ ¡ ¡ ¥ ¥        ¡ ¥ ¡  ¡ ¤ ¤ ¡ . hilemon’s feet grew into the ground. hen they begged the gods to allow them to die both at the same mo ment. ow. but suddenly she realized that her own body was also sprouting roots and leaves.aucis and hilemon their own—had disappeared under the waters of a huge flood. he floo d had swept in so quickly and so silently that the entire village had been surpr ised. ll that was left was their own tiny home. mazed. eus sent aucis and hilemon off to serve in the great temple that now sto od where their farm used to be. When they looked questioningly to the gods for an answer. eus smiled kindly and said. and leaves sprouted out o f his hands. they needed only a minute to decide what their wish would be. hey had no idea wh y this was happening. only the tips of the highest rooftops could be seen peeking out above the raging waters. so that neither would ever have to live without the other. igh t before her eyes. irst.

the gods fulfilled their promise to aucis and hilemo n—they would never be apart. the people of hrygia honored the spirit of aucis and hilemon. their trunks touching and their leav es mingling. fter this startling event. the people who came to live again in hrygia always told the couple’s story and hung wreaths on the trees that grew twisted together outside the golden temple.ods and oddesses in reek goodbye before they both turned into trees. the kind and f aithful couple who were rewarded by the gods for their kindness to others. 96  ¦ ¡  ¡   ©  ¢  ¦ ¢ ¢ ythology . n this way. even in death. n this way.

aucis and hilemon were able to rem ain together. . he touching trees are a symbol of their everlasting life together. ven if a visitor was a com plete stranger. Why did aucis and hilemon turn into trees? y becoming trees. Why did eus and ermes visit hrygia in disguise? he gods disguised themselves so they cou ld see how the people treated ordinary guests and strangers.: : : : : : : : : : 97   ¤ ¡ ¥   ¥ ¦  ¥ £  ¢ ¡  ¤ ¥ ¥ ¡ ¡    !         ¦¥ ! £      £!  !   !   ! ¢ ¥    ! D W : : ow was one supposed to treat a guest in ancient reece? t was customary to tre at guests or strangers with respect and hospitality. his made the gods angry. even after their deaths. Why did the gods reward aucis and hilemon? he couple was kind and fol lowed the reek custom of respecting strangers and travelers. What happened to th e people who refused to invite the strangers into their homes? hey disappeared under the waters of a huge flood. Why did eus and ermes punish the people of hrygia? he people of hrygia had been rude and inhospitable. they shared whatever they had. lthough they were poor and had little to eat. he or she was expected to be treated with kindness.

hould the host one day visit the wanderer’s home. a symbolic event that appears in the creation stories of many cultures as well as in other reek myths. kills.” or stranger] was received into someone’s household. 98 ¢   ¢  ¡ ¥ ¢ ¡  ¢   £  ¥  ¢      ¥ ¡ ¥ ¥   £©© ££ ¥  ¤ ¡ ¢   ¥   . bligations of reciprocal hospitality fell not only on the individuals involved originally. he importance of hospitality in ancient reece was also an expectation well kno wn to people of other cultures. athorn explains the frequency of flood stories in mythology: loods are a recurrent natural phenomenon. the best-known in other mythologies are. o connect any particular flood-story with any particular floo d is to confound myth. and history. which we can roughly translat e as “a formal institution of friendship. enter tained. of course. ichmond . and given a gift.” enia enabled reeks to travel safely to distant lands where other reeks lived. and flood-stories are a worldwide myt hical phenomenon. athorn goes on to explain why floods are such a useful symbol. but also on their entire famili es and on their 3 descendants. reviv ifies. .he story of aucis and hilemon includes a devastating flood. and is the 2 stuff of new life. purifies. e writes: loods suitably symbolize the end of one era and the beginning of another becaus e they are baptisms in extenso: water destroys. he co uld expect to be received similarly. relationship was established when a wa nderer [xenos means “guest. cleanses. here are lesser flood-stories in reek mythology. eus protected the custom called xenia. oah’s in the ible and 1 tnapishtim’s in he pic of ilgamesh. . owell explains: bove all. . science. lassicist arry .

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the oman work he etamor phoses remains one of the most significant contributions to our knowledge of re ek mythology today. etamorphoses are a common t heme in reek myths.100 ¢ ©  ¥  ¥ £    © ¥ ¢ £ ¦   ©    ¥ £ ¦ ¥  £ © ¦¥ ¥ ¦     ¢ D any myths rely on the metamorphosis. 8. ometime around . or odd events that occur in the world. he story of cho and arcissus is one such story. but their story became import ant to explain otherwise unfathomable natural occurrences. . the oman poet vid wrote one version o f this story in his work called he etamorphoses. ymphs were minor nature goddesses who were usually represented as beautiful maidens living in the mountains. n many. ronically.D. either cho nor arcissus was worshipped as part of any religious ceremony in ancient reece. strange land formations. the son of the river-god ephisus. he tale of cho and arcissus relates the story of the trag ic love of a nymph for a young man. of a character in order to explain the existence or appearance of certain animals. plants. forests. his type of cha nge occurs through the intervention of a god. or transformation. or water. cho was a talkative mountain nymph who fell in love with arcissus. trees . a fifteen-volume epic poem th at relates more than two hundred stories. the climax of a story is reached when a main chara cter changes from a person into an entirely different creature.

