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ISBN 957-98685-2-2
250

1-5
(hermeneutics)
(exploratory research)

/
1-5

1995-1999

0.

0.1 (horizons)

0.2

0.3

1.

1.1

1.1.1

11

1.1.2 unity/

16

1.1.3

20

1.2.

21

1.2.1

21

1.2.2

23

1.2.3 Paul House (canonical approach)

28

1.2.4

31

1.3.

32

1.3.1 (literary form and structure)

32

1.3.2 (rhemes)

36

1.3.3 (genres)

38

1.3.4

43

1.4.

45

1.4.1

45

1.4.2

46

1.4.3

48

1.4.4

50

1.4.5

52

1.4.6

53

1.5.

55

1.5.1

55

1.5.2

57

1.5.3 1-2

58

1.5.4 1-2

59

1.5.5 1-2

61

1.5.6 3-4

62

1.5.7 v5

62

1.5.8

64

1.5.9

65

2.

68

2.1

70

2.1.1

70

2.1.2

70

2.1.3

71

2.1.4

72

2.2

74

2.2.1

74

2.2.2

75

2.2.3

76

2.3

77

2.3.1.

77

2.3.2

78

2.4

80

2.5

82

3.

84

3.1 1-5

85

3.2

90

3.2.1

90

3.2.2

92

3.2.3 (the use of a narrative framework)

96

3.2.4

98

3.3

99

3.3.1

99

3.3.2

100

3.3.3

103

3.3.4

105

3.4

106

3.4.1

106

3.4.2

108

3.4.3

110

3.4.4

112

3.4.5

114

3.4.6

116

4.

118

4.1

119

4.1.1 28-32 1-5

119

4.1.2 (covenant theology)(dispensationalism)

120

4.2

123

4.2.1 (continuity & discontinuity)

123

4.2.2

124

4.3

126

4.4 (intertextuality)

131

4.5.

132

4.5.1

133

4.5.2

135

4.5.3

136

5.

137
141

Bib Sac

Bibliotheca Sacra

CBQ

Catholic Biblical Quarterly

Int

Interpretation

JBL

Journal of Biblical Literature

JETS

Journal of Evangelical Theological Society

JPT

Journal of Pentecostal Theology

JPTSup

Journal of Pentecostal Theology, Supplement Series

JSNT

Journal for the Study of the New Testament

JSOT

Journal for the Study of the Old Testament

NIBC

New International Biblical Commentary

NICNT

New International Commentary on the New Testament

NICOT

New International Commentary on the Old Testament

TB

Tyndale Bulletin

TJ

Trinity Journal

WBC

Word Biblical Commentary

WTJ

Westminster Theological Journal

0.

0.
(echo)

1-5 28-32
(hermeneutics)
(exploratory research)

0.1 (horizons)

TateVanhoozer
(horizons)/
1(approaches)

(How methods affect interpretation)2


A.

B.

C.

W. Randolph Tate, Biblical InterpretationAn Integrated Approach


Peabody, Mass:

Hendrickson ,1997pp.xx-xxiv. Kevin J. Vanhoozer, Is There A Meaning in This TextThe Bible, the
Reader, and the Morality of Literary Knowledge (Grand Rapids: Zondervan , 1998), pp.25-29.
2

Tate, p.1931999
1

D.

1.

(author-centered approach)1.1
1.2 /
(source criticism)(form criticism)
(redaction criticism)(canonical criticism)
(the world behind the text)

2.

(text-centered approach)1.3
1.5 3.2
(rhetorical criticism)(narrative criticism)
(the world within the text)

3.

(reader-centered approach)
(reader-response criticism)(narrative criticism)
(feminist criticism)(deconstructive criticism)
(the world in front of the text)

readers response 4.5

12(dynamic)
(living organism)

0.

3
(horizon)(world)
(text)
(reader)

1.

style

2.

3.

1.

Tate, pp.257-8.
3

2.

/
(communicative
aspects)4

3. //

1999,p.338.
4

0.

( believing community)
(Scripture)5

Tate(integration)

()6

0.2

( believing community)

2.

/
(continuity)(discontinuity)

Vanhoozer, Is There A Meaning in This Text, p.380.encounter with something that

transcends us and has the capacity to transform us, i.e. IThou encounter
6

Tatep.255.Hermeneutics is a dialogue between the text, and reader, and the text

and reader enter into a conventional covenant informed by the world of the author (preparatory,
foundational information for the dialogue).
5

0.3

4.

(this is that)

4.5.

0.

(information)
(transformation)

1.

1.1
1.1.1
1.1.2 unity/

1.2.
1.2.1
1.2.2
1.2.3Paul House (canonical approach)

1.3.
1.3.1 (literary form and structure)
1.3.2 (rhemes)
1.3.3 (genres)

1.4.
1.4.1
1.4.2
1.4.3
1.4.4
1.4.5

1.5.
1.5.1
1.5.2
1.5.3 1-2
1.5.4 1-2
1.5.5 1-2
1.5.6 3-4
1.5.7 5
1.5.8
8

1.1

1.1.

(the world behind the text)


(author-centered approach)

/(criticism)2

3
Sailhamer
(canonical criticism)4
(canonical approach)5

W. Randolph Tate, Biblical Interpretation: An Integrated Approach, Peabody, Mass:

Hendrickson , 1997, p.7.


2

criticism

3
4

1999P.330.
final form

John Herbert Sailhamer, Introduction to Old Testament Theology: A Canonical Approach

(Grand Rapids, Mich: Eerdmans, 1995), pp.112-3.


9

Tate McKnight

Luke Johnson

(paradigm)/

(semantics)
(pragmatics)
(exegesis)8

Tate, Biblical Interpretation p.9Edgar V. McKnight, Post-Modern Use of the Bible:

The Emergence of Reader-Oriented Criticism (Nashville: Abingdon, 1988), p.175.


There is
no need for denial of the fact that certain states of affairs or developments operated in some sense of
sources for biblical writings and that biblical writings now reflect those enabling conditions. But
attention is to be paid to the realities behind the textas far as they can be ascertained or imagedin
order to understand the text as a pattern of meaning that continues to have an effect on readers.
7

Tate, Biblical Interpretation p.9Luke T. Johnson, The Writings of the New Testament:

An Interpretation Philadelphia: Fortress, 1986, p.6.The NT came to birth among social


structures and symbols different from our own. The writings are conditioned linguistically by that
historical setting. Their linguistic code is not only alien but also only partially available to us. Precisely
the things that go without saying are not available to us. Every responsible reading therefore
demands historical adjustment. The writings are very much conditioned by the times and places of their
origin, by the settings and intentions of their authors. The more we can reconstruct those settings and
intentions, the better readers we are.
8

Tate, Biblical Interpretationp.10.


10

1.1

1.1.1

1.1.1.1

(paradigm)(authors intention)

110

cult-prophet
11

12

John Goldingay, Models for Interpretation of Scripture (Grand Rapids: Eerdmans, 1995),

p.173.
10
11

Kapelrudcultic or temple prophet

31
12

Wolff, NIBC,

2032

15( 14) 6 2-3

1-2

14-15

17a

6b

10

10a

10

11b 4 223( 5)

13b

14a
11

9 3

13

//

1.1.1.2

--
2- 17

20

14-15 6 1
22 615 2

27

29 10

15 412

18a

13

13 30
3 5

17a

18

17b

18

13

18b

3b

3a

10

4 3

13

Thomas Edward McComiskey ,The Minor Prophets: An Exegetical & Expository Commentary,

Vol.1, Hosea, Joel, Amos (Grand Rapids, Mishigan: Baker, 1992), p.241.
12

1.1

14

15

style

27 216

23,cf.v.27;

14f; 4

16


2
13-14 16

14

(Peter C. Craigie), ,John Whiting

Dec.,1915
1865
15

VanGemerenMcComiskeyWolff
13

1416 17


19


586

70

27 16/

15
1-1120 1-5
1-20 -

Kapelrud, Rudolph,
FreemanKaiser

Wolff
16

16

Wolff, p.5.
14

1.1

17

VanGemeren, Interpreting the Prophetic Word


18

1.1.1.3

19

(Duhm)

13f 12-1720
NIBC 1 1
21

17

John Calvin, Preface to Joel, in Joel, Amos & Obadiah: A Commentary on the Minor

Prophets, Trans. John Owen (Edingburg: Banner of Truth, 1986), 2:xv. As there is no
certainty it is better to leave the time in which he taught undecided; as we shall see, this is of no great
importance. Not to know the time of Hosea would be to readers a great loss, for there are many parts
which would not be explained without a knowledge of history; but as to Joel there is as I have said, less
need of this; for the import of his doctrine is evident, though his time be obscure and uncertain
18

Willem A VanGemeren, Interpreting the Prophetic Word (Grand Rapids: Zondervan,

1990)p.103.
19

Goldingay, Models for Interpretation, p.173.

20

Feinberg, Paul D ,Hermeneutics of Discontinuity , Feinberg, J.S., ed. Continuity and

Discontinuity. Perspectives on the Revelation Between the Old Testament and New Testament. Essays
in honor of S. Lewis Johnson, Jr. (Westchester, IL: Crossway, 1988), p.125.
21

Elizabeth Achtemeier, Minor Prophets I (NIBC Hendrickson, 1996), p.116.


