Motivation Motivation is the driving force by which humans achieve their goals. Motivation is said to be intrinsic or extrinsic.

The term is generally used for humans but it can also be used to describe the causes for animal behavior as well. According to various theories, motivation may be rooted in a basic need to minimize physical pain and maximize pleasure, or it may include specific needs such as eating and resting, or a desired object, goal, state of being, ideal, or it may be attributed to less-apparent reasons such as altruism, selfishness, morality, or avoiding mortality. Conceptually, motivation should not be confused with either volition or optimism.

A motive (or motivation) as a need, want, interest, or desire that propels someone (or an organism) in a certain direction. Needs or wants that drive goal- directed behaviors.

Types of Motives
• • • • Primary motives- innate motives based on biological needs. Stimulus motives- innate needs for stimulation and information. Secondary motives- motives based on learned needs, drives, and goals. Homeostasis- a steady state of bodily equilibrium

Motivation concepts Intrinsic and extrinsic motivation Intrinsic motivation refers to motivation that is driven by an interest or enjoyment in the task itself, and exists within the individual rather than relying on any external pressure. Intrinsic motivation has been studied by social and educational psychologists since the early 1970s. Research has found that it is usually associated with high educational achievement and enjoyment by students evaluation theory. Students are likely to be intrinsically motivated if they:
• • •

attribute their educational results to factors under their own control (e.g., the effort expended), believe they can be effective agents in reaching desired goals (i.e. the results are not determined by luck), are interested in mastering a topic, rather than just rote-learning to achieve good grades.

Extrinsic motivation comes from outside of the individual. Common extrinsic motivations are rewards like money and grades, coercion and threat of punishment. Competition is in general extrinsic because it encourages the performer to win and beat others, not to enjoy the intrinsic rewards of the activity. Example, A crowd cheering on the individual and trophies are also extrinsic incentives. Drives and desires can be described as a deficiency or need that activates behavior that is aimed at a goal or an incentive. These are thought to originate within the individual and may not require external stimuli to encourage the behavior. Basic drives could be sparked by deficiencies such as hunger, which motivates a person to seek food; whereas more subtle drives might be the desire for praise and approval, which motivates a person to behave in a manner pleasing to others. The role of extrinsic rewards and stimuli can be seen in the example of training animals by giving them treats when they perform a trick correctly. The treat motivates the animals to perform the trick consistently, even later when the treat is removed from the process. Motivational theories Incentive theory A reward, tangible or intangible, is presented after the occurrence of an action (i.e. behavior) with the intent to cause the behavior to occur again. This is done by associating positive meaning to the behavior. Example if the person receives the reward immediately, the effect is greater, and decreases as duration lengthens. Repetitive action-reward combination can cause the action to become habit. Motivation comes from two sources:

From this perspective. and the concept of distinguishing between intrinsic and extrinsic forces is irrelevant. such as engaging in activities that are expected to be profitable. These two sources are called intrinsic motivation and extrinsic motivation. it will eliminate that negative feeling of thirst. As opposed to the body seeking to reestablish homeostasis pushing it towards the stimulus. Upon satisfying a drive the drive's strength is reduced. The theory is based on diverse ideas from the theories of Freud to the ideas of feedback control systems. and other people. stimuli "attract". A reinforcer is any stimulus change following a response that increases the future frequency or magnitude of that response. motivation is mediated by environmental events. to use the term above. such as drive theory. Skinner and literalized by behaviorists. or if negatively received people are less likely to act in this manner. in the direction of the motivation. For example.oneself. such as B. a person knows that eating food. . or gaining social capital will make them happier. Positive reinforcement involves a stimulus change consisting of the presentation or magnification of an appetitive stimulus following a response. Incentive theory distinguishes itself from other motivation theories. Drive-reduction theories The Drive Reduction Theory grows out of the concept that we have certain biological drives. In terms of behaviorism. such as a thermostat. a person has come to know that if they eat when hungry. such as hunger. especially by Skinner in his philosophy of Radical behaviorism. it will eliminate that negative feeling of hunger. As opposed to in drive theory. which involves negative reinforcement: a stimulus has been associated with the removal of the punishment-. a person towards them. For instance. to mean that a person's actions always have social ramifications: and if actions are positively received people are more likely to act in this manner. Incentive theory in psychology treats motivation and behavior of the individual as they are influenced by beliefs. In incentive theory.the lack of homeostasis in the body. or if they drink when thirsty. Positive reinforcement is demonstrated by an increase in the future frequency or magnitude of a response due to in the past being followed contingently by a reinforcing stimulus. Incentive theory is promoted by behavioral psychologists. incentive theory involves positive reinforcement: the stimulus has been conditioned to make the person happier. As time passes the strength of the drive increases if it is not satisfied (in this case by eating).F. drinking water. Negative reinforcement involves stimulus change consisting of the removal of an aversive stimulus following a response.

