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Attribution Non-Commercial (BY-NC)

- Soil Mechanics by Lambe and Whitman
- Soil Mechanics Question and Answers
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- NAVFAC DM-7.01 SOIL MECHANICS
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- liquefaction thesis
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- Experimental Soil Mechanics - Jean-Pierre Bardet
- Critical State Soil Mechanics
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- Soil Mechanics Notes
- NAVFAC 7.1-2005

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1.1 Definitions

Soil:

• uncemented or weakly cemented accumulation of mineral and organic particles and

sediments found above the bedrock, or

• any unconsolidated material consisting of discrete solid particles with fluid or gas in

the voids

Rock:

• indurated (consolidated by pressure or cementation ) material requiring drilling,

blasting, brute force excavation

The dividing line between soil and rock is arbitrary; the same material may sometimes be either

classified as “very soft rock” or “very hard soil”, depending on who classifies the material or

what the application is. To a geologist “our” soil is drift or unconsolidated material.

Whereas we are concerned with soil to the depth of bedrock, soil scientists (pedology) and

agricultural scientists (agronomists) are concerned with only the very uppermost layers of soil.

Soil Mechanics: (ASTM) the application of the laws and principles of mechanics and hydraulics

to engineering problems dealing with soil as an engineering material.

Geotechnical Engineering: the application of civil engineering technology to some aspect of the

earth, therefore including soil and rock as engineering materials. It combines the basic physical

sciences, geology, pedology with hydraulic, structural, transportation, construction,

environmental and mining engineering.

- pore fluid

- pore gas

Most solid particles are mineral fragments that originated from the disintegration of rocks by

physical or chemical action, often referred to as weathering.

Physical Weathering: erosion due to freezing & thawing, abrasion from glaciers, temperature

changes, and the activity of plants and animals.

chemical processes.

Exceptions: Peat (organic) and shell deposits

Glaciers (glacial)

Moving water (fluvial)

Wind (aeolian)

Settling out in salt water (marine)

Settling out in fresh water (lactustrine)

Due to gravity movement downslope (colluvial)

(most common in temperate regions)

Naturally occurring soils are usually a mixture of two or more of the above components.

(e.g., silty-sand, clayey-silt, clay with gravel)

In addition, the void space between the slid particles may be filled with either pore fluid gas.

• highly variable

- properties vary widely from point to point within the soil mass

- more heterogeneous rather than homogeneous

- large variations over small distances

• nonlinear stress-strain response

- soils “remember” what has happened to them in the past

- stress history is very important

- soil behaviour is quite different whether normally consolidated or

overconsolidated (CivE381)

• anisotropic

- different properties in different directions

- primarily a result of depositional and loading history

- empirical - based on experience – what we can see / what we can measure

- good design - combination of art, science and common sense

The behavior of soil in situ is often governed by soil fabric, weak layers and zones, and other

defects in the material. It is therefore essential that the successful geotechnical engineer

develops a feel for the soil behavior.

Generally we idealize the behavior using applied mechanics concepts, and then apply

engineering judgement (based on our own experience and the experience of others) to come up

with a final solution.

necessary to be able to CLASSIFY the soil based on ENGINEERING BEHAVIOUR. BEHAVIOUR

2. MASS - VOLUME RELATIONSHIPS AND DEFINITIONS

- quartz, feldspars, carbonates, mica / clay minerals, organic matter,

- plus garbage, tailings, slag, etc.

2) Pore fluid

- normally water

- could be oil, bitumen

- could be leachate

3) Pore gas

- normally air

- could be methane (landfill, pipeline)

- often excess CO2 in tropics, radon

For quantifying the properties of a soil, a series of definitions and terminology has developed to

describe the three phase system – best illustrated with the use of a phase diagram.

VA MA=0

Air

VV

VW Water MW

VT

Solid MT

VS MS

• provides an easy means to identify both what is know and the relationship between known

and desired quantities

• we usually measure the total volume VT, the mass of water MW, and the mass of solids MS

• we may then calculate the rest of the values and the mass volume relationships that we need.

Most relationships are independent of sample size and are often dimensionless.

2.3 Volumetric Relationships

Void Ratio, e:

VV

e=

VS

[1]

VV = volume of voids

VS = volume of solids

• Expressed as a decimal

• Typically:

Sands 0.4 < e < 1.0 very loose sand e ≈ 0.8

Clays 0.3 < e < 1.5 soft clay e > 1

organic clays e > 3

• Empirically determined that much of soil behavior is related to e

As e decreases density increases

As e decreases strength increases

As e decreases permeability decreases

Porosity, n:

VV

n=

VT

[2]

VV = volume of voids

VT = volume total

e

n=

1+ e

[2a]

and

n

e=

1− n

[2b]

Degree of Saturation, S:

VW

S= × 100 (%)

VV

[3]

VW = volume of water

VV = volume of voids

• Expressed as a percentage

• Tells us the percentage of the total volume of voids that contain water

• Range is from 0 to 100%

S = 0 % soil is completely dry

S = 100 % soil is saturated (i.e. pore spaces are completely filled with water)

Density, ρ :

• Expressed as g/cm3, kg/m3 or Mg/m3 (=g/cm3)

Density of Solids, ρ S:

MS = mass of solids

VS = volume of solids

MS

ρS =

VS

[4]

Density of Water, ρ W:

MW

ρW = = 1.0g / cm 3 = 1.0Mg / m 3 at 4 o C

VW

[5]

MW = mass of water

VW = volume of water

MT

ρ=

VT

[6]

MT = mass total

VT = volume total

Saturated Density, ρ sat:

S = 100%, therefore VA = 0

MT

ρ sat =

VT

[7]

Similar to bulk density except that the sample must have S = 100%

e.g. saturated soil below the water table

Dry Density, ρ d:

S = 0%, therefore MW = 0

MS

ρd =

VT

[8]

ρ′ = ρ SAT − ρ W

[9]

The relationships just defined in terms of masses (or densities) can be expressed in terms of

weights and are called unit weights.

Unit Weight, γ :

γ = ρ× g

[10]

g = acceleration due to gravity = 9.81 m/s2

γ = 2100 kg/m3 × 9.81 m/s2 = 20601 kg⋅m = 20.6 kN / m3

s2⋅m3

2.6 Basic Tests

Moisture Content, w:

ASTM D2216

MW

w= × 100(%)

MS

[11]

• Expressed as a percentage

• The amount of water present in a soil relative to the mass of dry soil.

• See Bowles Experiment #1, pages 15-17.

ASTM D854

γS ρ

Gs = = S

γW ρW

[12]

• Note that the Canadian Foundation and Engineering Manual (1992) terms this ratio as the

relative density of the solid phase with respect to water and uses the symbol Dr.

• See Bowles Experiment #7, pages 71-78

• Defined as the weight of soil divided by the weight of an equal volume of water at 20oC

• Gs is found using a sample of soil and a pycnometer, which gives the average specific

gravity of the materials from which the soil particles are made.

• Typically 2.6 to 2.8 for the solid minerals in soil

• Often Gs < 1 for organic particles

e S = w Gs

[13]

G + eS

ρ= S ρw

1+ e

[14]

set S = 1 for ρsat

set S = 0 for ρd

2.7 Typical Values

TABLE 1. Summary of typical values of porosity, void ratio, water content, saturated density

and saturated unit weight.

