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REVIEWS AND CASE STUDIES
Strategies and success factors for overcoming challenges in TPM implementation in Indian manufacturing industry
I.P.S. Ahuja and J.S. Khamba
University College of Engineering, Punjabi University, Patiala, India
Purpose – The purpose of this study is to evaluate the challenges before Indian manufacturing organizations for adapting to proactive total productive maintenance (TPM) initiatives. The aim of this research is to critically examine the factors inﬂuencing the implementation of TPM practices in the Indian manufacturing industry, and to devise an overall maintenance strategy for overcoming obstacles to successful TPM implementation. Design/methodology/approach – The study focuses on systematic identiﬁcation of obstacles in TPM implementation and working out success factors towards improving manufacturing performance in Indian industry through strategic TPM initiatives. Findings – The study highlights the strong potential of TPM implementation initiatives in affecting organizational performance improvements. The paper reveals that implementing TPM is by no means an easy task, which is heavily burdened by organizational, cultural, behavioral, technological, operational, ﬁnancial, and departmental barriers. Research limitations/implications – The study has been conducted in Indian manufacturing organizations to formulate the critical success factors and enablers for overcoming obstacles to successful TPM implementation with regard to its preparedness to face global challenges. Practical implications – The study stresses the need for improving the synergy between the maintenance function and other organizational quality improvement initiatives in the organizations, to establish maintenance as a competitive strategy for meeting the challenges of a highly competitive environment. Originality/value – The study highlights the difﬁculties faced by Indian manufacturing organizations in their attempt to implement TPM initiatives in order to improve organizational efﬁciency. Keywords Productive maintenance, Organizational performance, Critical success factors, Manufacturing industries, India Paper type Research paper
Strategies and success factors in TPM 123
Introduction The manufacturing industry has experienced an unprecedented degree of change in the last three decades, involving drastic changes in management approaches, product and process technologies, customer expectations, supplier attitudes as well as competitive behavior (Ahuja et al., 2006). The contemporary dynamic environment has become highly challenging and the manufacturing organizations are ﬁnding it extremely difﬁcult to manage competition and consumer expectations. The global marketplace has witnessed an increased pressure from customers and competitors for greater value
Journal of Quality in Maintenance Engineering Vol. 14 No. 2, 2008 pp. 123-147 q Emerald Group Publishing Limited 1355-2511 DOI 10.1108/13552510810877647
from their purchase whether based on quality, faster delivery, and lower cost in manufacturing as well as service sector (Basu, 2001; George, 2002). The contemporary business environment has become considerably complex and challenging, and as a result variety of factors inﬂuence the manufacturing organization’s ability to compete effectively. Organizations today compete on several factors such as time, price, technology, innovation, quality, reliability, and information management. Kumar et al. (2006) impress upon the manufacturing organizations to adapt lean and six sigma principals, and business process improvement strategies for achieving dramatic results in cost, quality and time by focusing on process performance. The rapidly changing needs of modern manufacturing and the ever increasing global competition has emphasized upon the re-examination of the role of improved maintenance management towards enhancing organization’s competitiveness (Riis et. al., 1997). It has been realized and well accepted by manufacturing organizations that the equipment maintenance and reliability are important strategies that can considerably inﬂuence the organization’s ability to compete effectively (Madu, 2000). The maintenance processes can be streamlined to eliminate waste and produce breakthrough performance in areas valued by customers (Hammer and Champy, 1993). This has encouraged the manufacturing organizations to adopt Total Productive Maintenance (TPM) as a signiﬁcant process improvement and problem solving approach for enhancing the organization’s responsiveness for catering to customer needs and affecting cost optimization as part of management strategy to increase the market share and maximize proﬁt. TPM has been accepted as the most promising strategy for improving maintenance performance in order to succeed in a highly demanding market arena (Nakajima, 1988). The TPM implementation methodology provides organizations with a guide to fundamentally transform their shop ﬂoor by integrating culture, process, and technology (Moore, 1997). Total productive maintenance Total Productive Maintenance (TPM) is a production-driven improvement methodology that is designed to optimize equipment reliability and ensure efﬁcient management of plant assets through the use of employee involvement and empowerment, by linking manufacturing, maintenance and engineering functions. Ahuja and Khamba (2006) report that TPM implementation can signiﬁcantly contribute towards improvement in organizational behavior in the manufacturing enterprises leading to world class competitiveness. TPM initiatives are focused upon addressing major losses, and wastes associated with the production systems by affecting continuous and systematic evaluations of production system, thereby affecting signiﬁcant improvements in production facilities (Ravishankar et al., 1992; Gupta et al., 2001, Juric et al., 2006). The main goal of an effective TPM effort is to bring critical maintenance skilled trades and production workers together (Labib, 1999). There are three ultimate goals of TPM: zero defects, zero accident, and zero breakdowns (Willmott, 1994; Noon et al., 2000). The manufacturing organizations in their pursuit of beating the competition in the demand-driven environments are increasingly adapting proactive strategies like TPM and total quality management (TQM) to achieve fast, focused, and sustainable results. The TQM strategy focuses upon employee empowerment for improving product quality and appropriately complements the TPM focus on employee empowerment for
