1.
INTRODUCTION TO SOIL MATERIALS
1.1 Definitions
Soil:
uncemented or weakly cemented accumulation of mineral and organic particles and sediments found above the bedrock, or
any unconsolidated the voids
material consisting of discrete solid particles with fluid or gas in
Rock:
indurated (consolidated by
blasting, brute force excavation
pressure or cementation
) material requiring drilling,
The dividing line between soil and rock is arbitrary; the same material may sometimes be either classified as “very soft rock” or “very hard soil”, depending on who classifies the material or what the application is. To a geologist “our” soil is drift or unconsolidated material.
Whereas we are concerned with soil to the depth of bedrock, soil scientists (pedology) and agricultural scientists (agronomists) are concerned with only the very uppermost layers of soil.
Soil Mechanics: (ASTM) the application of the laws and principles of mechanics and hydraulics to engineering problems dealing with soil as an engineering material.
Geotechnical Engineering: the application of civil engineering technology to some aspect of the earth, therefore including soil and rock as engineering materials. It combines the basic physical sciences, geology, pedology with hydraulic, structural, transportation, construction, environmental and mining engineering.
Soil mechanics is a subset of geotechnical engineering.
1.2 Origin of Soils
Soil is a three phase system of: 
 
solid particles 
 
pore fluid 

 
pore gas 
Most solid particles are mineral fragments that originated from the disintegration of rocks by physical or chemical action, often referred to as weathering.
Physical
changes, and the activity of plants and animals.
Weathering: erosion due to freezing & thawing, abrasion from glaciers, temperature
Chemical
chemical processes.
Weathering: decomposition due to oxidation, reduction, carbonation, and other
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Exceptions: Peat (organic) and shell deposits
Soils at a particular site can be:
 Residual
or weathered in place (most common in tropical locations), or
 Transported
by the action of:
Glaciers (glacial) Moving water (fluvial) Wind (aeolian) Settling out in salt water (marine) Settling out in fresh water (lactustrine) Due to gravity movement downslope (colluvial) (most common in temperate regions)
1.3 Main Types of Soils
Granular: 
gravel, sand, (silt) 
Cohesive: 
(silt), clay 
Organic: 
marsh soil, peat, coal, tar sand 
ManMade: 
mine tailings, landfill waste, ash, aggregates 
Soils can vary from 10 ^{2} to 10 ^{}^{3} mm in diameter.
Naturally occurring soils are usually a mixture of two or more of the above components. (e.g., siltysand, clayeysilt, clay with gravel)
In addition, the void space between the slid particles may be filled with either pore fluid gas.
1.4 
The Unique Nature of Soil Material 

highly variable 
 properties vary widely from point to point within the soil mass
 more heterogeneous rather than homogeneous
 large variations over small distances
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nonlinear stressstrain response
nonconservative (i.e. inelastic)
 soils “remember” what has happened to them in the past
 stress history is very important
 soil behaviour is quite different whether normally consolidated or overconsolidated (CivE381)
anisotropic
 different properties in different directions
 primarily a result of depositional and loading history
mulitphase system (soil, water, and air)
empirical application in design
 empirical  based on experience – what we can see / what we can measure
 good design  combination of art, science and common sense
The behavior of soil in situ is often governed by soil fabric, weak layers and zones, and other defects in the material. It is therefore essential that the successful geotechnical engineer develops a feel for the soil behavior.
Generally we idealize the behavior using applied mechanics concepts, and then apply engineering judgement (based on our own experience and the experience of others) to come up with a final solution.
Because the soil is so complex, it is difficult to deal with as an engineering material. It is necessary to be able to CLASSIFYCLASSIFY the soil based on ENGINEERINGENGINEERING BEHAVIOURBEHAVIOUR.
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2.
MASS  VOLUME RELATIONSHIPS AND DEFINITIONS
2.1 Soil System
Soil normally consists of a two or three phase system:
1) 
Solid mineral particles 
 quartz, feldspars, carbonates, mica / clay minerals, organic matter, 

 plus garbage, tailings, slag, etc. 

2) 
Pore fluid 
 normally water 

 could be oil, bitumen 

 could be leachate 

3) 
Pore gas 
 normally air 

 could be methane (landfill, pipeline) 

 often excess CO _{2} in tropics, radon 

2.2 
Phase Diagram 
For quantifying the properties of a soil, a series of definitions and terminology has developed to describe the three phase system – best illustrated with the use of a phase diagram.


V 
A 




V 
V 


V 
W 




T 


V 
S 



V
Air
Water
Solid
M _{A} =0
T

provides an easy means to identify both what is know and the relationship between known and desired quantities 

we usually measure the total volume V _{T} , the mass of water M _{W} , and the mass of solids M _{S} 

we may then calculate the rest of the values and the mass volume relationships that we need. Most relationships are independent of sample size and are often dimensionless. 
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2.3
Volumetric Relationships
Void Ratio, e:
e = 
V V 

V S 

[1] 

V _{V} = volume of voids V _{S} = volume of solids 


Expressed as a decimal Typically: 



Sands 0.4 < e < 1.0 Clays 0.3 < e < 1.5 
very loose sand e ª 0.8 soft clay e > 1 


organic clays e > 3 Empirically determined that much of soil behavior is related to e As e decreases density increases As e decreases strength increases As e decreases permeability decreases 

Porosity, n: 

n = 
V V 

V T 

[2] 

V _{V} = volume of voids V _{T} = volume total 


Expressed as a decimal or percentage (usually decimal) 

By substituting equation [1] into [2] we can show that: 

e 

n = 

1 
+ 
e 

[2a] 

and 

n 

e 
= 

1 
 n 

[2b] 
e.g., for a very loose sand with e=0.8,
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Degree of Saturation, S:
S = 
V 
W 
¥ 100 (%) 

V 
V 

V 
_{W} = volume of water 

V 
_{V} = volume of voids 

Expressed as a percentage 

Tells us the percentage of the total volume of voids that contain water Range is from 0 to 100% 