the king of the gods. no one ever c omplained that she talked too much. remembering 101 . far from the jealous eyes of era. ften. era heard rumors that her husband was having an affair. the go ddess of the hunt and a special protector of maidens. ¤ ¦   ¡  £   £ £ ¤   £   £    £  ¦       £   £ D cho was a beautiful mountain nymph who was a favorite friend of rtemis. adored talking to her many sisters and friends. ne of the other nymphs was having a love affair with eus. friendly and fun-lov ing. ll that cho knew was that her sisters and friends warned her tha t her most important job was to keep era away from the glade. and she did not mind when her friends and sisters asked her to stand guar d outside the secret glade. and everyone loved her. efore long. eus’s wife. t was clear to cho that era wanted to enter the glade. and she became determined t o find out which nymph was tempting her husband away. and. era saw cho lounging near a shady group of trees. cho. because cho was so much fun to be with. he never even thought to ask them why the glade nee ded guarding. s she entered the forest and neared the glade. cho did not know about the a ffair. evertheless. the couple would meet in a secret glade in the for est.

here. ow she was burdened with an unbearable punishment. she was furious! nd even though cho had played no part at al l in eus’s affair. sitting at the water’s edge. he had only been helping her sisters and friends. waving silently to her sisters and friends and wondering what she was going to do. “ oung lady. especially for someone who loved to talk! t seemed l ike nothing could be worse than silence or being doomed to repeat someone else’s w ords. and his curly hair was cut in such a way that it framed his elegant face. adly. the young nymph hid herself behind a tree and watched to see what he wa s doing. While cho was busy chatting with era. he had not meant to make era ang ry. e was tall and naturally strong.ods and oddesses in reek her sisters’ warning. however. cho struck up a friendly conversation with the goddess. Desperately. era decided to punish her. that other peopl e have said to you first. the queen of the gods pronounced. cho left the glade. shrill voice. cho suddenly f ound herself near a beautiful pond. and you wil l be punished for it! rom this moment forward. the only words you will ever be able to utter will be exactly those words. try ing to distract her. cho wished to make conversa tion with this youth. was the ha ndsomest young man cho had ever seen. but since she had no way to talk to him. arcissus had no idea how handsome 102  ¦ £ ¤    £ £ ¦   ¥    © £ £  ¢ £   £ £   ¢    ¤  ¢ ythology . When era finally insisted on entering the glade and found that her husband had gotten away. aving never seen himsel f. arcissus was so good-looking that people were constantly falling in lo ve with him at first sight.” cho was very upset. your chattering has done you in. eus and his lover heard era’s unmistakable voice and managed to escape before they could be discove red. no more and no less. n a high. whose name was arcissus. Distracted by her thoughts.

she remained hi dden. ar cissus felt sorry for the beautiful water person. the beautiful person disappeare d. “Who’s there?” ince she could only repeat the youth’s words. uddenly. waiting for her chance to attract his attention. that very day he had come into the forest trying to get away f rom all the people who had been gawking at him. his time there were sad tears streaming down the handsome face. n fact. arcissus was surprised to hear his words flung back to him. he looked into the pond. e reached into the water to t ry to comfort him. this was all the conversation she could manage. and he was a little annoyed. “Who’s there?” n reply. e did not know that cho was hi ding nearby. cho thought arcissus was beautiful indeed. arc issus decided to stop at the pond for a drink. cho answered. ut when he reached down to touch the beautiful person in the water. the water person disappeared. arcissus called out. he saw the most beautiful face staring back at him from beneath the wet surfa ce. looking b ack at him. and she was beginning to fa ll in love with him. Why would anyone be so rude as to repeat the words of someone el se? xasperated. hirsty from his long walk. here was the beautiful face. arcissus did not realize 103      £     ¥   ¥  £    ¦    ¥ ¦  £  ¡ £  £ £ . and he never understood why he received so much attention from those aro und him. but once again. few minutes later. s he knelt before the still wate r. arci ssus heard a rustling in the leaves behind him. the fac e got blurry and quickly disappeared. however. arcissus turned his attention to the person he saw in the wate r. ach time arcissus tried to touch the water. arcissus was so saddened at the disappear ance of the beautiful water person that he sat back on the bank and cried.cho and arcissus he was. as era had commanded her. shamed of her inability to speak. tartled and sadde ned by the disappearance of the beautiful person in the water.

ods and oddesses in reek that there was no person living beneath the surface of the water and that he was actually seeing his own reflection. here was only arcissus sitting on the ban k. s the sun set behind the trees. arcissus cried. looking into the pond. the youth could no lo nger see his reflection in the water. arcissus had fallen deeply in love with the person he 104 ¦   £  ¥  ©   ¢   ¢ ¢ ythology . alling out to the person he believed to l ive under the surface of the pond. “Wait! ou are so beautiful! love you!” ll he heard in reply was the sound of cho’s voice repeating his words from her hiding place among the trees.

s time went by. e did no t 105      £    £  £ £ . a rcissus noticed that the person in the water had grown thin and tired. Day after day. so distracted were they by their unfulfilled loves. the unhappy lovers forgot to sleep. fists clenched in frustration.cho and arcissus thought he saw in the water. fter some time. arcissus staring at his reflec tion and cho staring at him. the youth and the nymph sat near the pond. eat. wishing she could spe ak her own thoughts. just as cho had fallen in love with him. arcissus pined for his appearing and disappearing love. and cho sat nearby. o r drink.