reliability. increase equipment availability. 1999. reduction of unscheduled and scheduled Strategies and success factors in TPM 125 . maintenance. 1992). JIT. learn much more about them. total employee involvement (TEI). engineering. TPM permanently improves the overall effectiveness of equipment with the active involvement of operators (Hartmann. TPM improves the competitiveness of an organization by providing enhanced equipment availability and utilization while optimizing the maintenance expenditures in the organizations. TPM embraces series of methods that ensures every piece of equipment in a production process is always able to perform its required task. The evaluation of TPM efﬁciency can facilitate signiﬁcantly enhanced organizational capabilities across variety of dimensions (Wang. accounting ﬁnances. and capacity. Wireman (1991) suggests that TPM is maintenance improvement strategy that involves all employees in the organization and includes everyone from top management to the line employee. just-in-time manufacturing (JIT). TPM initiatives can also be effectively integrated with other manufacturing management programs like TQM. and other world-class manufacturing strategies (Schonberger. thereby resulting in elimination of breakdowns. inventory and stores. TPM also links together all other maintenance and reliability programs together for a new business strategy that focuses on results and changes the work culture along the way. plant management. and it encompasses all departments including. TPM capitalizes on proactive and progressive maintenance methodologies and calls upon the knowledge and cooperation of operators. 2006). and safety. 1988). and improve organization’s overall state of maintenance (Maggard and Rhyne. 1992). TPM enhances the competitive advantages of improved quality. to minimize and eventually eliminate emergency and unscheduled maintenance. performance. operations. 1996. reduce waste. and support personnel to optimize machine performance. TPM can be deﬁned as a partnership between the maintenance and production organizations to improve product quality. improved delivery. and increased ﬂexibility without excessive maintenance investments. quality. continuous performance improvement (CPI). design engineering. 2001). equipment vendors. TPM harnesses the participation of all the employees to improve production equipment’s availability. team-working and continuous improvement (Cooke. Ollila and Malmipuro. or Cellular Manufacturing to optimize improved performance. TPM is an innovative approach to plant maintenance that is complementary to total quality management (TQM). 1995). purchasing. 1992. TPM endeavors to tap the “hidden capacity” of unreliable and ineffective equipment. reliability. 2006). and ultimately competitiveness (Currie and Seddon. 2000). TPM schedules maintenance as an integral part of the manufacturing process to increase equipment effectiveness. TPM has been widely recognized as a strategic weapon for improving manufacturing performance by enhancing the effectiveness of production facilities (Dwyer. Willmott (1994) portraits TPM as a relatively new and practical application of TQM and suggests that TPM aims to promote a culture in which operators develop “ownership” of their machines. reduce manufacturing cost. project engineering. Cua et al.enhancing production system availability. David. The emergence of TPM is intended to bring both production and maintenance functions together by a combination of good working practices. Dossenbach.. 1999. TPM comprises of a company wide equipment maintenance program that covers the entire equipment life cycle and requires participation by every employee (Nakajima. and in the process realize skilled trades to concentrate on problem diagnostic and equipment improvement projects.
inability to create dissatisfaction with the present situation (reason to change) (Maggard and Rhyne. lack of a well-deﬁned routine for attaining the objectives of implementation (equipment effectiveness). The resistance to change takes a number of forms. lack of education and training for employees. Bamber et al. 1995. Cooke. lack of employee involvement. 1997.. deployment of inexperienced consultants. Ireland and Dale. The failure of an organization to successfully implement a TPM program has been attributed to the various obstacles including lack of management support and understanding. Davis (1997) has outlined various reasons for TPM failure within UK manufacturing organizations including lack of commitment of top management. reduce labor. overly optimistic expectations. The bottom-line achievements of successful TPM implementation initiatives in an organization include lower operating costs. reluctance of individuals to change roles (Riis et al. lack of structure. (1999) has conducted a study aimed at discovering the factors affecting the successful implementation of TPM at UK manufacturing small to medium-size enterprise (SME). cultural resistance to change. and increase employee work load. that is. McAdam and Duffner (1996) describe that many issues arise when trying to implement TPM in a union environment. and poor structure to support the TPM initiatives. and better product quality.. Success factors for successful TPM implementation TPM is a result of this corporate focus on making better use of available resources. Moreover Cooke (2000) has attributed the failure of TPM implementation program to the inability of management to holistically implement the TPM practices at the workplace and highlights that serious deviations have been observed between ofﬁcially laid out TPM policies and actual practices employed at workplace. 1993). Becker.2 downtime. In order to 126 . Some of the prominent problems in TPM implementation include partial implementation of TPM.. improved utilization. failure to implement change on the shop ﬂoor. 1992. 2000). TPM literature presents many success criteria for TPM implementation. Workers fear that the only drive is to improve production efﬁciency. The failure of TPM implementation is due to lack of a support system to facilitate learning and transform learning into effective diffusion of the practices of TPM. lack of organizational communication. 2001) and inability to change organizational roles and culture (Patterson et al. 1999). Lawrence. failure to allow sufﬁcient time for the evolution (Bakerjan. longer equipment life and lower overall maintenance costs.JQME 14. 1994). higher throughput. Obstacles to TPM implementation It has been reported in the literature that TPM implementation is not an easy task by any means. 1988. In addition the skilled trades enjoy feeling indispensable and think that the autonomous maintenance activity threatens their jobs. and implementation of TPM to conform to societal norms rather than for its instrumentality to achieve world class manufacturing (Crawford et al. lack of training and education. Many operators don’t want additional responsibility and are happy with the situation the way it is. Another signiﬁcant contributor for failure of TPM implementation program is the organization’s inability to obviate resistance to change. It has been observed that many of the organizations that attempt to implement TPM initiatives experience difﬁculties and are not able to achieve the anticipated beneﬁts. lack of sufﬁcient training.