15

1.1.2 unity/

--
unity 1872 Maurice Vernes
J. W. Rothstein1896Bernhard Duhm191122

Wellhausen Duhm

23

1.1.2.1 /
Duhm---
apocalyptic
J. A. Bewer(1911)Ernst Sellin(1929)
Theodore H. Robinson(1964) 17 4-8
24
Redditt25

22

Duane A. Garrett, The Structure of Joel, JETS 28.3Sep. 1985, pp289-297.

Larry R. McQueen, Joel and the SpiritThe Cry of a Prophetic Hermeneutic , JPTSup 8,
SheffieldSheffield Academic Press , 1995pp.16-17.
23

Brevard S. Childs, Introduction to the Old Testament as Scripture (Fortress Press, 1979),

p.388.
24

McQueen, Joel and the Spirit, p.16.

25

Paul L. Redditt, The Book of Joel and Peripheral Prophecy, CBQ 48.2 (April 1986),

pp.225-40.
16

1.1

1.

5-20 1-11 12-17

2.

5- 17 18-27

3.

1-4 25// 4inclusion

4.

1-39-21

5.

1-5

(forms)(sources) 1-11
(interpretive)
1.2.1

26
1- 27
1- 21

1.1.2.2 (historical-critical tradition)


Ludwig
Dennefeld (1924)J. H. Kritzinger (1935)Theodore Chary (1955)

27
28

26

Garrett, The Structure of Joel, pp289-297.

27

(1986).

28

H. H. Rowley, The Faith of IsraelPhiladelphia: Westminster, 1956.


17

centric prophet
(peripheral prophet)

/(historical / cultic) 29
McQueenRedditt30Arvid S. Kapelrud31
18ff
Heilsprophet32 G.
S. Ogden33

1.1.2.3 (socio-historical context)34

35

(Torah)

29

McQueen, Joel and the Spirit p.17.

30

Redditt, The Book of Joel and Peripheral Prophecy, pp.225-40.

31

Arvid S. Kapelrud, Joel Studies (Uppsala: Almqvist & Wiksell, 1948).

32

Childs, Introduction to the Old Testament as Scripture, pp.388-89.

33

G. S. Ogden, Joel 4 and Prophetic Response to National Laments, JSOT 26 (1983), pp.

97-106.
34

Redditt, The Book of Joel and Peripheral Prophecy, pp.233-38.

35

Gary V. Smith, The Application of Principles from the Sociology of Knowledge for

Understanding the Setting, Tradition and Theology of the Prophets, JETS 32/2 (June 1989), pp.
145-157.
18

1.1

36
1.4
(settings)

37
(settings)
(tradition)

Wilson
38

(central prophet)
(proto-apocalyptic)
(peripheral apocalyptic) 39
Redditt 515 445
()

(eschatological)
(apocalyptic)40

36

Smith, ibid., p.146.

37

ibid.

38

Robert R. Wilson, Prophecy and Society in Ancient Israel (Philadelphia: Fortress, 1980), p.2.

39

Wilson, Prophecy and Societypp.289-290.

40

Redditt, p.238.
19

1.1.2.4
//

()

1.1.3

Sailhamer (text)
(event)

41

(final form)

41

Sailhamer, Introduction to Old Testament Theology, p.84.the written text as we

have it in its final form that is inspired and useful for instruction.
20

1.2.

1.2.
(the world within the text)

1.2.1
(text-centered approach)

1-1120
(interpretive)1
A.

B.

apocalyptic

KeilAllen

CalvinWolff

1.2.1.1
A
21-27
3
4
4-5
5-9
20

1.2.1.2

Duane A.Garrett, The Structure of Joel, JETS 28.3Sep. 1985, pp289-297.


21

B
Wolff 1-11
4-5 predominance
imperfect(perfect) 17
2

20
t/c[}l'

lyDIg]hi yKi for he has done great things


21 .t/c[}l' hw:hy?lyDIg]hiAyKi for the Lord has done great things

( pair) Allen 5-11


3
4

20

ynI/pX]h'

the northerner

(apocalyptic)
31 13 122

6155

3-10
2 !['people

ynI/pX]h'
WhnEj}m'

20

11

/lyje

1-10 20

McComiskey 1-11 (eschatological oriented)


6

Wolff, ibid., pp.41-42.

Leslie C.Allen, The Books of Joel, Obadiah, Jonah and Micah (NICOT: Grand Rapids:

Eerdmans, 1976), p.90.


4

Garrett, ibid., p.292.

ibid.

McComiskey,The Minor Prophets, p.244.


22

1.2.

Garrett

7 Wolff
2-11 8

1.2.1.3

1-11
17
9

5
10-11 1-5 1-11
10 Childs

1.2.2

1.2.2.1 /(author/text-centered approach)

Garrett, ibid., p.293.

Wolff, Joel and Amos (Hermeneia; Philadelphia: Fortress, 1977), p. 42.

Garrett, ibid., p.294.

10

Garrett, ibid., p.294.


23

unity
Weiser 11
Otto Ploger -

,12
peripheral13
14 1.1.2.1 Reddit

Wolff //
H. W. Wolff
--
apocalyptic
15

4-20

21-27

1-11

1-5

12-17

1-39-17

27 17

literary unity
Childs (canonical function)
(literary unity)(redactional unity)

11

A. Weiser, The Old Testament: Its Formation and Development

(E. T., New York: Association Press, 1961) .


12

McQueenp.16 O. Ploger, Theocracy and Eschatology Richmond: Johns Knox Press,

1968p.104.
13

Paul L. ReddittIoan Lewis .

14

McQueen, Joel and the Spirit, p.17.

15

Wolff, Joel and Amos, pp.7-8.


24

1.2.

16

1.2.2.2 Canonical criticismtext-centered approach


1.2.2.2.1.(Shaping)
Childs (final form)
(canonical shape)17

11

25 11

28- 21

original prophecy 3

16

Childs, Introduction to the Old Testament, p.389.

17

Childs, ibid., p.391.


25

18 5

18

Childs
Goldingay(historical contexts)Childs historical-critical
approach Goldingay
kerygma18 Childs original prophecy
3

1.2.2.2.2.(Canonical ordering)

19
Payne

20

18

J. Goldingay, Approaches to Old Testament Interpretation

(Downers Grove: IVP, 1981),

p.130.
19

Karl August Credner1831 Hobart E. Freeman1968.

20

J. Barton Payne , Encyclopedia of Biblical Prophecy: The Complete Guide to Scriptural

Predictions and Their Fulfillment (New York: Harper & Row, 1973), p.406.
26

1.2.

House (canonical approach)


(the God who expresses covenant love)21
(the God who rejects apathy)22

23
Hubbard 24Wolff
16a 18a
2a 13b 3- 16
4,19
9-10,6-8,11-1225
16-21
2 26

Martin Noth Wolff

27

21

Paul R. House, Old Testament Theology (IVP, 1998), p.348.

22

ibid.p.354.

23

ibid.

24

David Allan Hubbard, Joel and Amos, Tyndale OT Commentaries (England: IVP, 1989),

p.22.
25

Wolff, p.3.

26

House, Old Testament Theology, p.356.

27

Wolff, p.4.
27

1.2.3Paul House (canonical approach)

Paul House
(God-centered)(intertextually
oriented)(authority-conscious)(historically sensitive)
(the wholeness of the Old Testament message)
.
28

29
overstanding30

House

- -
1- 17 18-

28

House, p.57.

29

House, p.356.

30

Vanhoozer Vanhoozer, Is There A

Meaning in This Textpp.401-403.


28

1.2.

1.2.3.1 1- 17
2-3
4-12
1.2.1

House Allen 31

13-15 15
-32
16-20

1-11

12-13

14

33 15-17

(canonical synthesis)
34

31

Allenp.30.

32

Douglas Stuart, Hosea-Jonah (WBC 31 Waco, Texas : Word, 1987)p.228.

33

McComiskeyp.280.

34

1 69 5 8 10 10 5 3 15

111 4 18-20 15 7-814-18 1 Gerhard vonRad, Old Testament


Theology (New York: Harper, 1965), IIpp.99-125.
29

7-8 1

1.2.3.2 18-

25-29 31-34

18

1-9
19-26 521 23
27

29
(signal the end time)35House
believers 31-34

24-32
(restored community)

1-5
9-16 -

35

House, p.356.
30

1.2.

36

(canonical synthesis)
18- 21 17-21 Kaiser
(visitation) 34
14 30 17-1820
37

1.2.4

(macro-structure)

House

1.3.3 1.4.House
(micro-structure)

36

Childsp.106203.

37

(1994)p.249.
31

1.3.
(the world within the text)

1.3.1 (literary form and structure)

19-20
17

14 12
12

17ff
1(dehistoricized)
13-14
12-142

1.3.1.1 -(literary-theological interpretation)


-(literary-theological)
two centers3
(unity) 17/18 27/
14
1.

18 1- 17

Willem A VanGemeren, Interpreting the Prophetic Word

(Grand Rapids: Zondervan, 1990),

P.121.
2

Thomas Edward McComiske ,The Minor Prophets: An Exegetical & Expository Commentary,

Vol.1, Hosea, Joel, Amos (Grand Rapids, Mishigan: Baker, 1992), p.243.
3

McQueen,Garrett.

Garrett, pp.294-5.
32

1.3.