a decrease in subjective hunger. Dissonance is also reduced by justifying. feeling. There are several problems. the drive model appears to be compatible with sensations of rising hunger as the food is prepared. The first problem is that it does not explain how secondary reinforcers reduce drive. It is clear that drive reduction theory cannot be a complete theory of behavior. in retrospect. a drive. or a hungry human could not prepare a meal without eating the food before he finished cooking it. money satisfies no biological or psychological needs. . a consumer may seek to reassure himself regarding a purchase. Secondly. and. making the drive a homuncular being—a feature criticized as simply moving the fundamental problem behind this "small man" and his desires. It is one of the most influential and extensively studied theories in social psychology. is viewed as having a "desire" to eat. that leave the validity of drive reduction open for debate. For example.Drive theory has some intuitive or folk validity. For example. after the food has been consumed. or adding additional drives for "tasty" food. however. such as hunger. beliefs. cognitive dissonance occurs when an individual experiences some degree of discomfort resulting from an incompatibility between two cognitions. or actions. but a pay check appears to reduce drive through second-order conditioning. the theory of cognitive dissonance proposes that people have a motivational drive to reduce dissonance. and denying. per se. The ability of drive theory to cope with all kinds of behavior. For instance when preparing food. which combine with drives for "food" in order to explain cooking render it hard to test. from not satisfying a drive (by adding on other traits such as restraint). They do this by changing their attitudes. While not a theory of motivation. that another decision may have been preferable. blaming. Cognitive dissonance theory This theory was suggested by Leon Festinger.

Psychological requirements consist in the fourth level. It shows the complexity of human requirements. After securing those two levels. Since needs are many. The further the progress up the hierarchy. The person advances to the next level of needs only after the lower level need is at least minimally satisfied. NEED eg. etc. Water DRIVE eg. If there is any deficit on this level. which awake a need for security. the whole behavior of a human will be oriented to satisfy this deficit.factor theory from Herzberg. Only unsatisfied needs influence behavior. which form the third stage. Food. sleep. The needs. thirst. listed from basic (lowest-earliest) to most complex (highest-latest) are as follows: • • • • • Physiology (hunger. the more individuality. while the top of the hierarchy comprise the selfrealization so theory can be summarized as follows: • • • • Human beings have wants and desires which influence their behavior. the motives shift in the social sphere. The basic requirements build the first step in his pyramid. They decide about to be or not to be. they are arranged in order of importance. satisfied needs do not. thirst DRIVING REDUCING eg. Behaviors (eating. Maslow says that first of all the basic requirements have to be satisfied. Abraham Maslow's theory is one of the most widely discussed theories of motivation.Need theories Need hierarchy theory The content theory includes the hierarchy of needs from Maslow and the two. drinking) The American motivation psychologist Abraham H. Maslow developed the Hierarchy of needs consistent of five hierarchic classes.) Safety/Security/Shelter/Health Belongingness/Love/Friendship Self-esteem/Recognition/Achievement Self actualization . humanness and psychological health a person will show. Hunger. from the basic to the complex. Subsequently we do have the second level. Basically it is oriented on a future need for security.

