#1 FRY BREAD

2 1 2 1/2

cups cup teaspoons cup

of self rising or regular flour of warm milk..(the commodity dry mi; lk mixed with water works of baking powder honey

mix dry ingredients first with your hand...make a well in the center... add the warm milk, and honey.. mix well with hands on floured board or table sprinkled with flour mixture should be solft, but not sticky cover with dish towel for about 20 minutes break off golf ball size balls , roll out on floured surface thickness depends on how you want it poke a hole in middle of each circle of dough with rolling pin or finger. deep fry in hot, not smoking, oil or lard (the grandma's prefer lard) turn with fork or tongs when edges start to get brown.. brown on both sides stand frybread on its edge to drain on paper towels. you can put honey on it, or powdered sugar, or jam, or anything you want! if you make the frybread thin, you can make indian taco's. ALso you can add cheese and jalopino's to the fried bread, and you can not make it fast enough. Frybread ok..here is how the grandmas at the indian center taught me to make mine..everyone eats it, so it must be at least edib

#2 FRY BREAD

4 1 1 1 11/2

c. t. t. t. c.

flour powdered milk baking powder salt warm water lard for frying

Mix all dry ingredients thoroughly. Add water. Knead until soft, set aside for one hour. Shape into small balls. Flatten each into a circle with rolling pin or by hand. Fry in skillet half full of oil until golden brow

#3 FRY BREAD

5 1 1 6-8

lb.self cup cup cups

rising flour powdered milk sugar cool water {depending on humidity)

stir, stir, stir, pat out on floured table approx. 3/4' thick, cut into 3x3 sections, shape not important, don't forget cross cut in middle of each piece, deep fry until golden brown serve with

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#4 FRY BREAD

1 1/2 1 1/2 1 3 2 2 1 11/2

c c tbl tsp tbl tsp tsp cups

oat (or bean) flour rice flour sugar xanthan gum baking powder shortening salt Water; cold oil for frying

l Mix dry ingredients. Cut in shortening. Add enough water to make a thick dough and knead well. Heat oil in deep fryer or dutch oven to 350. Break off handfuls and fry until golden brown. Drain and serve warm. For those that are sensetive to wheat, there is t

#5 FRY BREAD
By: Phyllis Potts 3 1 cups teaspoon of wheat flour of baking soda Water salt to taste combine the ingredients and then add enough water to form a thick dough. knead the dough heat oil in a heavy iron pan Shape the dough into 4 inch cakes and fry until brown on one side. Flip them over and fry until the other side is brown

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1 NAVAJO FRY BREAD

2 2 1/2 1 1

cups teaspoons teaspoon tablespoon cup

sifted flour baking powder salt shortening water oil for frying

Sift together flour, baking powder, and salt. Cut in shortening with 2 knives or a pastry blender until the mixture resembles coarse meal. Add enough water to make a soft dough. Knead on a lightly floured board until smooth and elastic. Pinch off dough, enough to make 1 1/2 inch balls. Roll or slap back and forth from hand to hand until each ball is a flat 4-inch round. Fry each round in a skillet, in 1/4inch deep hot fat at 400 degrees until lightly browned on both sides, turning once. Bread becomes puffy as it fries. Drain on paper towels. Serve hot, plain, or with jam, honey, or your favorite tortilla topping.

1] NAVAJO FRY BREAD

2 2 1/2 1 1

cups teaspoons teaspoon tablespoon cup

sifted flour baking powder salt shortening water oil for frying

Sift together flour, baking powder, and salt. Cut in shortening with 2 knives or a pastry blender until the mixture resembles coarse meal. Add enough water to make a soft dough. Knead on a lightly floured board until smooth and elastic. Pinch off dough, enough to make 1 1/2 inch balls. Roll or slap back and forth from hand to hand until each ball is a flat 4-inch round. Fry each round in a skillet, in 1/4inch deep hot fat at 400 degrees until lightly browned on both sides, turning once. Bread becomes puffy as it fries. Drain on paper towels. Serve hot, plain, or with jam, honey, or your favorite tortilla topping.