18- 21 5
2.

27 1- 21
6

Garrett 7
A
B 1-11apocalyptic
C 12-19vv18-19

B 20
A 21-27
vv18-19
A 20
B 21-27
B 1-5

A 1-21

(chiastic structure)

1.

15

2.

1ff

3.

1-4

4.

14

1.3.1.2
McQueen Garrett

Keil, Wolff, Allen

Schmidt, Soggin, Thompson

.Garrett , pp.289-297.
33

1- 17

18- 5

1-21

theme(rhemes)

unity
1- 17 15 1ff
13f
18- 5ar'q; 5
19 ar'q
;
3-4
1-211-316b-1820

McQueen 9
I.

1- 17

2-20

2-3

5a

5b-7

9-10

McQueen, Joel and the Spirit, p.21.

McQueen, ibid. p.22-23


34

1.3.

11a

11b-12

13a

13b

14

15-20

/
/

1-11
1-2a

2b-11a

11b

12-17

II.

12-13a

13b-14

15-17

18- 5

18-27

1-5

1-2

3-5

III. 1-21

1-3

4-8

9-17

18-21

(genre)

35

1.3.2 (discourse analysis)


(rhemes)

1.3.2.1
1.

6-7

2.

1
10

19-20
11

3.

12hw:hy;
yd'[;

!aun 1

Wbvu

4.

19-20
13-17hw:hy?

@['Y"w
"

17-19
5.

25- 5

10

Stuart, WBCp.250.

11

Wolff, pp.41-43
36

1.3.

6.

1-8

.rBeD

hw:hy yKi

12-13 17 21

1.3.2.2
1.

19-20 1

15

1-20 1
12

2.

1719

18

19-20
25- 3 21-24

3.

5 1 9-20 17

I 5b yKi 1 yKi
fleMy;
1-21

1.3.2.3

37

1- 17

1718

18- 5

5 1

1-21

1.3.3 (genres)

1.3.3.1 (genre)

12
Wolff
13

Graham Ogden

14 2- 17

15
(style)

12

Claus Westermann, The Role of Lament in the Theology of the Old Testament Int 28 (1974), p.26.

13

Wolff, p.9.

14
15

Graham S. Ogden, Joel 4 and Prophetic Responses to National Laments, JSOT 26 (1983), p.103.
Stuartp.239.
38

1.3.

Peter Cotterell Max Turner 16


(text)
(the study of the actual words of the text)

(the relationships between words in
(co-text)
sentences, paragraphs, and chapters)

(focus on the historical and sociological


(context)
setting of the text)

sentence

utterance

(context)

utterance

(genre)(form)
(co-text)(genre)

1.3.3.2 (genre)
17

18
19

16

Peter Cotterell & Max TurnerLinguistics and Biblical InterpretationDowners Grove: Inter

Varsity, 1989, pp.15-19.


17

Claus Westermann, Basic Forms of Prophetic Speech (Philadelphia: Westminster, 1967), pp.94-100

18

Westermann, Basic Forms, pp.97-98.

19

Elizabeth Achtemeier, Minor Prophets I, NIBC ( Peabody, Mass: Hendrickson, 1996), p.118.
39

18- 5
Wolff
(the assurance oracle answering a plea)
20

Ogden 18 21
Westermann

18-20 21-27

12-17

14b-17 6b

1b-2

4-8

2-8

3b

9-11

17

Westermann

22

(centric prophet)
Stuart

20

Wolffp.58.

21

Ogdenp.103.

22

Claus Westermann, Prophetic Oracles of Salvation in the Old Testament (Scotland: T & T

Clark, 1991) ,P.130.


40

1.3.

40-45; 29-31; 1-10


23
18- 5 18-1921-27

20 1-524

25 1.4.4
/

1.3.3.3
18
Westermann

(apocalyptic events 1-5 1-39-1415


26

18-20
18

19

20

1-5

23

Stuartp.228. the old Mosaic covenantal expectation of a turning of Israels

fortunes, upon their conversion, from woe to weal in a coming grand era.
24

Stuartpp.257-8.

25

McQueenp.29.

26

Westermann, Prophetic Oracles of Salvation in the Old Testament, p. 104

41

1-2

(apocalypse)

3-4

15-17
15-16a apocalyptic
16b-17
16b

17a

17b

18-21
18

19
20-21 .
21a

Westermann
(twofold proclamation)

(apocalyptic)
27
Westermann

27

Westermann, Prophetic Oracles of Salvation in the Old Testament, pp. 199-202.


42

1.3.

28 Sturat Eichrodt 29

30

McQueen P. D. Miller31
9ff

32

1.3.4

theme
1.4
1.5

(the world within the text)


Vanhoozer 33

28

ibid., pp. 222-223.

29

Stuartp.265Eichrodt, Theology of the Old Testament, I, p.462the doom of the nations

means salvation for Israel


30
31

Eichrodt, Theology of the Old Testament, I, pp.465-7.


McQueen, p.31 P. D. Miller, The Divine Warrior in Early Israel(Cambridge: Harvard

University Press, 1973), pp.138-9The Divine Council and the Prophetic Call to War, VT 18 (1968),
pp.100-1.
32

McQueen, p.31.

33

Vanhoozer, Is There A Meaning in This Text, p.336.


43

(method of knowledge/discipline)

(object of knowledge/data)
(canon)

1.(canon criticism),
( biblical theology)

(genre)

2.(genre criticism),
(literary criticism)
3.(speech act philosophy),

(parole)

(discourse analysis)
4.(linguistics),(semiotics),

(langue)

(syntax)
1. House Childs 1.2.2 1.2.3

2. genre
kind1.3.3
(illocutions)
34
35

3. Cotterell Turner (conversation)36


1.3.2 -(discourse
analysis) Vanhoozer
(perlocutions)3738
4.
(syntax analysis)

34

ibid., pp.340f.

35

(1996)p.873.

36

Cotterell & Turner, ch.7-8.

37

Vanhoozer, Is There A Meaning in This Text, ch5Meaning as a communicative action

illocutions
38

p.1349.
44

1.4

1.4.theme

1.4.1

1
McQueen
Sigmund Mowinckel

2
von Rad
3
F. M. Cross

R. Simkins

4
P. D. Miller

1
2

18
McQueenp.31-32 R. Simkins, Yahwehs Activity in History and Nature in the Book of

Joel (Ancient Near Eastern Texts and Studies 10; Lewiston: Edwin Mellen, 1991), pp.246-47.
3

Gerhard von Rad, Old Testament Theology (New York: Harper, 1965), II, p.124.

McQueenibid.
45

Everson

67
8
9

1.4.2

Sailhamer
/
(confessional)(descriptive)10
11
(perlocutions)1.3.4

McQueenibid. P. D. Miller,

The Divine Council and the Prophetic Call to War, VT

18 (1968), pp. 100-107.


6

Everson
hwhy !wy 16 12

6, 9 5 8 10 10 5 3 15 1 4 14
18-20 15 7. 8. 14-18 1 18-20
9ff

hwhyl !wy hwhy #a !wy

hwhy trb[ !wy wpa @wrj !wyb 200


7

18-20 12-17 1-17 1-3 1-6 13-24 1-21

1-9

2-12 605
1-14 701
9

A. J. Everson,

The Days of Yahwah, JBL 93.3 (September 1974), p.331.

10

Sailhamer, Introduction to Old Testament Theology, p.183.

11

House, Old Testament Theology, p.552.


46

1.4

hwhy

!wy

15 111 4 14
12

13

Stuart VonRad
2 15 11114

Reddit(epiphany)
15
(theophany)

10 4-5 15
2-11 9-13
2
416

c 15 15 1 6 7,14
317
d
586
e18

12
13

Stuart, WBC, P.230.


, ,

P.91.

14

Stuart, p.231.

15

Redditt, The Book of Joel and Peripheral Prophecyp.238.

16

Willem A VanGemeren,Interpreting the Prophetic Word (Grand Rapids: Zondervan, 1990),

17

18

(1983), p.104.

p.223

47

1. 28f
2. 2 9f// 12-16 11-16
3. 12ff
4. 1-16
5. 16-21

1.4.3
McQueen
rhemes19

1.4.3.1 1- 17
1. 15 1,11

18-20McQueen
20
21
2. 15
22 1-11
4

19

McQueen, p.33.

20

McQueen, p.33.

21
22

P.92.
Everson, The Days of Yahwah, p.331.
48

1.4

2523
3. 11-14

24
Craigie

25

1.4.3.2 18- 5

rheme
4b-5

1.4.3.3 1-21

McQueen Deist26

27

23

McQueen, ibid.

24

ibid.

25

CraigeP.92.

26

F. E. Deist, Parallels and Reinterpretation in the Book of Joel: A Theology of the Yom

YHWH? in W. Claassen (ed.) Text and Context (JSOTSup 48; Sceffield, 1988), p.63-79.
27

McQueen, p.34.
49

(rhemes)

28

1.4.4
Stuart WBC

29

1- 17

1-2

2-3

3-4

13-14

8-12

17

13-14

5-20 3

19-21

15 1117

22

35

23

13

23

24

4-20

24

46

25

6 1-11

27

17

26-30

15 1117

28

VanGemeren,Interpreting the Prophetic Word, p.122.