and they align with Maslow's social need and the external component of Maslow's esteem classification.Herzberg's two-factor theory Frederick Herzberg's two-factor theory. but if absent. relatedness. Alderfer's ERG theory Alderfer. The theory is sometimes called the "Motivator-Hygiene Theory" and/or "The Dual Structure Theory. This theory posits that there are three groups of core needs — existence. job security. challenging work. result in demotivation. These social and status desires require interaction with others if they are to be satisfied. responsibility) which give positive satisfaction. and Hygiene factors. hence the label: ERG theory. they don't lead to dissatisfaction but no satisfaction. SDT posits a natural tendency toward growth and development. The existence group is concerned with providing our basic material existence requirements. The name Hygiene factors is used because. Alderfer isolates growth needs' an intrinsic desire for personal development. (e. These include the intrinsic component from Maslow's esteem category and the characteristics included under self-actualization. however. but "respect for me as a person" is one of the top motivating factors at any stage of life. Unlike these other theories.g. a. salary and fringe benefits) that do not motivate if present. concludes that certain factors in the workplace result in job satisfaction. SDT does not . They include the items that Maslow considered to be physiological and safety needs. He distinguished between: • • Motivators.g. but absence can cause health deterioration. they focused on the importance of intrinsic motivation in driving human behavior. (e. and growth. status. The second groups of needs are those of relatedness.a. but. the presence will not make you healthier." Herzberg's theory has found application in such occupational fields as information systems and in studies of user satisfaction. like hygiene.k. Like Maslow's hierarchical theory and others that built on it. created the ERG theory. recognition. if absent. The factors that motivate people can change over their lifetime. expanding on Maslow's hierarchy of needs. Self-determination theory Self-determination theory was developed by Edward Deci and Richard Ryan.the desire we have for maintaining important interpersonal relationships. intrinsic/extrinsic motivation.

as many want a challenge (which assumes some kind of insecurity of success).include any sort of "autopilot" for achievement. A classic example of a poorly specified goal is to get the highest possible grade. Achievement Motivation is an integrative perspective based on the premise that performance motivation results from the way broad components of personality are directed towards performance. social motives like dominance. Broad theories The latest approach in developing a broad. difficulty and specificity. this end state is a reward in itself. Integrating theories of motivation. most people are not optimally motivated. Specificity concerns the description of the goal in their class. Drive Theory. Notably. This explains why some children are more motivated to learn how to ride a bike than to master algebra. Self-Efficacy and Goal Setting. The goal should be objectively defined and intelligible for the individual. In both cases. competence feedback. it simplifies the field of motivation considerably and allows findings from one theory to be translated into terms of another. A goal should be moderate. Cognitive theories Goal-setting theory Goal-setting theory is based on the notion that individuals sometimes have a drive to reach a clearly defined end state. Most children have no idea how much effort they need to reach that goal. A goal's efficiency is affected by three features: proximity. Need Theory. Especially it integrates formerly separated approaches as Need for Achievement with e. integrative theory of motivation is Temporal Motivation Theory. An ideal goal should present a situation where the time between the initiation of behavior and the end state is close. The Achievement Motivation Inventory is based on this theory and assesses three factors (17 separated scales) relevant to vocational and professional success. . but instead requires active encouragement from the environment. including Incentive Theory. not too hard or too easy to complete. At the same time people want to feel that there is a substantial probability that they will succeed. It synthesizes into a single formulation the primary aspects of all other major motivational theories. It includes a range of dimensions that are relevant to success at work but which are not conventionally regarded as being part of performance motivation. Often. The primary factors that encourage motivation and development are autonomy. and relatedness.g.

Motivation is seen as a process that leads to the forming of behavioral intentions. stable. An example of such a motivational and volitional construct is perceived self-efficacy. the need to raise children Honor. Unconscious motivation Some psychologists believe that a significant portion of human behavior is energized and directed by unconscious motives. and the initiation of action. the need for organized. the need for sex . Volition is seen as a process that leads from intention to actual behavior. According to Maslow. Self-efficacy is supposed to facilitate the forming of behavioral intentions. respectively. Several self-regulatory constructs are needed to operate in orchestration to attain goals.Models of behavior change Social-cognitive models of behavior change include the constructs of motivation and volition. the need for food Family. the need for individuality Order. the need for social justice Independence. It can support the translation of intentions into action. Both processes require self-regulatory efforts. Intrinsic motivation and the 16 basic desires theory Professor Steven Reiss has proposed a theory that finds 16 basic desires that guide nearly all human behavior. motivation and volition refer to goal setting and goal pursuit. the need for influence of will Romance. In other words. the need to learn Eating. the need to be loyal to the traditional values of one's clan/ethnic group Idealism. The 16 basic desires that motivate our actions and define our personalities as: • • • • • • • • • • • Acceptance. the need for exercise Power. the need for approval Curiosity. "Psychoanalysis has often demonstrated that the relationship between a conscious desire and the ultimate unconscious aim that underlies it need not be at all direct. the development of action plans. predictable environments Physical activity.