cho co uld see arcissus wasting away. arcissus died by the water’s edge. staring mournfully at the water. rom her hiding place. but he could no longer go on.ods and oddesses in reek understand that it was he who was withering away. t the moment of his death. she died too. ne day. 106 £      © £  £ £ ©  ¦ ©  ¢  ¢ ¥  ¦ ¢ ythology . the gods took pity on the youth and his misdirected love and turned him into the flower called the narcissus. arcissus became more and more distraught as he sat by the bank of the pond. arcissus took no notice of the nymph’s repetitive answers. cho. leaving only her echoing voice behind. but she could not see how equally gaunt she was becoming herself. Day after day. wept silently from her hiding place in the forest. “ y love. clutching at the water. he called out. why do you ignore me? Do you not see t hat am dying for you?” iding in the woods. cho responded. hus weeping. e leaned d own. xhausted. why do you i gnore me? Do you not see that am dying for you?” onsumed by his own overwhelmin g sadness. trying to embrace his mysterious lover. overcome with frustration. watching her love transform into a beautiful flower before her eyes. “ y love.

107 . a type of minor nature goddess. era was unable to catch him. arcissus fell so deeply in love with the person he saw in the water that he did not realize he was actually seei ng a reflection of himself. kno wn as echoing.: : : : : : : : ¥     £ £  ¥  £ £ £ ¡   £   £    £   !¦¥ !    £      £!  ¥ £ ¤   !   !   !   ! D W : : : : What type of goddess was cho? he was a mountain nymph. hey became so obsessed by their l ove that they stopped taking care of themselves and withered away. What was cho’s punishment? he would no longer be able to speak her own mind. What happened when arci ssus looked in the pond? e saw his reflection in the water and thought there wa s a beautiful person living beneath the water. Why did era punish cho? era had come to the forest to find her husba nd. ecause cho chatted so much and distracted her. or unfulfilled. with his lover. love. he woul d only be allowed to repeat what others had said first. Why did cho and arcissus die? cho and arcissus b oth died of unrequited. What are some aspects of nature explained by the connected myths of cho and arcissus? he c onnected stories of cho and arcissus help explain the reflection of sound. eus. he punished cho for interfering with her plans. and the nature of sight-reflection. such as images in water or mi rrors. he introduction of the narcissus flower is also suggested here.

lthough sh e was not worshipped as a goddess. into differen t aspects of nature. they often have very fragile 2 self-esteem. . unique. cho becomes the repetition of sound. 108 ¢  ¢ £    ¢ ¢  £ ¥ £  £   £    ¥     ¥ ¥   £©© ££  ¡ ¥ ¥     £ ¥  £ £ t the end of this story. and arcissus becomes a flower. the myths of cho and arcissus seem to have been consid ered separately. or some predecessor must have combined the stories of cho and arcissus because of the associated 1 ideas of sound-reflection and sight-refle ction. he story of arcissus illustrates the dangers of this type of behavior: eople with narcissistic personality disorder have a grandiose sense of self-imp ortance. in folklore echoes are often thought to 3 be answers given by supernatural voices. owever. hey believe they are special. but seems not really to have had a place in reek c ult. or metamorphose. both characters change. . arcissus’s death and transformation demonstr ate the danger of excessive self-love. or superior to others . er myth owes more to superstition than to religion. cho was regarded as an important figure in reek mythology. cho’s story is one that inspired much superstition in ancient reece. ichmond . he nglish language has borrowed arciss us’s name to decribe the term now commonly used for such self-obsessive love: narc issism. athorn explains: ither vid . efore vid.here is also a moral to this story. athorn describes her place in ancient reek society: cho had a shrine in thens. hey seek excessive admiration from others and fantasize about unlimite d success or power. .

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acts of hubris usually end in tragedy. e lius. elius was not worshipped in any significant way by the a ncient reeks. an oceanid. . we are offered explanations for the origins of the ilky Way galaxy and the deserts of frica.” he story of elius and haethon is told by vid in his etamorphos es. nfor tunately. haethon. elius had many mistresses with whom he had many children. ometimes people in myths exhibit hubris by challenging the authority of a ruler or a god. the daughter of the i tan gods ceanus and ethys. which is often 1 thought to be the modern o iver in taly. he story also mentions real places— thiopia in frica and th e ridanus iver. and sometimes confused with. ften char acters are punished for failing to recognize their limitations. ubris and the way it may be en couraged by peer pressure are touched on in the story of elius and haethon. ften he was linked to. elius and lymene had a son. the god of the sun (helios is the reek word for sun). whose name means “shining.110  ¥    © ¦ ¦    ¢    ¥      £ ©   ¢     ¥  ¥ ¥ ¥      © ¦¥ ¢ ¥ ¦        ¢ ¦ £ ¥ D any reek myths illustrate the trials and errors of human existence. n this st ory. or spirit of the sea. the god of light. ubris is sometimes thought to be the result of excessive pride. was the son of the itan gods. yperion and heia. t is another story that helps explain certain wonders of nature. pollo. he reek word h ubris is often used to describe the human tendency to overstep one’s boundaries. lthough he was an important figure because of h is power over the sun. ne of his lovers was lymene.