Thus the present study assumes signiﬁcance since it emphasizes upon evolution of key success factors for overcoming the obstacles to TPM implementation in the Indian manufacturing industry. and building a system for training and employee involvement. (2003) have emphasized upon effectively managing organizational change for enhancing organization’s performance for strategic survival in the competitive environment. Groote (1995) proposes a maintenance performance evaluation approach based on a quality audit and quantiﬁable maintenance performance indicators.realize the true potential of TPM and ensure successful TPM implementation. Owing to opening up of the Indian economy from merely a regulated economy. (1995) have emphasized upon affecting changes in the management structure. deployment of effective developed computerized maintenance management system (CMMS) and gradual implementation of TPM on a handful of machines at a given time as key contributors towards successful TPM implementation. and master plan and communicating these to everyone in the organization. the improvement process must be recognized as beneﬁting both the organization and the worker (Robinson and Ginder. managing synergic cooperation of production and maintenance. For TPM to be successful. TPM goals and objectives need to be fully integrated into the strategic and business plans of the organization because TPM affects the entire organization and is not limited to production. thorough planning and preparation are keys to successful company-wide implementation of TPM and so is senior management’s understanding and belief in the concept. The commitment of top management in preparing a suitable environment for TPM’s introduction and in planning and coordinating for its implementation is considered crucial to TPM’s success. Hansson et al. focusing on continuous production system improvements. predominantly due to the entry of multinational companies in the wake of liberalization. Challenges for TPM implementation in Indian manufacturing industry As the organizations across the globe have faced stiff cut-throat competition in the last three decades. 1995).functional teams integrated to enhance the value of TPM. and identiﬁcation and mitigation of the root cause of equipment problems effectively. Indian manufacturing industry has also witnessed irrepressible competition in the recent times. goals. the manufacturing industry has been faced with uphill Strategies and success factors in TPM 127 . the Indian industry too could not escape the brunt of globalization. Lycke and Akersten (2000) have suggested that careful. cross. Leblanc (1995) recommends the postulates for realizing the true potential of TPM including evaluating cost savings from TPM can be predicted and measured. Fredendall et al. since early 1990’s. However. establishment of TPM policies. there has not been any reference to strategic initiatives for overcoming the obstacles to successful TPM implementation in the Indian context. He suggests that the maintenance function effectiveness must be deﬁned through relative economic and technical ratios. (1997) emphasize that a TPM development program should typically emphasize among other things the leadership role of top management in launching and implementing TPM. Hutchins (1998) has advocated for making considerable efforts for recognizing teams and enabling them to display their work for successful TPM implementation. to permit the maintenance manager to follow the evolution of maintenance performance and to make decisions necessary for improved maintenance management. Bohoris et al.
In this scenario this study is relevant. Currently many models are undergoing failures. vague worker’s apprehensions. This can be treated as a representative sample of the Indian Industry. While implementing effective TPM programs. high labor rigidity. The Indian industry is faced with the challenge of adopting cost effective manufacturing strategies for staying competitive. a reasonably large number of manufacturing organizations (80 organizations) have been extensively surveyed. reluctance to changing practices. to ascertain contributions made by TPM initiatives in the Indian manufacturing industries towards realization of manufacturing performance enhancements. The methodology for the study has been depicted in Figure 1. inability to realize the same level of beneﬁts as reaped by developed countries by imitating the TPM implementation procedures and practices adopted abroad. while rest of the organizations have yet to made a head-start regarding effective TPM implementation. high utility rates. stubborn organizational character and structures. Thus a total of 80 responses regarding the “TPM Questionnaire” in the present study. but only about 55 per cent (about 165 organizations) of the organizations have made reasonably signiﬁcant interventions regarding adapting TPM initiatives in a serious manner. to study the TPM implementation issues and achievements realized as a result of strategic TPM implementation. represents about 49 per cent of the total number of organizations practicing the TPM principals rigorously. uncertain policy regimes. and evolving success factors . The present study critically examines the factors inﬂuencing the implementation of TPM practices in Indian manufacturing industry. Thus Indian manufacturing organizations need to shed the sluggish character and move forward aggressively to develop adapt proactive processes and practices for overcoming the inherent deﬁciencies in manufacturing systems for harnessing distinct competencies in comparison to their global competitors.2 128 task of competing with the best in the world. poor cost effectiveness of production systems. It is pertinent to mention that the organizations involved the study have at-least two years of experience regarding TPM implementation. In order to evaluate the critical obstacles hampering successful TPM implementation in Indian manufacturing industry. It has been observed that though about 300 odd organizations are registered with “TPM Club India” for TPM implementation. low production automation.JQME 14. poor quality. low productivity. non-motivating work environments. high internal taxes. improved quality and products with high performance. high customer complaints. Indian manufacturing organizations have suffered from inherent deﬁciencies like poor responsiveness to changing market scenarios. and infrastructural glitches. the Indian Manufacturing organizations have often been plagued with teething problems and challenges like difﬁculties to understand business economics. shorter innovation times and reduced inventories have lead to increasing demands on the organization’s preparedness. low skill and knowledge base of employees. 1998). In this study. adaptability and versatility. high wastages associated with production systems. competition (Chandra and Sastry. Traditionally. The intense competition has been witnessed in terms of low costs. Methodology The study has been carried out in the medium and large scale manufacturing organizations in the country that have successfully implemented TPM or are in the process of implementing TPM. Moreover shorter lead times.
The questionnaire survey technique has been deployed in the present study for seeking information on the issues related to scrutinizing barriers to effective TPM implementation and developing an understanding of success factors and enablers for successful TPM implementation in the Indian manufacturing industry. 2005). senior executives from the industries and academicians have been incorporated to make the questionnaire relevant to the purpose and bring out key outcomes as a result of strategic TPM implementation. the questionnaire has been pre-tested on a representative sample of industry. consultants.. To ensure the relevance and the effectiveness of the questions to the manufacturing industry.Strategies and success factors in TPM 129 Figure 1. a detailed “TPM Questionnaire” has been designed. The suggestions from the peers. and an industrial database was created for the purpose of mailing the “TPM Questionnaire”. McKone et al. 1989. and practitioners (TPM Co-coordinators) from the industry. 1992. 2005. and validated through peer review from academicians. TPM councilors. TPM councilors. The manufacturing organizations across the country were ﬁrst screened. Ravishankar et al. Shamsuddin et al. Seth and Tripathi. Kodali and Chandra. . 2001. The approach has been directed towards justiﬁcation of TPM implementation for its support to competitive manufacturing in Indian industries. consultants. the TPM Questionnaire has been designed through extensive literature review (Maggard et al... Methodology employed for the study contributing to successful TPM implementation. 2001. For effectively conducting the survey..