S 
= 0 % 
soil is completely dry 

S 
= 100 % 
soil is saturated (i.e. pore spaces are completely filled with water) 

2.4 Mass Relationships 
Density, rr:
Expressed as g/cm ^{3} , kg/m ^{3} or Mg/m ^{3} (=g/cm ^{3} )
Density of Solids, rr _{S} :
M _{S} = mass of solids
V _{S} = volume of solids
r
=
M
S
S V
S
Density of Water, rr _{W} :
r
=
M
W
=
W
W V
1.0g / cm
3
M _{W} = mass of water
V _{W} = volume of water
=
1.0Mg / m
3
at 4
o
C
[3]
[4]
[5]
Bulk Density(also termed moist, wet, or total density), rr:
r =
M
T
V
T
M _{T} = mass total
V _{T} = volume total
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[6]
Saturated Density, rr _{s}_{a}_{t} :
S = 100%, therefore V _{A} = 0
r
sat
=
M
T
V
T
[7]
Similar to bulk density except that the sample must have S = 100% e.g. saturated soil below the water table
Dry Density, rr _{d} :
S = 0%, therefore M _{W} = 0
r
d
=
M
S
V
T
Buoyant (Submerged) Density, rr’:
r¢ = r
SAT
 r
W
2.5 Weight Relationships
[8]
[9]
The relationships just defined in terms of masses (or densities) can be expressed in terms of weights and are called unit weights.
Unit Weight, gg:
g = r¥g
g = acceleration due to gravity = 9.81 m/s ^{2}
typically expressed in kN/m ^{3}
e.g. if r = 2100 kg/m ^{3} ,
[10]
g = 2100 kg/m ^{3} ¥ 9.81 m/s ^{2} = 20601 kg m = 20.6 kN / m ^{3}
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s ^{2} m ^{3}
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2.6
Basic Tests
Moisture Content, w:
w
=
M
W
M
S
¥ 100(%)
ASTM D2216
[11]

Expressed as a percentage 

The amount of water present in a soil relative to the mass of dry soil. 

See Bowles Experiment #1, pages 1517. 
Specific Gravity, Gs:
ASTM D854
Gs =
g
S
g
W
=
r S
r
W
[12]
Note that the Canadian Foundation and Engineering Manual (1992) terms this ratio as the relative density of the solid phase with respect to water and uses the symbol D _{r} . See Bowles Experiment #7, pages 7178 Defined as the weight of soil divided by the weight of an equal volume of water at 20 ^{o} C Gs is found using a sample of soil and a pycnometer, which gives the average specific gravity of the materials from which the soil particles are made. Typically 2.6 to 2.8 for the solid minerals in soil Often Gs < 1 for organic particles
2.6 Useful Relationships
e S = w Gs
r = Á Ê G
S
+
eS _{˜}
ˆ
Ë
1
+
e
¯
_{r}
w
set S = 1 for r _{s}_{a}_{t} set S = 0 for r _{d}
[13]
[14]
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2.7
Typical Values
TABLE 1. Summary of typical values of porosity, void ratio, water content, saturated density and saturated unit weight.
SOIL 
n 
e 
w 
r 
sat 
g 
sat 
(%) 
(%) 
kg/m ^{3} kg/m ^{3} 

LOOSE, UNIFORM SAND LOOSE, MIXED GRAINED SOIL DENSE WELL GRADED SAND HARD OR DENSE GLACIAL TILL SOFT CLAY STIFF CLAY SOFT ORGANIC CLAY PEAT (VERY COMPRESSIBLE) 
46 
.85 
32 
1890 
18.5 

40 
.67 
25 
1986 19.45 

30 
.43 
16 
2163 
21.2 

20 
.25 
9 
2323 
22.8 

55 
1.2 
45 
1762 
17.3 

37 
0.6 
22 
2067 
20.2 

75 
3.0 
110 
1426 
13.9 

94 
17 
1000 
10.2 
TABLE 2. Summary of specific gravities for minerals and soils.
Specific Gravities of Minerals
Specific Gravities of Soils
Quartz 
2.65 
Sand 
2.65 
KFeldspars 
2.65  2.57 
Silty Sand 
2.66  2.68 
NaCaFeldspars 
2.62  2.76 
Silt 
2.67  2.68 
Calcite 
2.72 
Silty Clay 
2.70  2.72 
Dolomite 
2.85 
Clay 
2.70  2.80 
Muscovite 
2.7  3.1 

Biotite 
2.8  3.2 
Gs > 2.80  likely metals present 

Chlorite 
2.6  2.9 
Gs < 2.70  likely organics present 

Pyrophyllite 
2.84 

Serpentine 
2.2  2.7 
Average Gs for sand = 2.65 

Kaolinite 
2.61 ^{a} 
Average Gs for well mixed soil = 2.70 

2.64+/0.02 

Halloysite (2 H _{2} O) 
_{2}_{.}_{5}_{5} 
Illite 
2.84 ^{a} 

2.60 
 2.86 

Montmorillonite 
2.74 ^{a} 

2.75 
 2.78 

Attapulgite 
2.3 
^{a} Calculated from crystal structure.
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2.8 Example Problems
A saturated soil sample (S = 100%) has a water content of 42% and a specific gravity of 2.70. Calculate the void ratio, porosity, bulk unit weight, and bulk density.
A cylinder of soil has a volume of 1.15¥10 ^{}^{3} m ^{3} , a mass of 2.290 kg and Gs of 2.68. The mass of solid obtained by drying is 2.035 kg. Calculate: r, g, w _{n} , e, n, and S.
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3.
GRAIN SIZE AND GRAIN SIZE DISTRIBUTION
3.1 
Coarse Grained versus Fine Grained Soils 

convenient dividing line is the smallest grain that is visible to the naked eye 

with the Unified Soil Classification System (USCS) the division corresponds to a particle size of 0.075 mm. 
Particles larger than this size are called coarsegrained, while soils finer than this size are called finegrained.
Table 3.1
Textural and Other Characteristics of Soils
Soil Type
Gravels, Sands
Silts
Clays
Grain size: 
 Coarse grained 
 