• • • • • Saving. pressure and rank. advice and praise. The effects of many . People may also be motivated by non-basic desires. Specific motivational appeals focus on provable facts. When motivating an audience. An employee must be motivated to work for a company or organization. right and wrong. However. especially in the transhumanist movement. the need to strike back/to win In this model. but in this case this does not relate to deep motivation. as "motivation-enhancers". the need for friends (peer relationships) Status. outnumbering. Please help improve this section by adding citations to reliable sources. These basic desires represent intrinsic desires that directly motivate a person's behavior. have suggested the use of "smart drugs". the need to be safe Vengeance. The control of motivation is only understood to a limited extent. feelings. audience rewards and audience threats. General motivational strategies include soft sell versus hard sell and personality type. the need for social standing/importance Tranquility. but many of these are considered pseudoscientific by critics. Materials that are not sourced may be challenged and removed. Employee motivation Workers in any organization need something to keep them working. Controlling motivation This section does not cite any references or sources. and not aimed at indirectly satisfying other desires. Drugs Some authors. the need to collect Social contact. sometimes just working for salary is not enough for employees to stay at an organization. you can use general motivational strategies or specific motivational appeals. you can consider basing your strategy on your audience personality. people differ in these basic desires. Soft sell strategies have logical appeals. Most times the salary of the employee is enough to keep him or her working for an organization. There are many different approaches of motivation training. Also. then that employee’s quality of work or all work in general will deteriorate. also known as nootropics. emotional appeals. or only as a means to achieve other basic desires. To understand how to control motivation it is first necessary to understand why many people lack motivation. Hard sell strategies have barter. If no motivation is present in an employee.

In 2007. 5. It can: 1. activities Enhance cognitive processing Determine what consequences are reinforcing Lead to improved performance. 4. 6. and their legal status often makes open experimentation difficult Applications Education Motivation is of particular interest to educational psychologists because of the crucial role it plays in student learning.of these drugs on the brain are emphatically not well understood. It has been shown that intrinsic motivation for education drops from grades 3-9 though the exact cause cannot be . Motivation in education can have several effects on how students learn and how they behave towards subject matter. and persistence in. However. the specific kind of motivation that is studied in the specialized setting of education differs qualitatively from the more general forms of motivation studied by psychologists in other fields. which is found in environmental conditions that the teacher creates. The majority of new student orientation leaders at colleges and universities recognize that distinctive needs of students should be considered in regard to orientation information provided at the beginning of the higher education experience. Whyte's research report allowing readers to ascertain improvements made in addressing specific needs of students over a quarter of a century later to help with academic success. There are two kinds of motivation: • Intrinsic motivation occurs when people are internally motivated to do something because it either brings them pleasure. 2. the National Orientation Directors Association reprinted Cassandra B. Research done by Whyte in 1986 raised the awareness of counselors and educators in this regard. or they feel that what they are learning is significant. Because students are not always internally motivated. they think it is important. Direct behavior toward particular goals Lead to increased effort and energy Increase initiation of. they sometimes need situated motivation. 3.