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2] FRY BREAD

2 1/2 1/2 1/2 1/2 2

cups tsp. cup tsp. cup cups

flour salt water baking powder instant dry milk shortening

Mix Flour, baking powder, salt, powdered milk, and water. Heat shortening until flakes of flour start to bubble when dropped into oil. While shortening is heating, Pull off a palm sized mound of dough and roll it into a smooth ball then flatten into a disk shape. Size is a matter of preference. Put dough into pan, cook until brown, turn over and cook other side until brown. You can take a brown paper bag and place a few sheets of paper towels on the bottom and drop finished fry bread into bag to let grease drain. Yield: makes about 6 s

2] FRY BREAD

2 1/2 1/2 1/2 1/2 2

cups tsp. cup tsp. cup cups

flour salt water baking powder instant dry milk shortening

Mix Flour, baking powder, salt, powdered milk, and water. Heat shortening until flakes of flour start to bubble when dropped into oil. While shortening is heating, Pull off a palm sized mound of dough and roll it into a smooth ball then flatten into a disk shape. Size is a matter of preference. Put dough into pan, cook until brown, turn over and cook other side until brown. You can take a brown paper bag and place a few sheets of paper towels on the bottom and drop finished fry bread into bag to let grease drain. Yield: about 6 serving

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3] GILA RIVER FRY BREAD

2 1/4 3/4 3 1 2

cup cup tablespoon teaspoon teaspoon

flour warm water (or a little less) solid vegetable shortening salt baking powder fat or oil for frying

Mix flour, baking powder and salt. Cut in 1 T. of shortening. Melt and cool remaining 2 T of shortening and set aside. Add just enough water to flour mixture so dough holds together and can be handled easily. Knead on a lightly floured board until smooth (30 seconds), adding only enough flour to work dough. Form dough into smooth 2inch balls. Brush each ball with cooled shortening and let stand 45 minutes. On a lightly floured surface, with the heel of your hand, flatten each ball out into a round circle about 6 inches in diameter. In a deep skillet or deep fryer, heat fat to 360 degrees. Ease dough into deep fat. Dough will bob to surface. Cook until dough is a light brown (45-60 seconds). Turn and cook other side (45-60 seconds). Remove from fat immediately and drain on paper towels. Makes 6 individual breads. Fry bread should never be made in advance. The only way to enjoy it is sizzling hot from the skillet. Try drizzling its crusty golden skin with honey or dust it with powdered sugar; great for breakfast or addition to soup or a stew meal.

Page 6

3] GILA RIVER FRY BREAD

2 1/4 3/4 3 1 2

cup cup tablespoon teaspoon teaspoon

flour warm water (or a little less) solid vegetable shortening salt baking powder fat or oil for frying

Mix flour, baking powder and salt. Cut in 1 T. of shortening. Melt and cool remaining 2 T of shortening and set aside. Add just enough water to flour mixture so dough holds together and can be handled easily. Knead on a lightly floured board until smooth (30 seconds), adding only enough flour to work dough. Form dough into smooth 2inch balls. Brush each ball with cooled shortening and let stand 45 minutes. On a lightly floured surface, with the heel of your hand, flatten each ball out into a round circle about 6 inches in diameter. In a deep skillet or deep fryer, heat fat to 360 degrees. Ease dough into deep fat. Dough will bob to surface. Cook until dough is a light brown (45-60 seconds). Turn and cook other side (45-60 seconds). Remove from fat immediately and drain on paper towels. Makes 6 individual breads. Fry bread should never be made in advance. The only way to enjoy it is sizzling hot from the skillet. Try drizzling its crusty golden skin with honey or dust it with powdered sugar; great for breakfast or addition to soup or a stew meal.

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4] INDIAN FRY BREAD

1 1/4 1/4 1/2

cups teaspoon tablespoon

all-purpose flour sifted salt shortening about 1 cup hot water shortening or oil for frying

Sift flour and salt into a bowl. Add the shortening and blend well. The water should be hot, but not boiling. Add water a little at a time, blending well. The dough should be soft but not sticky. You may need a little more or less water. Blend well and knead for 1-2 minutes. Turn out on to a floured board and knead until very smooth. Divide into little balls. Cover and let rest for 3040 minutes. Roll out each ball as thin as possible, into about 4-5 inch in diameter circles. Heat 1/2 cup shortening or oil in a skillet and drop each piece of dough into the fat. Press down in the center with a spoon. Release. When they are puffed up, turn and brown on the other side. Drain them on paper towels and serve hot. May be made in advance and reheated. Yield: makes about 24

4] INDIAN FRY BREAD

1 1/4 1/4 1/2

cups teaspoon tablespoon

all-purpose flour sifted salt shortening about 1 cup hot water shortening or oil for frying

