K Ganesh Babu

The Automotive Research Association of India, Pune

Introduction  Transmission Types

 Manual  Automated Manual  Automatic  Continuously variable  Dual Clutch

    

Propeller Shaft Universal joints Final drive Differential Transmission Trends

The Automotive Research Association of India, Pune

The Automotive Research Association of India, Pune

It is used to transmit engine torque to the driving wheels to drive the vehicle on the road.

The Automotive Research Association of India, Pune

The Automotive Research Association of India, Pune

     

To provide for disconnecting the engine from the driving wheels
When engine is running , connect the driving wheels to engine smoothly without shock Leverage between engine and driving wheels to be varied Turn the drive to 900

Enable the driving wheels to rotate at different speeds. Provide relative movement between engine and driving wheels

The Automotive Research Association of India, Pune

The Automotive Research Association of India, Pune

The Automotive Research Association of India, Pune

The Automotive Research Association of India, Pune

Manual Transmission (MT) – Conventional Definition
 Moving away from rest – dry plate clutch

 Achieving ratio change – external cylindrical gears
 Power interruption  Mechanism for ratio change
▪ Positively engaged shifting dogs, synchronised (passenger cars and commercial vehicles) ▪ Positively engaged non-synchronised (motorcycles)

 Control of ratio change – manual

The Automotive Research Association of India, Pune

When a driver wants to change from one gear to another in a standard stick-shift car, he first presses down the clutch pedal This operates a single clutch, which disconnects the engine from the gearbox and interrupts power flow to the transmission Then the driver uses the stick shift to select a new gear, a process that involves moving a toothed collar from one gear wheel to another gear wheel of a different size Devices called synchronizers match the gears before they are engaged to prevent grinding Once the new gear is engaged, the driver releases the clutch pedal, which re-connects the engine to the gearbox and transmits power to the wheels.

The Automotive Research Association of India, Pune

The Automotive Research Association of India, Pune

 

Clutch is used to disengage and engage the engine with rest of the transmission systems. To disengage while starting the engine and while changing gear ratio. To engage after starting of the engine and gear shift operation.

The Automotive Research Association of India, Pune

    

Transmit maximum torque of the engine. Engage gradually to avoid sudden jerks.
Dissipate maximum amount of heat.

Dynamically balanced.
Damp the vibrations and noise.


As small as possible.
Easy to operate.

The Automotive Research Association of India, Pune

 

Cone clutch

Flat Plate clutch  Dry or Wet type clutch  No. of friction plates (Single or Multiple)  Actuation mode (Cable or Hydraulic)  Actuation spring (Helical or Diaphragm)  Centrifugal clutch
The Automotive Research Association of India, Pune

Flywheel

Clutch Cover Assembly

Clutch Disc Assembly
The Automotive Research Association of India, Pune

   

Flywheel also acts as a driving member Pressure plate is connected to clutch cover assembly. Clutch Cover assembly is bolted to the flywheel. Clutch springs placed between Pressure plate & Cover plate, press the Pressure plate against the clutch plate. Thus Clutch plate is squeezed between Flywheel & Pressure plate.

The Automotive Research Association of India, Pune

Components:
1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13. 14.

Flywheel Friction Facing Cover Stamping Pressure Plate Cushion Plate Rivets with Clutch Plate Diaphragm Spring Damper Transmission Shaft Actuation Lever Splined Shaft Pilot bearing rest Ring fulcrum (for Diaphragm Spring) Drive Strap/Clip/Lock Clutch Cover Assembly Bolted with flywheel

The Automotive Research Association of India, Pune

Location: b/w Flywheel & Clutch Cover Assembly.


 

Mounting: over splined transmission shaft.
Friction facings riveted to cushioning plates Cushion plates riveted to clutch plate and retaining plate Torsion springs mounted on splined hub

The Automotive Research Association of India, Pune

  

It is mounted over cushion plate. It helps in generating friction force Grooves are created on the surface of facing in order to eradicate the problem of friction disk sticking to flywheel. Graphite Particles (they are inexpensive, increase wear rate, increase heat resistance) Sintered/Ceramic Metals (high power transmission and good heat resistance) Fibrous Reinforcements: Fiberglass, Acrylics, Rayons, Aramids, Mineral Fiber & Cotton Fiber.

The Automotive Research Association of India, Pune

Cushion is a wave shaped component of the sheet of 0.5 mm thickness. It is riveted to friction facing and clutch plate (disc plate) as well. Allowable compression is 1 to 2 mm

The Automotive Research Association of India, Pune

Disc Plate / Clutch Plate  Riveted with cushions. It faces the flywheel side.  Disc Plate and Retainer Plate are riveted together using stop pins.