• • • Motivated employees always look for better ways to do a job. empowerment and a sense of belonging are far more powerful motivators than money. as both Abraham Maslow's theory of motivation and Douglas McGregor's theory X and theory Y (pertaining to the theory of leadership) demonstrate. McGregor places money in his Theory X category and feels it is a poor motivator. Motivation by threat is a dead-end strategy. Nonetheless. such as physiological needs. Business At lower levels of Maslow's hierarchy of needs. praise. and ambivalent who all react and interact uniquely. indifferent.ascertained. The average workplace is about midway between the extremes of high threat and high opportunity. and in treating Autism Spectrum Disorders. in younger students it has been shown that contextualizing material that would otherwise be presented in an abstract manner increases the intrinsic motivation of these students. At higher levels of the hierarchy. and must be treated. Steinmetz also discusses three common character types of subordinates: ascendant. managed. Motivation is a powerful tool in the work environment that can lead to employees working at their most efficient levels of production. however it tends to have a motivating effect on staff that lasts only for a short period (in accordance with Herzberg's two-factor model of motivation). and motivated accordingly. Motivation has been found to be an important element in the concept of Andragogy (what motivates the adult learner). Motivated workers are more productive. Also. • Extrinsic motivation comes into play when a student is compelled to do something or act a certain way because of factors external to him or her (like money or good grades). Maslow has money at the lowest level of the hierarchy and shows other needs are better motivators to staff. An effective leader must understand how to . Praise and recognition are placed in the Theory Y category and are considered stronger motivators than money. and naturally staffs are more attracted to the opportunity side of the motivation curve than the threat side. recognition. respect. as in Pivotal Response Therapy. money is a motivator. Motivated employees are more quality oriented.

Robbins and Judge examine recognition programs as motivators. Edwin Locke's Goal Theory and Victor Vroom's Expectancy theory. keeping score. This introduced the concept of orientation to work and distinguished three main orientations: instrumental (where work is a means to an end). his consulting firm. though money could be used as an indicator of success for various motives. McBer & Company. His model has been judged as placing undue reliance on social contacts at work situations for motivating employees.. extrinsic motivation (e.g. In Essentials of Organizational Behavior.. a worker's motivation is solely determined by pay. happy. e. Mayo believed that workers could be motivated by acknowledging their social needs and making them feel important. Other theories which expanded and extended those of Maslow and Herzberg included Kurt Lewin's Force Field Theory. These tend to stress cultural differences and the fact that individuals tend to be motivated by different factors at different times. had as its first motto "To make everyone productive. Mayo named the model the Hawthorne effect. money) could extinguish intrinsic motivation such as achievement motivation. bureaucratic (where work is a source of status. and free.g. and clear identification of behavior deemed worthy of recognition Allowing employees to participate Linking rewards to performance Rewarding of nominators Visibility of the recognition process . grow. and find answers independently The assumptions of Maslow and Herzberg were challenged by a classic study at Vauxhall Motors' UK manufacturing plant." For McClelland. satisfaction lay in aligning a person's life with their fundamental motivations. According to the system of scientific management developed by Frederick Winslow Taylor. In contrast. and therefore management need not consider psychological or social aspects of work. and identify five principles that contribute to the success of an employee incentive program: • • • • • Recognition of employees' individual differences. employees were given freedom to make decisions on the job and greater attention was paid to informal work groups. scientific management bases human motivation wholly on extrinsic rewards and discards the idea of intrinsic rewards. security and immediate reward) and solidaristic (which prioritises group loyalty). In keeping with this view.manage all characters. David McClelland believed that workers could not be motivated by the mere need for money—in fact. As a result. In essence. Elton Mayo found that the social contacts a worker has at the workplace are very important and that boredom and repetitiveness of tasks lead to reduced motivation. and more importantly the manager must utilize avenues that allow room for employees to work.

Needs at the bottom of the pyramid are basic physical requirements including the need for food. the need for personal esteem and feelings of accomplishment take priority.2 This hierarchy suggests that people are motivated to fulfill basic needs before moving on to other needs. Further up the pyramid. Soon. Several models for game play motivations have been proposed. immersion and achievement. sleep and warmth. which seeks to apply game-based motivation to business applications. The lowest levels of the pyramid are made up of the most basic needs. . which is a process of growing and developing as a person to achieve individual potential. including Richard Bartle's. while the more complex needs are located at the top of the pyramid. needs become increasingly psychological and social. Jon Radoff has proposed a four-quadrant model of game play motivation that includes cooperation. water. Maslow’s hierarchy of needs is most often displayed as a pyramid. people can move on to the next level of needs.Games Motivational models are central to game design. Once these lowerlevel needs have been met. the need for love. which are for safety and security. Abraham Maslow Maslow's Hierarchy of Needs Psychologist Abraham Maslow first introduced his concept of a hierarchy of needs in his 1943 paper "A Theory of Human Motivation"1 and his subsequent book. Motivation and Personality. The motivational structure of games is central to the gamification trend. Maslow emphasized the importance of self-actualization. As people progress up the pyramid. Like Carl Rogers. friendship and intimacy become important. because without motivation a player will not be interested in progressing further within a game. competition.