Sift flour and salt into a bowl. Add the shortening and blend well. The water should be hot, but not boiling. Add water a little at a time, blending well. The dough should be soft but not sticky. You may need a little more or less water. Blend well and knead for 1-2 minutes. Turn out on to a floured board and knead until very smooth. Divide into little balls. Cover and let rest for 3040 minutes. Roll out each ball as thin as possible, into about 4-5 inch in diameter circles. Heat 1/2 cup shortening or oil in a skillet and drop each piece of dough into the fat. Press down in the center with a spoon. Release. When they are puffed up, turn and brown on the other

Page 8 side. Drain them on paper towels and serve hot. May be made in advance and reheated. Yield: 24 pieces

5] SEMINOLE INDIAN FRY BREAD

2 1/4 3/4 2 1 3/4

cups cup teaspoon tsp tablespoon cups

all-purpose flour instant lowfat powdered milk salt double acting baking powder lard luke warm water vegetable oil for frying

In a small bowl mix together flour, powdered milk, baking powder, and salt. Cut in the lard until mixture resembles a coarse meal. Add water and knead lightly for 1 minute. Turn out onto a well floured surface and knead until a smooth ball forms. Divide the dough into 8 equal parts and shape each into a small ball. Cover with an inverted bowl and let rest for about 10 minutes. On a floured surface roll each ball into a 6 inch circle. Poke a hole in the center of each round of dough. In a skillet heat about 1-1 1/2 inches of vegetable oil, until smoke appears. (375x F.) Fry the dough rounds one at a time until golden brown on both sides. Drain on paper towels and serve hot. Yield: makes 8

Page 9

5] SEMINOLE INDIAN FRY BREAD

2 1/4 3/4 2 1 3/4

cups cup teaspoon tsp tablespoon cups

all-purpose flour instant lowfat powdered milk salt double acting baking powder lard luke warm water vegetable oil for frying

In a small bowl mix together flour, powdered milk, baking powder, and salt. Cut in the lard until mixture resembles a coarse meal. Add water and knead lightly for 1 minute. Turn out onto a well floured surface and knead until a smooth ball forms. Divide the dough into 8 equal parts and shape each into a small ball. Cover with an inverted bowl and let rest for about 10 minutes. On a floured surface roll each ball into a 6 inch circle. Poke a hole in the center of each round of dough. In a skillet heat about 1-1 1/2 inches of vegetable oil, until smoke appears. (375x F.) Fry the dough rounds one at a time until golden brown on both sides. Drain on paper towels and serve hot. Yield: makes 8

6] ONEIDA INDIAN FRY BREAD

8 2 8

cups teaspoons heaping

plain flour salt shortening teaspoons baking powder

Sift flour and baking powder together, add just enough water to make a dough. Knead about 3 minuets. Pinch off enough dough to make a round patty, flatten with hand and punch a hole in center. Drop in skillet of hot shortening and fry until light brown, turning once. Remove, drain on paper towels. (Can be served with honey or jelly).

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6] ONEIDA INDIAN FRY BREAD

8 2 8

cups teaspoons heaping

plain flour salt shortening teaspoons baking powder

Sift flour and baking powder together, add just enough water to make a dough. Knead about 3 minuets. Pinch off enough dough to make a round patty, flatten with hand and punch a hole in center. Drop in skillet of hot shortening and fry until light brown, turning once. Remove, drain on paper towels. (Can be served with honey or jelly).

7] NAVAHO INDIAN FRY BREAD

3 1 1/2 1/2 1 1/3

cups tsp tsp cup

flour baking powder salt water; warm vegetable oil; for frying

Mix the flour, baking powder and salt together Add the water and knead the dough until soft. Roll the dough until 1/4 inch thick, then cut out rounds 4 inches in diameter. Fry the bread in 2 to 3 inches of hot oil until puffed and browned on both sides.

7] NAVAHO INDIAN FRY BREAD

3 1 1/2 1/2 1 1/3

cups tsp tsp cup

flour baking powder salt water; warm vegetable oil; for frying

Mix the flour, baking powder and salt together Add the water and knead the dough until soft. Roll the dough until 1/4 inch thick, then cut out rounds 4 inches in diameter. Fry the bread in 2 to 3 inches of hot oil until puffed and browned on both sides.

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8] INDIAN MOTHERS BREAD

2 1/2 1

cup teaspoon teaspoon

flour baking powder salt milk (enough to mix)

Mix all ingredients. Divide the dough into parts and shape each into round pone about the size of your skillet and 1/8th of an inch thick. Fry the bread in about 1/4 inch hot cooking oil until golden brown on each side. Cut into wedges and serve hot. Delicious with butter, jams or other sweet spreads.

