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1.

INTRODUCTION TO SOIL MATERIALS

1.1 Definitions

Soil:

uncemented or weakly cemented accumulation of mineral and organic particles and sediments found above the bedrock, or

any unconsolidated the voids

material consisting of discrete solid particles with fluid or gas in

Rock:

indurated (consolidated by

blasting, brute force excavation

pressure or cementation

) material requiring drilling,

The dividing line between soil and rock is arbitrary; the same material may sometimes be either classified as “very soft rock” or “very hard soil”, depending on who classifies the material or what the application is. To a geologist “our” soil is drift or unconsolidated material.

Whereas we are concerned with soil to the depth of bedrock, soil scientists (pedology) and agricultural scientists (agronomists) are concerned with only the very uppermost layers of soil.

Soil Mechanics: (ASTM) the application of the laws and principles of mechanics and hydraulics to engineering problems dealing with soil as an engineering material.

Geotechnical Engineering: the application of civil engineering technology to some aspect of the earth, therefore including soil and rock as engineering materials. It combines the basic physical sciences, geology, pedology with hydraulic, structural, transportation, construction, environmental and mining engineering.

Soil mechanics is a subset of geotechnical engineering.

1.2 Origin of Soils

Soil is a three phase system of:

-

solid particles

-

pore fluid

-

pore gas

Most solid particles are mineral fragments that originated from the disintegration of rocks by physical or chemical action, often referred to as weathering.

Physical

changes, and the activity of plants and animals.

Weathering: erosion due to freezing & thawing, abrasion from glaciers, temperature

Chemical

chemical processes.

Weathering: decomposition due to oxidation, reduction, carbonation, and other

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Exceptions: Peat (organic) and shell deposits

Soils at a particular site can be:

- Residual

or weathered in place (most common in tropical locations), or

- Transported

by the action of:

Glaciers (glacial) Moving water (fluvial) Wind (aeolian) Settling out in salt water (marine) Settling out in fresh water (lactustrine) Due to gravity movement downslope (colluvial) (most common in temperate regions)

1.3 Main Types of Soils

Granular:

gravel, sand, (silt)

Cohesive:

(silt), clay

Organic:

marsh soil, peat, coal, tar sand

Man-Made:

mine tailings, landfill waste, ash, aggregates

Soils can vary from 10 2 to 10 -3 mm in diameter.

Naturally occurring soils are usually a mixture of two or more of the above components. (e.g., silty-sand, clayey-silt, clay with gravel)

In addition, the void space between the slid particles may be filled with either pore fluid gas.

1.4

The Unique Nature of Soil Material

highly variable

- properties vary widely from point to point within the soil mass

- more heterogeneous rather than homogeneous

- large variations over small distances

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nonlinear stress-strain response

nonconservative (i.e. inelastic)

- soils “remember” what has happened to them in the past

- stress history is very important

- soil behaviour is quite different whether normally consolidated or overconsolidated (CivE381)

anisotropic

- different properties in different directions

- primarily a result of depositional and loading history

mulitphase system (soil, water, and air)

empirical application in design

- empirical - based on experience – what we can see / what we can measure

- good design - combination of art, science and common sense

The behavior of soil in situ is often governed by soil fabric, weak layers and zones, and other defects in the material. It is therefore essential that the successful geotechnical engineer develops a feel for the soil behavior.

Generally we idealize the behavior using applied mechanics concepts, and then apply engineering judgement (based on our own experience and the experience of others) to come up with a final solution.

Because the soil is so complex, it is difficult to deal with as an engineering material. It is necessary to be able to CLASSIFYCLASSIFY the soil based on ENGINEERINGENGINEERING BEHAVIOURBEHAVIOUR.

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2.

MASS - VOLUME RELATIONSHIPS AND DEFINITIONS

2.1 Soil System

Soil normally consists of a two- or three- phase system:

1)

Solid mineral particles

- quartz, feldspars, carbonates, mica / clay minerals, organic matter,

- plus garbage, tailings, slag, etc.

2)

Pore fluid

- normally water

- could be oil, bitumen

- could be leachate

3)

Pore gas

- normally air

- could be methane (landfill, pipeline)

- often excess CO 2 in tropics, radon

2.2

Phase Diagram

For quantifying the properties of a soil, a series of definitions and terminology has developed to describe the three phase system – best illustrated with the use of a phase diagram.

 
  V A
  V A

V

A

  V A
 
 
 

V

V

  V V
   

V

W

  V A     V V     V W T     V S
  V A     V V     V W T     V S

T

 
T  
 

V

S

  V A     V V     V W T     V S
  V A     V V     V W T     V S

V

Air

Water

Solid

M A =0

M W M M S
M
W
M
M
S

T

provides an easy means to identify both what is know and the relationship between known and desired quantities

we usually measure the total volume V T , the mass of water M W , and the mass of solids M S

we may then calculate the rest of the values and the mass volume relationships that we need. Most relationships are independent of sample size and are often dimensionless.

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2.3

Volumetric Relationships

Void Ratio, e:

 

e =

V

V

 
 

V

S

 

[1]

 

V V = volume of voids V S = volume of solids

 

Expressed as a decimal Typically:

Sands 0.4 < e < 1.0 Clays 0.3 < e < 1.5

very loose sand e ª 0.8 soft clay e > 1

organic clays e > 3 Empirically determined that much of soil behavior is related to e As e decreases density increases As e decreases strength increases As e decreases permeability decreases

 

Porosity, n:

 

n =

V

V

 

V

T

 

[2]

 

V V = volume of voids V T = volume total

 

Expressed as a decimal or percentage (usually decimal)

 

By substituting equation [1] into [2] we can show that:

 

e

 

n =

 
 

1

+

e

 

[2a]

and

 

n

 

e

=

 

1

-

n

 

[2b]

e.g., for a very loose sand with e=0.8,

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Degree of Saturation, S:

 

S =

V

W

¥ 100 (%)

 

V

V

 

V

W = volume of water

V

V = volume of voids

Expressed as a percentage

Tells us the percentage of the total volume of voids that contain water Range is from 0 to 100%

 

S

= 0 %

soil is completely dry

S

= 100 %

 

soil is saturated (i.e. pore spaces are completely filled with water)

2.4

Mass Relationships

Density, rr:

Expressed as g/cm 3 , kg/m 3 or Mg/m 3 (=g/cm 3 )

Density of Solids, rr S :

M S = mass of solids

V S = volume of solids

r

=

M

S

S V

S

Density of Water, rr W :

r

=

M

W

=

W

W V

1.0g / cm

3

M W = mass of water

V W = volume of water

=

1.0Mg / m

3

at 4

o

C

[3]

[4]

[5]

Bulk Density(also termed moist, wet, or total density), rr:

r =

M

T

V

T

M T = mass total

V T = volume total

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[6]

Saturated Density, rr sat :

S = 100%, therefore V A = 0

r

sat

=

M

T

V

T

[7]

Similar to bulk density except that the sample must have S = 100% e.g. saturated soil below the water table

Dry Density, rr d :

S = 0%, therefore M W = 0

r

d

=

M

S

V

T

Buoyant (Submerged) Density, rr’:

r¢ = r

SAT

- r

W

2.5 Weight Relationships

[8]

[9]

The relationships just defined in terms of masses (or densities) can be expressed in terms of weights and are called unit weights.