29

Stuart, WBCp.228.
50

1.4

34-35

15 1211

36-38

12-1417

39-43

20-27

43

18-27

(continuity)
10

3 48 2530

31

Westermann
15

14

10

15-20
32

30

1987p.308.

31

VanGemeren,Interpreting the Prophetic Word, p.122.

32

Westermann, Prophetic Oracles of Salvation p. 238, 244.


51

13

18-19

2733

34VanGemeren

1.4.5
VanGemeren

722
33
34

VanGemeren , The Spirit of Restoration,,WTJ p.84.


P.92.
52

1.4

701
612
605
586
538

(theophany)
35
VanGemeren

36 Everson
37VanGemeren

38

1.4.6
/

35

VanGemeren,Interpretingp.221.

36

VanGemeren,Interpretingp.222.

37

Everson, , The Days of Yahwah,pp.336-7.

38

VanGemeren,Interpretingp.222.
53

(rhemes)
VanGemeren,
39

39

VanGemeren,Interpreting, p.122.
54

1.5

1.5.
1
1.

2.

3.

4.

5.

6.

/ 1.
1.5.1
1.5.2
1.5.3
1.5.4
1.5.5
1.5.6
1.5.7
2.-6.(syntax analysis) 1.3.4
4. 1.5.8
significance

1.5.1
1

William H. Bicksler, Lecture note from the course Advance Hebrew Grammar. (Taipei, CES,

1999 winter). 1.What elements of structure appear in the Hebrew Bible? 2.What problems appear in
most commentaries of the passage? 3.(What observations on Hebrew word usage and the family or
domain of the words in question can you make? 4.What grammatical-syntactical observations have to
do with meaning? 5.What semantic-grammatical-gloss choices control the meaning of the text? 6. What
variant version evidence exists and how is it to be used?
55

1.5.1.1 (macro-structure)

1- 17
15-17
18
19- 5
19-27

1-5
1-21

LXX
MT

1.5.1.2 (micro-structure)
And it shall come about after thus @keAyrej}a' hy:h;w\
I shall pour out my spirit yjiWrAta, &/Pv]a,
Upon all flesh rc;B;AlK;Al['
Then your sons and your daughters shall prophecy

!k,yte/nb]W !k,ynEB] WaB]nIw\


Your old men shall dream dreams @Wmlh}y" t/mlh} !k,ynEq]zI
Your young men shall see visions WaryI t/nyOzh, !k,yreWjB'
And also upon the male servants !ydIb;[}h;Al[' !g"w\
And upon the female servants t/jp;V]h'Al['w\
In those days hM;heh; !ymiY:B'
I shall pour out my spirit yjiWrAta, &/Pv]a,
..
All who

rv,a} lK;
56

1.5

call upon the name of the LORD hw:hy] !veB]


Shall be delivered; fleM;yI
for in Mount Zion and in Jerusalem

ar;q]yI

!l'iv;WrybiW @/YxiArh'B] yKi


There shall be those who escape, hf;ylep] hy<h]Ti
..
and among the survivors whom
the LORD calls areqo hw:hy\

rv,a} !ydIyrIC]b'W

converted perfect23

inclusio
v.1-2

hy:h;w\

v.3-4

yTit'n:w]

v.5

hy:h;w\

ar;q]yIYHWH

YHWH areqo

1.5.2
1@keAyrej}a' afterward
VanGemeren
when 4
33//31 65

Walter Kaiser, The Promise of God and the Outpouring of the Holy Spirit [Joel 2:28-32; Acts

2:16-21], In The Living and Active Word of God; M Inch & R Youngblood, eds, Winona Lake, Ind:
Eisenbrauns, P. 109-1221983p.114.
3

Paul D. Feinberg, ibid., p.125.

VanGemeren, The Spirit of Restoration,pp.84-87.

Wolff, p.65.
57

hy:h;w\

waw conjunction(prophetic promises) 18-27

19ff v.23as before

@/varIB;

in the first
1

hM;heh; !ymiY:B'

in those days 29,33

15-16 1 23etc.

aWhh' !/YB'

in that day

11.etc.6

@keAyrej}a'

hw:hy? !/y a/B ynEp]li

afterward

hM;heh; !ymiY:B'

before

in those days

1.4
when
(frame)

1.5.3 1-2
yjiWrAta,

&/Pv]a,

WBC, p.261.
58

1.5

LXX ajpo`tou' pneuvmatov"mou

some of my Spirit is poured outI will

pour out from my Spirit 17,25 j'Wrh;A@mi

lx,aY:w"

shares, portions of my spirit Aquilia aA.D.130 Symmachus s


A.D.170 MT to; pneuvma mouthe pouring out of my Spirit on men
Targum yvdq

yjiWrAta, &/Pv]a,

jwr

my holy spirit

1-2 inclusioenvelope structure

&/Pv]a, impf.
7

&Pv

113
9 6 20
41
8ble
8vip,n
, 15j'Wr

j'Wr

1.5.4 1-2

Stanley M. Horton, Old Testament Foundations of the Pentecostal Faith. Pneuma, 1:1

(Spring1979):pp.21-30.
8

(1995) p.2245.

Wolff, p.66.
59

rc;B;AlK;

j'Wr spirit ( 3 22 16 3)
rc;B;AlK; 40 ( 26 3

21)( 17 16f 15)10


27 1ff
patients

!k,yreWjB'!ydIb;[}h
; t/jp;V]h

!k,yte/nb]W !k,ynEB]!k,ynEq]z
i

!k,
11

Keil

12
Feinberg ,rc;B;

lK;

32 23

26 26 16 13

1314

NIVEven on my servants, both men and women,


MT LXX
ejpi;tou;" douvlou" mou kaiejpi;ta;" douvl;a" mou

10

Ernst Jenni, Claus Westermann, Trna. Mark E. Biddle, Theological Lexicon of the Old

Testament (Peabody, Mass, 1997), P.284.


11

Achtemeier, p.148.

12

C. F. Keil, , The Twelve Minor Prophets, Biblical Commentary on the Old Testament

(Grand

Rapids: Eerdmans, 1954)p.211.


13

Feinberg, Paul D , Hermeneutics of discontinuity , Feinberg, J.S., ed. Continuity and

Discontinuity. Perspectives on the Revelation Between the Old Testament and New testament. Essays in
honor of S. Lewis Johnson, Jr. (Westchester, IL: Crossway, 1988)p.125.
14

Feinberg , p.127.
60

1.5

3.4.2

1.5.5 1-2
WaB]n
i @Wmlh}y"

t/mlh}

WaryI

t/nyOzh

ha;r]m' !/lj'

25 9 8
27
15 17

9,13

14

13 17

WaB]ni
25-29 6-10
10 20-23 22-23 15 30 3 12
216

15

David Allan Hubbard, Joel and Amos, Tyndale Old Testament Commentaries, p.70.

16

McComiskey, p.295.
61

1.5.6 3-4

10 7
9
29 24 12 12

11

!ytip/] m

wonders 21 39 34 11 18


17-21 18 21 1117

t/rm}ytipillarsrm;T;date palm
mushrooms of smoke Robinson18

1.5.7 v5

17

WBC , p.261.

18

Wolff, p.56.
62

1.5

hw:hy?

!veB] ar;q]yI
-b arq 28 25 call
with-bG.K.C.
areqo

hw:hy\ rv,a} hw:hy? !veB] ar;q]yI


arq inclusio
fleM;y
i hf;ylep] the escapees!ydIyrIC]b'Wthe survivors
flm flp Jeni & Weatermann p.986-990BDB
dyrIC; fylip; 22

arq 19 15

arq

2 5 11 13

!ydIyrIC]b'W

and among the survivorsLXXkaieujaggelizovmenoiAnd those who

proclaim good news

!ydIyrIC]b'W

!yrIC]b'm]WAquila Theodotion

q kai;ejntoi'"kataleleimmevnoi" MT 19

17

Wolff
20

19

McComiskey, p.298.

20

Wolff, p.70.
63

1.5.8

1.

17
21

2.

22

3
5 1328 3 2326 16
20
23 27 17

21

VanGemeren, The Spirit of Restoration,p.88.

22

McQueenp.43.

23

Lyle Eslinger, Knowing Yahweh: Exod 6:3 in the context of Genesis 1 Exodus 15, Edited

by L.J. de Regt, Literary Structure and Rhetorical Strategies in the Hebrew Bible (Eisenbrauns: Van
64

1.5

Lyle Eslinger

3.

hNEhi yKi

1.5.9

24

1.5.2
1.4
4.3.1 (eschatological)
(eschatology)
(ultimate)
1.5.3 2.

1.5.4
(syntax analysis)

Gorcum, 1996), p. 188.


24

Stuart, WBC, p.260.


65

1.5.5 29

!yaiybin? hw:hy? !['AlK;


!h,yle[} /jWrAta, hw:hy? @TeyIAyKi

were prophets

!k,a}ybin? hy<h]yIA!ai I, the Lord, shall


make Myself known to him in a vision. [D;w"t]a, wyl;ae ha;r]M'B' hw:hy? I shall
speak with him in a dream./BArB,d'a} !/lj}B'
If there is a prophet among you,

3.4.3
1.5.6 (syntax analysis)
1.

2.
3.

1.5.7 1.5.8.2

2.4
3. 4.3.2

66

1.5

(believing community)
2.

67

2.