Fine grained 
 
Fine grained 

 Can see individual 
 
Cannot see 
 
Cannot see 

grains by eye 
individual grains 
individual grains 

Characteristics: 
 Cohesionless 
 
Cohesionless 
 
Cohesive 

 
Nonplastic 
 
Nonplastic 
 
Plastic 

Granular

Granular
Effect of water on engineering behaviour: 
Relatively unimportant (exception: loose saturated granular materials and dynamic loading) 
Important 
Very Important 
Effect of grain size distribution on 
_{I}_{m}_{p}_{o}_{r}_{t}_{a}_{n}_{t} 
Relatively 
Relatively 
engineering behaviour: 
Important 
Unimportant 
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3.2
Grain Size Distribution
We are interested in both the
particle size
and the
distribution
of the particle sizes.
Sieve tests and hydrometer tests are used to define the distribution of grain sizes.
The range of particle sizes varies from 200 mm > D > 0.002 mm (i.e. by orders of magnitude) hence when we examine the particle size distribution we plot on a logarithmic scale.
Classification of soils according to particle sizes varies slightly between different classification systems.
The 
Unified Soil Classification System 
(USCS) is one commonly used classification 
system. 
In describing the size of a soil particle, we can use either a dimension or a name that has been arbitrarily assigned to a certain size range. Classification from the USCS is described below:
Type 
Grain Size (mm) 
Boulders 
> 300 
Cobbles 
75 to 300 
Gravel 
4.75 to 75 
Sand 
0.075 to 4.75 
Silt 

< 0.075 

Clay 
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Particle Size (mm)
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Particle size distribution obtained by shaking a dry sample of soil through a series of wovenwire squaremesh sieves with successively smaller openings.
Since soil particles are rarely perfect spheres, particle diameter (or size) refers to an equivalent particle diameter as found from the sieve analysis. We will use the U.S. Standard Sieves. The sieve sizes are summarized in Table 3.2.
Table 3.2 U.S. Standard Sieve Sizes and their Corresponding Opening Dimension
Sieve No.
Sieve Opening (mm)
3" 
75 

1.5" 
38 

0.75" 
19 

0.375" 
9.5 

^{#} 4 
4.75 

^{#} 
10 
2.00 
^{#} 
20 
0.85 
^{#} 
40 
0.425 
^{#} 
60 
0.25 
^{#} 100 
0.15 

^{#} 140 
0.106 

^{#} 200 
0.075 










Cobbles 

Fines (Silt, Clay) 
Sand 
Gravel 
Boulders 

F 
M 
C 
F 
C 

0.001 
0.01 
0.1 
1 
10 
100 
1000 
Particle Size (mm)
Nested sieves are used for soils with grain sizes larger than 75 :m. For finer soils (silts and clays) the hydrometer test is used.
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Procedure for Soil Analysis
1. A soil sample is separated by passing it through the nest of sieves.
2. Determine the weight of soil retained on each sieve.
3. Calculate the percent of weight finer than each particle size.
4. Plot the grain size distribution as Percent Finer Than as the ordinate (yaxis) versus the log of the Particle Size as the abscissa (xaxis).
Calculation for Grain Size Analysis
Sieve 
Mass of 
Mass of Sieve and Soil 
Mass 
Cumulative 
% Cumulative 
% Passing 
Opening 
Sieve 
Retained 
Mass Retained 
Retained 

mm 
g g 
g 
g 

A B 
Where T = total mass of dry sample
Typical Grain Size Curves
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Parameters Describing the Grain Size Distribution
1. Effective particle size, D _{1}_{0} :
 Denotes the grain diameter (in mm) corresponding to 10% passing by mass.
 Controls flow for coarse grain soils.
2. Coefficient of Uniformity, C _{u} :
Cu _{=}
D
60
D
10
where: D _{6}_{0} = grain diameter (in mm) corresponding to 60% passing by mass and, D _{1}_{0} = grain diameter (in mm) corresponding to 10% passing by mass.
(Note: if D _{6}_{0} = D _{1}_{0} , Cu = 1, all particles between 10% and 60% are the same size).
3. Coefficient of Curvature, Cc:
Cc =
D
2
30
D
10
D
60
where: D _{3}_{0} = grain diameter (in mm) corresponding to 30% passing by mass.
For well graded soils,
C _{U} > 4 for gravel
C _{U} > 6 for sand
1 < C _{C} < 3
If C _{U} and C _{C} do not meet both of the criteria above, the soil is poorly graded.
Well graded:
generally smooth.
good representation of particle sizes over a wide range; gradation curve is
Poorly graded: either excess or a deficiency of certain sizes, or most of the particles about the same size. (i.e. uniform soil)
Gap graded: a proportion of grain sizes within a specific range is low (it is also poorly graded).
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3.3
Density Index of Granular Soil
Also referred to as relative density
Definition:
I _{D}
=
e _{m}_{a}_{x}  e
e max  e min
x 100%
where:
e _{m}_{a}_{x} = maximum void ratio corresponding to the loosest state,
e _{m}_{i}_{n} = minimum void ratio corresponding to the densest state, and
e = void ratio of the sample.
Loosest State, I _{D} = 0%, obtained by:

Sifting or funneling dry sand into narrow rows in a box 

Gentle settling in a water column 

If very fine, dumped in a damp, bulked state and submerged from below 
Densest State, I _{D} = 100%, obtained by:

Prolonged vibration at 20  30 cycles / sec under light static load in dry state 

If very uniform sand, tamped lightly after dumping thin layers 
Field Measurement: STD penetration test, "N" values

63.5 kg (140 lb) hammer dropping 76.2 cm (30") Count number of blows per ft to drive 2" sampler 61 cm 



