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Objective : To investigate the validity of Bernoulli’s Theorem as applied to the flow of water in a tapering circular duct. EXPERIMENT DATA TABLE
Tap point symbol Velocity Head
Measurement static head total head
Q m3/sec 1E-04 1E-04 1E-04 1E-04 1E-04 1E-04 8.3E-05 8.3E-05 8.3E-05 8.3E-05 8.3E-05 8.3E-05 6.7E-05 6.7E-05 6.7E-05 6.7E-05 6.7E-05 6.7E-05
V2/2g m 0.082711 0.056493 0.039887 0.028959 0.012621 0.001810 0.056979 0.038918 0.027478 0.019950 0.008694 0.001247 0.037129 0.025359 0.017905 0.013000 0.005665 0.000812
velocity U, m/sec 0.8437 0.5199 0.3335 0.2256 0.0785 0.0294 0.5886 0.3630 0.2354 0.1373 0.1275 0.1177 0.3728 0.2256 0.1472 0.0883 0.0294 0.0098
total head m 19.7363 19.7138 19.7057 19.7026 19.7003 19.7000 19.7177 19.7067 19.7028 19.7010 19.7008 19.7007 19.7071 19.7026 19.7011 19.7004 19.7000 19.7000
U-V m/sec -0.4302 -0.5329 -0.5511 -0.5281 -0.4191 -0.1590 -0.4687 -0.5109 -0.4988 -0.4883 -0.2855 -0.0387 -0.4807 -0.4797 -0.4456 -0.4167 -0.3040 -0.1164
m2 0.000079 0.000095 0.000113 0.000133 0.000201 0.000531 0.000079 0.000095 0.000113 0.000133 0.000201 0.000531 0.000079 0.000095 0.000113 0.000133 0.000201 0.000531
m/sec 1.273885 1.052798 0.884643 0.753778 0.497611 0.188445 1.057325 0.873822 0.734253 0.625636 0.413018 0.156409 0.853503 0.705375 0.592711 0.505031 0.333400 0.126258
m 0.197 0.23 0.249 0.26 0.275 0.28 0.259 0.282 0.295 0.305 0.306 0.307 0.268 0.283 0.291 0.297 0.303 0.305
m 0.283 0.283 0.283 0.283 0.283 0.283 0.319 0.319 0.319 0.319 0.319 0.319 0.306 0.306 0.306 0.306 0.306 0.306
a b c d e f a b c d e f a b c d e f
10 11 12 13 16 26 10 11 12 13 16 26 10 11 12 13 16 26
there was error while determining the total head. in this experiment. the total head should be lower than the 0.000083 m3/sec flow rate. Total head should be inversely proportional to the flow rate. the static head (pressure) increased and this will result in the decreasing of the velocity. at 0.0001 m3/sec.000067 m3/sec. However. but it seems. .At flow rate = 0. It is show that as diameter larger.
I found that when the water flow’s velocity is increased. Also. then the pressure (static head) will be lower at constrictions and the velocity will be higher. DATA ERROR ANALYSIS 1. Parallax error might occur during this experiment especially during taking the static head and total head readings. if fluid is flowing along a pipe of varying cross section. . Since this experiment objective is to investigate the pressure drop inside the venturi meter. However. the pressure is smaller. therefore. the pressure will be higher at where the pipe opens out and the fluid stagnates. 2. Error might occur if there is gas bubbles existence in the venturi meter because it will affect the data measurement. Experiment Questions 1. In this experiment. It is essential to avoid gas or vapor bubbles in this liquid filled experiment.000067 m3/sec. Bernoulli’s principle can be still applied in this experiment because the static head pressure is still lower than total head pressure. From here. 관내 유동에(streamline) 베르누이 방정식을 적용하였을때 잘 적용되는가? 잘 적용되는디 않은다면 그 이유는 무엇인가? Bernoulli's law indicates that. it shows that as flow rate get bigger.This is a graph of diameter versus static head at various flow rates.000083 m3/sec should be lower than 0. the pressure is increased. Also the variation of cross sectional area (diameter) is also affected the water flows velocity because it seems to flow faster at small diameter and flows slower at wider diameter. Suppose the static pressure at flow rate 0. the water flow through the device obeys Bernoulli's Law. the pressure is decreased and when the velocity is decreased.