8] INDIAN MOTHERS BREAD

2 1/2 1

cup teaspoon teaspoon

flour baking powder salt milk (enough to mix)

Mix all ingredients. Divide the dough into parts and shape each into round pone about the size of your skillet and 1/8th of an inch thick. Fry the bread in about 1/4 inch hot cooking oil until golden brown on each side. Cut into wedges and serve hot. Delicious with butter, jams or other sweet spreads.

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9] NAVAJO FRY BREAD 2

1 1/2 1 1/2 1/4 1/2

cup cup tablespoon teaspoon teaspoon cup

white flour whole wheat flour sugar baking powder salt honey vegetable oil

Mix dry ingredients. Add water to dry ingredients, mix well. Knead dough on a floured board till it becomes elastic. Let dough rest 10 minutes, covered. Roll out dough till it is 1/2 inch thick. Cut into squares or circles. Deep-fry at 370F till golden brown; drain on paper towels. Drizzle with honey and serve. I really favor the first one, it is I confess the one I have had the longest and the one I use the most. I will look up and post the recipes for Mexican fry bread aka. Sopapillias, as soon as I get the chance.

9] NAVAJO FRY BREAD 2

1 1/2 1 1/2 1/4 1/2

cup cup tablespoon teaspoon teaspoon cup

white flour whole wheat flour sugar baking powder salt honey vegetable oil

Mix dry ingredients. Add water to dry ingredients, mix well. Knead dough on a floured board till it becomes elastic. Let dough rest 10 minutes, covered. Roll out dough till it is 1/2 inch thick. Cut into squares or circles. Deep-fry at 370F till golden brown; drain on paper towels. Drizzle with honey and serve. I really favor the first one, it is I confess the one I have had the longest and the one I use the most. I will look up and post the recipes for Mexican fry bread aka. Sopapillias, as soon as I get the chance.

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ABUBU FRY BREAD

2 2 8 1 1 4 1

large pkgs cup cup tsp cups tablespoon

eggs yeast flour sugar salt milk oil

Mix everything together and let it rise punch it down an let it rise again it must rise 4 times total this is important after it has risen 4 times shape it into a circle the size of your pan or cut it into 5 inch circles if you are making indian tacos .Put the dough in a frying pan with enough already heated oil to go half way up the dough the oil should be hot already.Fry the dough till it is done then turn it over and fry the other side If you are making indian tacos take the 5 inch circles and fold them in half fill them with already cooked meat and cheese or whatever you want in them and pinch the edges shut like you do a pie crust then fry them in hot oil.If you are making Indian tacos you will need to make the dough way thinner.This is rez bread for dipping in wojapi. Yield: 4 servings

ANOTHER VERSION ON FRY BREAD

1 1 1/4 2

cup tsp. tsp. cup

milk baking powder salt flour

Put 1/2 inch of oil into frying pan- heat should be medium high. Mix dry ingredients together. Add milk and mix into dough. Knead like you would biscuit dough. When oil is hot, drop moderate amount of dough into frying pan.Cook for about 5 min.on each side, until a golden brown. Fry Bread tastes great warm or cool, but warm is best.

Page 14

'ANOTHER WAY TO DO IT' FRYBREAD

1 1/2 1 1/2 1/4 1/2

cup cup tablespoon teaspoon teaspoon cup

white flour whole wheat flour sugar baking powder salt honey vegetable oil

Mix dry ingredients. Add water to dry ingredients, mix well. Knead dough on a floured board till it becomes elastic. Let dough rest 10 minutes, covered. Roll out dough till it is 1/2 inch thick. Cut into squares or circles. Deep-fry at 370F till golden brown; drain on paper towels. Drizzle with honey and serve. Yield: 8 fry breads

BANAHA ALWASHA HATTAK (INDIAN FRIED BREAD)

2 1 3 1

c. tsp. tsp. c.

flour salt Baking Powder milk

Mix flour, salt, and baking powder. Add milk (or water) and stir to make dough. Turn dough onto a floured surface and pat down to 1/2' thickness. Fry in oil until brown on one side; then do the same thing to the other side. Can be used for bread or as a treat served hot with syrup or honey.