he sun gave light and wa rmth to the earth. and its travels across the heavens caused day and night. 111 . he happiness of the royal family was shattered. was not the boy’s real father. haethon was amazed at what his mother told him. elius had an affair with lymene. a mortal woman. lymene told haethon that his father was elius. in fact. lthough he was very busy. the sun god. e ruled no particular area on the earth’s surface because he had not been present when eus was busy assigning jobs to the gods. he p rince and lymene had other children after their marriage. oon after the birth of haethon. and lymene married a prince who raised the boy as his own son. and they all lived ve ry happily for many years. the love aff air ended. lymene lived in the geographical area that is now known as thiopia. ¥  ¥ £ ¥   ¥ ¤      ¥  ¥  ¦   £     ¨£    D elius was the god of the sun. his chariot was v ery important because. it was the sun itself. elius’s main job was to ride a chariot across the sky each day. eli us was careful never to let anything jeopardize the daily rising and setting of the sun. howe ver. when lymene confided to haethon that her husband. the prince. he couple had a son named haethon.

who acted as elius’s servants. owever. the enturies. lymene had no physical evidence available to pr ove that the god was her son’s father. ear. onth. suspecti ng instead that this story was just another one of haethon’s fantasies. mill ing about the room. hen we will believe you. here were lesser gods. haethon approached the majestic dais where elius w as sitting. owever.ods and oddesses in reek haethon was so obsessed with this shocking news that he bragged about his impor tant father to the other boys at school. t was the most magnificent buildi ng the boy had ever seen. the other boys did not believe him. haethon looked so mu ch like his beautiful mother with his striking physique and intense eyes that e lius 112           ¥ ¦  ¦   £  ©  ¦ ¥ ¢     ¥ ¥  ¢   ¥ ©  ¢  ythology .” Determined to show his friends that he was telling the truth. hey just could not believe that their friend was the son of a god. the boys teased haethon about his sto ry. hese various gods were called Da y. carved out of solid em erald. haethon went home and asked his mother to help him prove tha t elius was really his father. show us some proof. ma king the chamber sparkle with light. and although they were his friends. haethon easily found the god’s palace. n fact. ne of hi s friends challenged haethon and said. uge pillars of bronze and gold held up the ceiling of the throne room. he boy could not help but gawk at the splendor of everything around him. ervously. e could hardly believ e his eyes when he saw it for the first time. it was probably one of the most beautiful pal aces ever built. With his mother’s directions. “ f elius is really your father. ven the god’s throne. adding to the god’s majesty. was exquisite. and the easons. the ours. she promised to show haethon the way to elius’s palace where he could ask the god himself for some proof.

the king of the gods. ut would like to prove it to my friends who teased me an d claimed that am only pretending that you are my father. elius wished that he had not made such a rash. elius was surprised but understanding. hen they will believe that am your son. and let me drive your chariot.elius and haethon recognized him as his son right away. hey will se e that can be as strong and as brave as a god. e reminded the god of his oath 113 £ ¦  ¦   ¥ ¥     ¦  ¦    ¥    ¦ ¥       ¦ ¥   ¤ ¡  ¦ ¥ ¡   ¦  ¦ £ ¤   . haethon could easily be kil led by trying to ride across the sky. just as lymene had said. he horses were so unruly that they would obey no one but elius. When haethon explained that he wished to have proof to show his friends. no t even a god. haethon was deter mined to drive the sky chariot. v en eus. but if am you r son. emember your promise. you will allow me to drive the chariot tomorrow so that everyone may see me riding in your place.” haethon knew that the god was serious when he said this because no one. indeed. e tried to make haethon understand the danger and futility of trying to drive the char iot.” s soon as he heard his son’s request. e told haethon. ven if he were eus himself. he god told haethon that. could go back on a promise sworn by the iver tyx. know that you are very careful about driving your chariot across the sky each day. “ y the iver tyx in ades. unbreakable promise. believe that am your son. he was his father. “ ather. he sun god never allowed anyone else to drive his chariot for the simple reason that it was extremely difficult to manage. swear to give you whatever proof you ask for. elius stressed. with the assurance of this promise. elius begged his son to reconsider his request and to ask for some other kind of proof. haethon turned to elius and said. hen. Despite these warnings. could not drive elius’s chariot.

haethon climbed into the chariot. lmost immediately after leaving his father’s pal ace with the chariot. the earth was bath ed in a calm morning light. the chariot took haethon into the night sky w here he caused such damage that a huge burnt trail was left behind wherever the chariot happened to touch down. this mo ment of calm was soon shattered. grinning at his father. ou will be so proud!” With a final wave. e just could not kee p them on their path. nstead. fter l eaving the night. ournfully. he horses left the road they usually traveled and began t o race in different directions. or one brief moment. his scar became the ilky Way. haethon lost control of the horses. and he c lutched the side of the chariot to keep from falling out. he boy did not feel at all like the powerful so n of elius. elius was forced to allow the boy his wish. irst.” haethon said assuringly. and he t old his servants. to hitch up the horses to prepare for the boy’s depar ture. hus. but he could do nothing to st op the disobedient horses. “ ather. the ruler of the day and night. and even now the etchings of haethon’s chariot ride can be seen streaking across the sky. will show yo u all what a good driver am. e could hardly keep from shouting for joy as he watched the ours prepare the horses. nfortunately.ods and oddesses in reek upon the iver tyx. While the servants held the horses steady. the young prince dismissed the servants and tugged on the flaming gold reins to urge the magnificent horses onward into the sky. haethon was bursting with excitement. “Do not worry. he was terrified. the ours. the horses raced 114   ¦    © ©  ¦     ¥ ¥    ©    ¦ ¥ ¢   ¥    ¢     ¢ ythology . elius wat ched his son’s wild ride from his shimmering throne. who lo oked on with dismay. elius began to breathe an audible sigh of relief—perh aps haethon would be able to drive the horses after all.