Security Needs These include needs for safety and security. 4. . Examples of security needs include a desire for steady employment. romantic attachments and families help fulfill this need for companionship and acceptance. Maslow believed that these needs are the most basic and instinctive needs in the hierarchy because all needs become secondary until these physiological needs are met. health insurance. air. 2. Security needs are important for survival. Growth needs do not stem from a lack of something. as does involvement in social. Satisfying these lower-level needs is important in order to avoid unpleasant feelings or consequences. meaning that these needs arise due to deprivation. food and sleep. Five Levels of the Hierarchy of Needs There are five different levels in Maslow’s hierarchy of needs: 1. community or religious groups. such as the need for water. security. Maslow termed the highest-level of the pyramid as growth needs (also known as being needs or B-needs). 3. Relationships such as friendships. Physiological. safe neighborhoods and shelter from the environment. but they are not as demanding as the physiological needs. Social Needs These include needs for belonging. but rather from a desire to grow as a person. and esteem needs are deficiency needs (also known as D-needs).Types of Needs Maslow believed that these needs are similar to instincts and play a major role in motivating behavior. Physiological Needs These include the most basic needs that are vital to survival. love and affection. social. Maslow considered these needs to be less basic than physiological and security needs.

needs become increasingly psychological and social. less concerned with the opinions of others and interested fulfilling their potential. water. Needs at the bottom of the pyramid are basic physical requirements including the need for food. The lowest levels of the pyramid are made up of the most basic needs. Esteem Needs After the first three needs have been satisfied. sleep and warmth. As people progress up the pyramid. while the more complex needs are located at the top of the pyramid. These include the need for things that reflect on self-esteem. Like Carl Rogers. people can move on to the next level of needs. Self-actualizing people are self-aware. Further up the pyramid. 6. Maslow’s hierarchy of needs is most often displayed as a pyramid. which are for safety and security. Self-actualizing Needs This is the highest level of Maslow’s hierarchy of needs.5. Soon. the need for love. social recognition and accomplishment. personal worth. esteem needs becomes increasingly important. the need for personal esteem and feelings of accomplishment take priority. concerned with personal growth. friendship and intimacy become important. Once these lowerlevel needs have been met. Maslow emphasized the importance of self-actualization. which is a process of growing and developing as a person to achieve individual potential. • • .

He is most famous for introducing job enrichment and the MotivatorHygiene theory. As a patrol sergeant. Herzberg attended City College of New York. He graduated from City College in 1946 and moved to the University of Pittsburgh to undertake post-graduate workplace while teaching as a professor of psychology at Case Western Reserve University in Cleveland and later moved to the University of Utah where he held the position of professor of management in the college of business. as well as the talks he had with other Germans living in the area. he was a firsthand witness of the Dachau concentration camp. His 1968 publication "One More Time. . but left part way through his studies to enlist in the army. was what triggered his interest in motivation.2 million reprints by 1987 and was the most requested article from the Harvard Business Review. Herzberg believed that this experience. How Do You Motivate Employees?" had sold 1.Frederick herzberg Frederick Herzberg Frederick Irving Herzberg (17 April 1923 – 19 January 2000) born in Massachusetts was an American psychologist who became one of the most influential names in business management.

This leads to the "What have you done for me lately?" syndrome. The prevention of dissatisfaction is just as important as encouragement of motivator satisfaction. Any improvements result in a short-term removal of. According to his theory. Hygiene improvements have short-term effects. but they are seldom made satisfied by a good environment. 4.Two Factor Theory "The Dual Structure Theory" Main article: Two factor theory Referred to as "The Dual Structure theory" Herzberg proposed the Motivation-Hygiene Theory. people are influenced by two sets of factors: Motivator Factors • • • • • • Hygiene Factors • Pay and Benefits • Company Policy and Achievement Administration Recognition • Relationships with co-workers Work Itself • Supervision Responsibility • Status Promotion • Job Security • Working Conditions Growth • Personal life He proposed several key findings as a result of this identification. An individual can be highly motivated in his work and be dissatisfied with his work environment. 5. 2. although their frequency of occurrence differs considerably. or prevention of. Hygiene factors operate independently of motivation factors. Hygiene needs are cyclical in nature and come back to a starting point. 1. 3. dissatisfaction.[3] . Hygiene needs have an escalating zero point and no final answer. also known as the Two factor theory (1959) of job satisfaction. All hygiene factors are equally important. People are made dissatisfied by a bad environment. 7. 6.

