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aureus is a facultatively anaerobic, Gram-positive coccus, which appears as grape-like clusters when viewed through a microscope and has large, round, golden-yellow colonies, often with hemolysis, when grown on blood agar plates. The golden appearance is the etymological root of the bacteria's name; aureus means "golden" in Latin. S. aureus is catalase positive (meaning that it can produce the enzyme "catalase") and able to convert hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) to water and oxygen, which makes the catalase test useful to distinguish staphylococci from enterococci and streptococci. A small percentage of S. aureus can be differentiated from most other staphylococci by the coagulase test: S. aureus is primarily coagulase-positive (meaning that it can produce "coagulase", a protein product, which is an enzyme) that causes clot formation while most other Staphylococcus species are coagulasenegative. However, while the majority of S. aureus are coagulase-positive, some may be atypical in that they do not produce coagulase (the most common organism in patients with nosocomial bacteremia is coagulase-negative staphylococcus). Incorrect identification of an isolate can impact implementation of effective treatment and/or control measures.
Staphylococcus aureus is a bacterium commonly found on the skin and in the nose of healthy people. The major habitats of the pathogen are the nasal membrane and skin of warm-blooded animals. It is one of the major causes of community-acquired and hospital-acquired infections. Occasionally, staphylococci cause infections that are minor (such as pimples, boils, and other skin conditions) or serious and sometimes fatal (such as blood infections, carditis, meningitis, or pneumonia). It produces numerous toxins including superantigens that cause unique disease entities such as toxic-shock syndrome and staphylococcal scarlet fever, and has acquired resistance to practically all antibiotics. The onset of symptoms in staphylococcal food poisoning is usually rapid and in many cases acute, depending on individual susceptibility to the toxin, the amount of contaminated food eaten, the amount of toxin in the food ingested, and the general health of the victim. Recovery generally takes two days, However, it us not unusual for complete recovery to take three days and sometimes longer in severe cases. Although food handlers are usually the main source of food contamination in food poisoning outbreaks, equipment and environmental surfaces can also be sources of contamination with S. aureus . Human intoxication is caused by ingesting enterotoxins produced in food by some strains of S. aureus, usually because the food has not been kept hot enough (60C, 140F, or above) or cold enough (7.2C, 45F, or below). Staphylococcus aureus is highly vulnerable to destruction by heat treatment and nearly all sanitising agents. Thus, the presence of this bacterium or its enterotoxins in processed foods or on food processing equipment is generally an indication of poor sanitation. S. aureus is a spherical bacterium (coccus) which on microscopic examination appears in pairs, short chains, or bunched, grape-like clusters. These organisms are Gram-positive. Over the past 50 years, S. aureus has undergone incremental changes in genetic complement that have resulted in the emergence of strains that are antibiotic-resistant and that appear to be successful at transmission and causing disease in the hospital setting. More recently, MRSA (Methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus) strains appear to have become established within the community. Staphylococcus aureus is an important nosocomial and community-acquired pathogen. Its genetic plasticity has facilitated the evolution of many virulent and drugresistant strains, presenting a major and constantly changing clinical challenge. Recently, two disease-causing S. aureus strains isolated from distinct clinical settings have been sequenced and their genomic data compared to explore the mechanisms of evolution and to identify regions affecting virulence and drug resistance: a recent hospital-acquired representative of the epidemic methicillin-resistant S. aureus EMRSA-16 clone (MRSA252), a clinically important and globally prevalent lineage; and a representative of an invasive community-acquired methicillin-susceptible S. aureus clone (MSSA476). A better understanding of the features that make MSSA (methicillin-susceptible S. aureus) and MRSA strains successful in both community and hospital settings is urgently needed. Further sequencing of diverse S. aureus strains will facilitate description of the full range of putative pathogenic determinants carried by this species and provide a basis for predicting rates of horizontal gene transfer.
0 mm in diameter with a yellow colonies. 4. 1980). Optimum temperature for growth of Staphylococcus aureus is 35o . Teikoat acid is a group of antigens from Staphylococcus. enterotoxin and eksfoliatin. (Supardi and Sukamto. These bacteria can not grow in synthetic media that do not contain amino acids or proteins. Besides can cause intoxication. Exotoxin-b is composed of hemosilin. aureus can also cause various infections such as pimples. 1999). did not move. not berspora and capable of forming a capsule.4 o C. kokus shaped and arranged like grapes (Todar. Staphylococcus sizes vary depending on growth media. Leukosidin leukocytes that attack immune system will decline. Another is leukosidin toxin. which is a protein are eksoseluler and leukistik. These bacteria require nicotinic acid for growth and growth will be stimulated with the thiamin. Schlegel. (Supardi and Sukamto. S. (Boyd. These bacteria are also frequently found in the pores and the surface of the skin. pneumonia and mastitis in humans and animals.5-1. . protease and lipase. Cell wall teikoat acid. Toxins formed by Staphylococcus aureus is a haemolysin alpha. which is a component that can cause lysis of red blood cells. Aglutinogen contains teikoat acid and N-acetylglucosamine.4. proline. Staphylococcus aureus lives as saprofit in expenditure channels mucus from the human body and animals such as the nose. 1999). (Supardi and Sukamto. 1994). Toxin F and S. S. gamma and delta apsilon. Growth at pH close to 9. Staphylococcus aureus is the aerobic and anaerobic bacteria. osteomyelitis. 2002) as shown in the figure 2. facultative capable menfermentasikan mannitol and produce enzymes koagulase. 3. tyrosine. an enzyme that can break hyaluronat acid in the fabric that makes the spread of bacteria throughout the body. beta. Staphylococcus 0. 5. cysteine.8 with optimum pH 7.8 is only possible if the substrate has a composition that is good for growth. Exotoxin-a highly toxic 2. phenilalanin. lysine. methionine. In addition to producing koagulase. (Boyd. 1980. These bacteria can grow at pH 4.0 to 9.7 o C and maximum temperature of 45. Enterotosin and eksoenzim can cause food poisoning primarily affecting the digestive tract.Staphylococcus aureus is a Gram-positive bacteria. these bacteria also requires uracil. Eksofoliatin a toxin that attacks the skin with signs of affected skin burns. sweat glands and intestinal tract. hyalurodinase. Staphylococcus aureus lysostaphin contains lisisnya which can cause red blood cells. including: 1. 1999). Required for optimum growth of eleven amino acids.0 to 7.5. histidine and arginine. leucine. (Boyd. mouth and throat and can be issued at the time of coughing or sneezing. namely valine. aureus can also produce various toxins. meningitis.37o C with a minimum temperature of 6. Enterotoxin group consisting of a simple protein. In anaerobic conditions. boils. 1980). Hyaluronidase. When grown in the media so. phosphatase. threonin. which is about 40% of the cell wall dry weight.
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