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were so upset about their brother’s death. t his forge. ews of haethon’s disastrous ride soon made its way to ount lympus. most of the gods wer e relieved to see that the earth had been merely scorched and not completely des troyed. aia. 116 ¥  ¥ ¢   ¤    ¥ © ¤   £   © ¥ ¥ ¢         ¢   £  ¢    ythology . h ey cried so many tears and for so many years that the gods took pity on them and turned them into poplar trees that grew along the banks of the river. eus knew that this id ea would be the only way to save the earth. the gods began to realize that the entire world would soon be b urned to a crisp if they did not step in soon and somehow manage to stop the rac ing chariot. o eus hurled a bolt of lightning a t haethon. their abu ndant tears were turned into amber. lthough he did not want to kill elius’s son. he wild horses and the splintered chariot also fell into the river. in memory of the god’s lost son. the eliades. and haethon fell out of the chariot to his death in the ridanus iver. s they watched.ods and oddesses in reek back toward earth. ephaestus the blacksmith made elius a new chariot so tha t the world would continue to enjoy day and night. begged the other gods to help save the earth from destruction. hese burned areas became the deserts of frica. which dropped from the trees into the river. where the land caught fire when t he chariot touched it. is aim was good. he new chariot—covered in jewe ls and intricate carvings—was even more beautiful than the first. that they gathered along the ridanus iver to weep for him. the first mot her of the gods. dragging their frightened driver behind them. however. lthough they were sorry that the boy had died. he horses swoo ped down over the area near the earth’s equator. elius’s daughters.

s a result. haethon refused to recognize his limitation s. ate r lymene married a prince who raised haethon as his own son. Why was eliu s upset by haethon’s request to drive the sun chariot? elius knew how dangerous it would be for his son to drive the chariot. t he ilky Way was marked out for eternity. Why did haethon want proof that elius was his father? haethon’s friends did not believe that he was the son of a god. haethon committed an act of hubris when he insisted that he could dr ive the sun chariot across the sky. When it touched the earth. is m other was lymene. that he was the child of a famous and important god. e knew that haethon would surely be hurt if he attempted such a dangerous ride. elius realized that he alone coul d control the horses. heir disbelief caused haethon to prove to his friends. . a mortal woman who lived in a land that is now thiopia. the god of the sun.: : : : : : : : 117  ¨    £  ¢          ¥        ¦¥ ! £      £!      ©     !   !   !   ! D W : : Who were haethon’s parents? haethon’s father was elius. a nd the world. his life ended tragically. What astrological and geographical areas did haethon’s di sastrous chariot ride create? When the runaway chariot raced off into the sky. What is hubris? ubris is the reek word to describe a kind of pride that comes over people when they try to be better than the gods in some way. the deserts of frica were created.

he ree k poets omer and esiod both mention constellations in their 4 works. “the harioteer”.arry . haethon became uriga. he reeks. n his encyc lopedia of reek mythology. eus allotted [ eli us] the newly arisen island of hodes. “the ainy nes. of which he became the patron. or pictures in the arrangements of stars. athorn explains that the story of haethon’s wil d ride across the sky was sometimes used to remember the location of certain sta rs. e says: ventually the whole drama was transported to the sky: ridanus became a constel lation. like people of many other cultures. n his bo ok. and don’t get too big for your 2 breeches!” he figure of elius is often associated with the island of hodes. ichard toneman writes: o make up for [being allotted no specific region on earth]. in the hands of the urbane oman vid. ichmond . reek ythology.” 118   ¢ ¦ ¥ ¥ ¦  ¤   £                ¡¥ ¡ ¥   £©© ££   ¢ © ©     ¢  ¢  ¦ ¥ ¥ ¥ £ . is portion is an appropriate one as hodes claims to receive more hours of sunshine per 3 year than any other place in the editerranean. “D on’t be too curious about your origins. owell suggests that vid’s version of the story has some very strong mor al lessons. often looked up into the sky at night and saw constellations. descriptions of the world’s early days become a prettified fantasy embodying the teasing morals. owell writes: t is a good example how. and his sisters became the 5 yade s. he oloss us of hodes was a bronze statue of elius.