Unit Weight, gg:

g = r¥g

g = acceleration due to gravity = 9.81 m/s 2

typically expressed in kN/m 3

e.g. if r = 2100 kg/m 3 ,

[10]

g = 2100 kg/m 3 ¥ 9.81 m/s 2 = 20601 kg m = 20.6 kN / m 3

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s 2 m 3

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2.6

Basic Tests

Moisture Content, w:

w

=

M

W

M

S

¥ 100(%)

ASTM D2216

[11]

Expressed as a percentage

The amount of water present in a soil relative to the mass of dry soil.

See Bowles Experiment #1, pages 15-17.

Specific Gravity, Gs:

ASTM D854

Gs =

g

S

g

W

=

r S

r

W

[12]

Note that the Canadian Foundation and Engineering Manual (1992) terms this ratio as the relative density of the solid phase with respect to water and uses the symbol D r . See Bowles Experiment #7, pages 71-78 Defined as the weight of soil divided by the weight of an equal volume of water at 20 o C Gs is found using a sample of soil and a pycnometer, which gives the average specific gravity of the materials from which the soil particles are made. Typically 2.6 to 2.8 for the solid minerals in soil Often Gs < 1 for organic particles

2.6 Useful Relationships

e S = w Gs

r = Á Ê G

S

+

eS ˜

ˆ

Ë

1

+

e

¯

r

w

set S = 1 for r sat set S = 0 for r d

[13]

[14]

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2.7

Typical Values

TABLE 1. Summary of typical values of porosity, void ratio, water content, saturated density and saturated unit weight.

SOIL

n

e

w

r

sat

g

sat

(%)

(%)

kg/m 3

kg/m 3

LOOSE, UNIFORM SAND LOOSE, MIXED GRAINED SOIL DENSE WELL GRADED SAND HARD OR DENSE GLACIAL TILL SOFT CLAY STIFF CLAY SOFT ORGANIC CLAY PEAT (VERY COMPRESSIBLE)

46

.85

32

1890

18.5

40

.67

25

1986

19.45

30

.43

16

2163

21.2

20

.25

9

2323

22.8

55

1.2

45

1762

17.3

37

0.6

22

2067

20.2

75

3.0

110

1426

13.9

94

17

1000

10.2

TABLE 2. Summary of specific gravities for minerals and soils.

Specific Gravities of Minerals

Specific Gravities of Soils

Quartz

2.65

Sand

2.65

K-Feldspars

2.65 - 2.57

Silty Sand

2.66 - 2.68

Na-Ca-Feldspars

2.62 - 2.76

Silt

2.67 - 2.68

Calcite

2.72

Silty Clay

2.70 - 2.72

Dolomite

2.85

Clay

2.70 - 2.80

Muscovite

2.7 - 3.1

Biotite

2.8 - 3.2

Gs > 2.80 - likely metals present

Chlorite

2.6 - 2.9

Gs < 2.70 - likely organics present

Pyrophyllite

2.84

Serpentine

2.2 - 2.7

Average Gs for sand = 2.65

Kaolinite

2.61 a

Average Gs for well mixed soil = 2.70

2.64+/-0.02

Halloysite (2 H 2 O)

2.55

Illite

2.84 a

2.60

- 2.86

Montmorillonite

2.74 a

2.75

- 2.78

Attapulgite

2.3

a Calculated from crystal structure.

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2.8 Example Problems

A saturated soil sample (S = 100%) has a water content of 42% and a specific gravity of 2.70. Calculate the void ratio, porosity, bulk unit weight, and bulk density.

A cylinder of soil has a volume of 1.15¥10 -3 m 3 , a mass of 2.290 kg and Gs of 2.68. The mass of solid obtained by drying is 2.035 kg. Calculate: r, g, w n , e, n, and S.

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3.

GRAIN SIZE AND GRAIN SIZE DISTRIBUTION

3.1

Coarse Grained versus Fine Grained Soils

convenient dividing line is the smallest grain that is visible to the naked eye

with the Unified Soil Classification System (USCS) the division corresponds to a particle size of 0.075 mm.

Particles larger than this size are called coarse-grained, while soils finer than this size are called fine-grained.

Table 3.1

Textural and Other Characteristics of Soils

Soil Type

Gravels, Sands

Silts

Clays

Grain size:

- Coarse grained

-

Fine grained

-

Fine grained

-

Can see individual

-

Cannot see

-

Cannot see

grains by eye

individual grains

individual grains

Characteristics:

- Cohesionless

-

Cohesionless

-

Cohesive

-

Nonplastic

-

Nonplastic

-

Plastic

-

Granular

-

Granular

Effect of water on engineering behaviour:

Relatively unimportant (exception: loose saturated granular materials and dynamic loading)

Important

Very Important

Effect of grain size distribution on

Important

Relatively

Relatively

engineering behaviour:

Important

Unimportant

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3.2

Grain Size Distribution

We are interested in both the

particle size

and the

distribution

of the particle sizes.

Sieve tests and hydrometer tests are used to define the distribution of grain sizes.

The range of particle sizes varies from 200 mm > D > 0.002 mm (i.e. by orders of magnitude) hence when we examine the particle size distribution we plot on a logarithmic scale.

Classification of soils according to particle sizes varies slightly between different classification systems.

The

Unified Soil Classification System

(USCS) is one commonly used classification

system.

In describing the size of a soil particle, we can use either a dimension or a name that has been arbitrarily assigned to a certain size range. Classification from the USCS is described below:

Type

Grain Size (mm)

Boulders

> 300

Cobbles

75 to 300

Gravel

4.75 to 75

Sand

0.075 to 4.75

Silt

 

< 0.075

Clay

0.001 0.01 0.1 1 10 100 1000
0.001
0.01
0.1
1
10
100
1000

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Particle Size (mm)

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Particle size distribution obtained by shaking a dry sample of soil through a series of woven-wire square-mesh sieves with successively smaller openings.