(%) (%) kg/m3 kg/m3

LOOSE, UNIFORM SAND 46 .85 32 1890 18.5

LOOSE, MIXED GRAINED SOIL 40 .67 25 1986 19.45

DENSE WELL GRADED SAND 30 .43 16 2163 21.2

HARD OR DENSE GLACIAL TILL 20 .25 9 2323 22.8

SOFT CLAY 55 1.2 45 1762 17.3

STIFF CLAY 37 0.6 22 2067 20.2

SOFT ORGANIC CLAY 75 3.0 110 1426 13.9

PEAT (VERY COMPRESSIBLE) 94 17 1000 10.2

K-Feldspars 2.65 - 2.57 Silty Sand 2.66 - 2.68

Na-Ca-Feldspars 2.62 - 2.76 Silt 2.67 - 2.68

Calcite 2.72 Silty Clay 2.70 - 2.72

Dolomite 2.85 Clay 2.70 - 2.80

Muscovite 2.7 - 3.1

Biotite 2.8 - 3.2 Gs > 2.80 - likely metals present

Chlorite 2.6 - 2.9 Gs < 2.70 - likely organics present

Pyrophyllite 2.84

Serpentine 2.2 - 2.7 Average Gs for sand = 2.65

a

Kaolinite 2.61 Average Gs for well mixed soil = 2.70

2.64+/-0.02

Halloysite (2 H 2 O) 2.55

Illite 2.84 a

2.60 - 2.86

Montmorillonite 2.74 a

2.75 - 2.78

Attapulgite 2.3

a

Calculated from crystal structure.

2.8 Example Problems

A saturated soil sample (S = 100%) has a water content of 42% and a specific gravity of 2.70.

Calculate the void ratio, porosity, bulk unit weight, and bulk density.

A cylinder of soil has a volume of 1.15×10-3 m3, a mass of 2.290 kg and Gs of 2.68. The mass of

solid obtained by drying is 2.035 kg. Calculate: ρ, γ, wn, e, n, and S.

3. GRAIN SIZE AND GRAIN SIZE DISTRIBUTION

• convenient dividing line is the smallest grain that is visible to the naked eye

• with the Unified Soil Classification System (USCS) the division corresponds to a

particle size of 0.075 mm.

Particles larger than this size are called coarse-grained, while soils finer than this size are

called fine-grained.

Soil Type

Gravels, Sands Silts Clays

- Can see individual - Cannot see - Cannot see

grains by eye individual grains individual grains

- Nonplastic - Nonplastic - Plastic

- Granular - Granular

engineering unimportant Important Very Important

behaviour: (exception: loose

saturated granular

materials and

dynamic loading)

Effect of grain size

distribution on Important Relatively Relatively

engineering Important Unimportant

behaviour:

3.2 Grain Size Distribution

We are interested in both the particle size and the distribution of the particle sizes.

Sieve tests and hydrometer tests are used to define the distribution of grain sizes.

The range of particle sizes varies from 200 mm > D > 0.002 mm (i.e. by orders of

magnitude) hence when we examine the particle size distribution we plot on a logarithmic

scale.

classification systems.

The Unified Soil Classification System (USCS) is one commonly used classification

system.

In describing the size of a soil particle, we can use either a dimension or a name that has

been arbitrarily assigned to a certain size range. Classification from the USCS is

described below:

Cobbles 75 to 300

Gravel 4.75 to 75

Sand 0.075 to 4.75

Silt

< 0.075

Clay

Particle size distribution obtained by shaking a dry sample of soil through a series of

woven-wire square-mesh sieves with successively smaller openings.

Since soil particles are rarely perfect spheres, particle diameter (or size) refers to an

equivalent particle diameter as found from the sieve analysis. We will use the U.S.

Standard Sieves. The sieve sizes are summarized in Table 3.2.

Table 3.2 U.S. Standard Sieve Sizes and their Corresponding Opening Dimension

3" 75

1.5" 38

0.75" 19

0.375" 9.5

#

4 4.75

#

10 2.00

#

20 0.85

#

40 0.425

#

60 0.25

#

100 0.15

#

140 0.106

#

200 0.075 Cobbles

Sand Gravel

Fines (Silt, Clay) Boulders

F M C F C

Nested sieves are used for soils with grain sizes larger than 75 :m. For finer soils (silts

and clays) the hydrometer test is used.

Procedure for Soil Analysis

2. Determine the weight of soil retained on each sieve.

3. Calculate the percent of weight finer than each particle size.

4. Plot the grain size distribution as Percent Finer Than as the ordinate (y-axis) versus

the log of the Particle Size as the abscissa (x-axis).

Opening Sieve and Soil Retained Mass Retained Retained

µm g g g g

A B

Parameters Describing the Grain Size Distribution

- Denotes the grain diameter (in mm) corresponding to 10% passing by mass.

- Controls flow for coarse grain soils.

D60

Cu =

D10

where: D60 = grain diameter (in mm) corresponding to 60% passing by mass and,

D10 = grain diameter (in mm) corresponding to 10% passing by mass.

(Note: if D60 = D10, Cu = 1, all particles between 10% and 60% are the same size).

2

D30

Cc =

D10 D60

where: D30 = grain diameter (in mm) corresponding to 30% passing by mass.

1 < CC < 3

If CU and CC do not meet both of the criteria above, the soil is poorly graded.

Well graded: good representation of particle sizes over a wide range; gradation curve is

generally smooth.

Poorly graded: either excess or a deficiency of certain sizes, or most of the particles

about the same size. (i.e. uniform soil)

Gap graded: a proportion of grain sizes within a specific range is low (it is also poorly

graded).

Introduction to Soils 16 CivE 381

3.3 Density Index of Granular Soil

emax - emin

emin = minimum void ratio corresponding to the densest state, and

e = void ratio of the sample.

• Sifting or funneling dry sand into narrow rows in a box

• Gentle settling in a water column

• If very fine, dumped in a damp, bulked state and submerged from below

• Prolonged vibration at 20 - 30 cycles / sec under light static load in dry state

• If very uniform sand, tamped lightly after dumping thin layers

• 63.5 kg (140 lb) hammer dropping 76.2 cm (30")

• Count number of blows per ft to drive 2" sampler 61 cm

ID 0 15 35 65 85 100

Very Loose Compact Dense Very

Loose Dense

N 28o 30o 36o 45o

k = c (D10)2 cm/s

where 100 < c < 150

Developed by Hazen for uniform, loose, clean sands and gravels.

Frost heaving occurs if water may be drawn towards the freezing front in soils from

below, forming lenses of ice. Whether or not water may be drawn to the freezing front is

largely governed by the pore size, which is a function of the grain size distribution of the

soil. The pore sizes may be sufficiently small to allow capillary action of the pore water

up to the freezing front, and sufficiently large to have a high enough permeability to

allow the water to migrate fast enough.

Silts combine sufficiently high suction and permeability to maximize ice lens production,

hence road base material, for example, is usually specified to have not more than 3% silt

size particles to alleviate frost heave beneath roads.

• Used to specify material for concrete aggregate (sand & gravel), road base material

• Used to examine and develop borrow pits.

4. Geotechnical Processes

• Used to examine the likely effectiveness of grouting or soil freezing techniques for

soil stabilization.

Piping ratio:

D15( FILTER )

< 4to5

D85( SOIL)

Prevents the protected soil from moving through the filter.

D15( FILTER )

> 4to5

D15( SOIL)

Ensures that the filter is large enough to improve the situation.

It may be necessary to place a number of filter materials in series to avoid piping.

NATURE OF COHESIVE SOILS

“Clay” refers to both a specific sheet size ( < 2 µm) and specific minerals (sheet silicates) that are

somewhat similar to mica. The cohesive properties of natural soils are normally related to the

presence of clay minerals (e.g., kaolinite, illite, monmorillonite, chlorite and vermiculite).

- hydrated cations (+ve) are attracted to -ve clay particles forming a double layer

The double layer (or bound water) is the main reason that the engineering behaviour of clayey

soils are strongly influenced by the presence of water.