I _{D} 
0 
15 
35 
65 
85 
100 

Very 
Loose 
Compact 
Dense 
Very 

Loose 
Dense 

_{N} 
28 ^{o} 
30 ^{o} 
36 ^{o} 
45 ^{o} 
3.4 Application of Grain Size Distribution
1. Estimation of Coefficient of Permeability, k, in Sands and Gravels
An empirical correlation between PSD and permeability has been developed
k = c (D _{1}_{0} ) ^{2} cm/s
where 100 < c < 150 Developed by Hazen for uniform, loose, clean sands and gravels.
2. Frost Heave Susceptibility
Frost heaving occurs if water may be drawn towards the freezing front in soils from below, forming lenses of ice. Whether or not water may be drawn to the freezing front is largely governed by the pore size, which is a function of the grain size distribution of the
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soil. The pore sizes may be sufficiently small to allow capillary action of the pore water up to the freezing front, and sufficiently large to have a high enough permeability to allow the water to migrate fast enough.
Silts combine sufficiently high suction and permeability to maximize ice lens production, hence road base material, for example, is usually specified to have not more than 3% silt size particles to alleviate frost heave beneath roads.
A 
soil is frost susceptible if > 3% pass 0.02 mm. 
3. 
Selection of Fill Material 

Used to specify material for concrete aggregate (sand & gravel), road base material 

Used to examine and develop borrow pits. 
4. 
Geotechnical Processes 

Used to evaluate soil drainage. 

Used to examine the likely effectiveness of grouting or soil freezing techniques for soil stabilization. 
5. 
Design of Protective Filters 
Piping ratio:
D
15(
FILTER
)
D
85(
SOIL
)
< 4
to
5
Prevents the protected soil from moving through the filter.
D
15(
FILTER
)
D
15(
SOIL
)
> 4
to
5
Ensures that the filter is large enough to improve the situation.
It may be necessary to place a number of filter materials in series to avoid piping.
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NATURE OF COHESIVE SOILS
Clay Water System
“Clay” refers to both a specific sheet size ( < 2 mm) and specific minerals (sheet silicates) that are somewhat similar to mica. The cohesive properties of natural soils are normally related to the presence of clay minerals (e.g., kaolinite, illite, monmorillonite, chlorite and vermiculite).
 all clay mineral are negatively charged
 hydrated cations (+ve) are attracted to ve clay particles forming a double layer
The double layer (or bound water) is the main reason that the engineering behaviour of clayey soils are strongly influenced by the presence of water.
Atterberg Limits
Since water plays an important role in the behaviour with a significant clayey fraction, a range of water content has been defined that correlate strongly with the engineering properties of fine grained soils. The Atterberg limits are water contents that bracket different behavioural states for the soil.
INCREASING WATER CONTENT w (%)
shrinkage limit, w _{s}
plastic limit, w _{P}
liquid limit, w _{L}
natural water content, w _{n}
The range of water content over which a fine grained soil behaves as a plastic is defined as the Plasticity Index:
I _{P} =
The Plasticity Index provides an important indication of soil properties and may indicate its composition. It is used in the classification of fine grained soils.
Also define the Liquidity Index as:
I _{L} =
Relationship of Mineralogy to Atterberg Limits
Clay Mineral 
w 
L 
w 
P 
I 
P 
CEC 
(%) 
(%) 
(%) 
(meq/100g) 

kaolinite 

illite 

Na ^{+}  montmorillonite 

Ca ^{+}^{+}  montmorillonite 
CEC = cation exchange capacity
NOTES:
1. High w _{L} = montmorillonite = trouble
2. Na ^{+} mont. MUCH more troublesome than Ca ^{+}^{+} mont.
CLASSIFICATION OF SOILS
UNIFIED SOIL CLASSIFICATION SYSTEM (USCS)
Read:
“An Introduction to Geotechnical Engineering”, Holtz and Kovacs pp. 4764.
ON RESERVE: UA Cameron Flr1 SciTec Reserve, CALL NUMBER: TA 710 H75 1981
1) MAIN SOIL TYPE 
PREFIX 

COARSE GRAINED 

( 
< 50% PASSES No. 200 SIEVE) 

GRAVEL ( < 50% PASSES No. 4 SIEVE) 
G 

SAND 
( > 50% PASSES No. 4 SIEVE) 
S 

FINE GRAINED 

( 
> 50% PASSING No. 200 SIEVE) 

SILT 
M 

CLAY 
C 

ORGANIC 
O 

PEAT 
Pt 

2) SUBDIVISIONS 
SUFFIX 

FOR GRAVEL AND SAND WELL GRADED (Cu > 4 and 1 < Cc < 3), CLEAN POORLY GRADED (Cu › 4 and 1 ¤ Cc ¤ 3), CLEAN APPRECIABLE FINES ( > 12% PASSES No. 200 SIEVE) 
W P M or C 

FOR SILTS AND CLAYS (use plasticity chart) 

LOW PLASTICITY 
(w _{L} < 50%) 
L 

HIGH PLASTICITY 
(w _{L} > 50%) 
H 
see Example 3.1 H&K
1
COMPACTION OF SOILS
Compaction is the densification of soil by the application of mechanical energy.
Reasons for Compaction:
Road Subgrade
 strong at small deflections
 ultimate strength usually not a problem
Road Embankment
Homogeneous Dam
 strong at ultimate strength for overall stability
 strong and impervious
Dam Core 
 low permeability (relatively impervious) and usually weak 