Page 15

BASIC FRYBREAD RECIPE

2 1 3 1

cups teaspoon teaspoons cup

flour salt baking powder water

Mix ingredients and let sit for 10-15 minutes. Break off a ball of dough about golf ball size and pat out no thicker than 1/4 inch. (In some tribal traditions a hole is always made in the center which has spiritual significance) Fry in deep hot oil to a light golden brown, turn once to brown both sides. (Oil is hot enough if a small test piece of dough dropped in the oil begins cooking almost immediately and rises to the top.) Drain bread well and pat with paper towel to remove excess oil. Keep covered in a bowl while cooking to keep bread warm. Serving - Usually eaten like bread with soup, stew or posole Variations - Eat with honey, powdered sugar, cinnamon. Also good with strawberries and whipped cream Posted to BBQ List by Dan Gill -----------------Yield: 1 serving Preparation Time (hh:mm): 0:00

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BEST INDIAN FRY BREAD EVER
By: By James Staggs text I have been attending O'Odham Tash for over 15 years and by far, my favorite event has been locating and eating the Indian Fry Bread!€ I am happy to report to you that I have located the 'Best Indian Fry Bread Ever'! And best of all, the stand is located within walking distance of the CASAGRANDE.COM office. It it located just south of where the old V&S Variety Store used to stand.€ For those of you who are new to the area, Just go to the intersection of Pinal and Florence and travel East a couple or 3 blocks and it is the first fry bread stand on the right (South) side of the road. I was so impressed with the Fry Bread that I just had to get the recipe.€ The cashier said that the cost was $5 but I had to go to the back of the trailer to pay for it.€ I asked If I could share the recipe and she said yes that it was not copyrighted.€ I went to the back of the trailer and paid my $5, was handed a copy of the recipe and was told that the $5 would go to Indian Missions.€ Apparently the owner of the trailer is concerned with more than just making money! Here is the recipe, which I tried myself this evening (just to make sure it works):

BLACKFOOT FRY BREAD

1 1 2 1 1 2 1/2

cup pkg tablespoon tablespoon teaspoon to

warm water dry yeast soft butter sugar salt 3 cups flour

Place water in bowl. Sprinkle yeats over water and allow to stand in warm place for 5 minutes. Add butter, sugar, salt and 2 1/2 cups flour. Knead, adding enough flour to make stiff dough. Allow to rise (in bowl with towel over top, in warm place) for one hour. Place oil in deep sauce pan and heat to 350 F. Form dough into 4 inch disks about 1/4 inch thick, and fry about 1 minute per side until golden brown.

Page 17

BLACKFOOT FRY BREAD
By: Sondra Flynn 1 1 2 1 1 2 1/2 c. pkg. T. T. t. warm water dry yeast soft butter sugar salt 3 c. flour

Place water in a mixing bowl. Sprinkle yeast over water and allow to sit for 5 min. Add butter, sugar, salt and 2 1/2 c. flour. Knead, adding enough flour to form a stiff dough. Allow to rise for 1 h. Place oil in a deep sauce pan and heat to 350 degrees F. Form dough into disks 4' in diameter and about 1/4' thick, and deep fry for about 1 min. per side until golden brown. Makes 8-10 pieces. (I understand that this recipe came about after young girls were sent to the boarding schools and became acquainted with yeast.)

BLACKFOOT FRY BREAD DOUBLE RECIPE

2 2 4 2 2 6

cups packages tablespoons tablespoons teaspoons cups

warm water dry yeast soft butter sugar salt white flour

Place water in bowl. Sprinkle yeast over water and allow to stand in a warm place for 5 minutes. Add butter, sugar salt and flour. Knead awhile, adding a tad more water...or flour to proper consistancy. It will make a stiff dough. Allow to rise in large bowl covered by a towel in a warm place for 1 hour. Place lard or oil in a large deep sauce pan and heat to almost boiling. Form dough into 4 inch discs about 1/4 inch thick and fry until golden brown on each side. Drain over paper towels on serving plate. Serve with butter, jam, sugar, cinnamon sugar, or what ever you like...or make ³Indian Tacos² as you would any other taco replacing tortillas with fry bread. PS...Frying in lard is best...and make a small hole in the center of each before frying!

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BURNING TREE FRY BREAD
By: Burning Tree Restaurant (Award Winning) 4 3 1 1 1/4 1 1/2 3 cups tbl tbl tsp cup cups tbl flour powder milk baking powder Salt oil hot water blue corn meal; for bluecorn frybread onl

Mix first four ingreadients add the oil and hot water and knead slightly as for bisquit dough. Devide into 6 balls of dough, brush with oil and store in air tight container. Punch down the dough ball into flat pancake and cook in hot oil turning once to brown both sides. Yield: 6 fry bread

CALMING WINDS CREEK FRY BREAD
By: Deborah Calming Wind Landrum 2 1/4 1/4 1/2 1/2 1 16 cups cup teaspoon teaspoon teaspoon oz. white lily flour self-rising sugar salt baking powder vanilla sour cream water