Atterberg Limits

Since water plays an important role in the behaviour with a significant clayey fraction, a range of

water content has been defined that correlate strongly with the engineering properties of fine

grained soils. The Atterberg limits are water contents that bracket different behavioural states for

the soil.

w (%)

shrinkage limit, ws

plastic limit, wP

liquid limit, wL

The range of water content over which a fine grained soil behaves as a plastic is defined as the

Plasticity Index:

IP =

The Plasticity Index provides an important indication of soil properties and may indicate its

composition. It is used in the classification of fine grained soils.

IL =

(%) (%) (%) (meq/100g)

kaolinite

illite

Na+ - montmorillonite

Ca++ - montmorillonite

NOTES:

CLASSIFICATION OF SOILS

Read: “An Introduction to Geotechnical Engineering”, Holtz and Kovacs pp. 47-64.

ON RESERVE: UA Cameron Flr1 SciTec Reserve, CALL NUMBER: TA 710 H75 1981

COARSE GRAINED

( < 50% PASSES No. 200 SIEVE)

GRAVEL ( < 50% PASSES No. 4 SIEVE) G

SAND ( > 50% PASSES No. 4 SIEVE) S

FINE GRAINED

( > 50% PASSING No. 200 SIEVE)

SILT M

CLAY C

ORGANIC O

PEAT Pt

2) SUBDIVISIONS SUFFIX

WELL GRADED (Cu > 4 and 1 < Cc < 3), CLEAN W

POORLY GRADED (Cu Ý 4 and 1 Û Cc Û 3), CLEAN P

APPRECIABLE FINES ( > 12% PASSES No. 200 SIEVE) M or C

LOW PLASTICITY (wL < 50%) L

HIGH PLASTICITY (wL > 50%) H

1

COMPACTION OF SOILS

- ultimate strength usually not a problem

- strength derived from shells of dam

Clay Liner - low permeability (relatively impervious) for municipal and toxic solid

waste disposal

1)

2)

3)

4)

2

The relationship between the dry density (or unit weight) and water content of a soil is measured

in the laboratory with the compaction test. Here a soil sample mixed to a certain water content is

compacted in a cylinder of known volume. The dry density of the soil can be computed by

measuring both the total mass of the soil and the water content.

• for each layer, drop known mass a certain height with a specified number of blows per layer

Number of Layers 3 5

Height of Fall 0.3048 m 0.4572 m

Mass of Hammer 2.495 kg 4.536 kg

Energy 593 kJ/m3 2694 kJ/m3

3

γd

19 .

.

.

18 .

17

6 8 10 12 14 16 18

w

Typical Compaction Curve for Silty Clay

Explanation of shape:

• get

• some of the compactive effort is taken by

• also water takes up spaces that could be occupied by

4

Relationship between dry density, water content and degree of saturation can be calculated viz,

Note that:

- no data points should lie to the right of the zero air void curve

Kovacs (1981)

Modified Proctor test has a greater compactive effort (CE) than the Standard Proctor.

• as CE 8,

• as w 8

•

5

σ

600

Strength (kPa)

400

200

w ε%

γd

w

6

• hydraulic conductivity

decreases as moulding water

content

• huge decrease in k

• minimum k occurs 2 to 4%

above the optimum water

content

the method of compaction

influences k

100 times difference in k

flocculated

dispersed

7

Compacted clay liners are commonly used as barriers in waste containment facilities (e.g.,

municipal solid waste landfills) to minimize the movement of contaminants from the facility.

SOLID WASTE

Geotextile

Perforated Pipe

Gravel (50 mm)

Geotextile

! since lowest values of k achieved with kneading compaction, make great effort in the field

to repetitively knead the soil with many passes of pad-foot, club-foot or wedge-foot rollers

! also compact in lifts with pad-foot compactor with feet long enough to penetrate through the

lift being compacted into the underlying lift

! minimum thickness (normally) of 0.9 m (six lifts of 0.15 m) to minimize the risk of defects in a

layer having a significant impact on performance

- probability of cracks lining up is very small if compacted in more than four layers

may not be a great problem clayey soils with low activity

dessicate -

freeze -

8

Having defined the necessary dry density for the soil, determined the type of compactor and

determined the lift height, it is subsequently necessary to monitor the density of the field

compacted soil to ensure that the soil is performing as expected and that contractor is performing

the work as required.

The easiest and probably most common method of determining the soil density is with the use of a

Nuclear Density Meter. Other methods include sand cone and rubber balloon tests.

Nuclear Density Meter

-non–destructive

-measures both moisture content and bulk density directly

-gamma radiation is used for density determination

-neutron radiation is used for moisture content determination

-radiation is sent out from an emitter and scattered radiation is counted by a detector.

-calibration against compacted materials of known density and water content is necessary

1. Excavate a hole in the compacted fill at the desired sampling elevation.

2. Record the mass of soil removed for the hole.

3. Determine the water content of the soil removed.

4. Measure the volume of the hole using sand cone, balloon or other method.

5. Calculate bulk density knowing Mt and Vt.

6. Calculate the dry density knowing the bulk density and the water content.

STEADY STATE SEEPAGE

TYPES OF PROBLEMS

- rate of leakage from an earth dam

- movements of contaminants in subsurface

- related to how fast water flows in soils

- water influences the strength of soils

NATURE OF FLOW

flow from A to B

- not in a straight line

- not at a constant velocity

- rather winding path from pore to pore

• isolated voids do not exist in an assemblage of spheres - regardless of packing density

- gravels, sands, silts, and even most clays - probably no isolated voids - unless cemented

• some geologic materials (e.g., many crystalline rocks) have a high total porosity - most of

which are interconnected

- effective porosity ne - percentage of interconnected pore space

- contaminants may move very fast in fractured rock

ONE DIMENSIONAL FLOW - DARCY’S LAW

Classical experiment performed by H. Darcy in the 1850's to study the flow properties of water

through a sand filter bed.

Q=

where:

h3 = height above datum of water rise in standpipe inserted at the top of the sand [ L ]

h4 = height above datum of water rise in standpipe inserted at the base of the sand [ L ]

L = length of sample [ L ]

Define gradient between any two points a and b as:

iab =

Q=

- volume of water that flows through a unit area per unit time

- units with dimensions of [ L3 ] × [ L-2 ] × [ T-1 ] = [ L / T ]

- same units as velocity

- often called Darcy velocity but is actually a flux

- fictitious velocity but useful

Consider the flow between points 1 - 2 and 3 - 4. Continuity of flow requires that:

Q 1-2 = Q 3-4

- also termed groundwater velocity and average linearized groundwater velocity

- also fictitious quantity given tortuous flow path, but again useful quantity

NATURE OF HEADS

h = hv + hp + z

hp = pressure head

- height to which liquid rises in a piezometer above that point

- pore pressure u = hp × ãw

z = elevation head

- vertical distance from datum to point

h = total head [ L ]

Note: Total head is always measured relative to some datum. Since flow depends on the gradient

(or change in head over a given distance) the choice of the position of datum is not important -

however, choosing a datum (and clearly defining it) is of paramount importance.

Example 1.

Example 2.

Example 3.

PHYSICAL INTERPRETATION OF DARCY’S PROPORTIONALITY CONSTANT

function of the soil and the fluid.

k % ãw

k % 1/µ

k % d2

where:

µ = viscosity

- contains properties of both the porous medium and the fluid

- units [ L / T ]

- characterises the capacity of a porous medium to transmit water at a specific temperature

- also referred to as the coefficient of permeability

- hydraulic conductivity is most frequently used in ground water or hydrogeology literature

- permeability used in petroleum industry where the fluids of interest are oil, gas and water

k = ki ãw

µ

- contains properties of the porous medium only

- units [ L2 ]

- characterises the capacity of a porous medium to transmit any fluid

Both the unit weight and the viscosity of water can change with temperature. For practical

purposes of groundwater flow these changes are small; we ignore these effects (unless the

temperatures approach 0°C), so we treat k as a soil property, independent of other effects.