The faster the impeller revolves the higher the velocity will goes into the liquid. A vacuum is created at the impellers eye that continuously draws more fluid into the pump. The energy created by the pump is kinetic energy. 실험 장치와 같이 펌프를 이용한 유체 공급 장치에서 return 방식을 사용하는 이유는 무엇인가? A pump is a device used to move fluids. 주변에서 일어나는 유체의 흐름 중 베르누이 방정식을 이용하여 설명할수있는 하나의 예를 들어 설명 하여라. The kinetic energy of a liquid coming out of an impeller is obstructed by creating a . Steady-state flow refers to condition where the fluid properties at any single point in the system do not change over time. 3. It converts the input power to kinetic energy in the liquid by accelerating the liquid by a revolving device . velocity and temperature. The simplest application of steady state flow is when to determine change in fluid velocity due to expansion or contraction in the diameter of the pipe. The continuity equation is a principle which use in conservation of mass. Fluid enters the pump through the eye of the impeller which rotates at high speed. For most of control volume. The most common type is the volute pump. the mass flow rate into the volume must be equal to the mass flow rate out. incompressible flow. In this experiment. These fluid properties include pressure. a centrifugal pump is used to draw water from water tank into a vertical transparent pipe. The fluid is accelerated radially outward from the pump chasing. so mass only enters and leaves through the two ends of this stream tube section.an impeller. min = mout For stream tube as shown below. no fluid flows across the boundary made by the streamlines .2. The energy transferred to the liquid corresponds to the velocity at the edge of the impeller. frictionless flow and flow along a streamline. I will go with Steady-state flow. There are four assumptions for Bernoulli’s Principles which are steady flow.
A pump does not create pressure. Therefore. 4. In this venturi meter experiment. There are nozzle meter which can measured medium pressure loss and orifice meter that can measured high pressure loss. 베르누이 방정식이 잘 적용되는 실험 장치를 만들기 위해서는 어떤 점들이 개선되어야 하는가?설계적 인 관점에서 설명하여라. the more power is required. It has a tab on one side where the specification of the plate is stamped. Moreover. . Also. it only creates flow. increase of fluid flow velocity through the reduced area at the orifice develops a differential pressure across the orifice. can occupies much considerable space and also measuring pressure at very high velocity. condensation or something that will caused the tube be filled with gas. The upstream side of the orifice plate usually has a sharp edge. It is important to understand that the pump will pump all fluids to the same height if the shaft is turning at the same rpm. a proper apparatus should be assembled at which the water/liquid can flow much faster without leakage. 5. This pressure is a function of flow rate. When an orifice plate is installed in a flow line (usually clamped between a pair of flanges). there is impulse lines that is used to connect a point in a pipe at which pressure will be measured. the function is to connect points upstream and downstream of the meter to the secondary device to measure the differential pressure. venture meter occupies considerable space and cannot be altered for measuring pressure beyond a maximum velocity. Here I choose the orifice plate is the most common form that is used in flow measurement. 본 실험에서 배운 이론과 관련된 기기에 대한 설계 개선 방안을 제안하시오. Pressure is a measurement of the resistance to flow. This can cause number of problems that can lead to inaccurate measurement. There is a lot of device can be used to investigate Bernoulli’s law inside Tapering Circular Duct. An orifice plate is basically a thin metal plate with a hole bored in the center. Problems can arise from leakage at couplings. gas bubbles being trapped in a line that is intended to be filled with water/liquid.resistance in the flow. The higher the specific gravity of the fluid.
From the internet. . it can be found that there are various type of orifice plate which have been used in most fluid flow arrangements.
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