2.1
2.1.1
2.1.2
2.1.3
2.1.4

2.2
2.2.1
2.2.2
2.2.3

2.3
2.3.1.
2.3.2

2.4
2.5

68

2.

2.

Zens
(prominence)1

Kaiser

Payne, 3

2.3.1

Jon Zens, He Will Testify of Me: An Overview Of The Work of The Spirit in the History of

Redemption, Baptist Reformation Review 11 No 2:1-27 1982.


2

(:1991)p.148.

(1987) p.226.
69


(diachronic)

2.1 4

2.1.1

1,2

24

3
30

6
Walther Eichrodt, Theology
of the Old Testament,
5

7
29

2.1.2 maintenance
12,13 4

p.228 2.4

Walther Eichrodt, ibid., pp.46-91.


70

2.

6 7
4
19 7
Knierim the Spirituality of the Old Testament

...
5-6,14
/

2.1.3

...
... 6,9Lewis

10

20

Rolf P. Knierim, The Task of Old Testament Theology (Eerdmans, Grand Rapids, 1995) ,p.275.

Arthur H Lewis, , The New Birth Under the Old Covenant, Evangelical Quarterly 56:35-44 ( Ja 1984).
71

10

4 7
4

20

5
PayneWarfield
.....
8

(synchronic)

20 59

2.1.4

(diachronic)

...
38f

...
17
jwr
3 31

ibid.p.228B. B. Warfield, Biblical and Theological Studies (Philadelphia: The

Presbyterian and Reformed Publishing Co., 1952).


9

Richard J. Sklba, Until the Spirit from on high is poured out on us (Isa 32:15): reflections on

the role of the Spirit in the exile, CBQ46:1-17 (Ja 1984)

72

2.

2,
38

34

6,19 25 14

10

29

6
18

10

14

11

12 11
12

1314

10
11

H. W. Wolff, Anthropology of the Old Testament (London: SCM Press, 1974), p.34-35.
p.229John Rea, The Personal Relationship of Old Testament Believers to the Holy

Spirit [Ps 51:11], Essays on Apostolic Themes; ed by P. Elbert,Peabody, Mass: Hendrickson , 1985,
pp.92-103
12

Wilf Hildebrandt, An Old Testament Theology of the Spirit of God (Mass: Hendrickson,

1995)p.201.
13

Rea, The Personal Relationship , pp.92-103.

14

M R Westall , Scope of the Term "Spirit of God" in the Old Testament, Indian Journal of

Theology 26:29-43 (Ja-Mr 1977).


73

2.2

15

2.2.1

16 6

13 16,19
9,13

21

17

8
Oehlere
17 3.3.2

15
16
17

Knierim, ibid.,p.277.
p.229.
ibid.Gustav F. Oehlere, Theology of the Old Testament (Grand Rapid: Zondervan).
74

2.

2.2.2
13-14

Howard
18

610 6

19

18

David M. Howard Jr, The Transfer of Power from Saul to David in 1 Sam 16:13-14, JETS

32:473-483 (D 1989).
19

Howard, ibid..
75

2.2.3

2
( 16 )

1
..... 1 34

()
( 4-11; 22-23)20

Zens

39
21

2.3

20
21

()p.498.
Zens, He Will Testify of MeP.6.
76

2.

2.3.1.
17

Payne
22
1.

1623

2.

24
7;

22
23
24

p.448.
ibid.
p.448Geerhardus Vos, Biblical Theology (Grand Rapids: Eerdmans, 1948), p.139.
77


25

27

3.
=

7
26

2.3.2

(designated)27
1.
15ff

33

25
26
27

Louis Berkhof, Principles of Biblical Interpretation (Grand Rapids: Eerdmans, 1950)p.135.


p.449.
(: 1989)pp.203-220.
78

2.

2.

37-39
1-12

( 35)Kaiser

19
22

-28

historical-grammatical

2.4

28

, p.315.
79

John Rea

26,
23
14

3 17
29

1030

( 10)
( 2,3)
31 16 6

Lewis
32

33
25-35(25)(26f)
29

p.315Rea, The Personal Relationshippp.92-102.

30

p.148.

31

p.316.

32
33

Arthur H. Lewis, The New Birth Under the Old Covenant, Evangelical Quarterly 56:35-44 (Ja 1984).
Rea, The Personal Relationshipp.94.
80

2.

( 6)
( 21).....

.....

( 28f)
34

3
1-2

16

33

34

1
32
13
1835
23-29

Davies the Holy Spirit in the Old Testament


(is our experience of God in the
gap.)(gap)

34
35

p.132.
p.230.
81

14
36

2.5

29
Gowan
(internalized)37
31-34; 27

17-21

138

36

Gwynne Henton Davies, Holy Spirit in the Old Testament, Review and Expositor,

63:129-134 (Spr 1966), p.129.


37
38

Donald E.Gowan, Eschatology in the Old testament (Philadelphia: Fortress Press, 1986)p.75
p.568.
82

2.

39

40

1721

39
40

(:,1996), p.30.
Davies, p.134.
83

3.

3.1 1-5

3.2
3.2.1
3.2.2
3.2.3 (the use of a narrative framework)

3.3
3.3.1
3.3.2
3.3.3

3.4
3.4.1
3.4.2
3.4.3
3.4.4
3.4.5

84

3.1 1-2

3.1 1-5
LXX
1 Kai; e[stai meta; tau'ta,

17 Kai; e[stai ejn tai'" ejscavtai" hJmevrai",


levgei oJ qeov",

kai; ejkcew' ajpo; tou' pneuvmatov" mou


eJpi; pa'san savrka,

ejkcew' ajpo; tou' pneuvmatov" mou ejpi;


pa'san savrka,

kai; profhteuvsousin oiJ uiJoi; uJmw'n


kai; ai; qugatevre" uJmw'n,

kai; profhteuvsousin oiJ uiJoi; uJmw'n


kai; aiJ qugatevre" uJmw'n

kai; oiJ presbuvteroi uJmw'n ejnuvpnia


ejnupniasqhvsontai,

kai; oiJ neanivskoi uJmw'n oJravsei"


o[yontai

kai; oiJ neanivskoi uJmw'n oJravsei"


o[yontai.

kai; oiJ presbuvteroi uJmw'n ejnupnivoi" ej


nupniasqhvsontai:

2 18

kai; ejpi; tou;" douvlou"


kai; ejpi; ta;" douvla"
ejn tai'" hJmevrai" ejkeivnai"
ejkcew' ajpo; tou' pneuvmato" mou.

kaiv ge ejpi; tou;" douvlou" mou


kai; ejpi; ta;" douvla" mou
ejn tai'" hJmevrai" ejkeivnai"
ejkcew' ajpo; tou' pneuvmatov" mou,
kai; profhteuvsousin.

3 kai; dwvsw tevrata ejn tw'/ oujranw'/


kai; ejpi; th'" gh'",

19 kai; dwvsw tevrata ejn tw'/ oujranw'/ a[nw

kai; shmei'a ejpi; th'" gh'" kavtw,

ai|ma kai; pu'r kai; ajtmivda kapnou'.

ai|ma kai; pu'r kai; ajtmivda kapnou':

4 20

oJ h}lio" metastrafhvsetai eij" skovto"


kai; hJ selhvnh eij" ai|ma
pri;n ejlqei'n hJmevran kurivou
th;n megavlhn kai; ejpifanh'.

oJ h{lio" metastrafhvsetai eij" skovto"


kai; hJ selhvnh eij" ai|ma,
pri;n ejlqei'n hJmevran kurivou
th;n megavlhn kai; ejpifanh'.

5
kai; e[stai pa'", o}" a[n ejpikalevshtai
to; o[noma kurivou, swqhvsetai

21
kai; e[stai pa'" o}" a]n ejpikalevshtai t
o; o[noma kurivou swqhvsetai.

85

LXX1
1

17 meta; tau'taejn tai'" ejscavtai" hJmevrai",

eschatological/apocalyptic2
3Qumran
4

17 levgei oJ qeov"
Turner
pre-Lukan 7,49

49 45

18 douvlou" douvla" mou


MTMenzie

18 kai; profhteuvsousin. 17
inclusio7
1

17 ejnupnivoi" LXX ejnuvpnia.

kaiv 18 ge(
2

Robert B. Sloan, Signs and Wonders: a Rhetorical Clue to the Pentecost Discourse [Joel

2:28-32 as Scriptural Proof for Salvation-Historical Expositions of God's Deeds as Revealed in Christ]
With steadfast purpose; ed by N Keathley (Waco, Tex: Baylor Univ.,1990), P.152.
3
4

(1997)p.97.
E. Earle Ellis, Prophecy and Hermeneutic in Early Christianity (Grand Rapids: Eerdmans,

1993)pp.189-90.
5

Max Turner, Power from on HighThe Spirit in Israels Restoration and Witness in Luke-Acts

(JPTSup 9, SheffieldSheffield Academic Press , 1996Power from on HighThe Spirit in Israels


Restoration and Witness in Luke-Acts (JPTSup 9, SheffieldSheffield Academic Press , 1996, p.270.
6

Roberet. P. Menzies , Empowered for Witness The Spirit in Luke-Acts JPTSup 6, Sheffield

Sheffield Academic Press , 1994p.183.


7

Max Turner, Ibid., p.270.