Mix together all dry ingredients. Add sour cream to the dry ingredients. Add enough water to make a dough. Let rise about 1/2 hr. Pull off pieces of dough. Roll in flour, make a ball and then flatten. Fry in oil until golden brown. Then use your best topping and enjoy. Yield: servings: five-

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CHEROKEE FRY BREAD

make a soft dough such as 1 1 cup Tsp flour, baking powder, pinch saltand little grease enough milk to mix Cut this together drop by spoonfull into hot grease let fry until brown and crisp. Serve hot... Can garnish with many different things..like ---Strawberries, honey powder sugar, cinnamon, different types of Jam, also for a dinner put beans cheese, lettuce chopped onions, peppers tomatoes,you have a full dinner.

CHEROKEE FRY BREAD

1 1

cup tsp.

flour, baking powder, pinch salt little grease.

Make a soft dough such add enough milk to mix. Cut this together , drop by spoonfull into hot grease let fry until brown and crisp. Serve hot...Can garnish with many different things..like ---Strawberries, honey, powder sugar, cinnamon, different types of Jam, also for a dinner put beans , cheese, lettuce chopped onions, peppers tomatoes, you have a full dinner......

Page 20

CHIPPEWA INDIAN FRY BREAD

2 1/2 c All-purpose flour 1 1/2 tb Baking powder 1 ts Salt 3/4 c Warm water 1 tb Vegetable oil 1 tb Nonfat dry milk powder Vegetable oil (for deep frying) Cinnamon sugar Combine flour, baking powder and salt in large bowl. Combine water, oil and dry milk powder and stir into flour mixture until smooth dough forms. Turn out onto lightly floured surface. Knead 4 times into smooth ball. Cover and let rest 10 minutes. Divide dough into 8 balls. Flatten with fingertips or roll out each ball to form 8- to 10-inch round. Make small hole in center of each with finger or handle of wooden spoon. Lightly flour rounds, stack and cover with towel or plastic wrap. Heat about 1 inch oil to 375 F in large skillet. Gently place 1 bread round in hot fat and cook until golden and crisp, 1 to 2 minutes on each side. Drain on paper towels. Repeat with remaining dough. Serve bread hot or at room temperature, sprinkled with cinnamon sugar. Bon Appetit Yield: 8 servings

Page 21

DIFFERENT FRIED BREAD RECIPE
By: snowbird_52 2 1 2 1/2 cups cup teaspoons cup of self rising or regular flour of warm milk..(commodity dry milk; mixed with water works of baking powder honey

ALso you can add cheese and jalopino's to the fried bread, and you can not make it fast enough. ok..here is how the grandmas at the indian center taught me to make mine..everyone eats it, so it must be at least edible..lol!!!

mix dry ingredients first with your hand...make a well in the center... add the warm milk, and honey.. mix well with hands on floured board or table sprinkled with flour mixture should be solft, but not sticky cover with dish towel for about 20 minutes break off golf ball size balls , roll out on floured surface thickness depends on how you want it poke a hole in middle of each circle of dough with rolling pin or finger. deep fry in hot, not smoking, oil or lard (the grandma's prefer lard) turn with fork or tongs when edges start to get brown.. brown on both sides stand frybread on its edge to drain on paper towels. you can put honey on it, or powdered sugar, or jam, or anything you want! if you make the frybread thin, you can make indian taco's.

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ELEPHANT EARS

2 5 5 2 2 2 6 2 1

cup tablespoon tablespoon tablespoon envelopes cup cup quart cinnamon

milk sugar shortening salt active dry yeast warm water (105-115 degree) all-purpose flour vegetable oil sugar

Scaled milk, add sugar, shortening & salt. Cool to luke warm. Sprikle yeast over warm water in lg. bowl. Add Milk mixture & 2 Cups Flour; beat until smooth. Stir in enough additional Flour to make stiff dough. Turn dough out onto a lightly floured board; kneed until smooth & elastic, about 8-10 min. Place in a greesed bowl, turning to grease top. Cover & let rise in a warm place, until double in size, about 1 hour. Divide dough into 6-8 balls. Roll each out in the form of an elephant's ear. Heat oil to 375 degrees. Deep fry elephant's ears, one at a time, for about 3-5 min. on each side or until golden brown. Serve hot, sprinkle with cinnamon sugar. Makes 6-8. I also have the recipe for Navajo Fry Bread if you want it. Not as complicated. Make 18-24 pieces, each about the size of a 9' plate.