HYDRAULIC CONDUCTIVITY

- effective porosity

- grain size and grain size distribution

- shape and orientation of particles

- degree of saturation

- clay mineralogy

k (m/s)

102 -

101 -

1-

10-1 -

10-2 -

10-3 -

10-4 -

10-5 -

10-6 -

10-7 -

10-8 -

10-9 -

10-10 -

HYDRAULIC CONDUCTIVITY AND CLAY MINERALOGY

In general, the higher the specific surface and cation exchange capacity, the greater amount of

bound water and the lower the hydraulic conductivity value.

(nm) Surface (meq/100g) (m/s)

(km2/kg)

kaolinite

50 - 2000 0.015 -5 10-7 - 10-10

illite

30 .08 - 25 10-9 - 10-11

montmorillonite

3 100 - 100 10-10 - 10-15

kaolinite

- would have to be very pure to obtain low k because of low CEC

- valuable as a pottery clay

illite

- probably best barrier clays

- fairly inactive, no interlayer expansion or contraction

- yield low k barrier if constitute about 20% of well graded soil

montmorillonite

- obtain the lowest hydraulic conductivity

- susceptible to interlayer expansion and contraction - may get huge increase in k - BAD

- most temperamental of the clay minerals

LABORATORY MEASUREMENT OF HYDRAULIC CONDUCTIVITY

ONE DIMENSIONAL FLOW PROBLEMS

The engineered barrier systems in modern municipal solid waste landfills provide excellent

examples of the use of one dimensional flow problems to solve seepage problems.

TWO DIMENSIONAL STEADY STATE SEEPAGE

Several assumptions are required to derive the equation governing two dimensional steady state

seepage.

• there is no change in void ratio of the porous medium

• the hydraulic conductivity is isotropic

• Darcy’s law is valid

• the water is incompressible

Consider the flow of water into an element with dimensions dx and dy and unit width in the z

direction.

Analytical solutions can be obtained to Laplace’s equation for problems involving only simple

boundary conditions.

finite element

- SeepW ®

- GMS Seep2D ®

Numerical solutions may be highly dependent upon the refinement of the finite-difference grid or

finite-element mesh. For transient analysis suitable refinement of the time step is also important.

Such numerical methods should be considered incorrect until proven correct.

1) Equipotential lines

- EP

- lines of constant total head

2) Flow lines

- FL

- lines parallel to the direction of flow

If we draw a flow net with constant head difference between EPs for flow through a

homogeneous, isotropic porous medium then:

- EP z FL

- get curvilinear squares - don’t have to all be the same size

- be able to fit circle tangent to all sides

7

Flow net for

Darcy’s Apparatus 6

0

To solve for the flow Q use Darcy’s law:

- calculate Q based on one square then multiply by the number of flow tubes

ÄQ = k Äh a

L

Äh = total head drop across a pair of EPs

L = distance over which head drop takes place

a = distance between adjacent flow lines.

- hp = 0

-ˆh=z

- line of variable but

known head

2) Identify the boundary conditions (EP, FL, LCP).

3) Draw intermediate equipotentials and flow lines.

- draw coarse mesh with a few EPs and FLs

4) Verify the coarse mesh is correct.

- Are the boundary conditions satisfied ?

- Are all flow tubes continuous ?

- Are EPs z FLs ? only if isotropic medium

- Mostly “squares” ?

5) Add additional EPs and FLs for suitable refinement of the flow net.

6) Calculate desired quantities of flow and heads.

Example: Steady State Seepage Beneath a Sheet Pile Wall

Flow Beneath a Dam

Seepage Through an Earth Dam

EFFECTIVE STRESS

Any deformation or mobilization of shearing resistance of a soil is associated with the soil

skeleton since:

- water is incompressible

- water cannot support shear stresses

óN = ó - u

σ = total stress

u = pore pressure

ó = óN + u 1 - Ac

A

• the compressibility of the soil particles is small and the strength of individual particles is large

Effective stress can be thought of as the force carried by the soil skeleton divided by the total area

of the soil element (including the area of pore water).

-1-

CALCULATING EFFECTIVE STRESSES

• the total vertical stress σv within a particular soil layer is equal to the total weight per unit area

of material above that point

γw = unit weight of water

- K is a function of soil type and stress history

- for conditions of zero lateral strain, Ko is used

Ko = “at rest” coefficient of lateral earth pressure

- K is typically between 0.3 to 0.8 for normally consolidated clays

- K is typically between 0.3 to 0.5 for normally consolidated sands

where: φN = angle of internal friction

where: OCR = overconsolidation ratio

-2-

Example 1

-3-

Example 2. Typical River Crossing with Artesian Conditions

-4-

CAPILLARY AND SOIL SUCTION

The concept of soil suction is fundamental when considering the mechanical behaviour of

- matric suction, and

- osmotic suction

ø = ( ua - u ) + ð

ua = pore-air pressure

u = pore-water pressure

( ua - u ) = matric suction

π = osmotic suction

Matric suction is associated with the capillary phenomenon arising from the surface tension of

water.

• the capillary phenomenon is best illustrated by considering the rise of a water surface in a

capillary tube

Consider a small glass tube inserted into water under atmospheric conditions:

liquid meets glass tube at angle á

-1-

• water rises up a small tube resulting from a combination of the surface tension of a liquid and

the tendency of some liquids ro wet surfaces which they come into contact with

2 ð r Ts cos á = ð r2 hc ñw g

Ts = surface tension of water . 73 dynes / cm - different in different liquids

α = contact angle - for any liquid, Ts 9 as temp 8

hc = capillary height

g = gravitational acceleration.

solve for hc

Rs = radius of curvature ( r ÷ α)

The radius of the tube is analogous to the pore radius in the soil. The smaller the pore radius, the

greater the capillary rise.

• common to assume the effective pore size is 20% of effective grain size D10

Note that highly variable pore size and pore distribution complicate the capillary phenomenon in

soils. However, useful qualitative deductions can be made from the glass tube analogy.

hc (m)

Loose Dense

Coarse sand 0.03 - 0.12 0.04 - 0.15

Fine sand 0.3 - 2.0 0.4 - 3.5

Silt 1.5 - 10 2.5 - 12

Clay > 10

-2-

Consider several points in the capillary system that are in hydrostatic equilibrium

• for a soil with a capillary zone, this results in an increased compression on the soil skeleton

Contact Moisture

VADOSE ZONE

Partially Saturated by

Capillarity

Saturated by

Capillarity

PHREATIC ZONE

Ground Water

-3-

STRESSES IN AN ELASTIC MASS

Semi-Infinite Mass

3P z3

Vertical Stress σz =

2πR3

P 3 r 2 z (1 − 2 v ) R

Radial Stress σr = − −

2πR 2 R3 R+z

P (1 − 2 v ) R z

Tangential stress σθ = −

2πR 2 R + z R

3P r z2

Shear stress τ rz =

2πR5

1

(b) Uniformly Loaded Strip

Vertical stress σz =

P

[ α + sin α cos (α + 2δ ) ]

π

Horizontal stress σx =

P

[ α − sin α cos (α + 2δ ) ]

π

2p

Horizontal stress σy = να

π

sin α sin (α + 2δ )

p

Shear stress τ xz =

π

2

(c) Uniformly Load Circle

On axis, at depth z,

3

1 2

Vertical stress σz = p 1 −

1 + (a / z )2

2 (1 + ν ) z z3

Horizontal stresses σ r = σθ =

p

(1 + 2ν ) − +

2

a +z

2

( 2 2

1

) (

a 2 + z2 ) 3

2

3

Increment in vertical stress (∆σv = ∆qv) beneath a circular footing with radius R and subject to

uniform vertical pressure ∆qs on uniform, isotropic elastic half-space.