Retainer Plate  It faces the transmission shaft side.  Disc plate and retainer plates have voids to accommodate dampers.
The Automotive Research Association of India, Pune

 

Hub is splined and is attached to Hub plate. Hub is mounted on a splined transmission shaft and slides over the same at the time of engagement and disengagement. Hub plate is placed between disc (clutch) plate and retainer plate Hub Plate had voids to accommodate dampers (like retainer and disc plate) Hub plate possesses relative motion (w.r.t. retainer & disc plate) during damping the vibrations. Hence transmits less vibrations to transmission shaft. So a smooth drive

The Automotive Research Association of India, Pune

Damper is strategically placed in b/w disc plate, retainer plate and hub plate, in such a manner that one face remains in contact with hub plate and another with retainer & disc (clutch) plate.

Jerks from flywheel are absorbed by these dampers and less jerks are transmitted to transmission shaft.
Oil Hardened and Tempered Steel Wire

The Automotive Research Association of India, Pune

Clutch Cover Assembly comprises of pressure plate, diaphragm spring clutch cover, fulcrum rings and strap plates etc.. Mounting: It is bolted with the flywheel and provides extra frictional surface for the Clutch disc to transmit power.

The Automotive Research Association of India, Pune

Flattened on one face to provide friction surface for clutch disc. And on other face, fulcrum is made for actuation spring. Its is held with clutch cover using drive straps and clips and is actuated by either Diaphragm spring or Helical spring. Pressure plate also rotates as engine’s speed. CI is used for better heat dissipation capacity and wear resistance. The minimum travel of the pressure plate should be the compression length of cushion plate

 

The Automotive Research Association of India, Pune

Actuation spring holds the pressure plate with Clutch disc in normal condition.  During actuation it disengages the pressure plate with friction disc, hence cuts off the power flow.  Types: Diaphragm Spring / Helical Spring.

The Automotive Research Association of India, Pune

 

 

Diaphragm spring loaded assembly occupies less axial space, even the cooling fins can be mounted with the use of diaphragm spring. During initial stage of clutch facing wear, clamp load increases. Continued wear eventually results in fall of clamp load, once the clamp load gets over to the hump. Heat treatment Process:50CrV4
 

Quenching at 880˚ C Tempering at 12 stages
The Automotive Research Association of India, Pune

Drive Straps  used to hold pressure plate with the clutch cover Cover Stamping  It contacts the diaphragm spring at a specified fulcrum diameter. Fulcrum elements may be the wire rings up and below the diaphragm spring and riveted to the cover stamping.
The Automotive Research Association of India, Pune

avi

The Automotive Research Association of India, Pune

  

Clutch is always is in engaged state. It can be disengaged by pressing of Clutch pedal.
Disengagement is effected by non – contact of Clutch plate both with Flywheel face & Pressure plate face. Frictional heat is dissipated by openings present in Clutch housing & Cover

The Automotive Research Association of India, Pune

The Automotive Research Association of India, Pune

The Automotive Research Association of India, Pune

   

Gear box varies the leverage (speed ratio & hence torque ratio) between the engine & driving wheels. It is located between Clutch & Propeller shaft.
It is provided with either 4 speed or 5 speed ratios or more depending on design. Gear ratio is varied by Gear shift lever.

The Automotive Research Association of India, Pune

Sliding mesh

Constant mesh Synchro mesh

The Automotive Research Association of India, Pune

gearbox
The Automotive Research Association of India, Pune

The Automotive Research Association of India, Pune

The Automotive Research Association of India, Pune

5-speed Single layshaft

5-speed, intermediate shaft off input shaft

The Automotive Research Association of India, Pune

Implications of 6-speed Transmissions
 Packaging constraints

▪ Gearbox length ▪ Distance from input shaft to final drive shaft

The trend began among versions with the highest performance, or premium brand High Performance Diesel require high ratio spread The trend is spreading rapidly:
 Virtually every European and Japanese OEM now offers a 6-speed

 

manual gearbox in at least some of its models
 VW has announced that it will fit only 6-speed gearboxes across its

range in the near future for all their European cars

The Automotive Research Association of India, Pune

6-speed, twin-layshaft 5 FD 6 1
2

6-speed, intermediate shaft off layshaft 6 5 3/4 2

R

1

3

4 1

R 4

FD 3

The Automotive Research Association of India, Pune

Manual Transmission (MT) – Discussion of different layouts
 Single layshaft design cheapest and simplest