Since soil particles are rarely perfect spheres, particle diameter (or size) refers to an equivalent particle diameter as found from the sieve analysis. We will use the U.S. Standard Sieves. The sieve sizes are summarized in Table 3.2.

Table 3.2 U.S. Standard Sieve Sizes and their Corresponding Opening Dimension

Sieve No.

Sieve Opening (mm)

 

3"

75

1.5"

38

0.75"

19

0.375"

9.5

# 4

4.75

#

10

2.00

#

20

0.85

#

40

0.425

#

60

0.25

#

100

0.15

#

140

0.106

#

200

0.075

 
    Cobbles  
    Cobbles  
    Cobbles  
    Cobbles  
    Cobbles  
    Cobbles  
    Cobbles  
    Cobbles  
    Cobbles  
    Cobbles  
    Cobbles  
 

Cobbles

 

Fines (Silt, Clay)

Sand

 

Gravel

Boulders

 

F

   

M

C

 

F

   

C

0.001

0.01

0.1

 

1

10

 

100

1000

 

Particle Size (mm)

Nested sieves are used for soils with grain sizes larger than 75 :m. For finer soils (silts and clays) the hydrometer test is used.

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Procedure for Soil Analysis

1. A soil sample is separated by passing it through the nest of sieves.

2. Determine the weight of soil retained on each sieve.

3. Calculate the percent of weight finer than each particle size.

4. Plot the grain size distribution as Percent Finer Than as the ordinate (y-axis) versus the log of the Particle Size as the abscissa (x-axis).

Calculation for Grain Size Analysis

Sieve

Mass of

Mass of Sieve and Soil

Mass

Cumulative

% Cumulative

% Passing

Opening

Sieve

Retained

Mass Retained

Retained

mm

 

g g

g

g

   
   

A B

       

Where T = total mass of dry sample

Typical Grain Size Curves

        Where T = total mass of dry sample Typical Grain Size Curves

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Parameters Describing the Grain Size Distribution

1. Effective particle size, D 10 :

- Denotes the grain diameter (in mm) corresponding to 10% passing by mass.

- Controls flow for coarse grain soils.

2. Coefficient of Uniformity, C u :

Cu =

D

60

D

10

where: D 60 = grain diameter (in mm) corresponding to 60% passing by mass and, D 10 = grain diameter (in mm) corresponding to 10% passing by mass.

(Note: if D 60 = D 10 , Cu = 1, all particles between 10% and 60% are the same size).

3. Coefficient of Curvature, Cc:

Cc =

D

2

30

D

10

D

60

where: D 30 = grain diameter (in mm) corresponding to 30% passing by mass.

For well graded soils,

C U > 4 for gravel

C U > 6 for sand

1 < C C < 3

If C U and C C do not meet both of the criteria above, the soil is poorly graded.

Well graded:

generally smooth.

good representation of particle sizes over a wide range; gradation curve is

Poorly graded: either excess or a deficiency of certain sizes, or most of the particles about the same size. (i.e. uniform soil)

Gap graded: a proportion of grain sizes within a specific range is low (it is also poorly graded).

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Introduction to Soils 16 CivE 381

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3.3

Density Index of Granular Soil

Also referred to as relative density

Definition:

I D

=

e max - e

e max - e min

x 100%

where:

e max = maximum void ratio corresponding to the loosest state,

e min = minimum void ratio corresponding to the densest state, and

e = void ratio of the sample.

Loosest State, I D = 0%, obtained by:

Sifting or funneling dry sand into narrow rows in a box

Gentle settling in a water column

If very fine, dumped in a damp, bulked state and submerged from below

Densest State, I D = 100%, obtained by:

Prolonged vibration at 20 - 30 cycles / sec under light static load in dry state

If very uniform sand, tamped lightly after dumping thin layers

Field Measurement: STD penetration test, "N" values

63.5 kg (140 lb) hammer dropping 76.2 cm (30") Count number of blows per ft to drive 2" sampler 61 cm

 

I D

0

 

15

35

65

85

 

100

   

Very

 

Loose

Compact

Dense

 

Very

 

Loose

 

Dense

N

28 o

30 o

36 o

45 o

 

3.4 Application of Grain Size Distribution

1. Estimation of Coefficient of Permeability, k, in Sands and Gravels

An empirical correlation between PSD and permeability has been developed

k = c (D 10 ) 2 cm/s

where 100 < c < 150 Developed by Hazen for uniform, loose, clean sands and gravels.

2. Frost Heave Susceptibility

Frost heaving occurs if water may be drawn towards the freezing front in soils from below, forming lenses of ice. Whether or not water may be drawn to the freezing front is largely governed by the pore size, which is a function of the grain size distribution of the

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soil. The pore sizes may be sufficiently small to allow capillary action of the pore water up to the freezing front, and sufficiently large to have a high enough permeability to allow the water to migrate fast enough.

Silts combine sufficiently high suction and permeability to maximize ice lens production, hence road base material, for example, is usually specified to have not more than 3% silt size particles to alleviate frost heave beneath roads.

A

soil is frost susceptible if > 3% pass 0.02 mm.

3.

Selection of Fill Material

Used to specify material for concrete aggregate (sand & gravel), road base material

Used to examine and develop borrow pits.

4.

Geotechnical Processes

Used to evaluate soil drainage.

Used to examine the likely effectiveness of grouting or soil freezing techniques for soil stabilization.

5.

Design of Protective Filters

Piping ratio:

D

15(

FILTER

)

D

85(

SOIL

)

< 4

to

5

Prevents the protected soil from moving through the filter.

D

15(

FILTER

)

D

15(

SOIL

)

> 4

to

5

Ensures that the filter is large enough to improve the situation.

It may be necessary to place a number of filter materials in series to avoid piping.

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NATURE OF COHESIVE SOILS

Clay Water System

“Clay” refers to both a specific sheet size ( < 2 mm) and specific minerals (sheet silicates) that are somewhat similar to mica. The cohesive properties of natural soils are normally related to the presence of clay minerals (e.g., kaolinite, illite, monmorillonite, chlorite and vermiculite).

- all clay mineral are negatively charged

- hydrated cations (+ve) are attracted to -ve clay particles forming a double layer

The double layer (or bound water) is the main reason that the engineering behaviour of clayey soils are strongly influenced by the presence of water.

Atterberg Limits

Since water plays an important role in the behaviour with a significant clayey fraction, a range of water content has been defined that correlate strongly with the engineering properties of fine grained soils. The Atterberg limits are water contents that bracket different behavioural states for the soil.