86

3.1 1-2

19 a[nw (above)shmei'a (signs) kavtw (below)


v.22
30 12 8, etc. 10-1225-26
v.17 9

21
Turner

10 5b

11vv.37-40 5c

v.39

12
Solan 19-20

13

Richard Longenecker, Biblical Exegesis in the Apostolic Period ( Grand Rapids: Eerdmans,

1975), P.100.
9

Longenecker, ibid.Turner, Ibid., p.270.

10

Max Turner, Ibid., p.270.

11

Gerhard A. Krodel, Augsburg Commentary on the New Testament, Act (Augsburg Publishing

House, 1986), p.81.


12
13

p.97.
Sloan, Signs and Wonders, P.153.
87


BockLXX
14
20
LXX Jmevran kurivou th;n megavlhn kai; ejpifanh
LXX MT

LXX ejkcew' ajpo


MT

&/Pv]a,

some of my Spirit is poured out


the pouring out of the Spirit on men

BockMT 33
8 15f15

LXXI will pour out from my SpiritKrodel

16

ku;rio"

hwhy

LXX(Christological interpretation)
MThwhy
24
Krodel
2 12f17
vv.22-36
kuvrio" 34
14

Darrel L.Bock, Proclamation from Prophecy and Pattern: Lucan Old Testament Christology.

(JSNT Supplement Series 12. Sheffield: JSOT, 1987), p.164.


15

Bock, p.164.

16

Krodel, p.80.

17

Ibid., p.82.
88

3.1 1-2

kuvrio"

hwhy

v.39

18
kuvrio"

1.

21-22

2.

33

3.

31 43

4.

14

5.

14 52

6.

42

7.

33-36

(echo)
intertextuality

18

(,1995), P.476.
89

3.2
(the world within the text)

3.2.1 (syllogistic)2

I.( 1-13)

II. 14-36

(14)

Sloan ,Signs and Wondersp.148.

Burton L. Mack, Rhetoric and the New Testament (Minn. Fortress, 1990), pp.89-91.

3.2

(15-21)

(9:00)

1-5

()

A.

8-11
///

()

B.

()

91

III.( 37-39)

IV. 40-42

Mack
3
13Kennedy
(missionary sermons)

3.2.2 5
(the salvation-historical pattern of the traditional kerygma)

Mack, Rhetoricibid.

George A. Kennedy, New Testament Interpretation Through Rhetorical Criticism

of North Carolina Press, 1984)pp.115-118.


5

Sloan ,Signs and Wonders.


92

(University

3.2

1-5
22 (kerygma)
25-32 8-11
24 kerygma 34-36 1/
32-33 /
Lindars (macro-structure)

I. 1-13
II. 14-40 6
17-21

22-36
a) 8-11

b)1

37-40

17-21

III. 41-47

13
7

Barnabus Lindars, New Testament Apologetic: The Doctrinal Significance of the Old Testament

Quotations (Philadelphia: Westminster, 1962), p.36.


7

C. K.Barrett, The Interpretation of the Old Testament in the New. in The Cambridge History of

the Bible, ed, by P.R. Ackroyd and C. F. Evans 1:377-411. (Cambridge: The University Press, 1970)
[Vol. 1: From the Beginnings to Jerome].
93

Sloan 14b-40 8
1.

14b

2.

15

3.

16 pesher9

4.

17-21

5.

22a

6.

22b-24

7.

25-32 8-11

8.

33

9.

34-36

10. 38-40

midrash10
Lindars(macro-structure)

3.2.1

1 34-36
29-32 8-11 30
12ff

Sloan ,Signs and Wonders, pp.147-48.

Qumranpesher
p.291.

2.
3.4.
10

18 E. Earle Ellis,

Prophecy and Hermeneutic in Early Christianity: New Testament Essays (Grand Rapids: Eerdmans,
1978), pp.188-197.
94

3.2

11
VanGemmeren
12Ladd
an eschatological event13

22-36

33(salvation-historical narrative)14
3.2.3
11
Sloan

22
243233

36
Sloan
(theocentric syntax)
17 15

3.4.4

11

Sloan ,Signs and Wondersp.149.

12

, (: , 1995) ,p.473.

13

(: , 1986)p.392.

14

Sloan ,Signs and Wondersp.150.

15

Bock, Proclamation from Prophecy and Patternp.158.


95

3.2.3 (the use of a narrative framework)

(genre)
(narrative)

Chatman (narrative text)16


(real
author) (implied author)(narrator) (story) (narratee)(implied reader)

(real
reader)

(narrative )
(narrative text)

() ()
(narrative) story (content of the narrative) discourse(the rhetoric of the narrative)

(implied author)(implied
reader)(narrative box)
(narrator) (story)
(kerygma)(narratee)
17

events1. 1-13
2. 14-40 18
3. 41-47

16

. Mark Allan Powell, What Is Narrative Criticism? (Minneapolis: Fortress, 1990)

ChatmanStory and Discourse.


17

Powell, p.103ffeventscharacterssettings

18

Lindars, New Testament Apologetic, p.36.


96

3.2

characters
13
14
222936

settings19
1.
a.

b.

2.
a. 1-5 b. 33

(this is that)

3. 37

overall interpretation
a.

Tiede(macro-structure)
(eschatological prophecies)

20

b.

37-40

19

David L. Tiede, Acts 2:1-47, Int (Jan 1979): p.64. Sloan ,Signs and wondersp.150.

20

Tiede, Acts 2:1-47, p.64.


97


21

3.2.4

1.5.9

VanGemeren

5 16

22

Qumran pesher
proof text

21

22

Willem A. VanGemeren, , The Spirit of Restoration, WTJ 50:81-102 (Spr. 1988).

98

3.3

3.3

3.3.1

25
22 37

16 2534 25
1

16
4-5

442

Childs (canonical approach)3

proof-from-prophecy

Barrett, The Interpretation of the Old Testament in the New.

, , pp.407-8.

Brevard S. Childs, Biblical Theology of the Old and New Testaments: Theological Reflection

on the Christian Bible

(Minneapolis: Fortress, 1992), pp.290-2.


99


( 18)( 24-32)( 36)
( 29)
( 27)
proof-from-prophecy
(christianize)
( 28)
(poof-text) 26 5 41 25ff 42

15ff

14
47 23 6

3.3.2

48-49

3.2.2 kerygma
3.2.3 3.4.3

Sloan, ibid. , P.152.


100

3.3

47-49// 8
(narratively linked)
prophecy and fulfillment

16-30
keynote
6

16-21

44-53

1-11

(22-30)

(37ff)

ibid. p.449.

Tiede, Acts 2:1-47, Int (Jan 1979):pp.62-67.


101

7
Sloan
// 16-30 (programmatic)
8 3.4.5

transfer sign motif


Strongstad

16
10 22 32
swmatikw'/eijvdei (in
a bodily form)

10

831 17 952
transfer sign motif
11

(:1996)pp.139-142.

Sloan, ,Signs and Wondersibid.

Roger Stronstad, The Influence of the Old Testament on the Charismatic Theology of St.

Luke, Pneuma, (Spr. 1980)p.48.


10

ibid.

11

, , p.450.
102

3.3

transfer sign motif


2.2.2

12

3.3.3

20 70
(plhVqw)(prophetic sign)

13
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.

15
41
67
4
8
31
17
9

fut. pass.
aor. pass.
aor. pass.
aor. pass.
aor. pass.
aor. pass.
aor. pass.
aor. pass.

1.
12

ibid.p.449.

13

Stronstad, The Influence of the Old Testamentp.49Ibid.,p. 36.


103

2.
3.
4.14

1.

(eschatological)

15

2.

(charismatic)
(vocational or charismatic)

16

3.

(transfer) (sign) (motif)

2.2/

14

Stronstad, The Charismatic Theology of St. Luke, p.53.

15

McQueenp.44.

16

Stronstad, The Holy Spirit in Luke-Acts, p.20.


104

3.3

17
(bearer)
(transfer)(sign)

Don Jackson
18
1.

2.

3.

4.

3.3.4

49 4-5

17

, p. 44.

18

Don Jackson, Luke and Paul: A Theology of One Spirit From Two Perspectives, JETS 32/3

(Sep 1989), 335-343. 1.the presence of the Spirit is evidence of Gods approval2. all
Christians receive the Spirit at conversion, 3. evidence of the Spirits work in the lives of Christians is
commonly in the form of ethical fruit but in the writings under consideration may also be in the form of
miraculous gifts, 4. the Christian may experience the Spirit in a way that is functionally and
experientially inseparably from his experience of the Father, of Christ, of angels, or even of the Word.
105

3.4

3.4.1

Lehman (prophetic insight)

(aeon)

1
/
Menzies
meta;tau'ta
Endzeit2

23
(eschatological)

()4

Chester K. Lehman, Biblical Theology, Vol. 2, New Testament (Scottdale: Herald,

1974).p.249.
2

Roberet. P. Menzies, Empowered for Witness The Spirit in Luke-Acts JPTSup 6, Sheffield

Sheffield Academic Press , 1994,p.181. meta;tau'ta could be only gleaned from the
broader text of Joel: the Pentecostal bestowal of the Spirit is an event of the Endzeit, that period of
Gods deliverance which precedes the Day of the Lord.
3

Roger Stronstad, The Charismatic Theology of St. LukePeabody, Mass: Hendrickson ,1986

Kaiser, The Promise of God and the Outpouring of the Holy Spirit [Joel 2:28-32; Acts

p.56.