A person's motivation and effectiveness in certain job functions are influenced by these three needs. affiliation. ideally a 50% chance. Achievement People with a high need for achievement (nAch) seek to excel and thus tend to avoid both low-risk and high-risk situations. Achievers avoid low-risk situations because the easily attained success is not a genuine achievement. Affiliation . McClelland's theory sometimes is referred to as the three need theory or as the learned needs theory.David McClelland McClelland's Theory of Needs David McClelland proposed that an individual's specific needs are acquired over time and are shaped by one's life experiences. They prefer either to work alone or with other high achievers. In high-risk projects. Achievers need regular feedback in order to monitor the progress of their acheivements. High nAch individuals prefer work that has a moderate probability of success. achievers see the outcome as one of chance rather than one's own effort. Most of these needs can be classed as achievement. or power.

The test determines the individual's score for each of the needs of achievement. affiliation.Management should provide power seekers the opportunity to manage others. High need for power . Thematic Apperception Test McClelland used the Thematic Apperception Test (TAT) as a tool to measure the individual needs of different people. Those who need personal power want to direct others. The assumption is that the subject will project his or her own needs into the story. training programs can be used to modify one's need profile. While money is not an important motivator. Persons who need institutional power (also known as social power) want to organize the efforts of others to further the goals of the organization.personal and institutional. This score can be used to suggest the types of jobs for which the person might be well suited. They tend to conform to the norms of their work group.High achievers should be given challenging projects with reachable goals. Note that McClelland's theory allows for the shaping of a person's needs. The TAT is a test of imagination that presents the subject with a series of ambiguous pictures. . it is an effective form of feedback. Implications for Management People with different needs are motivated differently. Power A person's need for power (nPow) can be one of two types . Psychologists have developed fairly reliable scoring techniques for the Thematic Apperception Test. High nAff individuals prefer work that provides significant personal interaction. and this need often is perceived as undesirable.Those with a high need for affiliation (nAff) need harmonious relationships with other people and need to feel accepted by other people. and the subject is asked to develop a spontaneous story for each picture. Managers with a high need for institutional power tend to be more effective than those with a high need for personal power. They perform well in customer service and client interaction situations. High need for affiliation . • • • High need for achievement . and power.Employees with a high affiliation need perform best in a cooperative environment. They should be provided frequent feedback.

4. Parents who encouraged independence in childhood Praise and rewards for success Association of achievement with positive feelings Association of achievement with one's own competence and effort. To work with singleness of purpose towards a high and distant goal. provided the start point for future studies of personality. control. Those with high N-Ach tend to choose moderately difficult tasks. In this connection. or highly difficult tasks. the need for achievement refers to an individual's preference for success under conditions of competition. McClelland's and his associates' investigations of achievement motivation have particular relevance to the emergence of leadership. The vehicle McClelland employed to establish the . The concept of NAch was subsequently popularized by the psychologist David McClelland. Sources of high N-Ach include: 1. mastering of skills. 5. but within reach. These include: "intense. McClelland was interested in the possibility of deliberately arousing a motive to achieve in an attempt to explain how individuals express their preferences for particular outcomes — a general problem of motivation. 2. To have the determination to win". Those with low N-Ach may choose very easy tasks. not luck A desire to be effective or challenged Intrapersonal Strength Theory The pioneering research work of the Harvard Psychological Clinic in the 1930s. The term was first used by Henry Murray and associated with a range of actions. feeling that they are challenging. 3. People high in N-Ach are characterized by a tendency to seek challenges and a high degree of independence. Need for Achievement is related to the difficulty of tasks people choose to undertake. such that a failure would not be embarrassing. especially those relating to needs and motives. David C. 6. prolonged and repeated efforts to accomplish something difficult. in order to minimize risk of failure.Need for achievement Need for Achievement (N-Ach) refers to an individual's desire for significant accomplishment. summarized in Explorations in Personality. or high standards. Their most satisfying reward is the recognition of their achievements.