INCREASING WATER CONTENT w (%)

shrinkage limit, w s

plastic limit, w P

liquid limit, w L

natural water content, w n

The range of water content over which a fine grained soil behaves as a plastic is defined as the Plasticity Index:

I P =

The Plasticity Index provides an important indication of soil properties and may indicate its composition. It is used in the classification of fine grained soils.

Also define the Liquidity Index as:

I L =

Relationship of Mineralogy to Atterberg Limits

Clay Mineral

w

L

w

P

I

P

CEC

(%)

(%)

(%)

(meq/100g)

kaolinite

       

illite

       

Na + - montmorillonite

       

Ca ++ - montmorillonite

       

CEC = cation exchange capacity

NOTES:

1. High w L = montmorillonite = trouble

2. Na + mont. MUCH more troublesome than Ca ++ mont.

CLASSIFICATION OF SOILS

UNIFIED SOIL CLASSIFICATION SYSTEM (USCS)

Read:

“An Introduction to Geotechnical Engineering”, Holtz and Kovacs pp. 47-64.

ON RESERVE: UA Cameron Flr1 SciTec Reserve, CALL NUMBER: TA 710 H75 1981

1) MAIN SOIL TYPE

 

PREFIX

COARSE GRAINED

 

(

< 50% PASSES No. 200 SIEVE)

GRAVEL ( < 50% PASSES No. 4 SIEVE)

G

SAND

( > 50% PASSES No. 4 SIEVE)

S

FINE GRAINED

 

(

> 50% PASSING No. 200 SIEVE)

   

SILT

M

CLAY

C

ORGANIC

O

PEAT

 

Pt

2) SUBDIVISIONS

SUFFIX

FOR GRAVEL AND SAND WELL GRADED (Cu > 4 and 1 < Cc < 3), CLEAN POORLY GRADED (Cu 4 and 1 ¤ Cc ¤ 3), CLEAN APPRECIABLE FINES ( > 12% PASSES No. 200 SIEVE)

W P M or C

FOR SILTS AND CLAYS (use plasticity chart)

 

LOW PLASTICITY

(w L < 50%)

L

HIGH PLASTICITY

(w L > 50%)

H

see Example 3.1 H&K

1

COMPACTION OF SOILS

Compaction is the densification of soil by the application of mechanical energy.

Reasons for Compaction:

Road Subgrade

- strong at small deflections

- ultimate strength usually not a problem

Road Embankment

Homogeneous Dam

- strong at ultimate strength for overall stability

- strong and impervious

Dam Core

- low permeability (relatively impervious) and usually weak

-

strength derived from shells of dam

Clay Liner

- low permeability (relatively impervious) for municipal and toxic solid waste disposal

Main Factors Influencing the Compaction of Soils

1)

2)

3)

4)

2

RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN DRY DENSITY AND WATER CONTENT

The relationship between the dry density (or unit weight) and water content of a soil is measured in the laboratory with the compaction test. Here a soil sample mixed to a certain water content is compacted in a cylinder of known volume. The dry density of the soil can be computed by measuring both the total mass of the soil and the water content.

• compact soil in layers
• compact soil in layers
the soil and the water content. • compact soil in layers • for each layer, drop
the soil and the water content. • compact soil in layers • for each layer, drop

• for each layer, drop known mass a certain height with a specified number of blows per layer

Standard Proctor

Modified Proctor

Number of Layers

3

5

Height of Fall

0.3048 m

0.4572 m

Mass of Hammer

2.495 kg

4.536 kg

Energy

593 kJ/m 3

2694 kJ/m 3

g d

3

g d 3 19 . . . . . 6 8 10 12 14 16 18

19

. . . . .
.
.
.
.
.

6

8

10

12

14

16

18

g d 3 19 . . . . . 6 8 10 12 14 16 18

18

17

w

Typical Compaction Curve for Silty Clay

maximum dry density r d max

optimum water content w opt

Explanation of shape:

- below w opt there is a water deficiency

• get

- near w opt the clay particles are lubricated

- above w opt there is excess water

• some of the compactive effort is taken by

• also water takes up spaces that could be occupied by

4

Relationship between dry density, water content and degree of saturation can be calculated viz,

Note that:

- no data points should lie to the right of the zero air void curve

- complete saturation is never achieved, even at high water contents

saturation is never achieved, even at high water contents Source: Holtz and Kovacs (1981) Modified Proctor

Source: Holtz and Kovacs (1981)

Modified Proctor test has a greater compactive effort (CE) than the Standard Proctor.

as CE 8,

as w 8

5

COMPACTION AND STRENGTH OF COHESIVE SOILS

s 600 400 200 w e % g d Strength (kPa)
s
600
400
200
w
e %
g
d
Strength (kPa)

w

6

COMPACTION AND PERMEABILITY OF CLAYEY SOILS

6 COMPACTION AND PERMEABILITY OF CLAYEY SOILS • hydraulic conductivity decreases as moulding water content •

hydraulic conductivity decreases as moulding water content

huge decrease in k

minimum k occurs 2 to 4% above the optimum water content

if compacted wet of optimum the method of compaction influences k

e.g., at 4% wet of optimum, 100 times difference in k

! reason for lower k related to clay particle structure:

flocculated

dispersed

7

FIELD PLACEMENT OF CLAYEY BARRIER FOR WASTE CONTAINMENT

Compacted clay liners are commonly used as barriers in waste containment facilities (e.g., municipal solid waste landfills) to minimize the movement of contaminants from the facility.

to minimize the movement of contaminants from the facility. ! since lowest values of k achieved
to minimize the movement of contaminants from the facility. ! since lowest values of k achieved

! since lowest values of k achieved with

MUNICIPAL SOLID WASTE LANDFILL

SOLID WASTE Gravel (16 - 32 mm) Geotextile Perforated Pipe Geotextile Gravel (50 mm)
SOLID WASTE
Gravel (16 - 32 mm)
Geotextile
Perforated Pipe
Geotextile
Gravel (50 mm)

kneading compaction, make great effort in the field

to repetitively knead the soil with many passes of pad-foot, club-foot or wedge-foot rollers

! kneading action breaks up clods and interclod macropores

! also compact in lifts with pad-foot compactor with feet long enough to penetrate through the lift being compacted into the underlying lift

! minimum thickness (normally) of 0.9 m (six lifts of 0.15 m) to minimize the risk of defects in a layer having a significant impact on performance - probability of cracks lining up is very small if compacted in more than four layers

! need to consider potential for clay-leachate interaction may not be a great problem clayey soils with low activity

! important that the liner not be permitted to:

dessicate -

freeze -

8

FIELD MEASUREMENT OF DENSITY

Having defined the necessary dry density for the soil, determined the type of compactor and determined the lift height, it is subsequently necessary to monitor the density of the field compacted soil to ensure that the soil is performing as expected and that contractor is performing the work as required.