FLUFY FRY BREAD

text Too make it really fluffy I would use 2 tsp. baking powder and 1/4 to 1/2 tsp. baking soda. And yes I do sometimes make the type with the hole in the middle, I call them 'Indian dougnuts.' I just make double sure that the oil is really hot, so the oil seals up the hole, not leaks into the bread through it. I think there must be all types of frybread spirits! :-)

Page 23

FRY BREAD

text When I was in AZ on the Dine'h reservation, the ladies made fry bread on the grill. It looks more like tortillas than what we are used to here back east. Anyway, the lady had a large bowl with what looked like just flour in it when I walked up, and even though I know she had to add moisture somehow I never saw her do it. She would put her hand down in the middle of the flour, and as if by magic pull out a ball of dough. It did not stick to her hands at all. She then proceeded to pat it out flat and round then cooked it on the grill (propane powered) I never saw her use any cooking spray either. Something they probably wouldn't use anyway. Many of them don't have electricity and they all have to go somewhere to haul their water in because they have been forced to cap off their wells. They aren't even permitted to gather firewood for heat in the winter so I'm sure it's out for cooking in the clay ovens too. The people we stayed with had just slaughtered a sheep for one of the girls womanhood ceremony so there were strips of it hung over rope everywhere in the house. Very traditional. The one thing one of the ladies told me, that is most definitely modern, is that they often times put a packet or two of the powdered creamer in the flour when making the fry bread to make it soft.

FRY BREAD
By: Cherokee Nation 3 1 1/2 1 cups tablespoon teaspoon cup of flour baking powder salt warm water

Combine all of the dry ingredients in a large bowl. Add warm water in small amounts and knead until soft but not sticky. Adjust the flour or water as needed, Cover aand let stand 15 to 20 minutes. Pull of large egg sized balls of dough, turn out into fairly thin rounds. Fryrounds in hot oil until bubbles appear on the dough, turn over and fry on the other side until golden brown.

Page 24

FRY BREAD #10

1 1 1 tablespoon baking powder

4 cups white flour 1/2 teaspoon salt

Combine all ingredients. Add about 1 1/2 cups lukewarm water and knead until dough is soft but not sticky. Shape dough into balls the size of a small peach. Shape into patties by hand; dough should be about l/2 inch thick. Make a small hole in the center of the round. Fry one at a time in about l inch of hot lard or shortening in a heavy pan. Brown on both sides. Drain on paper towels and serve hot with honey or jam.

FRY BREAD #2 POTAWATOMI

1

x

no ingredients

3 cups of bread flour 3 teaspoons of baking powder 2 teaspoons of sugar 2 cups of warm milk 2 Tablespoons of melted bacon fat (or melted shortening) Mix the dry ingredients together. Add the milk and melted fat. Stir well. Put on a well floured surface and knead in the flour to make a soft dough. Shape round and about 1/2-inch thick. Fry in deep fat until golden brown. Serve hot. Yield: 6 servings

Page 25

FRY BREAD #2, NAVAJO

1

x

no ingredients

Ingredients 3 cups unbleached flour, sifted 1/2 cup dry powdered milk 1 Tbs. baking powder 1/2 tsp. salt 1/2 cup warm water or milk 2 quarts oil for deep frying Directions Combine the first 5 ingredients in a large mixing bowl and knead until smooth and soft, but not sticky. Depending on the altitude and humidity, you may need to adjust the liquid or the flour, so go slowly and balance accordingly. Be careful not to overwork the dough, or it will become tough and chewy. Brush a tablespoon of oil over the finished dough and allow it to rest 20 minutes to 2 hours in a bowl covered with a damp cloth. After the dough has rested, heat the oil in a broad, deep frying pan or kettle until it reaches a low boil (375º). Pull off egg-sized balls of dough and quickly roll, pull, and path them out into large, plate-sized rounds. They should be thin in the middle and about 1/4 inch thick at the edges. Carefully ease each piece of flattened dough into the hot, boiling oil, one at a time. Using a long-handled cooking fork or tongs, turn the dough one time. Allow about 2 minutes cooking time per side. When golden brown, lift from oil, shake gently to remove bulk of oil, and place on layered brown paper or paper towls to finish draining. Serve hot with honey, jelly, fine powdered sugar, wojape, or various meat toppings.

Hint:The magic is in frying the bread quickly! The hotter the oil, the less time it takes to cook. The less time it takes to cook, the lighter the texture and lower the fat content.