 
strength derived from shells of dam 

Clay Liner 
 low permeability (relatively impervious) for municipal and toxic solid waste disposal 
Main Factors Influencing the Compaction of Soils
1)
2)
3)
4)
2
RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN DRY DENSITY AND WATER CONTENT
The relationship between the dry density (or unit weight) and water content of a soil is measured in the laboratory with the compaction test. Here a soil sample mixed to a certain water content is compacted in a cylinder of known volume. The dry density of the soil can be computed by measuring both the total mass of the soil and the water content.
• for each layer, drop known mass a certain height with a specified number of blows per layer
Standard Proctor
Modified Proctor
Number of Layers
3
5
Height of Fall 
0.3048 m 
0.4572 m 
Mass of Hammer 
2.495 kg 
4.536 kg 
Energy 
593 kJ/m ^{3} 
2694 kJ/m ^{3} 
g d
3
19
6
8
10
12
14
16
18
18
17
w
Typical Compaction Curve for Silty Clay
maximum dry density r _{d} _{m}_{a}_{x}
optimum water content w _{o}_{p}_{t}
Explanation of shape:
 below w _{o}_{p}_{t} there is a water deficiency
• get
 near w _{o}_{p}_{t} the clay particles are lubricated
 above w _{o}_{p}_{t} there is excess water
• some of the compactive effort is taken by
• also water takes up spaces that could be occupied by
4
Relationship between dry density, water content and degree of saturation can be calculated viz,
Note that:
 no data points should lie to the right of the zero air void curve
 complete saturation is never achieved, even at high water contents
Source: Holtz and Kovacs (1981)
Modified Proctor test has a greater compactive effort (CE) than the Standard Proctor.
• 
as CE 8, 
• 
as w 8 
• 
5
COMPACTION AND STRENGTH OF COHESIVE SOILS
w
6
COMPACTION AND PERMEABILITY OF CLAYEY SOILS
• 
hydraulic conductivity decreases as moulding water content 
• 
huge decrease in k 
• 
minimum k occurs 2 to 4% above the optimum water content 
• 

• 
if compacted wet of optimum the method of compaction influences k 
e.g., at 4% wet of optimum, 100 times difference in k
! reason for lower k related to clay particle structure:
flocculated
dispersed
7
FIELD PLACEMENT OF CLAYEY BARRIER FOR WASTE CONTAINMENT
Compacted clay liners are commonly used as barriers in waste containment facilities (e.g., municipal solid waste landfills) to minimize the movement of contaminants from the facility.
! since lowest values of k achieved with
MUNICIPAL SOLID WASTE LANDFILL
kneading compaction, make great effort in the field
to repetitively knead the soil with many passes of padfoot, clubfoot or wedgefoot rollers
! kneading action breaks up clods and interclod macropores
! also compact in lifts with padfoot compactor with feet long enough to penetrate through the lift being compacted into the underlying lift
! minimum thickness (normally) of 0.9 m (six lifts of 0.15 m) to minimize the risk of defects in a layer having a significant impact on performance  probability of cracks lining up is very small if compacted in more than four layers
! need to consider potential for clayleachate interaction may not be a great problem clayey soils with low activity
! important that the liner not be permitted to:
dessicate 
freeze 
8
FIELD MEASUREMENT OF DENSITY
Having defined the necessary dry density for the soil, determined the type of compactor and determined the lift height, it is subsequently necessary to monitor the density of the field compacted soil to ensure that the soil is performing as expected and that contractor is performing the work as required.
The easiest and probably most common method of determining the soil density is with the use of a Nuclear Density Meter. Other methods include sand cone and rubber balloon tests.
Source: Bardet (1997)
Nuclear Density Meter non–destructive measures both moisture content and bulk density directly gamma radiation is used for density determination neutron radiation is used for moisture content determination radiation is sent out from an emitter and scattered radiation is counted by a detector. calibration against compacted materials of known density and water content is necessary
Sand Cone and Balloon Density: Steps
1. Excavate a hole in the compacted fill at the desired sampling elevation.
2. Record the mass of soil removed for the hole.
3. Determine the water content of the soil removed.
4. Measure the volume of the hole using sand cone, balloon or other method.
5. Calculate bulk density knowing Mt and Vt.
6.
Calculate the dry density knowing the bulk density and the water content.
STEADY STATE SEEPAGE
TYPES OF PROBLEMS
how fast and where water flows though soils
 rate of leakage from an earth dam
 movements of contaminants in subsurface
rate of settlement of foundations
 related to how fast water flows in soils
the stability of earth structures
 water influences the strength of soils
NATURE OF FLOW
flow from A to B
 not in a straight line
 not at a constant velocity
 rather winding path from pore to pore
Flow occurs through the interconnected pores
• isolated voids do not exist in an assemblage of spheres  regardless of packing density
 gravels, sands, silts, and even most clays  probably no isolated voids  unless cemented
• some geologic materials (e.g., many crystalline rocks) have a high total porosity  most of which are interconnected
 effective porosity n _{e}  percentage of interconnected pore space  contaminants may move very fast in fractured rock
ONE DIMENSIONAL FLOW  DARCY’S LAW
Classical experiment performed by H. Darcy in the 1850's to study the flow properties of water through a sand filter bed.
It was experimentally found that:
Q =
where:
Q =
k =
h
h
_{3}
_{4}
=
=
L =
A =
total volume of water collected per unit time  flow rate [ L ^{3} / T ]
experimentally derived constant [ L / T ]
height above datum of water rise in standpipe inserted at the top of the sand [ L ]
height above datum of water rise in standpipe inserted at the base of the sand [ L ]
length of sample [ L ]
crosssectional area of the sample container [ L ^{2} ]
Define
i ab =
gradient
between any two points a and b as:
where Dh is the difference in total head between points a and b.
Therefore Darcy’s Law can be written as:
Q =
Flow per unit area is given by:
where:
v is the Darcy flux
 volume of water that flows through a unit area per unit time
 units with dimensions of [ L ^{3} ] × [ L ^{}^{2} ] × [ T ^{}^{1} ] = [ L / T ]
 same units as velocity
 often called Darcy velocity but is actually a flux
 fictitious velocity but useful
Consider the flow between points 1  2 and 3  4. Continuity of flow requires that:
^{Q} 12
^{=}
^{Q} 34
where: 
v _{s} is the seepage velocity 
 also termed groundwater velocity and average linearized groundwater velocity 

 also fictitious quantity given tortuous flow path, but again useful quantity 

and 
n is the porosity 
e.g., for sands, n .0.3
NATURE OF HEADS
where:
h = h _{v} + h _{p} + z
h _{v}
h _{p}
z
h
= 
velocity head 