The easiest and probably most common method of determining the soil density is with the use of a Nuclear Density Meter. Other methods include sand cone and rubber balloon tests.

methods include sand cone and rubber balloon tests. Source: Bardet (1997) Nuclear Density Meter

Source: Bardet (1997)

Nuclear Density Meter -non–destructive -measures both moisture content and bulk density directly -gamma radiation is used for density determination -neutron radiation is used for moisture content determination -radiation is sent out from an emitter and scattered radiation is counted by a detector. -calibration against compacted materials of known density and water content is necessary

Sand Cone and Balloon Density: Steps

1. Excavate a hole in the compacted fill at the desired sampling elevation.

2. Record the mass of soil removed for the hole.

3. Determine the water content of the soil removed.

4. Measure the volume of the hole using sand cone, balloon or other method.

5. Calculate bulk density knowing Mt and Vt.

STEADY STATE SEEPAGE

TYPES OF PROBLEMS

how fast and where water flows though soils

- rate of leakage from an earth dam

- movements of contaminants in subsurface

rate of settlement of foundations

- related to how fast water flows in soils

the stability of earth structures

- water influences the strength of soils

NATURE OF FLOW

- water influences the strength of soils NATURE OF FLOW flow from A to B -

flow from A to B

- not in a straight line

- not at a constant velocity

- rather winding path from pore to pore

Flow occurs through the interconnected pores

• isolated voids do not exist in an assemblage of spheres - regardless of packing density

- gravels, sands, silts, and even most clays - probably no isolated voids - unless cemented

• some geologic materials (e.g., many crystalline rocks) have a high total porosity - most of which are interconnected

- effective porosity n e - percentage of interconnected pore space - contaminants may move very fast in fractured rock

ONE DIMENSIONAL FLOW - DARCY’S LAW

Classical experiment performed by H. Darcy in the 1850's to study the flow properties of water through a sand filter bed.

the flow properties of water through a sand filter bed. It was experimentally found that: Q

It was experimentally found that:

Q =

where:

Q =

k =

h

h

3

4

=

=

L =

A =

total volume of water collected per unit time - flow rate [ L 3 / T ]

experimentally derived constant [ L / T ]

height above datum of water rise in standpipe inserted at the top of the sand [ L ]

height above datum of water rise in standpipe inserted at the base of the sand [ L ]

length of sample [ L ]

cross-sectional area of the sample container [ L 2 ]

Define

i ab =

gradient

between any two points a and b as:

where Dh is the difference in total head between points a and b.

Therefore Darcy’s Law can be written as:

Q =

Flow per unit area is given by:

where:

v is the Darcy flux

- volume of water that flows through a unit area per unit time

- units with dimensions of [ L 3 ] × [ L -2 ] × [ T -1 ] = [ L / T ]

- same units as velocity

- often called Darcy velocity but is actually a flux

- fictitious velocity but useful

Consider the flow between points 1 - 2 and 3 - 4. Continuity of flow requires that:

Q 1-2

=

Q 3-4

where:

v s is the seepage velocity

- also termed groundwater velocity and average linearized groundwater velocity

- also fictitious quantity given tortuous flow path, but again useful quantity

and

n is the porosity

e.g., for sands, n .0.3

quantity given tortuous flow path, but again useful quantity and n is the porosity e.g., for

NATURE OF HEADS

where:

h = h v + h p + z

h v

h p

z

h

=

velocity head

=

pressure head

- height to which liquid rises in a piezometer above that point

- pore pressure u = h p × ã w

=

elevation head

-

vertical distance from datum to point

=

total head [ L ]

** Water flows from high total head to low total head. **

Note: Total head is always measured relative to some datum. Since flow depends on the gradient (or change in head over a given distance) the choice of the position of datum is not important - however, choosing a datum (and clearly defining it) is of paramount importance.

Example 1.

of datum is not important - however, choosing a datum (and clearly defining it) is of
of datum is not important - however, choosing a datum (and clearly defining it) is of
of datum is not important - however, choosing a datum (and clearly defining it) is of

Example 2.

Example 2. Example 3.

Example 3.

Example 2. Example 3.

PHYSICAL INTERPRETATION OF DARCY’S PROPORTIONALITY CONSTANT

Reflecting back on Darcy’s experiment, the proportionality constant k may be expected to be a function of the soil and the fluid.

where:

ã w

=

µ =

d =

k =

k

k

k

%

%

%

ã w

1 / µ

d 2

unit weight of water

viscosity

mean grain diameter of sand

Darcy’s proportionality constant

Define k as the hydraulic conductivity

- contains properties of both the porous medium and the fluid

- units [ L / T ]

- characterises the capacity of a porous medium to transmit water at a specific temperature

- also referred to as the coefficient of permeability

- hydraulic conductivity is most frequently used in ground water or hydrogeology literature

- permeability used in petroleum industry where the fluids of interest are oil, gas and water

Darcy’s proportionality constant can be expressed as:

k =

k i ã w

µ

k i is defined as the intrinsic permeability

- contains properties of the porous medium only

- units [ L 2 ]

- characterises the capacity of a porous medium to transmit any fluid

Both the unit weight and the viscosity of water can change with temperature. For practical purposes of groundwater flow these changes are small; we ignore these effects (unless the temperatures approach 0°C), so we treat k as a soil property, independent of other effects.

HYDRAULIC CONDUCTIVITY

The hydraulic conductivity is influenced by a number of factors including:

- effective porosity

- grain size and grain size distribution

- shape and orientation of particles

- degree of saturation

- clay mineralogy

Approximate range in values of hydraulic conductivity (Whitlow 1995).

k (m/s)

2 -

1 -

1 -

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

10 -10 -

10

10

10

10

10

10

10

10

10

10

10

-1

-2

-3

-4

-5

-6

-7

-8

-9

- 1 - - - - - - - - - - 10 - 1 0
- 1 - - - - - - - - - - 10 - 1 0
- 1 - - - - - - - - - - 10 - 1 0
- 1 - - - - - - - - - - 10 - 1 0

HYDRAULIC CONDUCTIVITY AND CLAY MINERALOGY

In general, the higher the specific surface and cation exchange capacity, the greater amount of bound water and the lower the hydraulic conductivity value.