and entrepreneurs. High achievers can be viewed as satisfying a need for selfactualization through accomplishments in their job assignments as a result of their particular knowledge. The procedure in McClelland's initial investigation was to arouse in the test audience a concern with their achievement. viewed historically through an index of national power consumption. These explorations into the achievement motive seem to turn naturally into the investigation of national differences based on Max Weber's thesis that the industrialization and economic development of the Western nations were related to the Protestant ethic and its corresponding values supporting work and achievement. their particular experiences. who note in Explorations in Personality that ". developed by Christiana Morgan and Henry Murray. Invariably. businessmen. McClelland demonstrated that individuals in a society can be grouped into high achievers and low achievers based on their scores on what he called "N-Ach". as well as to national. are not gamblers. indeed exists. Using results based on the Thematic Apperception Test. They will accept risk only to the degree they believe their personal contributions will make a difference in the final outcome. managers. N-Affil and N-Pow (see McClelland et al. McClelland and his associates have satisfied themselves that such a relationship. In the course of this experiment. these other studies found that the high achievers. businessmen. In addition.. and nationalities in their investigations of the strength of need for achievement. some writing stories with a high achievement content and some submitting stories with a low achievement content. The TAT has been widely used to support assessment of needs and motives. accomplishments depend on the presence or absence of an achievement motive in addition to economic resources or the infusion of financial assistance. Differences related to individual. members of the control group — individuals who had had no prior arousal — demonstrated significant differences in their stories.. McClelland discovered through analyzing the stories on the TAT that initial arousal was not necessary. These investigations have indicated that the NAch score increases with a rise in occupational level. Instead. occupational groups. 1958) can be viewed as a radical break with the . and entrepreneurs are high scorers. though identified as managers..presence of an achievement motive was the type of fantasy a person expressed on the Thematic Apperception Test (TAT). The test is composed of a series of pictures that subjects are asked to interpret and describe to the psychologist. Measurement The techniques McClelland and his collaborators developed to measure N-Ach. Other investigations into the characteristics of the high achievers have revealed that accomplishment on the job represents an end in itself. monetary rewards serve as an index of this accomplishment.when a person interprets an ambiguous social situation he is apt to expose his own personality as much as the phenomenon to which he is attending. A control group was used in which arousal was omitted. McClelland and his associates have since extended their work in fantasy analysis to include different age groups. and the particular environments in which they have lived.

creativity. and leadership can be assessed using “internally consistent” measures (see psychometrics). both in terms of Murray's model of human needs and motivational processes (1938) and his work with the OSS during World War Two. components of competence they bring to bear while seeking to carry out these activities that will determine their success. it should be recognized that McClellend's thinking was strongly influenced by the pioneering work of Henry Murray.e. are best understood as means of measuring competence in ways which break radically with traditional psychometric approaches. So one cannot (as some psychometricians try to do) assess such things as “creativity” in any general sense. the N-Ach. but cumulative and substitutable. originally presented as means of assessing “personality”. it is the cumulative number of independent. (See Raven (2001) for a fuller discussion). An important corollary is that there is no point in trying to assess people’s abilities without first finding out what they care about. It was Murray who first identified the significance of Need for Achievement. Furthermore.dominant psychometric tradition. One has always to ask “creativity in relation to what?” So McClelland’s measures. . the McClelland measures recognize that such competencies are difficult and demanding activities which will neither be developed nor displayed unless people are undertaking activities they care about (i. Accordingly. N-Aff and NPow scoring systems simply count how many components of competence people bring to bear whilst carrying out activities they have a strong personal inclination (or motivation) to undertake. However. It was during this period that Murray introduced the idea of "situation tests" and multi-rater / multi-method assessments. are strongly motivated to undertake). Whilst trait-based personality theory assume that high-level competencies like initiative. Power and Affiliation and placed these in the context of an integrated motivational model.