4

(d) Uniformly Loaded Rectangle

Vertical stress σz beneath the corner of a rectangle is given by Fadum’s chart. For points other

than the corner, σz may be obtained by superposition of rectangles.

5

(e) General Shapes

For linear elastic problems solutions may be added or subtracted to solve problems involving

more complex geometry.

For example:

6

SETTLEMENT OF SOILS

deformation will occur.

The design of foundations for engineering structures requires that the magnitude and rate of

settlement be known.

ST = Si + S + Ss

where:

Si = immediate or distortion settlement

Ss = secondary compression

When a soil is loaded settlement occurs because of water and air squeezing out from the voids.

This results in a decrease in void ratio, and hence settlement.

-1-

MECHANICAL ANALOGY OF CONSOLIDATION

total stress = σv

pore pressure = uo

effective stress = σv - uo = σoN

have: total stress = σv + ∆σ

pore pressure = uo + ∆u

effective stress = ( σv + ∆σ ) - ( uo + ∆u )

= σv - uo = σoN

ˆ ∆σoN = 0 - no change in effective stress

- no compression of the spring

- ST = Si S=0

ˆ ∆u 9 as t 8

as t 6 4, ∆u 6 0, then:

total stress = σv + ∆σ

pore pressure = uo

effective stress = ( σv + ∆σ ) - uo = σfN

For real soil materials, the compression of the spring is analogous to a decrease in void ratio arising

from a change in effective stresses

Consolidation is a time dependent process since it involves the flow of water from the pores.

- consolidation is the dissipation of excess pore pressure

-2-

STRAIN INTEGRATION

Recall the axial deformation δ of a column with stiffness E and cross-sectional area A, subject to

axial load P.

Likewise for a soil material subject to increases in effective stress, the settlement (vertical

displacement) may be found be integrating the vertical strain, viz:

where:

∆εz = change in vertical strain because of a change in σN

D = thickness of compressible layer

n = number of sub-layers

∆zi = thickness of sub-layers

∆εz

Layer 1 ∆z1

Layer 2 ∆z2

∆zi

...

Layer n ∆zn

The number (n) and thickness (∆zi) of sub-layers depends on the function to be integrated

-3-

For conditions of one-dimensional strain, the change in volume strain ∆εv is equal to the change in

vertical strain ∆εz.

BEFORE AFTER

− ∆e

D D

S = ∫

0

∆ ε z dz = ∫0

1 + eo

dz

Now, need to express the relationship between void ratio and effective stress to calculate S

because of change in σN.

-4-

OEDOMETER TEST

In the laboratory we can measure the change in height of a sample (and thereby calculate the

change in void ratio) for a certain effective stress. This test is called a consolidation test and is

performed in an oedometer which permits one-dimensional strain.

- apply load

- excess pore pressure will dissipate and effective stresses will increase and the soil will settle

- monitor the change in height of the sample until most of the pore pressures have dissipated

(achieve 90% consolidation)

-5-

Vertical Strain and Void Ratio Versus Effective Stress

Calculate the vertical strain or void ratio from the measurements of change in height of the

sample. Can either plot these results on a linear or logarithmic scale of effective stress.

∆ε v = mv ∆ σ ′

Note that:

- mv is not constant

- depends on stress level

- mv decreases as σN increases

i.e. soil becomes stiffer

materials.

- that is to say, they become

stiffer as they are loaded

-6-

Vertical Strain and Void Ratio Versus Logarithm of Effective Stress

- same data as previous plot now plotted versus the logarithm of effective stress

Note that:

- apparently get a straight line

- simplifies calculations

- since log scale, still represents

strain hardening behaviour

-7-

Experimental results from an oedometer test are plotted with void ratio(e) versus the log of

effective stress (σN): “ e log σN ” plot

0.8

0.7

Void Ratio e

0.6

0.5

0.4

0.3

1 10 100 1000 10000

Effective Stress σ' (kPa)

σoN = initial effective stress

- current in situ effective stress

σpN = preconsolidation stress

- maximum effective stress experienced by soil

Cc = compression index

- slope of compression line on e log σN plot

- typical values: NC medium sensitive clays 0.2 to 0.5

Leda Clay 1 to 4

Peats 10 to 15

Ccr = recompression index

- slope of recompression line on e log σN plot

- Ccr < Cc

Cs = swelling index

- slope of expansion line on e log σN plot

- Cs . Cs

-8-

STRESS HISTORY OF SOILS

Soils have a “memory”, that is to say they remember the effective stresses that they have

previously experienced. Represent the stress history with the over consolidation ratio OCR,

where:

OCR =

0.8

0.7

NORMALLY CONSOLIDATED

Void Ratio e

0.6

0.5

0.4

0.3

1 10 100 1000 10000

is less than the preconsolidation

stress:

0.7

Void Ratio e

0.6

0.4

0.3

1 10 100 1000 10000

-9-

Determination of σpN using Cassagrande’s graphical procedure:

1) Plot laboratory data on e vs log σN graph. This laboratory data must be corrected for errors

arising from sample disturbance to get the field curve.

5) Bisect the angle between the horizontal line and the tangent through point A.

6) The intersection of the extension of the straight line portion of the compression curve with

the bisector line is the preconsolidation stress σpN.

-10-

Prediction of field e - log σN curves with Schmertmann’s Procedure NC Soils:

-11-

Prediction of field e - log σN curves with Schmertmann’s Procedure OC Soils:

5) from ( eo , σvoN ) construct line parallel to unload - reload loop to find the void ratio

corresponding to σpN

-12-

Typical e - log σN curves:

If consolidation tests are conducted on many samples from different depths can construct profiles

like the one shown below. This is typical of a stiffer “crust” material that has been

preconsolidated. The material below 20 m is normally consolidated.

-13-

Calculation of Primary Settlement

1) Elastic Model

∆εz = mv ∆σN

- must use mv for appropriate stress range

- implicitly models strain hardening behaviour of soil

- depends on stress history

- three cases

a) for NC soil,

0.8

0.7

Void Ratio e

0.6

0.5

0.4

0.3

1 10 100 1000 10000

Effective Stress σ' (kPa)

-14-

b) for OC soil with σNf < σNp,

0.8

0.7

Void Ratio e

0.6

0.5

0.4

0.3

1 10 100 1000 10000

0.8

0.7

Void Ratio e

0.6

0.5

0.4

0.3

1 10 100 1000 10000

-15-

CONSOLIDATION

Consolidation is an important mechanism involving the flow of water through the soil leading to

time dependent settlements.

• process of consolidation involves the dissipation of excess pore pressure.

• decrease in pore pressures result in increases in effective stresses.

• increase in effective stresses lead to settlement.

0 50 100 150 200 0 50 100 150 200 0 50 100 150 200 0 50 100 150 200

0

z

(m) 5

10

Initial Conditions Load rapidly applied, Some time after load Long time after load

applied, applied,

-1-

MECHANICAL ANALOGUE FOR CONSOLIDATION

-2-

Governing Differential Equation for Consolidation

Assumptions:

1. soil is saturated and homogeneous

2. water and soil particles are incompressible

3. Darcy’s law is valid

4. one dimensional strain

5. k remains constant

6. change in volume results from change in void ratio and Me/MσN remains constant

7. total stress remains constant after application.

t = time

z = depth below top of consolidating layer

cv = coefficient of consolidation

cv = k

mvγw

Time Factor, T = cv t

H2

-3-

substituting into the governing differential equation with σ constant for t > 0 gives:

The solution to this equation for a layer of thickness z with two way drainage (ie. Z = 2) with

boundary conditions:

at t = 0, ∆u = ∆uo for 0 # Z # 2

is:

∞

2 ∆ uo

∆u = ∑ ( sin MZ) e − M T

2

m=0 M

where: M = π / 2 ( 2m + 1 )

Useful to define another dimensionless parameter that represents the proportion of excess pore

that has dissipated at a particular point in the deposit, viz:

ef - eo ∆uo ∆uo

where:

e = void ratio at time t, e = f(t)

ef = final void ratio corresponding to σfN

∆uo initial excess pore pressure

∆u = pore pressure at time t, ∆u = f(t)

The solution to the consolidation equation can be expressed graphically as shown in Figure C1.