Clay Mineral

Edge View

Thickness

Specific Surface (km 2 /kg)

CEC

Probable k

 

(nm)

(meq/100g)

(m/s)

kaolinite

 

50 - 2000

0.015

- 5

10 -7 - 10 -10

illite

   

30

.08

- 25

10 -9 - 10 -11

montmorillonite

   

3

100

- 100

10 -10 - 10 -15

Why is this so?

Implications for clayey barriers for waste containment:

kaolinite

- would have to be very pure to obtain low k because of low CEC

- valuable as a pottery clay

illite

- probably best barrier clays

- fairly inactive, no interlayer expansion or contraction

- yield low k barrier if constitute about 20% of well graded soil

montmorillonite

- obtain the lowest hydraulic conductivity

- susceptible to interlayer expansion and contraction - may get huge increase in k - BAD

- most temperamental of the clay minerals

LABORATORY MEASUREMENT OF HYDRAULIC CONDUCTIVITY

See Whitlow Sections 5.5, 5.6, 5.7

OF HYDRAULIC CONDUCTIVITY See Whitlow Sections 5.5, 5.6, 5.7 Constant Head Test Falling Head Test FIELD
OF HYDRAULIC CONDUCTIVITY See Whitlow Sections 5.5, 5.6, 5.7 Constant Head Test Falling Head Test FIELD
OF HYDRAULIC CONDUCTIVITY See Whitlow Sections 5.5, 5.6, 5.7 Constant Head Test Falling Head Test FIELD
OF HYDRAULIC CONDUCTIVITY See Whitlow Sections 5.5, 5.6, 5.7 Constant Head Test Falling Head Test FIELD

Constant Head Test

See Whitlow Sections 5.5, 5.6, 5.7 Constant Head Test Falling Head Test FIELD MEASUREMENT OF HYDRAULIC

Falling Head Test

FIELD MEASUREMENT OF HYDRAULIC CONDUCTIVITY

See Whitlow Section 5.9

5.5, 5.6, 5.7 Constant Head Test Falling Head Test FIELD MEASUREMENT OF HYDRAULIC CONDUCTIVITY See Whitlow

ONE DIMENSIONAL FLOW PROBLEMS

The engineered barrier systems in modern municipal solid waste landfills provide excellent examples of the use of one dimensional flow problems to solve seepage problems.

solid waste landfills provide excellent examples of the use of one dimensional flow problems to solve

TWO DIMENSIONAL STEADY STATE SEEPAGE

Several assumptions are required to derive the equation governing two dimensional steady state seepage.

• the soil is completely saturated

• there is no change in void ratio of the porous medium

• the hydraulic conductivity is isotropic

• Darcy’s law is valid

• the water is incompressible

Consider the flow of water into an element with dimensions dx and dy and unit width in the z direction.

Continuity of flow requires that,

Analytical solutions can be obtained to Laplace’s equation for problems involving only simple boundary conditions.

Alternatively, either

numerical

or

graphical

solutions may be used.

e.g.,

finite difference

e.g.,

flow nets

finite element

 

- SeepW ®

- GMS Seep2D ®

Numerical solutions may be highly dependent upon the refinement of the finite-difference grid or finite-element mesh. For transient analysis suitable refinement of the time step is also important. Such numerical methods should be considered incorrect until proven correct.

Define two characteristics of flow:

1)

Equipotential lines

- EP

- lines of constant total head

2)

Flow lines

- FL

- lines parallel to the direction of flow

If we draw a flow net with constant head difference between EPs for flow through a homogeneous, isotropic porous medium then:

- EP z FL

- get curvilinear squares - don’t have to all be the same size

- be able to fit circle tangent to all sides

Flow net for Darcy’s Apparatus

have to all be the same size - be able to fit circle tangent to all

7

6

5

4

3

2

1

0

have to all be the same size - be able to fit circle tangent to all

To solve for the flow Q use Darcy’s law:

- calculate Q based on one square then multiply by the number of flow tubes

ÄQ =

k

Äh

L

a

ÄQ =

flow in one flow channel (per unit width)

Äh =

total head drop across a pair of EPs

L distance over which head drop takes place

a distance between adjacent flow lines.

=

=

Common Boundary Conditions

equipotential line

lines. = = Common Boundary Conditions equipotential line line of constant pressure - sat. soil in

line of constant pressure

- sat. soil in contact with air

- h p = 0

- à h = z

- line of variable but known head

Steps in Drawing a Flow Net

line of variable but known head Steps in Drawing a Flow Net impermeable boundary 1) Define

impermeable boundary

1)

Define and clearly mark a datum.

2)

Identify the boundary conditions (EP, FL, LCP).

3)

Draw intermediate equipotentials and flow lines.

4)

draw coarse mesh with a few EPs and FLs Verify the coarse mesh is correct.

-

- Are the boundary conditions satisfied ?

- Are all flow tubes continuous ?

- Are EPs z FLs ?

only if isotropic medium

- Mostly “squares” ?

5)

Add additional EPs and FLs for suitable refinement of the flow net.

6)

Calculate desired quantities of flow and heads.

Example: Steady State Seepage Beneath a Sheet Pile Wall

Example: Steady State Seepage Beneath a Sheet Pile Wall
Example: Steady State Seepage Beneath a Sheet Pile Wall
Example: Steady State Seepage Beneath a Sheet Pile Wall
Example: Steady State Seepage Beneath a Sheet Pile Wall
Example: Steady State Seepage Beneath a Sheet Pile Wall
Example: Steady State Seepage Beneath a Sheet Pile Wall
Example: Steady State Seepage Beneath a Sheet Pile Wall
Example: Steady State Seepage Beneath a Sheet Pile Wall
Example: Steady State Seepage Beneath a Sheet Pile Wall
Example: Steady State Seepage Beneath a Sheet Pile Wall
Example: Steady State Seepage Beneath a Sheet Pile Wall
Example: Steady State Seepage Beneath a Sheet Pile Wall
Example: Steady State Seepage Beneath a Sheet Pile Wall
Example: Steady State Seepage Beneath a Sheet Pile Wall
Example: Steady State Seepage Beneath a Sheet Pile Wall
Example: Steady State Seepage Beneath a Sheet Pile Wall
Example: Steady State Seepage Beneath a Sheet Pile Wall
Example: Steady State Seepage Beneath a Sheet Pile Wall
Example: Steady State Seepage Beneath a Sheet Pile Wall
Example: Steady State Seepage Beneath a Sheet Pile Wall
Example: Steady State Seepage Beneath a Sheet Pile Wall
Example: Steady State Seepage Beneath a Sheet Pile Wall
Example: Steady State Seepage Beneath a Sheet Pile Wall
Example: Steady State Seepage Beneath a Sheet Pile Wall
Example: Steady State Seepage Beneath a Sheet Pile Wall
Example: Steady State Seepage Beneath a Sheet Pile Wall
Example: Steady State Seepage Beneath a Sheet Pile Wall
Example: Steady State Seepage Beneath a Sheet Pile Wall
Example: Steady State Seepage Beneath a Sheet Pile Wall
Example: Steady State Seepage Beneath a Sheet Pile Wall
Example: Steady State Seepage Beneath a Sheet Pile Wall
Example: Steady State Seepage Beneath a Sheet Pile Wall
Example: Steady State Seepage Beneath a Sheet Pile Wall
Example: Steady State Seepage Beneath a Sheet Pile Wall
Example: Steady State Seepage Beneath a Sheet Pile Wall