rapid product development. heads of improvement management. head – process engineering. 2005). The responses to the TPM questionnaire have been subsequently compiled and analyzed critically to ascertain the barriers to TPM implementation and evolving success factors. and were subsequently contacted through postal mail. and major proactive maintenance initiatives have been adapted in the manufacturing organizations. since early 1990s. However. The TPM questionnaire serves the purpose of revealing the exploits of Indian entrepreneurs with TPM practices.JQME 14. its signiﬁcance and to clarify any queries/doubts to facilitate comprehensive and clear-cut responses to the TPM Questionnaires. The target respondents for the “TPM Questionnaire” have been the organizations that have made serious interventions in the ﬁeld of TPM and realized signiﬁcant achievements through adoption of strategic TPM initiatives. and high customer complaints (Bhadury and Mandal. Maintenance has been considered as a low proﬁle job with its scope limited to breakdown and preventive maintenance (Tripathy. uncertain policy regimes. head TPM. cost optimizations. waste reductions and lead time optimization. of late. heads of maintenance. Owing to general apathy of Indian manufacturing organizations towards affecting manufacturing performance improvement through strategic maintenance initiatives. GM technical. low production automation. heads of quality assurance. due to the burgeoning pressure due to multi-national corporations. Due to protected and controlled economy. poor quality. Indian manufacturing organizations have suffered from inherent deﬁciencies. low productivity. manufacturing managers. poor cost effectiveness of production systems. 2005). Traditionally. TPM coordinators. Maintenance has been treated as an unnecessary evil and seen as an uncontrollable black box in the operation and development of manufacturing systems. GM – TPM. 1998). having often been plagued with teething problems and inherent deﬁciencies like poor responsiveness to changing market scenarios. chief managers. E-mail and telephonically to explain the context of the present research work. non-motivating work environments. TPM secretaries and President operations etc. quality managers. management system manager-TPM. Indian executives did not pay much attention towards equipment related failures and losses. Maintenance has been viewed as a reactive problem ﬁxing and an operating expense to be minimized (Seth and Tripathi. there has been sluggish growth in the Industry and Indian entrepreneurs have found it extremely hard to compete effectively in highly dynamic global marketplace. low skill and knowledge base of employees. With regards to Indian industry. general managers (GM). enablers for successful TPM implementation. heads of operations. maintenance has often been a disregarded issue. The respondents of the “TPM Questionnaire” have been the top brass of management executives that included several Vice presidents. Indian entrepreneurs have realized and understood the true potential for maintenance function towards enhancing manufacturing performance. stubborn organizational character and structures.2 130 The “TPM questionnaires” were mailed to the selected organizations. The potential of maintenance performance improvement towards gaining competitive advantage has been overlooked for long. . increased quality consciousness. Barriers to TPM implementation in Indian manufacturing industry The literature review has revealed that maintenance and human factors have often been treated as neglected areas in traditional Indian manufacturing organizations.
2000). . Organization’s inability to change the mindset of people to obtain total involvement. . behavioral. . . The present study highlights the difﬁculties faced by Indian manufacturing organizations in their quest to effectively implement TPM initiatives in the pursuit of improving organizational efﬁciency. The systematic identiﬁcation and recognition of barriers to effective TPM implementation program can lead to fostering of a favorable environment in the organization and helping the organizations to develop focused TPM implementation program for successfully overcoming the obstacles for TPM implementation in Indian manufacturing industry. cultural. .Over a decade. 2006). The Indian executives have understood the signiﬁcance of making investments in TPM initiatives for improving the competitiveness of the manufacturing organizations. Wrong pace of TPM implementation and focus on too many improvement initiatives. operational. Strategies and success factors in TPM 131 .. In the last one and a half decades. Inadequacies of master plan in the absence of focused approach. the leading Indian manufacturing organizations have made sincere efforts to adopt proactive TPM implementation initiatives in the last one decade. Sahay et al. Lack of commitment from top management and communication regarding TPM. . Lack of understanding of TPM concepts and principles. In the quest for achieving manufacturing excellence through maintenance improvement initiatives. . TPM is being looked upon as a potential proﬁt source.. 1998. capable of leading the organizations to meet the challenges posed by globalization. India’s has afﬁrmed its stern determination to acquire the capabilities that will add to its competitiveness and enable it to be counted among other recognized global players (Sahay et al. The organizational obstacles affecting the successful TPM implementation in Indian manufacturing organizations include: . and departmental difﬁculties or barriers. a detailed survey of the Indian manufacturing industry has been conducted and about 80 manufacturing units have been analyzed for ascertaining the obstacles affecting the success of TPM implementation program. In this regard. The various obstacles hindering the organization’s quest for achieving excellence through TPM initiatives have been classiﬁed as organizational. these organizations have faced a lot of difﬁculties and barriers in effectively adapting to aggressive TPM principles. ﬁnancial. However due to passive organizational approaches and the colonial roots of the manufacturing environment. Inability of managements to convince stubborn unions about true potential of TPM. leading Indian manufacturing entrepreneurs have taken proactive initiatives to imbibe state-of-art maintenance improvement initiatives and philosophies in the organizations to realize enhanced manufacturing performance (Ahuja et al. technological. 2004). Ineffectiveness of top management to holistically implement change management initiatives. Organization’s inability to bring about cultural transformations.. TPM has gained wide acceptance in Indian industry as prime mover for increasing competitiveness (Bhadury and Mandal.