-4-

FIGURE C1.

-5-

Example: A 4 m thick layer of clay is subject to rapid application of surface load from 5 m of fill

(γ = 20 kN/m3). Calculate the excess pore pressure and the effective stress at the mid-point of the

clay layer: (a) initially, and (b) after 4 months.

SILT SILT

CLAY CLAY

SAND SAND

Initially

σoN = σo - uo

σo =

uo =

σoN =

σ =

u =

σN =

-6-

After 4 months

- use consolidation theory to solve for excess pore pressure after 4 months

- since silt and sand are much more permeable than clay, there is two way drainage for the clay

Time Factor, T = cv t

H2

∆u = ∆uo (1 - Uz)

=

=

σ =

u =

σN =

- look at another point (B), say 0.2 m below the top of the clay

Z = z/H

ˆ ∆u = ∆uo (1 - Uz) =

σoN =

σN =

-7-

Since

∆σAN > ∆σBN

Need some way of averaging ∆u with depth to obtain the average degree of consolidation for the

entire layer.

∫

D

∆ u t dz

U = consolidation settlement at time t = St = 1 − 0

∫

D

total final consolidation settlement S ∆ u o dz

0

- assuming:

σ constant with time,

mv constant with depth and time

Various solutions have been obtained for the average degree of consolidation. Figure C2 gives U

for three cases where there is a linear variation in stress increment with depth.

-8-

Example: Find the consolidation settlement of the 4 metre thick clay deposit 4 months after the

fill is placed.

100 kPa

Step 1: Find the total final settlement.

n

S = ∑ ∆ ε z ∆ zi

i=1

3m SILT

Use just one sublayer here.

∆e

∆ε z =

1 + eo γ = 16.3 kN/m3

wn = 70%, Gs = 2.72

4m

σoN = CLAY cv = 1.26 m2/yr

σfN =

Cc = 1.055

Since OCR =1 , NC soil. OCR = 1

σ′

∆e = − C c log10 f

σ ′o SAND

Find eo using: e S = w Gs

S =

After 4 months,

Z =

T =

U =

S t = 4 mo = U×S =

-9-

How to find the Coefficient of Consolidation cv Using Taylor’s Method

1) Plot change in height of the sample measured during consolidation test versus the square root

of time. This is done for each load increment.

2) Fit straight line through the initial part of the compression curve.

4) Draw a second line from Ro with a slope 1.15 times larger than the line from step 2.

5) The intersection of this line with the compression curve is defined as t90.

6) Calculate cv using:

T H dr 2 T90 H dr 2

cv = =

t t 90

-10-

MOHR CIRCLE IN SOIL MECHANICS

Mohr circle of stress is a graphical representation of the state of stress at a point at equilibrium.

Sign Convention:

- compressive forces and stresses are taken as positive (change in normal sign convention because

tension is rare in soil mechanics)

- positive shear stresses produce clockwise moments about a point just outside the element

-1-

The stability of an existing slope can be assessed by comparing the disturbing forces (self weight)

with the strength of the soil mobilized along a potential failure surface. Consider the stresses

acting a point along the potential failure surface below.

-2-

Now suppose we want to know the stresses for this same point but oriented in a different

direction (e.g., on a potential failure plane). It is useful to define the pole of the Mohr circle.

If a line is drawn from a point on the circle (representing a state of stress) parallel to the plane on

which the stress state exists it will intersect the circle at another point on the circle which is

known as the pole, or origin of planes.

Any line drawn through the pole will intersect the circle at a point which represents the state of

stress on a plane inclined at the same orientation in space as the line.

Once the pole is known, the stresses on any plane can be readily determined by drawing a line

through the pole parallel to the plane in question; the stress on the plane will be the coordinates

where the line intersects the circle.

1) Start from a known magnitude [ie. coordinates (σ, τ) ] and orientation of stress. Go to that

point on the Mohr circle.

2) Draw a line through the point of known stress with the same orientation in space as the plane

on which those stresses act.

-3-

τ

Principal Stresses

- σ1 and σ3 are the respective maximum and minimum normal stresses on the Mohr circle

- note that the shear stress is equal to zero along the major and minor principal planes

-4-

Example1. Given:

a) Find the normal and shear stresses acting on a plane inclined at 30o to the horizontal.

d) Find the maximum shear stress and the orientation of the plane on which it acts.

-5-

Example 2. Given:

a) Find the magnitude of the normal and shear stresses on the horizontal plane.

-6-

STRENGTH OF SOILS - MOHR-COULOMB FAILURE CRITERION

Failure or yield of a soil material occurs when the shear stresses exceed the shear strength.

Soil materials generally fail because of excess shear stresses. Uniform compressive stresses (ie. σ1

= σ3 ) alone will only tend to change the volume of the soil. Non-uniform compressive stresses

(e.g., σ1 > σ3 ) induce shear stresses in the soil.

The shear strength of soil is defined as the shear stress acting on the failure plane at failure.

where: τff = the shear stress acting on the failure plane at failure

- the shear strength of the soil

σNff = the normal effective stress acting on the failure plane at failure

- vary on many factors including stress range

-7-

Consider a triaxial compression test on a medium sand.

-cylinder of sand

radial pressure σ3

-8-

SHEAR STRENGTH OF SAND

2. Pressure range of consideration;

3. Particle shape;

4. Grain mineralogy;

5. Grain size distribution;

6. Water;

7. Intermediate principal stress; and

8. Stress history.

Of these factors, void ratio is the single most important factor. Generally, the lower the void ratio

(higher density) the higher the shear strength.

τ

Explanation of Volume Change Behaviour for Sands

Dense Sand

If a sand is dense, the only way shearing can occur is for grains to move apart.

Therefore dense sands when sheared to failure exhibit an tendency for volume increase.

Loose Sand

Therefore loose sands when sheared to failure exhibit an tendency for volume decrease.

Example: A sample of loose sand is know to have a friction angle φN = 30o. It is tested in direct

shear under a normal stress of 200 kN/m2. Determine the shear strength, the maximum shear

stress and the major and minor principal stress at failure.

σ

Example: Direct shear tested were conducted on a sample of compacted sand. Determine the

peak and ultimate friction angles based on the results that were recorded.

Test 1 2 3 4

Normal force (N) 110216324432

Ultimate shear force (N) 66 131195261

Peak shear force (N) 85 170253340

100

80

Shear Stress (kPa)

60

40

20

0

0 20 40 60 80 100 120 140 160 180 200

SHEAR STRENGTH OF CLAY

- the effective stresses at failure

- void ratio

- stress history

- mineralogy

σ

Consider the Triaxial Test

either

- consolidation OR without drainage gives:

- volume changes - no volume change

∆u = 0 ∆u = Ω

∆σN = 0

σ3N = σοN + Ω σ3N = σοN

with drainage drainage

drainage

TEST TEST TEST

∆u = 0 ∆u = ∆us ∆u = ∆us

σ1N = σοN + Ω + Ζ σ1N = σοN + Ω + Ζ − ∆us σ1N = σοN + Ζ − ∆us

σ3N = σοN + Ω σ3N = σοN + Ω − ∆us σ3N = σοN− ∆us

CD CU UU

Consolidated Drained Triaxial Test (CD Test)

- soil is allowed to consolidate to a given effective hydrostatic stress σcN with full drainage

- the soil is loaded to failure very slowly so that no excess pore pressures develop

- we can draw the Mohr circle for effective stresses at failure

2. Volume of the sample is allowed to change.

- the void ratio will change during the test

Stress Path: locus of stress points on a given plane (normally the failure plane, but not always)

TSP - Total Stress Path ESP - Effective Stress Path

σ

Example: A consolidated drained triaxial test was conducted on a normally consolidated clay.