Flow Beneath a Dam

Flow Beneath a Dam

Seepage Through an Earth Dam

Seepage Through an Earth Dam
Seepage Through an Earth Dam

EFFECTIVE STRESS

The compressibility and strength of soils is governed by the effective stresses.

Any deformation or mobilization of shearing resistance of a soil is associated with the soil skeleton since:

- water is incompressible

- water cannot support shear stresses

Terzaghi showed experimentally that for saturated soils:

 

óN

=

ó

-

u

where:

sN

=

effective stress

s

=

total stress

u

=

pore pressure

The effective stress principle is accurate provided that:

• point to point contact area between soil particles is small

ó

=

óN

+

u

1

-

A

c

 

A

• the compressibility of the soil particles is small and the strength of individual particles is large

Effective stress can be thought of as the force carried by the soil skeleton divided by the total area of the soil element (including the area of pore water).

Effective stress is an empirical concept that works well.

-1-

CALCULATING EFFECTIVE STRESSES

• the total vertical stress s v within a particular soil layer is equal to the total weight per unit area of material above that point

where g i is the bulk unit weight of layer i with thickness d i .

• pore pressure is equal to:

u = h p × ã w

where:

h p

g w

=

=

pressure head unit weight of water

vertical effective stress can then be found as: ó v N =

horizontal effective stress s h N is equal to:

ó h N

where:

K

=

coefficient of lateral earth pressure

ó v

=

=

-

K

ó h N

u

ó v N

/ ó v N

- horizontal stresses develop from the resistance to lateral movement

- K is a function of soil type and stress history

- for conditions of zero lateral strain, K o is used

K o

=

“at rest” coefficient of lateral earth pressure

- K is typically between 0.3 to 0.8 for normally consolidated clays

- K is typically between 0.3 to 0.5 for normally consolidated sands

Some published correlations for K o:

K o . 0.95 - sin fN N

where:

f

=

Brooker and Ireland (1965) angle of internal friction

K o . (1 - sin

where:

f N) ( OCR ) sin f N

Kulhawy and Mayne (1990)

OCR =

overconsolidation ratio

-2-

Example 1

Example 1 -3-

-3-

Example 2. Typical River Crossing with Artesian Conditions

Example 2. Typical River Crossing with Artesian Conditions -4-

-4-

CAPILLARY AND SOIL SUCTION

The concept of soil suction is fundamental when considering the mechanical behaviour of

Total suction arises from two components:

where:

- matric suction, and

- osmotic suction

y

u

u

a

( u a - u )

p

ø = ( u a - u ) + ð

=

=

=

=

=

total soil suction pore-air pressure

pore-water pressure matric suction

osmotic suction

Matric suction is associated with the capillary phenomenon arising from the surface tension of water.

• interaction of surface molecules causes a condition analogous to a surface subjected to tension

• the capillary phenomenon is best illustrated by considering the rise of a water surface in a capillary tube

Consider a small glass tube inserted into water under atmospheric conditions:

glass tube inserted into water under atmospheric conditions: wetting causes curvature liquid meets glass tube at

wetting causes curvature liquid meets glass tube at angle á

-1-

• water rises up a small tube resulting from a combination of the surface tension of a liquid and the tendency of some liquids ro wet surfaces which they come into contact with

Vertical equilibrium of the water in the tube requires that

2 ð r T s cos á

=

ð r 2 h c ñ w g

where:

r

T s

a

h c

g

solve for h c

 

Rs

=

=

=

=

=

=

radius of capillary tube surface tension of water

contact angle

capillary height

gravitational acceleration.

.

radius of curvature ( r ÷ a)

For pure water and clean glass, a . 0, giving:

73 dynes / cm - different in different liquids - for any liquid, T s 9 as temp 8

The radius of the tube is analogous to the pore radius in the soil. The smaller the pore radius, the greater the capillary rise.

• common to assume the effective pore size is 20% of effective grain size D 10

Note that highly variable pore size and pore distribution complicate the capillary phenomenon in soils. However, useful qualitative deductions can be made from the glass tube analogy.

 

h c (m)

 

Loose

Dense

Coarse sand

0.03 - 0.12

0.04 - 0.15

Fine sand

0.3 - 2.0

0.4 - 3.5

Silt

1.5 - 10

2.5 - 12

Clay

> 10

 

-2-

Consider several points in the capillary system that are in hydrostatic equilibrium

in the capillary system that are in hydrostatic equilibrium • weight of water column transferred to

• weight of water column transferred to tube through the contractile skin

• for a soil with a capillary zone, this results in an increased compression on the soil skeleton

• matric suction increases the shear strength of an unsaturated soil

Re-examining the Water Table

VADOSE ZONE

VADOSE ZONE
VADOSE ZONE
VADOSE ZONE

PHREATIC ZONE

Contact Moisture

Partially Saturated by Capillarity

Saturated by

Capillarity

Ground Water

-3-

STRESSES IN AN ELASTIC MASS

Loading on the Surface of a Homogeneous Isotropic Semi-Infinite Mass

(a) Point Loading

Vertical Stress

Radial Stress

Tangential stress

Shear stress

s z =

s r =

s q =

t

rz

3Pz

3

 

2

p

R

3

 

P

È

3r

2

z

(

1

-

2v

)

R

˘

 

-

-

˙

 

2

p

R

(

P 1

-

2

2v

Í

Î

)

R

3

R

+

È z ˘

R

z

 

˚

 

-

˙

 

2

p

R

2

Í Î R

+

z

R

˚

3Prz

=

2

 

2

p

R

5

 
 

1

(b) Uniformly Loaded Strip

Vertical stress

s

Horizontal stress

s

Horizontal stress

s

Shear stress

t

z

x

y

xz

=

=

P

p

P

p

[

a

+

sin

a

cos

(a 2

+ d) ]

[

a

-

sin

a

cos

(a 2

+ d) ]

= 2p

p

n a

=

p

p

sin

a

sin

(a +

2

d)

2

(c) Uniformly Load Circle

On axis, at depth z,

Vertical stress

Horizontal stresses

s

s

z

r

=

=

p

s

È

Í

Í

Í

Î

q

1

-

=

Á Ê

Á Ë

1

È

p Í

2 Í

Î

 

1

+

(

a / z

)

2

(

1

+

2

n

)

3 ˘ ˆ 2 ˙ ˜ ˜ ˙
3
˘
ˆ
2
˙
˜
˜ ˙

¯

˙

˚

2 1 ( + n ) z - + 1 ( 2 2 ) 2
2 1
(
+ n
)
z
-
+
1
(
2
2
)
2
a
+
z

z 3

3 ( 2 2 ) a + z 2
3
(
2
2
)
a
+ z
2

˘

˙

˙

˚

For locations other than on the axis, see contour plot.