or example. ventually. the town where Demeter was thought to have stayed while mourning the marriag e of her daughter to ades. he re ek work could also mean a wide open space or a deep cavern. arcissus under goes such a change when he is turned into a flower. hey were held in leus is. 119 ¥  ¥ ¢ ¥ ¢ £ ¥ ¥ © ¥  £   ¥ £   ¢  ¦ £  ¥         £ ¥   ¢    ¨¢ ¥ . there are many insta nces where a person is changed into something else. glade— shady part of the f orest. hubris— xcessive pride. ointment. sky. leusinian ysteries— ecr et religious ceremonies in honor of the goddess Demeter.ambrosia— drink. chaos— he d isordered order of the universe before the beginning of time. yclopes— he giant chi ldren of aia and ranus who each had only one eye in the middle of the forehead . aia. uch actions often end in trag edy. echo— he reflection of sound in nature. metamorphosis— change or transformation. or perfume used by the gods. hese women o ften behaved like wild animals and seemed to have superhuman strength. eople commit acts of excessive pride when they ign ore their limitations and go beyond their bounds. divided it into earth. the first goddess of the new world. the god of the nderworld. Demeter used such an oint ment to anoint Demophoon. dais— raised platform where a throne is often placed. hey were skilled craftsmen and made weapons for the lympians in their revolt against the itans. archaeology— he study of anc ient civilizations. the baby prince of leusis. n reek myth. he word comes from the name of the nymph who wa s restricted to repeating what other people said to her. bacchantes— emale followers of the god Dionysus. and sea.

ods and oddesses in reek

narcissism— elf-love. nymph— minor goddess or divinity of nature. he nymphs were u sually represented as beautiful maidens who dwelled in the mountains, forests, t rees, or water. oceanid— spirit of the sea. lympia— town in the western part of t he eloponnesus that has major temples to the lympian gods, the ruins of which one can still visit. lympians— he group of gods and goddesses, including eus, wh o were descended from the itans. omen— natural sign or occurance that can be int erpreted to predict the future. oracle— prophet who interprets signs and omens. p antheon— group of gods and goddesses. polytheistic— elieving in more than one god o r goddess. iver tyx— n important river in the nderworld. f a vow was made on t he name of this river, it could never be broken, not even by a god. sickle— curve d knife used to harvest crops. ronos used one to kill his father, ranus. arta rus— deep cavern where many of the itans were locked up after the war between th e itans and the lympians. itans— he gods and goddesses who were children of ai a and ranus. heir leader was ronus, the father of the lympian gods. trident— three-pronged spear. he yclopes made one for oseidon, the god of the oceans, during the war between the itans and the lympians. 120

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ythology

reface 1. iddell & cott, reek- nglish exicon ( xford, ngland: larendon r ess, 1948). ll further definitions of reek words will rely on iddell & cott. 2. ark . orford and obert J. enardon, lassical . ythology, 6th ed. ( e w ork: ongman, 1999), p. 16. 3. arry . owell, lassical yth, 2nd ed. ( ppe r addle iver, . J.: rentice all, 1998), pp. 25-27. 4. nne . aumgartner, omprehensive Dictionary of the ods ( ew ork: Wing ooks, 1995), p. 201. ha pter 1. reation 1. esiod, heogony, lines 110–115, <http://www.perseus. tufts.ed u/cgibin/ptext?doc= erseus%3 text%3 1999.01. 0130&query=card%3D%234&loc=63> ( ct ober 30, 2000). 2. ucilla urn, reek yths ( ustin: niversity of exas ress, 1990), p. 9. 3. en Dowden, he ses of reek ythology ( ew ork: outledge, 1 992), p. 135. 4. John insent, reek ythology ( ew ork: aul amlyn, 1969), p. 22. hapter 2. he War etween the itans and the lympians 1. pyros hotinos, lympia: omplete uide, trans. ina c eorge and olin acDonald ( thens, ree ce: lympic ublications, 1989), p. 5. 2. bid., p. 7. 3. ark . orford and obert J. enardon, lassical . ythology, 6th ed. ( ew ork: ongman, 1999), p. 75. 4. ichmond . athorn, reek ythology ( eirut, ebanon: merican niversi ty of eirut ress, 1977), p. 8. 5. John insent, reek ythology ( ew ork: au l amlyn, 1969), p. 25. 6. orford and enardon, p. 48. hapter 3. rometheus an d arth’s irst nhabitants 1. arry . owell, lassical yth, 2nd ed. ( pper ad dle iver, . J.: rentice all, 1998), p. 46. 121  

   

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2. bid., p. 115. 3. ark . orford and obert J. enardon, logy, 6th ed. ( ew ork: ongman, 1999), p. 61.

lassical . ytho

reek ythology ( eirut, ebanon: merican niversity of 47. 2. ark . orford and obert J. enardon, lassi ( ew ork: ongman, 1999), p. 60. 3. arry . owell, pper addle iver, . J.: rentice all, 1998), p. 122.

hapter 5. Demeter and ersephone 1. arry . owell, lassical yth, 2nd ed. ( pper addle iver, . J.: rentice all, 1998), pp. 237-241. 2. ichael rant, yths of reeks and omans ( ew or k: eridian, 1995), p. 136. 3. owell, p. 239. 4. bid., p. 237. hapter 6. Dionysus and his ollowers 1. ichmond . athorn, reek ythology ( eirut, ebanon: merican niversity of eirut ress, 1977), p. 282. 2. bid., p. 135. 3. ythology, n llustrated ui de, oy Willis, ed. ( ew ork: arnes and oble, nc., 1998), p. 141. 4. arry . owell, lassical yth, 2nd ed. ( pper addle iver, . J.: rentice all, 199 8), p. 267. hapter 7. aucis and hilemon 1. ichmond . athorn, reek ythology ( eirut, ebanon: merican niversity of eirut ress, 1977), p. 18. 2. bid. 3. arry . owell, lassical yth 2nd ed. ( pper addle iver, . J.: rentice all, 1998), pp. 140-141. hapter 8. cho and arcissus 1. ichmond . athorn, reek ythology ( eirut, ebanon: merican niversity of eirut ress, 1977), p. 106. 2. “ ersonality Disorders,” icrosoft® ncarta® ncycloped ia 99. © 1993–1998 icrosoft orporation. 3. athorn, p. 106. 122