= 
pressure head 

 height to which liquid rises in a piezometer above that point 

 pore pressure u = h _{p} × ã _{w} 

= 
elevation head 

 
vertical distance from datum to point 

= 
total head [ L ] 
** Water flows from high total head to low total head. **
Note: Total head is always measured relative to some datum. Since flow depends on the gradient (or change in head over a given distance) the choice of the position of datum is not important  however, choosing a datum (and clearly defining it) is of paramount importance.
Example 1.
Example 2.
Example 3.
PHYSICAL INTERPRETATION OF DARCY’S PROPORTIONALITY CONSTANT
Reflecting back on Darcy’s experiment, the proportionality constant k may be expected to be a function of the soil and the fluid.
where:
ã _{w}
=
µ =
d =
k =
k
k
k
%
%
%
ã _{w}
1 / µ
d ^{2}
unit weight of water
viscosity
mean grain diameter of sand
Darcy’s proportionality constant
Define k as the hydraulic conductivity
 contains properties of both the porous medium and the fluid
 units [ L / T ]
 characterises the capacity of a porous medium to transmit water at a specific temperature
 also referred to as the coefficient of permeability
 hydraulic conductivity is most frequently used in ground water or hydrogeology literature
 permeability used in petroleum industry where the fluids of interest are oil, gas and water
Darcy’s proportionality constant can be expressed as:
k =
k _{i} ã _{w}
µ
k _{i} is defined as the intrinsic permeability
 contains properties of the porous medium only
 units [ L ^{2} ]
 characterises the capacity of a porous medium to transmit any fluid
Both the unit weight and the viscosity of water can change with temperature. For practical purposes of groundwater flow these changes are small; we ignore these effects (unless the temperatures approach 0°C), so we treat k as a soil property, independent of other effects.
HYDRAULIC CONDUCTIVITY
The hydraulic conductivity is influenced by a number of factors including:
 effective porosity
 grain size and grain size distribution
 shape and orientation of particles
 degree of saturation
 clay mineralogy
Approximate range in values of hydraulic conductivity (Whitlow 1995).
k (m/s)
^{2} 
^{1} 
1 









10 ^{}^{1}^{0} 
10
10
10
10
10
10
10
10
10
10
10
^{}^{1}
^{}^{2}
^{}^{3}
^{}^{4}
^{}^{5}
^{}^{6}
^{}^{7}
^{}^{8}
^{}^{9}
HYDRAULIC CONDUCTIVITY AND CLAY MINERALOGY
In general, the higher the specific surface and cation exchange capacity, the greater amount of bound water and the lower the hydraulic conductivity value.
Clay Mineral 
Edge View 
Thickness 
Specific Surface (km ^{2} /kg) 
CEC 
Probable k 
(nm) 
(meq/100g) 
(m/s) 

kaolinite 
50  2000 
0.015 
 5 
10 ^{}^{7}  10 ^{}^{1}^{0} 

illite 

30 
.08 
 25 
10 ^{}^{9}  10 ^{}^{1}^{1} 

montmorillonite 

3 
100 
 100 
10 ^{}^{1}^{0}  10 ^{}^{1}^{5} 
Why is this so?
Implications for clayey barriers for waste containment:
kaolinite
 would have to be very pure to obtain low k because of low CEC
 valuable as a pottery clay
illite
 probably best barrier clays
 fairly inactive, no interlayer expansion or contraction
 yield low k barrier if constitute about 20% of well graded soil
montmorillonite
 obtain the lowest hydraulic conductivity
 susceptible to interlayer expansion and contraction  may get huge increase in k  BAD
 most temperamental of the clay minerals
LABORATORY MEASUREMENT OF HYDRAULIC CONDUCTIVITY
See Whitlow Sections 5.5, 5.6, 5.7
Constant Head Test
Falling Head Test
FIELD MEASUREMENT OF HYDRAULIC CONDUCTIVITY
See Whitlow Section 5.9
ONE DIMENSIONAL FLOW PROBLEMS
The engineered barrier systems in modern municipal solid waste landfills provide excellent examples of the use of one dimensional flow problems to solve seepage problems.
TWO DIMENSIONAL STEADY STATE SEEPAGE
Several assumptions are required to derive the equation governing two dimensional steady state seepage.
• the soil is completely saturated
• there is no change in void ratio of the porous medium
• the hydraulic conductivity is isotropic
• Darcy’s law is valid
• the water is incompressible
Consider the flow of water into an element with dimensions dx and dy and unit width in the z direction.
Continuity of flow requires that,
Analytical solutions can be obtained to Laplace’s equation for problems involving only simple boundary conditions.
Alternatively, either 
numerical 
or 
graphical 
solutions may be used. 
e.g., finite difference 
e.g., 
flow nets 

finite element 
 SeepW ®
 GMS Seep2D ®
Numerical solutions may be highly dependent upon the refinement of the finitedifference grid or finiteelement mesh. For transient analysis suitable refinement of the time step is also important. Such numerical methods should be considered incorrect until proven correct.
Define two characteristics of flow:
1) 
Equipotential lines 
 EP 

 lines of constant total head 

2) 
Flow lines 
 FL
 lines parallel to the direction of flow
If we draw a flow net with constant head difference between EPs for flow through a homogeneous, isotropic porous medium then:
 EP z FL
 get curvilinear squares  don’t have to all be the same size
 be able to fit circle tangent to all sides
Flow net for Darcy’s Apparatus
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0
To solve for the flow Q use Darcy’s law:
 calculate Q based on one square then multiply by the number of flow tubes
ÄQ =
k
Äh
L
a
ÄQ = 
flow in one flow channel (per unit width) 
Äh = 
total head drop across a pair of EPs 
L distance over which head drop takes place
a distance between adjacent flow lines.
=
=
Common Boundary Conditions
equipotential line
line of constant pressure
 sat. soil in contact with air
 h _{p} = 0
 à h = z
 line of variable but known head
Steps in Drawing a Flow Net
impermeable boundary
1) 
Define and clearly mark a datum. 