The results were: σ3 = 276 kN/m2

(σ1 − σ3)f = 276 kN/m2

Determine:

a) the angle of friction φN

b) the inclination of the failure plane

c) the normal σffN and shear stress τff on the failure plane at failure

d) the normal stress σnN on the plane of maximum shear stress τmax

e) explain why shear failure did not take place on the plane of maximum shear stress.

σ

Consolidated Undrained Triaxial Test (CU Test) With Pore Pressure Measurements

- soil is allowed to consolidate to a given effective hydrostatic stress σcN with full drainage

- since drainage is prevented, excess pore pressures develop

1. Control the applied (total) stresses and measure the pore pressures.

- effective stresses can be calculated

- can draw the Mohr circle for effective stresses at failure

- the void ratio will NOT change during the test

∆us = B ( σ3 + A ( σ1 - σ3 ) )

Example: CU

Typical stress-strain and volume change versus strain curves for CD

triaxial compression tests at the same effective confining stress.

Consolidated Undrained Triaxial Test (CU Test) With Pore Pressure Measurements

- soil is allowed to consolidate to a given effective hydrostatic stress σcN with full drainage

- the drainage system is closed off

- the soil is loaded to failure relatively quickly

- since drainage is prevented, excess pore pressures develop

- the pore pressures are measured

1. Control the applied (total) stresses and measure the pore pressures.

- effective stresses can be calculated

- can draw the Mohr circle for effective stresses at failure

- the void ratio will NOT change during the test

Normally Consolidated

τ

σ

∆us = excess pore pressure due to shear failure

- occur because sample wants to change volume but not allowed to (since drainage is prohibited)

- because there is no volume change, the tendency towards volume change induces ∆us

- if the volume tries to decrease, water wants to squeeze out of the pores but can’t

- develop (+)ve ∆u

- NC

- effective stresses are less than the total stresses

- ESP lies to the left of the TSP

- if the volume tries to increase, wants to draw water into the pores but can’t

- develop (-)ve ∆u

- OC

- effective stresses are greater than the total stresses

- ESP lies to the right of the TSP

stiff OC clay, A - 1/3 to -1/2

Typical stress-strain, excess pore pressure vs. strain and ratio of major to minor principal effective

stresses for normally and overconsolidated clays in consolidated undrained triaxial compression

test.

Overconsolidated

σ

Example: A clay soil is known to have an effective stress envelope with cN=10 kPa and φN=25E. A

series of four consolidated undrained (CU) tests were performed and the total stress Mohr circles

at failure as shown.

f) What is the shear strength of a sample with a cell pressure σ3 of 300 kPa ?

g) A clay was accidentally consolidated to σ3 = 300 kPa. The technician then reduced the

cell pressure to 200 kPa without drainage and ran an undrained test. What would the

undrained strength of this clay be ?

τ

(kPa)

300

200

100

(kPa)

Example cont’d

τ

(kPa)

300

200

100

(kPa)

Some examples of CU analyses for clays.

Unconsolidated Undrained (UU) Triaxial Test

σ

τ

σ

Some examples of UU analyses for clays.

Typical stress-strain and volume change versus strain curves for CD

triaxial compression tests at the same effective confining stress.

Consolidated Undrained Triaxial Test (CU Test) With Pore Pressure Measurements

- soil is allowed to consolidate to a given effective hydrostatic stress σcN with full drainage

- the drainage system is closed off

- the soil is loaded to failure relatively quickly

- since drainage is prevented, excess pore pressures develop

- the pore pressures are measured

1. Control the applied (total) stresses and measure the pore pressures.

- effective stresses can be calculated

- can draw the Mohr circle for effective stresses at failure

- the void ratio will NOT change during the test

Normally Consolidated

τ

σ

∆us = excess pore pressure due to shear failure

- occur because sample wants to change volume but not allowed to (since drainage is prohibited)

- because there is no volume change, the tendency towards volume change induces ∆us

- if the volume tries to decrease, water wants to squeeze out of the pores but can’t

- develop (+)ve ∆u

- NC

- effective stresses are less than the total stresses

- ESP lies to the left of the TSP

- if the volume tries to increase, wants to draw water into the pores but can’t

- develop (-)ve ∆u

- OC

- effective stresses are greater than the total stresses

- ESP lies to the right of the TSP

stiff OC clay, A - 1/3 to -1/2

Typical stress-strain, excess pore pressure vs. strain and ratio of major to minor principal effective

stresses for normally and overconsolidated clays in consolidated undrained triaxial compression

test.

Overconsolidated

σ

Example: A clay soil is known to have an effective stress envelope with cN=10 kPa and φN=25E. A

series of four consolidated undrained (CU) tests were performed and the total stress Mohr circles

at failure as shown.

f) What is the shear strength of a sample with a cell pressure σ3 of 300 kPa ?

g) A clay was accidentally consolidated to σ3 = 300 kPa. The technician then reduced the

cell pressure to 200 kPa without drainage and ran an undrained test. What would the

undrained strength of this clay be ?

τ

(kPa)

300

200

100

(kPa)

Example cont’d

τ

(kPa)

300

200

100

(kPa)

Some examples of CU analyses for clays.

Unconsolidated Undrained (UU) Triaxial Test

σ

τ

σ

Some examples of UU analyses for clays.

Unconfined Compression (UC) Triaxial Test

- increase σ1 to failure

- equal to the diameter of the Mohr circle

- NOTE that strength of the soil is still controlled by the effective stresses

- convenient to express strength in terms of total stresses here

FIELD MEASUREMENT OF SHEAR STRENGTH

Field Vane

Standard Penetration Test (SPT)

Cone Penetration Test (CPT)

EARTH PRESSURES AND RETAINING STRUCTURES

Introduction

The analysis of the pressures exerted by the ground against an engineering structure has been of

paramount interest dating back to the time of Coulomb in 1776. Considerations of earth

pressures are essential to the successful design of many engineering structures including bridges,

retaining walls, tunnels; therefore, it is of concern in nearly all civil engineering projects.

The subject is a vast one with a remarkable number of publications on various aspects of

earth pressure theory and its application to real engineering situations. A wide variety of

approaches have been available to solve these problems. However, because of complexities

involved in this problem, all methods involve certain simplifying assumptions and none of them

present a rigorous representation of the soil-structure interaction at failure. Many of the accepted

analyses of the past are now being challenged as a result of a more complete understanding of the

behaviour of soils when subjected to stress and strain.

A glance at many of the older handbooks of civil engineering and indeed at some modern

textbooks for structural design would lead the uninitiated to believe that earth pressure can be

calculated by simple formulas comparable to those for stress and deflection of steel or concrete

members. One would be lead to conclude that the pressure exerted by the soil was unique for

each type of soil, that the pressure was the same regardless of the type of structure or the

problem, and that the pressure could be calculated with precision to two or three significant

figures. Unfortunately none of these beliefs are correct.

Earth pressure, in the broadest sense of the word, denotes forces and stresses that occur

either in the interior of an earth mass or on the contact surface of soil and structure. Its

magnitude will be determined by the physical properties of the soil, the physical interactions

between soil and structure, value and character of absolute and relative displacements and

deformations. Knowledge of the stress-strain and strength properties of soils is fundamental to

solving these soil-structure interaction problems.