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1998).: rentice all. ( pper addle iver. . bid. 19 95). 84. ( ondon: Diamond ooks. J. 5. owell. athorn. lassical yth 2nd ed. ichmond .hapter otes hapter 9.” icrosoft® ncarta® ncyclopedia 99. © 1993–199 icrosoft orporation. arry . reek ythology: n ncyclopedia of yth and egend. elius and haethon 1. 2. 81. “ onstellation (astronomy). p. 123  ¨ ¡  ¡ £  © © £ ¨¦ ¢ ¨ ©  ¡  ©  ¡    ¡ £         ©    ¢  © . ebanon : merican niversity of eirut ress. p. ichard toneman. 4. reek ythology ( eirut. 51. 1977). 3. p.

———. Virginia. ngri and dgar arin D’ ulaire. obert. thena. eus. Dateli ne roy. c aughrean. reek ods and oddesses. he andom ouse ook of reek yths.: apstone ress. olden. 1999. 1999. ew ork: andom ouse. . etty onham. reek ods an d eroes.124  ¡ ©     ©  ¡   © ¢  ¢  ¢ ¦ © ¢  ¢  ¡ ¢ ¢ ¤ ¡   ¡ ¥     © ¢   ©  ¢  ¢  ¨ £   ©  ¢ ¥  ¢   ¦    © ©       £   ¡  ¡  ¡ ©  ¡    © ¢     ¦ ¥ ¡ ¢  £ £    ¡        ¨ ¢ ¦  ¢   ¥    D arber. ambridge. Vinge. arth’s Daughters: tories of Women in lassical yt hology. tephanides. ol. ew ork: xf ord niversity ress. 1999. n the egi nning: reation tories from round the World. reece: igma. ancy. 1995. 1996. D’ ulaire. reece. 1999. enalaos. 1988. eraldine. pollo & Daphne: asterpieces of reek ythology. D’ ulaire’s ook of reek yths.: ulcrum ublishing. eoh ong am.: andlewick ress. 1998. 1999.: areth t evens. ilwaukee. 1999. 1992. ew ork: arcourt race Jovanovi ch. e ork: iver ront ooks. ew ork: antam Doubleday Dell. amilton. i nn. ew ork: imon & chuster. ntonia. ew ork: iver ront ooks. thens.. Joan D. ankato. ercules. 1998. nc. 1999. he ods of lympus. Wis. oewen. leischman. raves. ass. aul. ———. ies. ew ork: antam Doubleday Dell.

rief descriptions with links throughout. lso covers other types of mythology reek ythology <http://www. and a fun quiz game for all ages. .messagenet.com/index. ncludes information about c onstellations.com/my ths> nformation. reek ythology: ook ack in ime <http://library.greekmythology. reek ythology: rom the liad to the ast yrant <http://www.he ncyclopedia ythica <http://www.thinkquest. reek ythology ink <http://hsa. 125 ¦ ¥     ¨  ¡ ¥ ¢  ¦ ¡   ¥     ¥   ¥ ¦ £ £   ££  ¨   ©  ¨ ! © © © © £ ¥ £ ¥ ¢ ¦    ¢   ¢ ¢ DD he ncient ity of thens <http://www.edu/~kglowack/athens/> photo tour of archeological sites in thens.indiana.pantheon. links to other interesting sites. .edu/~maicar/> ome pages also available in panish. myths.org/mythica/> xplores articles about various reek gods. and places. or the advanced reader.org/18650/> hink uest site written by students for students.brown.html> list of gods.

m ythweb. archaeology.com/greek_r esources/greek_ encyclopedia/greek_encyclopedia_home. he erseus roject <http://www. and more.ods and oddesses in reek he llustrated ncyclopedia of reek ythology <http://www.tufts.perseus. 126 © © ¢ © ¢ £  ¢ ¦  ¥ ¦ ¦ ¥ ¢ ythology .html> ythweb <http://www. interesting facts and stories.edu/> nformation about classical texts and their translations. and information for teachers.com/> llustrations.cultures.