3

Increment in vertical stress (Ds v = Dq v ) beneath a circular footing with radius R and subject to uniform vertical pressure Dq s on uniform, isotropic elastic half-space.

footing with radius R and subject to uniform vertical pressure D q s on uniform, isotropic

4

(d) Uniformly Loaded Rectangle

Vertical stress s z beneath the corner of a rectangle is given by Fadum’s chart. For points other than the corner, s z may be obtained by superposition of rectangles.

is given by Fadum’s chart. For points other than the corner, s z may be obtained

5

(e) General Shapes

Vertical stress s z may be obtained by use of the Newmark chart.

(f) Linear Superposition

For linear elastic problems solutions may be added or subtracted to solve problems involving more complex geometry.

For example:

6

SETTLEMENT OF SOILS

When soils are subjected to loads (e.g., construct a building or an embankment) deformation will occur.

The design of foundations for engineering structures requires that the magnitude and rate of settlement be known.

The total settlement S T is given by:

 

S

T

=

where:

 

S

i

=

S

=

S

s

=

S i

+

S

+

S s

immediate or distortion settlement

- normally estimated using elastic theory

- judicious selection of stiffness parameters (E, n) over appropriate stress range

primary settlement in fine grained soils

- arises from the time dependent process of consolidation

- consolidation is the dissipation of excess pore pressure

- occurs because of changes in effective stress

secondary compression

- arises from changes in void ratio at constant effective stresses

- also termed as creep

When a soil is loaded settlement occurs because of water and air squeezing out from the voids. This results in a decrease in void ratio, and hence settlement.

-1-

MECHANICAL ANALOGY OF CONSOLIDATION

b) have: c)
b)
have:
c)

a) Initial conditions where:

total stress

pore pressure

effective stress =

=

=

s v u o s v - u o

=

s o N

Apply increase in total stress Ds with valve (V) closed. Then we

total stress

=

s v + Ds

pore pressure

effective stress = =

- no change in effective stress

- no compression of the spring

- S T = S i

=

u o + Du

( s v + Ds ) - ( u o + Du )

s v - u o

=

s o N

S = 0

à Ds o N = 0

Open valve (V). Water allowed to flow out of the sample. à Du 9 as t 8

as t 6 4,

Du 6 0, then:

total stress

pore pressure

effective stress =

=

=

s v + Ds

u o ( s v + Ds ) - u o =

here,

DsN = s f N -

s o N = Ds

s

f N

For real soil materials, the compression of the spring is analogous to a decrease in void ratio arising from a change in effective stresses

Consolidation is a time dependent process since it involves the flow of water from the pores. - consolidation is the dissipation of excess pore pressure

-2-

STRAIN INTEGRATION

Recall the axial deformation d of a column with stiffness E and cross-sectional area A, subject to axial load P.

Likewise for a soil material subject to increases in effective stress, the settlement (vertical displacement) may be found be integrating the vertical strain, viz:

where:

De

D

n

Dz

z

i

=

change in vertical strain because of a change in sN

=

thickness of compressible layer

=

number of sub-layers

=

thickness of sub-layers

Layer 1 Dz 1 Layer 2 Dz 2 Dz i Layer n Dz n .
Layer 1
Dz 1
Layer 2
Dz 2
Dz i
Layer n
Dz n
.
.
.

De z

1 Dz 1 Layer 2 Dz 2 Dz i Layer n Dz n . . .

z

The number (n) and thickness (Dz i ) of sub-layers depends on the function to be integrated

-3-

For conditions of one-dimensional strain, the change in volume strain De v is equal to the change in vertical strain De z .

BEFORE AFTER
BEFORE
AFTER

S

=

D

Ú

0

De

z

dz

=

D

Ú

0

D e 1 + e

o

-

dz

Now, need to express the relationship between void ratio and effective stress to calculate S because of change in sN.

-4-

OEDOMETER TEST

In the laboratory we can measure the change in height of a sample (and thereby calculate the change in void ratio) for a certain effective stress. This test is called a consolidation test and is performed in an oedometer which permits one-dimensional strain.

in an oedometer which permits one-dimensional strain. - apply load - initially all of the load

- apply load

- initially all of the load is transferred into excess pore pressure

- drainage permitted by porous stones

- excess pore pressure will dissipate and effective stresses will increase and the soil will settle

- monitor the change in height of the sample until most of the pore pressures have dissipated (achieve 90% consolidation)

- apply next load increment

-5-

Vertical Strain and Void Ratio Versus Effective Stress

Calculate the vertical strain or void ratio from the measurements of change in height of the sample. Can either plot these results on a linear or logarithmic scale of effective stress.

on a linear or logarithmic scale of effective stress. -6- De v = Note that: m

-6-

De

v

=

Note that:

m

v

D

- m v is not constant

- depends on stress level

- m v decreases as sN increases i.e. soil becomes stiffer

Soils are normally strain hardening materials. - that is to say, they become stiffer as they are loaded

Vertical Strain and Void Ratio Versus Logarithm of Effective Stress

- same data as previous plot now plotted versus the logarithm of effective stress

plot now plotted versus the logarithm of effective stress -7- Note that: - apparently get a

-7-

Note that:

- apparently get a straight line

- simplifies calculations

- since log scale, still represents strain hardening behaviour

Experimental results from an oedometer test are plotted with void ratio(e) versus the log of effective stress (sN): “ e log sN ” plot

0.8 0.7 0.6 0.5 0.4 0.3 1 10 100 1000 10000 Void Ratio e
0.8
0.7
0.6
0.5
0.4
0.3
1
10
100
1000
10000
Void Ratio e

Effective Stress s' (kPa)

where: e