. . rigid mindsets. Concern of employees with “What’s in it for me” attitude. Stubborn attitudes regarding existing organization. . . . and return on capital employed (ROCE). Middle management’s resistance towards offering empowerment and recognition of bottom level operators due to fears of loss of authority and respect. Inability of top management to motivate employees to “Unlearn to learn”. . knowledge and beliefs. Marginal employee participation in the organization towards decision making. . Inability to align employees to organizational goals and objectives. .JQME 14. . . . . . Absence of mechanisms to critically evaluate and monitor maintenance performance metrics like overall equipment effectiveness (OEE). The cultural obstacles affecting the successful TPM implementation in Indian manufacturing organizations include: . . Inability to strictly force laid out TPM practices and standards. Organization’s inability to enhance employee competencies towards job. rework accepted as part of production activities. poor quality consciousness coming in the way of organizational transformations. non adaptable attitudes. Resistance to change due to job insecurity and apprehension of loss of specialization due to technological improvements. Occasional difﬁculties to succeed as Cross Functional Teams (CFT). Inadequate services for the employees in most organizations. . .2 . Lack of willingness on part of operators to learn more regarding the functioning of production systems. The behavioral obstacles affecting the successful TPM implementation in Indian manufacturing organizations include: . return on net assets (RONA). Low skill-base also a deterrent to accept change at the workplace. Resistance from employees to adapt to the new concept and changes. non ﬂexible approaches. Inadequate efforts towards multi-skilling and periodic skill updation of employees. Compromising attitude on quality of production and lack of quality. . Lack of awareness of TPM concepts and principles among the employees. . Strong unions. . Lack of professionalism including lack of consistency. Inadequacies of reward and recognition mechanisms in the organizations. Lack of motivation on part of employees to contribute effectively towards organization development and sustainability efforts. . Functional orientation and loyalty. resistant to changes. 132 . . Alienation of employees from growth and sustainability endeavors of the organization.
Emphasis on restoration of equipment conditions rather than prevention of failure. .) infrastructural facilities in the organization. . . Strategies and success factors in TPM 133 . Little motivation or time available for affecting process related improvements while the major focus of the organization is on meeting routine production targets by any means.The technological obstacles affecting the successful TPM implementation in Indian manufacturing organizations include: . . . . . Absence and lack of implementation of standard operating procedures. The operational obstacles affecting the successful TPM implementation in Indian manufacturing organizations include: . Poor energy efﬁciency of the production systems. Resistance from production operators to perform basic autonomous maintenance tasks. . Lack of training opportunities and skills regarding quality improvement techniques and problem diagnostics. . . General acceptance of reasonably high levels of defects associated with production system with little emphasis on realization of world-class 6 s production philosophies. . Little emphasis to improve the production capabilities beyond the design capabilities. Less educated workforce due to lack of training on new technologies. . . . Non realization of inefﬁciencies of production system. Little emphasis on maintenance prevention initiatives regarding possibilities of improvements in the existing products and manufacturing systems. . Poor ﬂexibilities offered by production systems due to long set up and changeover times. Highly inadequate computerized maintenance management systems (CMMS) infrastructural facilities in the organization. Little empowerment to operators to take equipment related or improvement decisions. Absence of planned maintenance (PM) check-sheets to conduct routine maintenance jobs efﬁciently. . Poor and non encouraging workplace environments in the absence of 5 S implementation. Highly inadequate predictive maintenance (Pd. Little effort made to assess and improve the reliability of production system and ensure the faster and dependable delivery. wastes leading to lack of impetus for affecting manufacturing improvements. Apathy and inability of the top management to implement safe work practices at the workplace. M. losses. .
and measures of performance. accept that TPM will take a long time to spread across the company and change existing maintenance culture. In the present context. put in place. put in place relevant measures of performance and continually monitor and publicize beneﬁts achieved in ﬁnancial terms (Davis. train and develop a network of TPM co-coordinators that will promote and support TPM activities every day.2 134 The ﬁnancial obstacles affecting the successful TPM implementation in Indian manufacturing organizations include: . thereby enabling the organizations to realize competencies for mitigating the challenges posed by global competition. be determined to keep going. plus senior level back up. Low synergy and coordination between maintenance and production departments. developing a practical plan and employing program and project management principles. . the involvement of people. The role that effective maintenance plays in cost effective manufacturing has received a greater attention in the recent times. support TPM co-coordinators with time and resources.JQME 14. Davis and Willmott (1999) have recommended two signiﬁcant enablers for successful implementation of TPM initiatives in the manufacturing organizations: . Bamber et al. The departmental obstacles affecting the successful TPM implementation in Indian manufacturing organizations include: . Requirement of signiﬁcant additional resources in the beginning of TPM implementation program with moderate performance improvements in initial stages of TPM. Absence of appropriate motivating reward and recognition mechanisms. Success factors and enablers for successful TPM implementation The strategic implications of quality and maintenance to improve competitiveness have been well understood by Indian business captains in the beginning of last decade (Tripathi. Existence of ﬁrm divisions between the maintenance and production department responsibilities. management commitment. Inability of top management to support improvement initiatives due to resource crunch. . an implementation plan. Indian manufacturing organizations have risen to the occasion and progressed to envisage efﬁcient maintenance policies helping the enterprise to enhance production system reliability. . knowledge and beliefs. 2005). the existing organization. the motivation of management and workforce. A general lack of trust by maintenance department in the productive operator’s capabilities for performing basic autonomous maintenance tasks. cost effectiveness of production operations. time allocation for implementation. Reluctance of production operators to accept autonomous maintenance initiatives as part of their routine jobs. (1999) has outlined a generic model indicating factors affecting the successful implementation of TPM in the UK manufacturing small-to-medium size enterprises (SME) which include alignment to mission. 1997). . . The experience of TPM implementation in the UK has shown that the key factors for successful implementations are to approach TPM realistically.