110. 61. 13 lymene. 116 thiopia. 76 pollo. 61–74. 29–38. 35 constellation. 15. 117 gave. 6 creation. 80–84. 52. 79. 10. 90–97 esiod. 50 frica. 40–43. 42. 66–67. 41.116. 107 ermes. 77 farmers. 76 rtemis. 53. 33. 35. 48. 110–118 helmet of invisibility. 62. 69. 61. 45. 32. 7. 76. 76 harvest. 88. 36. 82–86 lex ander. 35. 13 initiates. 22. 35. 11. 118 estia. 76. 35 omer. 86 aucasus ountains. 19. 74 leusis. 68-69 Dion ysus. 61 ephaestus. 59. 56. 61 yclopes. 18. 101–103. 35. 33. 13. 80. 30. 48. 62. he. 58. 116 guests. 110 festival. 80–88 apetus. 12. the. 65. 35. 76–77. 57. 91–98 ours. 76. 70. 108 tlas. 22 ronus. ing. see Dionysus aucis. 90–98 ades. 61–74 democracy. 30. 78. 52. 110. 70 pimetheus. 48 thens. 113 armony. 116 elius. 118 hope.40. 110. 10. 62. 54. 32–33. 49 eleus. 32. 35. 118 orinth. 100 haos. 110 res. 35. 36. 110 bacchantes. 34. 76. 36 yperion. 66–67 elen. 45. 10. 69 entu ries. 76. 72 eca te. 78 cho. 6. 18–4. 25. 114 hubris. 32–34. 30. 7. 98 aia. 67. 111. 13. 20–24.14. 76–77.egean ea. 101 sia inor. 58. 27 eschylus. 35. 7. 23 hios. 13. 85. 116 era. 78 127           £ £ §    ¡        ¦  £ £ ¡        © ©  ¥   ©  ¡ ¦  £    £           ¦ £  D  ¦ ¦ £ £  ¢ ¢   ¡ . 25. 43–44. 61 D Delphi. 13. 90–98 oeotia. 117 oe us. 15. 67. 35. 88 flood. 117 undred-handed nes. 34. 35. 62. 13–16. 55 ridanus iver. 11. 34 liad. 79. 38 rius. 98 rete. 35. 14. 110. 68–69 phrodite. 117 uripides. 36. the 112. 50. 18. 90–91 thena. 15. 67. 11. 41. 13. 11 eliades. 110–113. 6. 37. 18–25. 15 Demeter. 59 hospitality. 16. 12 ambrosia. 10. 95. 40. the. 12 alphabet. 112 ephisus. 78. 100–108 leusinian ysteries. 15. 22–25. 74 no. 13. 87 acchus. 97. 30. 14. 36. 20–23. 22. 62. 38 utonoe . 52 Demophoon. 62. 22. 76 admus. 30.

78–86 heia. 86 sickle. 77. 50. 28. 32. ing. 77 parta. 36 sacrifice. 27. 36 ethys. 90. 14. 38. 41. 70–73 oseidon. 15. 70–73. 35. 25. 111–113. 38 hrygia. 15. 10. 53 itans. 10. 108 arcissus. 18-23. 21–2 2. 13 oath. 14. 22. 58 religion. he. 110 dyssey. 90–98 hoebe. 29. 59.100. 34. 97 playwrights. 88 hebes. 118 nderworld. 21. 14–16. 13. 76–77. iver. 21 ount lympus. 116. 33. ing. 70–73. 72. 12. 68. 96. 14. 61. 86. 90. 63–65. 77. 113–114 oceanid. 40. 18 ycenae. 25. 6. 110–118 hilemon. 15. he. 61 hodes. 10 . 13 lympia. 110. 28. 11 etamorphoses. 1 6. 11. 37 rometheus. 105–107 artarus. 52. 59 eus. 25. 90–92. 23. 52–59 pantheon. 40. 90–98. 41 uses. 117 inos. 6. 41. 13 women and society. 87 eloponnesus. 10 . 14. 43 oracles. 13. 30. 34 heogony. 118 128 ¥ © ¥ ¥ ©  ¢ §     ¥    ¥ ©  ¥ ¥   ¥   ©  ©   © ¥ §  © ¦ ¥    ¢ © ! ©   ©  ¥  © ¢ ©   © © ¦   ¥ ¥ ¤ ¤          ¢ ythology . 114 narcissism. 27. 66. 34. 61. 45. 90. 24. 35 W wine. 8 0. 62. 110 theater. 25. 32–38. 32. 27–29. 35. 32. 101–1 07. 40. 13. 110 metamorph osis. 43. 100. 43. 30. 37. 11 ersephone. 94 Works and Days. 34. 80. 95 monster. 118 polis. 100 etanira. 100. 10 nemosyn e. 45. 110 hemis. 100. 30-38. 77 poets. 2 8 lympians. 34. 61–74 haethon. 110 ceanus. 11 aia. 77 ranus. 76. 10. 44 easons. 16. 44–50. 71. 15. 61. 10. 101. 27 omens . 107 nymph. ueen. 13. 15 vid. 30. 106. 113. 37 thaca. 68–69 ilky Way. 11 tyx. 18. 108 . 33. 6. 55. 14. 36 rojan War. 54–58. 42. 112 seasons. 13–14. 21. 27 entheus. 63–65. 41. 21. he. 27. 13. 14. 110 trident. 79. 114. 118 hea. 55. 76 lympic ames. 80.ods and oddesses in reek sland of the Dead. 52. 73 emele. 15. 13. 111 editerranean ea. 25. 29–30. 13. 82–86 ericles. 22. 18. 24. 34. 118 enelaus. 18. 118 omans. 61. the. 25. 20. 14. 22. 13 roy. 41. 56. 28. 32–36. 66. 82. 102. 36. 78–80. 50. 87. 21. 52. 23. 40–5 0. 76. 76. 90. 21. 76. 6. 1 1 pomegranate seeds. 102–108 narcissus (flower). 110. 61. 25 ophocles. 7. 14. 61. 35 marriage. 22. 38. 21. 14–16. 69. 36 andora. 13 acedonia. 76–80. 108. 6. 21. 18. 28. 76.

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