2) 
Identify the boundary conditions (EP, FL, LCP). 

3) 
Draw intermediate equipotentials and flow lines. 

4) 
draw coarse mesh with a few EPs and FLs Verify the coarse mesh is correct.  

 Are the boundary conditions satisfied ? 

 Are all flow tubes continuous ? 

 Are EPs z FLs ? 
only if isotropic medium 

 Mostly “squares” ? 

5) 
Add additional EPs and FLs for suitable refinement of the flow net. 

6) 
Calculate desired quantities of flow and heads. 
Example: Steady State Seepage Beneath a Sheet Pile Wall
Flow Beneath a Dam
Seepage Through an Earth Dam
EFFECTIVE STRESS
The compressibility and strength of soils is governed by the effective stresses.
Any deformation or mobilization of shearing resistance of a soil is associated with the soil skeleton since:
 water is incompressible
 water cannot support shear stresses
Terzaghi showed experimentally that for saturated soils:
óN 
= 
ó 
 
u 

where: 
sN 
= 
effective stress 

s 
= 
total stress 

u 
= 
pore pressure 
The effective stress principle is accurate provided that:
• point to point contact area between soil particles is small
ó 
= 
óN 
+ 
u 
1 
 
A 
_{c} 
A 
• the compressibility of the soil particles is small and the strength of individual particles is large
Effective stress can be thought of as the force carried by the soil skeleton divided by the total area of the soil element (including the area of pore water).
Effective stress is an empirical concept that works well.
1
CALCULATING EFFECTIVE STRESSES
• the total vertical stress s _{v} within a particular soil layer is equal to the total weight per unit area of material above that point
where g _{i} is the bulk unit weight of layer i with thickness d _{i} .
• pore pressure is equal to:
u = h _{p} × ã _{w}
where:
h _{p}
g _{w}
=
=
pressure head unit weight of water
•
vertical effective stress can then be found as: ó _{v} N =
•
horizontal effective stress s _{h} N is equal to:
ó _{h} N
where:
K
=
coefficient of lateral earth pressure
ó _{v}
=
=

K
ó _{h} N
u
ó _{v} N
/ ó _{v} N
 horizontal stresses develop from the resistance to lateral movement
 K is a function of soil type and stress history
 for conditions of zero lateral strain, K _{o} is used
K _{o}
=
“at rest” coefficient of lateral earth pressure
 K is typically between 0.3 to 0.8 for normally consolidated clays
 K is typically between 0.3 to 0.5 for normally consolidated sands
Some published correlations for K _{o}_{:}
K _{o} . 0.95  sin fN N
where:
f
=
Brooker and Ireland (1965) angle of internal friction
K _{o} . (1  sin
where:
f N) ( OCR ) ^{s}^{i}^{n} ^{f} ^{N}
Kulhawy and Mayne (1990)
OCR =
overconsolidation ratio
2
Example 1
3
Example 2. Typical River Crossing with Artesian Conditions
4
CAPILLARY AND SOIL SUCTION
The concept of soil suction is fundamental when considering the mechanical behaviour of
Total suction arises from two components:
where:
 matric suction, and
 osmotic suction
y
u
u
_{a}
( u _{a}  u )
p
ø = ( u _{a}  u ) + ð
=
=
=
=
=
total soil suction poreair pressure
porewater pressure matric suction
osmotic suction
Matric suction is associated with the capillary phenomenon arising from the surface tension of water.
• interaction of surface molecules causes a condition analogous to a surface subjected to tension
• the capillary phenomenon is best illustrated by considering the rise of a water surface in a capillary tube
Consider a small glass tube inserted into water under atmospheric conditions:
wetting causes curvature liquid meets glass tube at angle á
1
• water rises up a small tube resulting from a combination of the surface tension of a liquid and the tendency of some liquids ro wet surfaces which they come into contact with
Vertical equilibrium of the water in the tube requires that
2 ð r T _{s} cos á
=
ð r ^{2} h _{c} ñ _{w} g
where: 
r 
T _{s} 

a 

h _{c} 

g 

solve for h _{c} 

Rs 
=
=
=
=
=
=
radius of capillary tube surface tension of water
contact angle
capillary height
gravitational acceleration.
.
radius of curvature ( r ÷ a)
For pure water and clean glass, a . 0, giving:
73 dynes / cm  different in different liquids  for any liquid, T _{s} 9 as temp 8
The radius of the tube is analogous to the pore radius in the soil. The smaller the pore radius, the greater the capillary rise.
• common to assume the effective pore size is 20% of effective grain size D _{1}_{0}
Note that highly variable pore size and pore distribution complicate the capillary phenomenon in soils. However, useful qualitative deductions can be made from the glass tube analogy.
h _{c} (m) 

Loose 
Dense 

Coarse sand 
0.03  0.12 
0.04  0.15 

Fine sand 
0.3  2.0 
0.4  3.5 

Silt 
1.5  10 
2.5  12 

Clay 
> 10 

2 
Consider several points in the capillary system that are in hydrostatic equilibrium
• weight of water column transferred to tube through the contractile skin
• for a soil with a capillary zone, this results in an increased compression on the soil skeleton
• matric suction increases the shear strength of an unsaturated soil
Reexamining the Water Table
VADOSE ZONE
PHREATIC ZONE
Contact Moisture
Partially Saturated by Capillarity
Saturated by
Capillarity
Ground Water
3
STRESSES IN AN ELASTIC MASS
Loading on the Surface of a Homogeneous Isotropic SemiInfinite Mass
(a) Point Loading
Vertical Stress
Radial Stress
Tangential stress
Shear stress
s _{z} =
s _{r} =
s _{q} =
t
rz
3Pz
3
2 
p 
R 
3 

P 
È 
3r 2 z 
( 
1 
 
2v 
) 
R 
˘ 

 
 