106

3.4

5
/

kuvrio (21 )(22 )6

16-17

(a sign of judgment )( a
kind of judgment)
7

(purifying judgment)8

33,39

9
10
(Joel-Pentecost)
16

2:16-21], In The living and active Word of God; M Inch & R Youngblood, eds (Winona Lake, Ind:
Eisenbrauns, 1983)p.116.
5

F. F. Bruce, The Book of Acts

McQueenp.49.

McQueenp.50.

N. Geldenhuys, The Gospel of Luke (NICNT; Grand Rapids: Eerdmans, n.d.). p.140.

Bock, Proclamation from Prophecy and Pattern, p.161.

10

(NICNT, Grand Rapids: Eerdmans, 1983), p.35.

Max Turner, Power from on HighThe Spirit in Israels Restoration and Witness in Luke-Acts

(JPTSup 9, SheffieldSheffield Academic Press , 1996, p.270.


107

Treier

11

3.4.2

Treier pesher

38-39
12

F. F. Bruce 39

13
14Bruce

120
15

11

Daniel J. Treier, The Fulfillment of Joel 2:28-32: A Multiple-Lens Approach, JETS 40/1

(March, 1997), p.22.


12

ibid., p. 19-20.

13

Bruce, p.78.

14

Treierp.24.

15

Bruce, p.68. Luke sees in these words an adumbration of the worldwide Gentile

mission, even if Peter could not have realized their full import when he quoted them on the day of
Pentecost. Certainly the outpouring of the Spirit on 120 Jews could not in itself fulfill the prediction of
such outpouring on all flesh; but it was the beginning of the fulfillment.
108

3.4

16

17

5-40

14

19

1-2

44-52

4550

1-6

23-28

26-27

rhemes

( 7 2331)

16

Treieribid.

17

Jerome Kodell, The Word of God Grew: The Ecclesial Tendency of Logoin Act 6, 7; 24;

19, 20, Biblica, 55 (1974), pp.505-519.


109

3.4.3

Turner
18

38f

17-21
39b
19
Conzelmann (the
middle time)( 1ff)
(bearer)
( 27f
1 32 9ff)20
Turner

1.

2.

21

18

Turner, p.349.

19

Max Turner, Power from on HighThe Spirit in Israels Restoration and Witness in Luke-Acts

(JPTSup 9, SheffieldSheffield Academic Press , 1996 p.349.


20

Colin Brown, The New International Dictionary of New Testament Theology, Vol. III

(Zondervan), p.86.
21

Max Turner, Power from on HighThe Spirit in Israels Restoration and Witness in Luke-Acts

(JPTSup 9, SheffieldSheffield Academic Press , 1996,p.444.


110

3.4

3-8
1-2
22

(continuity and discontinuity)


F. D. Farnell 1-5

23

28 6-13
10 23 41124
1.5.5 John W.
Hilber

25

(the prophethood of all believers)


22

Gordon D. Fee, Gods Empowering PresenceThe Holy Spirit in the Letters of Paul

(Hendrickson, Mass, 1994) ,P.611.


23

F. D.Farnell,, The Gift of Prophecy in the Old and New Testaments, Is the Gift of Prophecy

for Today?, Bib Sac 149 (1992), pp. 388-93.


24

Max Turner, Power from on HighThe Spirit in Israels Restoration and Witness in Luke-Acts

(JPTSup 9, SheffieldSheffield Academic Press , 1996,p.444.


25

John W. Hilber, Diversity of OT Prophetic Phenomena and NT Prophecy, TJ56(Fall 1994),

pp.259-283. A survey of some of the complexities of OT prophecy shows that the NT


phenomena are in continuity with OT prophetic expectations.
111

M. E. Evans 1-5 Stronstad


SheltonMenzies 26

27

3.4.4

(word pair)28
19
22
43
Sloan 29

26

M. E. Evans, The Prophethood of all Believers, Billington, A., T. Lane & M. Turner (eds.),

Mission and Meaning: Essays Presented to Peter Cotterell (Carlisle: Paternoster, 1995).
27

A. W. D. Hui, The Concept of the Holy Spirit in Ephesians and its Relation to the

Pneumatologies of Luke and Paul (PhD Dissertation, Aberdeen, 1992), ch.5.


28

terata shmei'a LXX

29

Sloan, Signs and Wonders,

P.155-58

Gerhard A. Krodel, Augsburg Commentary on the New Testament, Act, Augsburg Publishing
House, 1986p.21-22 a.b.d.
112

3.4

A.

(eschatological portents)

10-1225-26 v.17
30

Krodel 31 Sloan

32 3-4
Gowan

33
34

B. 1-4

12
8 49Treier

C.

43
(word order) 19

D.

19c
(apocalyptic language)
22
19-20

30

Longenecker, Biblical Exegesis in the Apostolic Period, P.100Max Turner, Ibid., p.270.

31

Krodel, ibid. those extraordinary occurrences whichimmediately precede the

End.
32

Sloan, Signs and Wonders,

33

Gowan, Eschatology in the Old Testament, P.111.

34

, 1997P.92.

P.155.

113

Sloan

a[nwabove shmei'asigns kavtwbelow

35
Christ events

36

3.2.2

3.4.5

-(Joel-Pentecost)

37

38

39

35

Sloanp.158.

36

37

Treieribid.

38

Earl Richard, Pentecost as Recurrent Theme in Luke-Acts, New Views On Luke and Acts (ed.

Richard; Collegevillez; Liturgical, 1990), pp.148-9.


Pentecost for Luke is a paradigmatic
episcode that, in parallel with Jesus reception of the Spirit, signals conferral of power for and the
beginning of the mission and the witness to the end of the earth.
39

Treier

4.

114

3.4

D.

C.
A.
/
B.

40

()

( 8)( 31)
Richard 17
41

-(Joel-Pentecost)

40

Treierpp.23-24.

41

Richard, Pentecost as Recurrent Theme ,p.135.

115

/
42 45ejkkevcutai

38 20 45

12
shmeiaterata
192243

3.4.6

/43

42
43

McQueenp.56.
116

3.4

Gowan44

Paul House
1.2.3

44

Donald E.Gowan, Eschatology in the Old testament (Philadelphia: Fortress Press, 1986)p.75.
117

4.

4.1
4.1.1 28-32 1-5
4.1.2 (covenant theology)(dispensationalism)

4.2
4.2.1
4.2.2

4.3

4.4 (intertextuality)

4.5.
4.5.1
4.5.2
4.5.3

4.

4.

1
1.

(apostolic exegesis)
(hermeneutics)2

2.

4.1

4.1.1 28-32 1-5


3
1.

Grotius

2.

E. J. Young

1
2

, P.20.
Richard N. Longenecker, Can WE Reproduce the Exegesis of the New Testament?, TB 21

(1970): pp.3-38.
3
4

(: 1986)pp.154-156.
C. F. Keil, The Twelve Minor Prophets, Biblical Commentary on the Old Testament (Grand

Rapids: Eerdmans, 1954), p.216.


119

17 5
3.

A. C. Gaebelein

4.

Jamieson, Fausset, Brown


39 ()
()()

5.

R. A. Torrey 4-58
()

4.1.2 (covenant theology)(dispensationalism)

Edward J. Young, An Introduction to the Old Testament (Grand Rapids: Eerdmans, 1954), pp.

247-48.
6

A. C. Gaebelein, The Prophet Joel,New York: Our Hope, 1909 p.136.


120

4.

Treier7

John Stott

8
(apocalyptic imagery)Treier
9 Stott

A.C. Gaebelein

10
(point of similarity)11(analogy)
12
(proof text)

4.5

(fulfillment)(illustration)

Daniel J.Treier, The Fulfillment of Joel 2:28-32: A Multiple-Lens Approach, JETS 40/1

(March, 1997), pp.13-26.


8

J. R. W. Stott, The Message of Acts (Downers Grove: Inter Varsity, 1990), p.73.

Daniel J. Treier, The Fulfillment of Joel 2:28-32: A Multiple-Lens Approach, JETS 40/1

(March, 1997), p. 13.


10

Treier,A. C. GaebeleinThe Acts of the Apostles: An Exposition (New York: Our Hope,

1912), p.53
11

Treier T. E. Ice, Dispensational Hermeneutics, Issues in Dispensationalism (ed. W. R.

Willis & J. R. Master; Chicago: Moody, 1994), p.41.


12

Treier, p. 13.
121

(prefilled)13Kaiser

14

16; 26;
7ff; 49; 8
13 18

15

Longenecker

16

(fulfillment)
/
Paul D. Feinberg
17
1.

13

C.E. Feinberg, The Major Messages of the Minor Prophets, Joel, Amos, Obadiah (New York:

American Board of Missions to the Jews, Inc., 1948), p.29.


14

Ibid., p.143.

15

(:1987), p.138.

16

SloanRichard N. Longenecker, Can WE Reproduce the Exegesis of the New

Testament?
17

Paul D. Feinberg, Hermeneutics of Discontinuity , Feinberg, J.S., ed. Continuity and

Discontinuity. Perspectives on the Revelation Between the Old Testament and New testament. Essays in
honor of S. Lewis Johnson, Jr. (Westchester, IL: Crossway, 1988), P.126-127.
122

4.