The enablers and success factors for TPM Implementation in the Indian manufacturing organization have been depicted in Figure 2. It has been observed that Indian manufacturing organizations have faced strong resistance from within. The management contributions towards successful TPM implementations can include revising business plans to include TPM goals. Thus it becomes imperative for the Indian organizations to evolve proactive strategies for indigenous TPM implementation program for the Indian industry. inadequate resources. and poor work environments. It is strongly believed that the holistic adaptation of the laid out enablers and success factors can obviate the ill effects of obstacles to TPM implementation and can strategically lead the organization to harness competencies for sustained competitiveness. and have suffered due to lacking organizational cultures. Strategies and success factors in TPM 135 . The ﬁrst course of action is to establish a strategic direction for TPM. (3) Employee involvement. (2) Cultural transformations. inappropriate maintenance improvement initiatives. and whole heartedly propagating the TPM beneﬁts to the organization. This can be achieved by evolving appropriate TPM policy and Master-plan towards TPM implementation in the organization. affecting appropriate cultural transformations in organizational culture. commitment and involvement. The successful implementation of TPM requires top management support. and (2) A philosophy which is based upon the empowerment and encouragement of factory ﬂoor-based personnel from all areas. There is an urgent need for establishing and holistically adopting key enablers and success factors in the organizations to ensure the success of TPM implementation program by harnessing the participation of all the employees in the organization. Top management needs to have a strong commitment to the TPM implementation program and should go all-out for evolving mechanisms for multi-level communication to all employees explaining the importance and beneﬁts of the whole program. Indian manufacturing organizations need to take appropriate initiatives to overcome the obstacles mentioned earlier to ensure the realization of true potential of TPM. The key enablers and success factors for successful implementation of TPM in Indian manufacturing industry can be classiﬁed into six categories: (1) Top management contributions.(1) A structured approach which uses a number of tools and techniques to achieve highly effective plants and production equipment and to measure its effectiveness. employees by linking TPM to the overall organizational strategy and objectives. (4) Traditional and proactive maintenance policies. low skill and knowledge of operators. (5) Training and education. The strategic issues related to various TPM enablers and success factors have been explained using an Ishikawa diagram. (6) Maintenance prevention and focused production system improvements. This must be followed by evolving structured TPM secretariat in line with organization’s policies involving employees from various organization functions and hierarchical levels.
JQME 14. Enablers and success factors for TPM implementation in the organization .2 136 Figure 2.
In order to ensure the alignment of employees towards the organization’s goals and objectives towards a sustainable TPM implementation program. an appropriate understanding of underlying TPM principles and strategies must be provided to employees at all levels in the organization. Thus focused and concerted efforts have to be made by the top management to bring about motivating organization culture by creating awareness to the employees about the true potential of TPM and by communicating to the employees about the contributions of TPM towards the employees in particular. Indian organizations have been strongly resisting any changes at the workplace. recognition of efforts made by the employees towards the organizational performance improvement. Moreover. providing adequate ﬁnancial resources for affecting business improvements. These include evolving mechanisms for employee empowerment. adequate employee counseling. making efforts for improving the skill and knowledge base of all the employees and promoting cross-functionality between various organization functions and departments. For long. The biggest challenge before the organization is to be able to make radical transformation in the organization’s culture for ensuring overall employee participation towards the maintenance and manufacturing performance improvement through TPM initiatives. promoting cross-functional working in the organization. many other strategic initiatives can also be successfully deployed in the organizations for motivating and aligning the employees to the organizational goals and objectives of growth and sustainable development for meeting the global corporate challenges. In this regard. union buy-in. effective appropriate suggestions schemes and deploying encouraging and safe work environment in the organizations. evolving reward and incentive mechanisms for promoting proactive maintenance. organizations should go in for “union buy-in”. evolving the environment of equipment and system ownership by the employees. since by roping in employee’s union representatives in the TPM implementation planning and execution. The unions can directly be convinced that the affected employees will be helped by developing additional skills that make them more valuable to the organization and TPM can effectively be used to create a more multi-skilled workplace. The holistic deployment of these initiatives can go a long way in improving the much needed employee involvement for successful TPM implementation in the organization. many of the employee behavioral barriers and obstacles to TPM implementation can be appropriately addressed. supporting changes and improvements in the workplace. removing barriers related to middle level management and enhancing inter-department synergy in the organization. The strategic issues for achieving cultural transformations in manufacturing organizations have been depicted in Figure 3. which usually improves employee job security. This practice can effectively help the top management to foster successful TPM implementation program in the organization while avoiding the misconceptions about myths regarding TPM in the organization.building strong success stories for promoting motivation for TPM implementations. evolving reward and incentive mechanisms acceptable to all employees. Total employee involvement is indeed a pre-requite to successful TPM implementation and can be ensured by enhancing the competencies of employees towards the jobs. communicating the TPM goals to the entire organization. Strategies and success factors in TPM 137 . providing training and skill enhancements for production and maintenance workers.
JQME 14. Strategic issues for achieving cultural transformations in organizations .2 138 Figure 3.
