While important judgments constitute the backbone of environmental jurisprudence important laws have been specifically enforced by the legislature to safeguard the. cn\iroI1mcnt. We have in class discussed the critical aspects of both the above. This handout would thus seek to provide further aspects of the law concerning em-ironment. ISO 9000 I ISO 14000

1.1 The International Organization for Standardization ( ISO) is a worldwide federation of national standards bodies from some 130 countries, one from each country. The ISO headquarters is located at Geneva, Switzerland. ISO has been developing voluntary technical standards over almost all sectors of business, industry and technology since 1947 . With the exception of ISO 9000 and ISO 14000 the other standards are highly specific. 1.2
ISO standards are developed mainly acsording to the following:

Consensus between manufacturers / suppliers / users / consumer groups I testing laboratories! governments! engineering professions! research organizations 1.3 ISO 9000 and ISO 14000 in plain language: Both ISO 9000 and ISO 14000 are actually families of standards, which are referred under generic titles for conveniences. Both families consist of standards and guidelines relating to management systems and related supporting standards on terminology and specific tools such as auditing ( the process of checking that the management system confirms to the standard).

ISO 9000 is primarily concerned with quality management. Like beauty eyeryone may have his or her idea of what quality is. Therefore in plain language the standardized definition of quality in ISO 9000 refers to all those features of a product that are required by the customer. Quality management means what the organization does to ensure that its products conform to the customer's requirements. ISO 14000 is primarily concerned with" environment management" This means what the organization does to minimize harmful effects on the environment caused by its acti\ities.
Both ISO 9000 and ISO 14000 are about the way an organization manages its processes.

International Environment Law
The recent judicial intervention surrounding the defacement of Himalayan rocks by PEPSI / MBD BOOKS and COKE and also the public and government campaign W.r.t the Hindustan Lever factory manufacturing thermometers ( and depositing poisonous

\\'astes ) underscores the necessity to understand the International principles Environment Law in view of businesses / investment moving across national frontiers. 2.1



Foremost among the norn1S is Principle 21 of the 1972 Stockholm Declaration '.'n the Human Environment is that states have the sovereign right to exploit their o\\-n resources pursuant to their own environment policies and the res~Dnsibility to ensure that activities within their jurisdiction or control do not cause damage to the environm\..l1t of other states or of areas beyond the limits of national jurisdiction. .-\nothcr norm is the' duty of a state to noti fy and consult other states when an operation is !ikely to harm the environment of other states. The state is also c'\pected hi monitor and assess emironmemal conditions and rep0l1. A guarantee in the domestic constitutions and healthy environment. that all citizens have a right to decent



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"Polluter pays ;1ril"iciple,- that is Polluters to bear the costs of remedy I cleanup .T;"le Suprelllc COUl1 in India has adopted this principle in India as well.(Pepsi/MBD etc..) "Precautionary Principle" that is a duty to foresee and assess environmemal risks, to warn potential victims of such risks. Environment Impact Assessment environment costs. that is to balance economic benefits with




Principle of Sustainable Development that is "using living resources in a manner that .. does not exceed their natural capacity for regeneration and using natural resources in a manner which ensures the preservation of the species and ecosystems for the benefit of future generations"


Principle of Intergenerational equity maintains that the present generation has a moral right to maintain the environment for the future generations.
Principle of common but different responsibilities countries to ensure environment sustenance. places the lead on develop~d


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