˙ 

2 p R ( P 1  
2 2v 
Í Î ) 
R 3 R + È z ˘ R z 
˚ 

 
˙ 

2 p 
R 
2 
Í Î R + 
z 
R 
˚ 

3Prz = 
2 

2 
p 
R 5 

1 
(b) Uniformly Loaded Strip
Vertical stress 
s 
Horizontal stress 
s 
Horizontal stress 
s 
Shear stress 
t 
z
x
y
xz
=
=
P
p
P
p
[ 
a 
+ 
sin 
a 
cos (a 2 + d) ] 
[ 
a 
 
sin 
a 
cos (a 2 + d) ] 
_{=} 2p
p
n a
=
p
p
sin
a
sin
(a +
2
d)
2
(c) Uniformly Load Circle
On axis, at depth z,
Vertical stress
Horizontal stresses
s
s
z
r
=
=
p
s
È
Í
Í
Í
Î
q
1

=
Á Ê
Á Ë
1
È
p Í
2 Í
Î
1 

+ 
( a / z 
) 
2 

( 
1 
+ 
2 
n 
) 
¯
˙
˚
z 3
˘
˙
˙
˚
For locations other than on the axis, see contour plot.
3
Increment in vertical stress (Ds _{v} = Dq _{v} ) beneath a circular footing with radius R and subject to uniform vertical pressure Dq _{s} on uniform, isotropic elastic halfspace.
4
(d) Uniformly Loaded Rectangle
Vertical stress s _{z} beneath the corner of a rectangle is given by Fadum’s chart. For points other than the corner, s _{z} may be obtained by superposition of rectangles.
5
(e) General Shapes
Vertical stress s _{z} may be obtained by use of the Newmark chart.
(f) Linear Superposition
For linear elastic problems solutions may be added or subtracted to solve problems involving more complex geometry.
For example:
6
SETTLEMENT OF SOILS
When soils are subjected to loads (e.g., construct a building or an embankment) deformation will occur.
The design of foundations for engineering structures requires that the magnitude and rate of settlement be known.
The total settlement S _{T} is given by:
S 
_{T} 
= 

where: 

S 
_{i} 
= 

S 
= 

S 
_{s} 
= 
S _{i}
+
S
+
S _{s}
immediate or distortion settlement
 normally estimated using elastic theory
 judicious selection of stiffness parameters (E, n) over appropriate stress range
primary settlement in fine grained soils
 arises from the time dependent process of consolidation
 consolidation is the dissipation of excess pore pressure
 occurs because of changes in effective stress
secondary compression
 arises from changes in void ratio at constant effective stresses
 also termed as creep
When a soil is loaded settlement occurs because of water and air squeezing out from the voids. This results in a decrease in void ratio, and hence settlement.
1
MECHANICAL ANALOGY OF CONSOLIDATION
a) Initial conditions where:
total stress
pore pressure
effective stress =
=
=
s _{v} u _{o} s _{v}  u _{o}
=
s _{o} N
Apply increase in total stress Ds with valve (V) closed. Then we
total stress
=
s _{v} + Ds
pore pressure
effective stress = =
 no change in effective stress
 no compression of the spring
 S _{T} = S _{i}
=
u _{o} + Du
( s _{v} + Ds )  ( u _{o} + Du )
s _{v}  u _{o}
=
s _{o} N
S = 0
à Ds _{o} N = 0
Open valve (V). Water allowed to flow out of the sample. à Du 9 as t 8
as t 6 4,
Du 6 0, then:
total stress
pore pressure
effective stress =
=
=
s _{v} + Ds
u _{o} ( s _{v} + Ds )  u _{o} =
here,
DsN = s _{f} N 
s _{o} N = Ds
s
_{f} N
For real soil materials, the compression of the spring is analogous to a decrease in void ratio arising from a change in effective stresses
Consolidation is a time dependent process since it involves the flow of water from the pores.  consolidation is the dissipation of excess pore pressure
2
STRAIN INTEGRATION
Recall the axial deformation d of a column with stiffness E and crosssectional area A, subject to axial load P.
Likewise for a soil material subject to increases in effective stress, the settlement (vertical displacement) may be found be integrating the vertical strain, viz:
where:
De
D
n
Dz
_{z}
_{i}
= 
change in vertical strain because of a change in sN 
= 
thickness of compressible layer 
= 
number of sublayers 
= 
thickness of sublayers 
De _{z}
z
The number (n) and thickness (Dz _{i} ) of sublayers depends on the function to be integrated
3
For conditions of onedimensional strain, the change in volume strain De _{v} is equal to the change in vertical strain De _{z} .
S
=
D
Ú
0
De
z
dz
=
D
Ú
0
D e 1 + e
o

dz
Now, need to express the relationship between void ratio and effective stress to calculate S because of change in sN.
4
OEDOMETER TEST
In the laboratory we can measure the change in height of a sample (and thereby calculate the change in void ratio) for a certain effective stress. This test is called a consolidation test and is performed in an oedometer which permits onedimensional strain.
 apply load
 initially all of the load is transferred into excess pore pressure
 drainage permitted by porous stones
 excess pore pressure will dissipate and effective stresses will increase and the soil will settle
 monitor the change in height of the sample until most of the pore pressures have dissipated (achieve 90% consolidation)
 apply next load increment
5
Vertical Strain and Void Ratio Versus Effective Stress
Calculate the vertical strain or void ratio from the measurements of change in height of the sample. Can either plot these results on a linear or logarithmic scale of effective stress.
6
De
v
=
Note that:
m
v
D
s¢
 m _{v} is not constant
 depends on stress level
 m _{v} decreases as sN increases i.e. soil becomes stiffer
Soils are normally strain hardening materials.  that is to say, they become stiffer as they are loaded
Vertical Strain and Void Ratio Versus Logarithm of Effective Stress
 same data as previous plot now plotted versus the logarithm of effective stress
7
Note that:
 apparently get a straight line
 simplifies calculations
 since log scale, still represents strain hardening behaviour
Experimental results from an oedometer test are plotted with void ratio(e) versus the log of effective stress (sN): “ e log sN ” plot
Effective Stress s' (kPa)
where: e 
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