The training objectives must include the systematic development of the knowledge. To begin with. but also need to be well equipped with quality improvement and behavioral training for changing the mind set of employees from “I operate. skill and attitude required by an individual to adequately perform a given job. the organizations must make concerted efforts to adopt state-of-art maintenance initiatives like predictive maintenance and computerized maintenance management systems in order to enhance the manufacturing performance through contemporary proactive maintenance improvement initiatives. training plan. establishing organization structure for TPM deployment. the organizations must harness competencies for improving the traditional maintenance performance in the organization. The organizations must impress upon addressing the problems related to the production system by focusing upon the root causes of the problems. Therefore adequate training and education for employees at all levels should be treated as key strategic initiative for successful TPM implementation. and also need to ensure holistic implementation of laid out procedures by motivated and competent workforce. the organizations need to develop standard work practices and safe operating procedure covering entire range of production systems. since it has been observed that most of the failures of TPM programs can be attributed to the failure of the organization to observe and maintain the standard operating procedures for production systems and other business functions. the organization needs to demonstrate the true potential of TPM by laying down and communicating exhaustive TPM policy and master-plan. execution of training and evaluation of training effectiveness. preparation of training calendar. and a system for management of safety and environmental issues. Finally the organization needs to evolve and implement strategic TPM implementation initiatives for improving the manufacturing performance. Moreover. an early equipment management program. The various issues related to holistic TPM implementation should be holistically followed in the organization for realizing the true potential of TPM including autonomous maintenance activities. thereby creating an environment of acceptability towards TPM practices in the organization. a system for increasing the efﬁciency of administrative and support functions. you maintain” to “I produce.Moreover it has been observed that for successful TPM implementation. The top management responsibility in this regard becomes identiﬁcation of training needs. technical training in equipment maintenance and operation. focused improvement to make equipment more efﬁcient. An overview of strategic skill enhancement training Strategies and success factors in TPM 139 . In this regards. planned maintenance for the maintenance department. you inspect. This should be followed by horizontal TPM deployment throughout the organization. and focusing TPM initiatives at critical model machines. setting training targets. The employees must be provided with not only technical job related skills and competencies. The success of the organization in fully realizing the beneﬁts through effective implementation of traditional and proactive maintenance initiatives including TPM is critically dependent upon the competencies of the employees towards the job. The organizations need to evolve procedures for collecting and analyzing data related to the manufacturing system performance and focus upon affecting continuous improvements in manufacturing performance by continuously affecting production system improvements. quality maintenance activities. I maintain”. designing of training programs and material. I inspect. rather than emphasizing upon mere restorations.
equipment failure (breakdowns) and accidents. Skill enhancement training methodologies .2 methodologies to be deployed by manufacturing organizations has been outlined in Figure 4. and to create a sense of pride and belonging among all employees. to develop multi skilled work force.JQME 14. The results of an 140 Figure 4. The top management must endeavor to train and develop the employee competencies by updating their skill. knowledge and attitude to enable higher productivity and achieve highest standards of quality. to eliminate product defect.
Conclusions It has been revealed from the research that traditional Indian manufacturing organizations have somewhat struggled in the past.effective education and training program will include improvement in employee competencies. and increase in number of multi-skilled workmen and number of kaizens. and create support for TPM concepts. wastage/scrap and breakdowns. In order to ensure the successful implementation of TPM initiatives and practices in the challenging Indian manufacturing environments. KPI’s are widely used within industry to measure speciﬁc parameters across all the classes of metrics. the reliability of success factors and enablers in achieving success through strategic TPM implementation programs can be evaluated by deploying Key Performance Indices ‘KPI’s for assessing the manufacturing performance. zero accidents. reduction in absenteeism. while attempting to implement strategic proactive TPM initiatives and practices. and integrating TPM with other performance improvement initiatives. Finally the concerted efforts should be made for affecting manufacturing system performance improvements through emphasizing upon maintenance prevention initiatives and enhancing focused production system improvements by fostering competencies related to production facilities by deploying feedback from customer and various departments. motivation. since it needs to bring about signiﬁcant cultural transformations in the organization for changing the mind sets of the employees. and ensuring enhanced employee participation and organizational contributions in the future too. improving safety at workplace. and departmental obstacles. technological. The top management’s contributions for successful TPM implementation have been found to be highly critical and successful managers must Strategies and success factors in TPM 141 . incorporating design related improvements. Further. The results of the TPM program should be realistically explored and shared with the employees so as to improve the employee satisfaction. Nevertheless. measure performance and reinforce positive behaviors. The study critically examines various obstacles affecting the successful implementation of TPM in Indian manufacturing organizations. the organizations must be willing to foster an environment that is willing to support change in the workplace. The issues related to various obstacles have been critically analyzed to evolve strategic enablers and success factors for successful TPM implementation program for Indian industry. The comparison of the current maintenance performance level must be made against future maintenance performance level to evaluating the strategic impact of TPM implementation program. improving workplace organization through focused 5S initiatives. focusing upon learning from existing equipments to new systems. operational. idle hours. ﬁnancial. KPI’s are necessary to establish objectives. The difﬁculties faced by the organizations have been categorized into organizational. it has also been revealed by the study that successful implementation of strategic TPM initiatives can be realistically achieved in an Indian manufacturing enterprise by bringing out successful cultural transformations and ensuring the whole hearted commitments by the top management. cultural. behavioral. Table I describes the strategic KPI’s associated with the total productive maintenance performance for assessing and improving organizational proﬁtability. The strategic KPI’s should be adopted and appropriately deployed for assessing the success of TPM implementation programs.