2.
3.

1.5.4 3.4.2
(continuity)(discontinuity)
(sensus plenior)Kaiser
(generic
prediction)
18
(sensus plenior)

4.2

4.2.1 (continuity)(discontinuity)
Clements

19

Jack Weir

18
19

ibid., p.111.
Ronald E. Clements, Messianic Prophecy or Messianic History? Horizons in Biblical

Theology 1 (1979):87-104.
123

pesher
(analogous fulfillment)
(symbol)(event)(theological
concept)

(continuity)(discontinuity)20

Feinberg21
1.

(prediction)

2.

3.

promise

4.

prophecy

22

4.2.2
Jenson(models)23
1.(stone)

2.(sight)

20

Jack Weir, Analogous Fulfillment: The Use of the Old Testament in the New Testament.

Perspectives in Religious Studies 9(1982):65-76.


21

Paul D. Feinberg, Ibid., p.111.

22

Longenecker, Can We Reproduce the Exegesis of the New Testament?

23

Philip P. Jenson, Models of Prophetic Prediction and Matthews Quotation of Micah 5:2, Ed.

Satterthwaite, Philip E., The Lords Anointed, Interpretation of Old Testament Messianic Texts (Grand
Rapids: Baker, 1995), pp.189-211.
124

4.

3.(code)

4.(stream)

5.(plant)

Kaiser/24
6.(bird)
(winged words)
(reader response)

7.(music) Francis Young, The Art of Performance :


Towards a Theology of Holy Scripture (London: Darton, Longman & Todd, 1990)

(the single authoritative


performance)
Jenson (theme)(variations)
/

(interpretative tradition)
(continuity) (creative adaptation)25
Feinberg

24
25

pp.109-116.
Jensonibid.
125

Jenson

4.3 (prophetic word)(echo)

VanGemeren, Prophets, the Freedom of God, and Hermeneutics

1.

eschatological

(eschatology)

Thomas M. Raitt
26
continuity and discontinuity

27

26

Thomas M. Raitt, A Theology of Exile: Judgement/ Deliverance in Jeremiah and Ezekiel

(Philadelphia: Fortress, 1977), p. 215.


the search for and discovery of a frame of reference
to explain events which are not understandable in terms of a previously existing tradition.
27

Willem A. VanGemeren, Prophets, the Freedom of God, and Hermeneutics, TJ 52 (Spr.

1990),p.91.
126

4.

2.

28

29

Beecher

30
/
31
(progressive fulfillment)32

(Tota Scriptura)

28

, ,

Walter Harrelson, Prophetic Eschatological Visions and the Kingdom of God, H. B. Huffmon

ed. The Quest for the Kingdom of God: Studies in Honor of George E. Mendenhall (Winona Lake:
Eisenbraun, 1983), pp.117-26.
29

Willis Judson Beecher, The Prophets and the Promise (Grand Rapids: Baker, 1963), p.376 .

every fulfilled promise is a fulfilled prediction; but it is exceedingly important to look at it as a


promise, and not as a mere prediction.
30

Beecher, Ibid., p.377.If one affirms that the promise is fulfilled in Jesus Christ, he ought not

to separate that fulfillment from the rest of the eternal fulfilling movement. The idea of a long line of
fulfillment is not a hypothesis offered for the solution of difficulties, but a part of the primary
conception of a promise that is for eternity.
31

Willem A. VanGemeren, Prophets, p.92.

32

VanGemeren, Interpreting the Prophetic Word


127

(Grand Rapids: Zondervan, 1990)p.93.

3.

33
34continuous

discontinuous

4.

Sanders
the hermeneutic of prophetic
critique

35

33

Bright, Covenant and Promise, p.198.

34

Wilem A. VanGemeren, Perspectives on Continuity, ,Feinberg, J.S., ed. Continuity and

Discontinuity. Perspectives on the Revelation Between the Old Testament and New testament. Essays in
honor of S. Lewis Johnson, Jr. Westchester, IL: Crossway, 1988, pp.37-62.
35

James A. Sanders, Introduction: Contextual Hermeneutics in Biblical Preaching, in God Has

a Story Too, p.15.


128

4.

36

5.

37

stability and adaptability


J. A. Sanders

hermeneutics is the mid-term between canons stability


and adaptability38

(shape)

(adapt)

(minor premise)
36

James A. Sanders, Hermeneutics in True and False Prophecy,

Burke O. Long ed., Canon

and Authority: Essays in Old Testament Religion and Theology (Philadelphia: Fortress, 1977),
pp.215-17.
37

Robert B. Laurin, Tradition and Canon, Douglas A. Knight ed., Tradition and Theology in

the Old Testament (Philadelphia: Fortress, 1977), pp.261-74.


38

James A. Sanders, Hermeneutics in True and False Prophecy, in Canon and Authority:

Essays in Old Testament Religion and Theology (ed. Bruke O. Long ; Philadelphia: Frotress, 1977),
p.29.
129

6.

(opened-ended)

7.

(tota Scriptura)

(externalized
by the Messiah of God )(internalized by the Spirit of God)

Jenson

Vanhoozer

(the truth of Christ is both


gift and task)

130

4.

(meaning)(significance)
eschatological tension
(the daughter of time)
the single correct interpretation39

4.4 (intertextuality)

Morna D. Hooker

640

Vanhoozer
(text)

39
40

Vanhoozer, Is There A Meaning in This Textp.429-30.


Morna D. HookerBeyond the Things That Are Written G. K. Beale, ed., The Right

Doctrine from the Wrong Texts? Essays on the Use of the Old Testament in the New (Grand Rapids:
Baker Books, 1994) pp.279-294.
131

tou'tov ejstin to;this ()means that ()


16(metaphor)

(intertextuality)
(open to the effects of past texts and to the contexts of present readers)41
(narrative continuity)

42

43

4.5

(narrator)
(reader)

41
42

Vanhoozer, ibid., p. 132.


ibid.p.430.the Spirit ministers the Word by enabling present-day readers to see themselves

not only addressed by, but inscribed in, the biblical line.
43

John Goldingay, Models for Interpretation of Scripture (Grand Rapids: Eerdmans, 1995),

p.267.
132

4.

4.4Hooker

4.5.1 (readers-response criticism)

reception

133

aesthetics44

(reader-response theories)45
1.

(reader over the text)

2.

(reader with the text)

3.

(reader in the text)


3.2.3

(reader in the text)

(the world in front of the text)

Wolfgang Iser
gaps of indeterminacy
46

44
45

1999pp.381-382.
Mark Allan Powell, What Is Narrative Criticism? (Minneapolis: Fortress, 1990), p.16

readers response reader-centeredVanhoozer


Conservative radicalp.28
46

Tatep.164.
134

4.

(readers response approaches)

47

4.5.2

implied reader

What it is
about the text? What it is about us?48

47

Steven L. McKenzie, An Introduction to Biblical Criticisms & Their Application: To Each Its

Own Meaning, Westminster/ John Knox Press, Louisville, Kentucky, 1993, pp.206-7.
48

John Barton, Reading the OT Method in Biblical Study,p.209.


135

4.5.3
(readers-response)

(community)
49

.
47-48

49

community//
136

5.

4.4%
22.5 1

/1.1
(author-centered approach)
(the world behind the text)

1.2
(text-centered approach)
canonical approach
Paul House

1.3 (genre criticism)


(literary criticism)(discourse analysis)
(the world within the text)
themerhemes

1.4

Roger Nicole, The New Testament use of the Old Testament, The Right Doctrine From the

Wrong Texts, G. K. Beale ed.,( Baker, Grand Rapids, 1994), p.13.


137

1.5 (syntax analysis)

2.(syntax
analysis)

(syntax analysis)

2.

significance

3.1 3.2
3.3 (narrative criticism)
3.4

138

1.
2. 3.
2
/

4.
(continuity and discontinuity)
(intertextuality)
(reader response)
(reader response criticism)
(gap)
transformation

Archie Hui, The Spirit of Prophecy and Pauline Pneumatology, TB 50.1(1999),93-115.

1.The theme of eschatological fulfillmentThe Spirit is of new covenant fulfilling the divine
promises of (a) His return and presence in the midst of his eschatological people, (b) his indwelling in
his eschatological temple, (c) his writing of the law in their heart, (d) his gift of eschatological
salvation and life to them. 2.The theme of eschatological redefinitionThe Spirit is the spirit of unity
and unites the community of Jewish and Gentile believers in Christ, which is the redefined
eschatological Israel, the people of God. 3.The theme of Christological emphasis. The Spirit is not only
the Spirit of God, but also the Spirit of Christ
139

1.

2.

3.

4.

140


1.

Stott, John R. W. (1997)

2.

Craigie, Peter C.
1997

3.

Bosch, David (:1996)

4.

VanGemeren, Willem A.
, (,1995)

5.

(1987)

6.

Harris, R. Laird

(1995)

7.

(1983)

8.

(1987)

9.

(1996)

10. (1996)
11. (1999)
12. (1999 )
13. Payne, J. Barton (1987)
14. Freeman, Hobart E.
(1986)
15. Kaiser, Walter (1991)
16. (1994)
17. Ladd, George. E. (1986)
18. (La Sor, W. Sanford) (1982)
19. Ramm, Bernard (1989)

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146