 Move from 5 to 6-speed inevitable, hence increased axial

packaging constraints
 Some single layshaft 6-speed transmissions made, but

difficult to package, leads to narrow face widths, poor axial contact ratio etc.
 options on reducing axial packaging identified
▪ Intermediate shaft off input shaft ▪ Twin layshaft, twin final drive pinion
The Automotive Research Association of India, Pune

Collars are moved by forks.  Forks are controlled by three shift rods, engaged by shift lever.  Movement of the shift lever causes the movement of collars towards required gear for engagement with main shaft  Sequential shifting for two wheelers

The Automotive Research Association of India, Pune

A device used to bring two adjacent members to the same speed before allowing the sleeve to engage them
The two elements are friction clutch and toothed clutch.


Lock the positive engagement until speeds are synchronized
Establish the positive engagement and power flow.

The Automotive Research Association of India, Pune


   

Synchronizer is splined on the shaft Gear is running freely with NRB on shaft
Cone on the gear (blue) fits into cone-shaped area in the collar. Friction between the cone and collar synchronize the collar & gear. The outer portion of the collar (sleeve) then slides so that the dogteeth engage the gear.

The Automotive Research Association of India, Pune

Blocker ring

Spring

Hub

Sleeve

Spring

Blocker ring

Strut

Synchronizer cone with selector teeth

The Automotive Research Association of India, Pune

The Automotive Research Association of India, Pune

The Automotive Research Association of India, Pune

The Automotive Research Association of India, Pune

The Automotive Research Association of India, Pune

The Automotive Research Association of India, Pune

Transmission cost to weight ratio

Source: Lechner

The Automotive Research Association of India, Pune

 Prospects for commercial success
▪ Cheap to make ▪ Durable, efficient ▪ Easy to install ▪ Established in marketplace and with manufacturing infrastructure ▪ Gives control to the driver ▪ But driver comfort an issue with increasing traffic density ▪ Hence automation must be considered

The Automotive Research Association of India, Pune

The Automotive Research Association of India, Pune

Automation of Clutch and Gear shifting operations Elimination of Clutch Pedal Modification of Gear Shifting lever Minimum modifications in manual transmission

Clutch Actuator

 

Selection and Shifting Actuator

The Automotive Research Association of India, Pune

   

Automation of Clutch operation and Gear shifting. Clutch slip control during starting
Hill start aid system which will assist the driver in hold and move the vehicle in hill slope

Necessary fail safe systems such as sudden shifting from higher gear to lowest gear and vice versa

The Automotive Research Association of India, Pune

    

Reduced driver effort Improved Clutch life
Utilization of existing manufacturing facilities for manual transmission

Lower production cost than automatic transmissions
Higher efficiency than automatic transmissions

The Automotive Research Association of India, Pune

Clutch Pedal Force Engine Torque

Clutch Actuator

Gear Shift Actuator

AMT
Source: Luk

The Automotive Research Association of India, Pune

H - Gate

The Automotive Research Association of India, Pune

Driver Intention Selector lever Signal Vehicle Speed ECU Signal Transmission Actuator Actuation Vehicle Transmission Clutch Actuator Drive Torque Clutch Traffic Conditions

The Automotive Research Association of India, Pune

Vehicle Speed
Input Shaft RPM

Pulse Signal Conditioner

Motor Drive Circuit

Transmission Actuator Clutch Actuator

Clutch Stroke

Analog Signal Conditioner

ECU

Indicator Drive Circuit

Indicator

Selector lever

Gear Position

Contact Point Signal input circuit

Starter Inhibitor Multiplexer Power Unit

Starter

The Automotive Research Association of India, Pune

Engine Start
 Starter should be operated only when the gear is in neutral

position
 When engine is not running and in power on, ECU will

disengage clutch
 When engine speed exceeds a specified rpm, ECU engages

clutch gradually

The Automotive Research Association of India, Pune

Vehicle Start
 On pressing the accelerator pedal, ECU controls the clutch

actuator travel and clutch engagement

Gear Change
 While engaging the clutch after gear shift, the ECU

determines clutch actuator travel based on shifted gear position and accelerator pedal stroke

The Automotive Research Association of India, Pune

Clutch disengagement
 While gear shifting and when accelerator pedal is released,

if the vehicle speed is lower than a set speed for select gear position, the ECU disengages clutch

The Automotive Research Association of India, Pune

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