due to poor skill/education (Nos) MTBF (mean time between failures) (Hrs) MTTR (mean time to restore) (Hrs) PM.%) Production per shift Labour productivity * (qty/man shift) (Nos) Production cost (direct) (Rs.lacs) Production cost (OH) (Rs.2 Autonomous maintenance Focused improvement Planned maintenance Quality improvement Table I. Lacs) Total Kaizen registered ((Nos) Total Kaizen completed (Nos) Kaizen registered (horizontal deployment) Kaizen completed (horizontal deployment) Total countermeasure implemented (Nos) Total PM Kaizen implemented (Nos) Loss of production due to failures (Hrs) Oil consumption quantity Spares consumption – quantity Spares consumption – value Total maintenance cost (including cost of outside labour/repairs. Total productive maintenance KPIs for improved proﬁtability Failures (B/ds) due to poor JH (Nos) Spill-over of products (nothing on ﬂoor) No. of dry-machines (zero leakage No) Total No. failures occurred (Nos) Repeated breakdowns (recurrence) (Nos) Failures in equipment due to poor JH (Nos) Failures in equipment due to poor PM (Nos) Failures in equipment due to poor design (Nos) Failures in eqpt. CBM: activities attended/planned Machines under predictive maintenance (Nos) Total red tags removed (cumulative) (Nos) Process quality defects (Pcs) Value of process quality defects (Rs. TBM.142 JQME 14. due to poor spare quality (Nos) Failures in eqpt. of JH activity (CLIR) (Nos) Defects rectiﬁed (white tags removed) Defects rectiﬁed (red tags removed) Circle meetings conducted (Nos) Overall equipment efﬁciency (OEE . Lacs) Reworked defects quantity (Pcs) Reworked defects value (Rs. machines (Nos) Zero defect products (Nos) Quality defects due to poor JH (Nos) Accidents due to poor JH (Nos) Unsafe places rectiﬁed (Nos) JH OPL implemented (Nos) JH training sessions conducted (Nos) JH Kaizens registered (Nos) JH Kaizens implemented (Nos) WIP inventory (days) WIP inventory (Rs. Lacs) Total loss time (hrs) The number of eqpt. materials. spares) Training sessions held for developing multi-skilled technician Number of multi-skilled technicians One point lessons implemented Defects due to poor input quality (Nos) Due to RM (Nos) Due to tools and ﬁxtures (Nos) Due to cutting tools (Nos) Kaizens implemented (Nos) Kaizens under implementation (Nos) Countermeasures implemented (Nos) One point lessons for quality education implemented (Nos) Work in process (Days) (continued) . Lacs) Customer complaints (Nos) Zero defect prodn.
80 dB (Nos) Locations improved to . Crores) Plant wide OEE (%) Unsafe locations identiﬁed (Nos) Locations with noise level . 80 dB level (Nos) Pollution: Solid waste let out after treatment (Tons) Liquid waste let out after treatment (KL) Gaseous waste let out after treatment (NCM) Employee participation: Safety suggestions received (Nos) Safety suggestions implemented (Nos) Safety OPLs received (Nos) Time taken for a new machines to achieve 85% OEE since induction (Days) Improvement of manual mechanisms to auto mechanisms in old/new machines No.Lacs) No. Overheads (Rs. hygiene & environment Development management Overall organizational achievements Defects due to poor JH (Nos. Lacs) Safety. of incidents) (Nos) Customer complaints (Nos) Reduction in purchase cost (Rs. Lacs) Consumables inventory (Rs. of ﬁles handled (Nos) Document retrieval time (Sec.) Man hour reduction (Man Hrs) Indirect personnel in company (Nos) Kaizens implemented in non-production Depts (Nos) One point lessons implemented (Nos) Cost reduction in admn.Ofﬁce TPM Finished goods storage (Days) Raw material lead time (days) Spares inventory (Rs. training (Nos) Accidents – plant shutdown (Nos) Accidents – no plant shutdown (Nos) Accidents in gangways/walkways (Nos) Preventive actions: Unsafe acts identiﬁed (Nos) Unsafe act improved to safe level (Nos) Total MP sheets registered (Nos) Jishu-Hozen iniatives (CLIAR) (Nos) Defect prevention (Nos) Power/fuel consumption (Nos) Horizontal replication implemented (Nos) MP sheets used for new machines (Nos) Implementation of LCC for new machines (Nos) Return on net assets (RONA) Return on capital employed (ROCE) Market share (%) Replacement asset value (RAV) Net operating proﬁt (Rs. .) Percent plant utilization (%) Employee turnover Compliance with delivery schedules (%) Strategies and success factors in TPM 143 Table I.) No. of job analysis done (Nos) Accidents: Total accidents (Nos) Major/minor accidents (Nos) Accidents due to poor JH/PM (Nos) Accidents due to poor education. of unmanned operated machines (Nos) New product development period (Days) Design standards released (No) Return on equity (ROE) Return on assets (ROA) Cost per unit of product (Rs.) Defects due to poor PM (Nos. Lacs) Waiting for material (No.
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S. Patiala. Patiala. Currently. 48-50. non-traditional machining and total productive maintenance. The TQM Magazine.S. Punjab (India). Wireman. 4. Punjab.com Or visit our web site for further details: www. Khamba holds a Bachelors Degree in Mechanical Engineering. New York. (1991).S Ahuja holds a Bachelors Degree in Mechanical Engineering and Masters Degree in Industrial Engineering from Thapar Institute of Engineering and Technology. His main research area is total productive maintenance (TPM). TPM Development Program: Implementing Total Productive Maintenance. Cambridge. (1988). he is working as Reader in Mechanical Engineering at University College of Engineering. Masters Degree in Industrial Engineering and PhD in Technology Management from Thapar Institute of Engineering and Technology. India.P. About the authors I. NY. Ahuja can be contacted at ahujaips@yahoo.P. Punjab (India). Punjabi University. Vol. he is working as Professor in Mechanical Engineering at University College of Engineering. Currently. (1994).com/reprints . He has a number of publications in referred International and National journals/conferences.S. I. Total Productive Maintenance: An American Approach.Willmott. T. India.emeraldinsight.co. Industrial Press. He has number of publications in referred International and National journals/conferences. Productivity Press. “Total quality with teeth”. Patiala. Strategies and success factors in TPM 147 To purchase reprints of this article please e-mail: reprints@emeraldinsight. 6 No.in J. Further reading Nakajima. Punjabi University. P. His main research areas are technology management. pp. Patiala. Punjab.
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