Earth pressure problems can be separated into three main classes of problems. First, the case of

an earth mass at rest where no deformations or displacements occur. This condition is strictly

fulfilled in the infinite half space at rest only. This case is mainly of theoretical interest; it gives

also the starting point for more practical problems. In the problems of the second group, the

horizontal forces in the earth masses are to be determined. Here we have retaining wall problems,

sheet piling, braced excavations, etc. Relative displacement between soil and structure occurs

causing the soil either to expand or to contract. In the first case (ie. soil expansion) we have an

active pressure, and in the second case (ie. soil contraction) a passive pressure. The most

common example for this group is the retaining wall yielding around the bottom or pressed

against the earth mass. There are also cases where at the same time compression and expansion in

-1-

different parts of the mass occur. Problems where the vertical force prevails form the third group.

These are the problems of foundations: stresses, deformations, failure of soil beneath foundation

structures. Problems of buried structures and rock pressures also belong to this group.

-2-

Fundamental Concepts

Classical earth pressure theory is reviewed and the major assumptions that are made are

discussed. A clear distinction is necessary between methods of:

2) limit analysis, and

3) complete deformation analysis.

σ 'h

Ko =

σ 'v

N.C. sands 0.4 to 0.5

N.C. clays 0.5 to 0.75

From field and lab tests for N.C. soils (Jaky 1948),

K o ≈ 1 − sin φ '

For over consolidated soils, Ko typically lies between 1 to -2.5 depending on soil type. The value

of Ko is bounded by passive failure. Ko for O.C. soils increases with over-consolidation ratio

OCR (σNp ÷ σNvo) where σNp is the past maximum vertical effective stress and σNvo is the current

vertical effective stress at a point within the ground. A relationship between Ko and the OCR has

been reported by Brooker and Ireland (1965). The CFEM (1992) suggests the use of:

For an elastic medium with Poisson’s ratio ν and zero lateral strain (ie. εx = εy = 0)

ν

Ko =

1− ν

-3-

Limiting Equilibrium (Rankine Theory)

state of stress at every point of the ground is on the verge of

failure. Rankine (1857) investigated the stress conditions

corresponding to the states of plastic equilibrium that can be

developed simultaneously throughout a semi-infinite mass of

soil acted on by no other force other than gravity.

Consider the fictitious case of a large mass of

cohesionless soil containing a thin embedded rigid wall of

infinite depth. It is assumed that the wall does not influence the

initial state of stress in the ground. The changes in stress at two

points, A and B are considered for movements of the thin wall.

σxN until induced shear stresses lead to failure 3N

or

-4-

σxN until induced shear stresses lead to failure 4

-5-

Solution for Active and Passive Pressures (Rankine 1856)

where:

φ '

N φ ' = tan 2 45o +

2

-6-

-7-

What are the magnitudes of σxAN and σxPN ?

Active,

σxAN

Passive,

σxPN

-8-

Example 1: Estimate the earth pressure acting on the wall.

2m γ1 = 17 kN/m3

φ'1 = 34

5m

3m γ2 = 19 kN/m3

φ'2 = 36

At Point A

σv =

At Point B

σv =

At Point C

σv =

u=

σNv =

σNh =

-9-

What is the total horizontal force acting on the wall, and where does the resultant act?

-10-

Example 2: Find the factor of safety against sliding and rotational failure for the gravity retaining

wall shown.

1.5 m

5m

3m

-11-

Effect of Sloping Ground Surface

KA =

cos β + cos2 β − cos2 φ ′

KP =

cos β − cos2 β − cos2 φ ′

-12-

Active and Passive Earth Pressure Coefficients - Cohesive Soils

Drained Response

For cohesive soils with cN and φN

Active,

σxAN

Passive,

σxPN

Undrained Response

For cohesive soils - undrained response φN = 0, cu

Active,

σxA

ie. the net pressure for z = Hc is zero. This is the theoretical maximum height of a vertical slope

that can stand unsupported under short term conditions. The unsupported cut may only be stable

for a very short time, due to seepage forces and softening by precipitation.

-13-

SLOPE STABILITY

slope failure - the downslope movement of a soil mass occurring along a failure surface

For a uniform soil without planes of weakness, then the failure surface is close to a circle.

For a homogeneous slope with φ = 0 we have equilibrium along a circular sliding surface.

-1-

GENERAL CASE c, φ - METHOD OF SLICES

F=

- to solve this equation for the factor of safety, F, we need to know the correct normal stress

distribution.

- any method of analysis can be used for a slip circle provided that it correctly represents the overall

statics for the problem.

Procedure

-2-

2. Look at a typical slice.

t=

S=

u is the pore pressure acting on the base of the slice.

Must determine the force N. Resolving forces perpendicular to the slip surface gives,

This implies that the resultant of the inner slice forces Xn, En acts parallel to the base of the slice. This is

considered to be a conservative assumption.

-3-

Determination of Pore Pressure u

May need to construct a flow net to determine the pressure head acting on the base of each slice.

General Notes

- method tends to give conservative solutions for uniform clays without planes of weakness

-4-

-5-

Perform Tabular Calculation

Slice No. W l α c φ u N1 N2

Σ =

N1 = W sin α

N2 = [W cos α - u l ] tan φ + c l

F = ( Σ N2 ) / ( Σ N1 )

where:

W= weight of slice [kN/m]

c = cohesion intercept [kN/m2]

φ = friction angle [degrees]

u = pore pressure = hpγw [kN/m2]

α = angle between base of slice and horizontal [degrees]

l = length of slip surface segments measured along base of slice [m]

Notes:

1) The slice weights W are calculated based on the dimensions of the slices and the unit weights of the

soils within them. W can be calculated using:

W = b Σ ( γj hj )

γj = unit weight of soil j

hj = height of soil layer j where it is subtended by slice

- measured at the centre of the slice

2) The values of c and φ for each slice correspond to the type of soil at the bottom of each slice. For

short term (ie. undrained) conditions use c = cu and φ = 0. For long term (ie. drained) conditions use c

= cN and φ = φN.

3) The value of u for each slice is the average value at the middle of the slice.

4) The base length l and the base angle α are measured on a scale drawing of the slope.

-6-

5) Normally slices are drawn so that the base of each slice is in only one type of soil. Slices need not

be of equal width.

Example 1:

Slice No. W l α c φ u N1 N2

1 119 4.35 -12 20 20 0 -25 129

7 44 4.00 70 20 20 0 41 85

Σ = 1325 867

-7-

N1 = W sin α

N2 = [W cos α - u l ] tan φ + c l

F = ( Σ N2 ) / ( Σ N1 ) = 1.53

STABILITY CHARTS

Taylor (1949) has prepared charts for the simple case of:

1) slope angle

2) angle of friction

3) c, γ, and H

- used for short-term stability calculations (ie. total stress analysis)

φ > 10

φ = 10

φ=5

φ=0

φ = 10 - toe failure

-8-

φ=0 - circle passes below toe

- F depends on layer depth

-9-

Taylor’s Chart 1 Taylor’s Chart 2

-10-

Example 2. What is the short-term factor of safety for the slope considered in Example 1? Take cu =

30 kPa.

Example 3. A wide excavation was made with a slope of 1V:1H in a material with unit weight γ=18.8

kN/m3. Estimate the factor of safety for a depth of excavation of 13 m. The average undrained shear

strength along the failure surface is 50 kPa.

Example 4. For the excavation in Ex. 3, estimate the factor of safety if a strong stratum exists at a

depth of 13 m.

Example 5. Estimate the factor of safety and location of the critical failure circle when the rigid layer is

7.8 m below the toe of the slope.

Example 6. If a clay has undrained shear strength of 50 kPa and unit weight 20 kN/m3, find the

maximum depth a vertical trench can be excavated.

-11-

FIELD MONITORING OF SLOPE MOVEMENTS

-12-

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