Page 26

FRY BREAD #3

1

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no ingredients

Ingredients 4 cups flour 1 Tbsp. powdered milk 1 Tbsp. baking powder 1 tsp. salt 1 1/2 cups warm water Oil for frying Directions Mix all dry ingredients throughly. Add water. Knead until soft, then set aside for one hour. Shape into small balls. Flatten each ball into a circle with or rolling pin or by hand. Fry in a skillet half-full of oil until golden brown on both sides.

FRY BREAD #4 (LRG. GROUP)

1

x

no ingredients

Ingredients 5 lbs. self-rising flour 1 cup powdered milk 1 cup sugar 6-8 cups cool water, depending on humidity Directions Stir, stir, stir, and then stir some more. Pat out on floured table to approximately 3/4 inch thick and cut into 3x3 inch sections. Shape is not important. Cut a "cross" on the top of each piece. Fry until golden brown. Serve with honey or salsa.

Page 27

FRY BREAD #5 FOR WHEAT SENSITIVE PEOPLE

1

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no ingredients

Ingredients 1 1/2 cup oat or bean flour 1 1/2 cup rice flour 1 Tbsp. sugar 3 tsp. xanthan gum 2 Tbsp. baking powder 2 Tbsp. shortening 1 tsp. salt 1 1/2 cup cold water Directions Mix dry ingredients. Cut in shortening. Add enough water to make a thick dough and knead well. Heat oil in deep fryer or dutch oven to 350º. Break off handfuls and fry until golden brown. Drain and serve warm.

FRY BREAD #6

1

x

no ingredients

8 cups flour 3/4 cup sugar 1 heaping tablespoon baking powder 3 1/2 cups milk add more milk little by little until right consistency for rolling. Roll out like pie crust on floured board. Cut in small squares, poke hole in center. Deep fry. Can be eaten plain, with powdered sugar or a favorite sauce, or with chili. Sauce suggestion 1 can blueberry pie filling 1/2 cup sugar 1/2 cup corn starch Mix well and heat.

Page 28

FRY BREAD #7

1

x

no ingredients

3 cups of bread flour 3 teaspoons of baking powder 1 teaspoon of salt 1 cup of warm water Mix all the dry ingredients and add just enough of the lukewarm water to form a dough that can be handled. Roll out on a floured table about 1/2-inch thick. Cut into squares and make two slits in the center. Cook in deep fat until the bread is golden brown on one side then turn it over and cook the other side. Best when eaten hot. Yield: 6

FRY BREAD #8

1

x

no ingredients

3 cups of bread flour 3 teaspoons of baking powder 2 teaspoons of sugar 2 cups of warm milk 2 Tablespoons of melted bacon fat (or melted shortening) Mix the dry ingredients together. Add the milk and melted fat. Stir well. Put on a well floured surface and knead in the flour to make a soft dough. Shape round and about 1/2-inch thick. Fry in deep fat until golden brown. Serve hot. Yield: 6

FRY BREAD (BUTTERMILK)
By: Lone Wolf text file I make my bread in a big bowl add flour and baking powder or soda if using buttermilk make a well in the flour and add the liquid (milk) until you have the amount of dough you want. Flour your hands and pinch off dough and form into a ball about the size of a pingpong ball. Flatten and poke hole in middle( this allows it to cook in the middle better). Drop in hot oil and fry until golden. This receipe also makes good drop bisquits. Just spoon them unto an oiled cookie sheet and bake. This is the way I learned from

Page 29 my maternal g-mother to make bisquits, she never told me it was the same receipe for fry bread.

FRY BREAD (ZAHSAKOKWAHN)

1

x

no ingredients

Frybread: Just a couple out of hundreds, but all basically alike. The first makes 8-10 small ones or 5 big flat ones for Indian tacos. 2 cups flour 3 tsp baking powder 1 tsp salt 1 cup milk Deep hot fat in frypan or fryer Sift dry ingredients. Lightly stir in milk. Add more flour as necessary to make a dough you can handle. Kneed and work the dough on a floured board with floured hands until smooth. Pinch off fist-sized limps and shap into a disk -- everyone has their own characteristic shapes.(Shape affects the taste, by the way because of how it fries). For Indian tacos, the disk must be rather flat, with a depression -- almost a hole -- in the center of both sides. Make it that way if the fry bread is going to have some sauce over it. Smaller, round ones are made to put on a plate. Fry in fat (about 375°) until golden and done on both sides, about 5 minutes. Drain on absorbent paper. (Phyllis Jarvis, Paiute) Yield: 10

FRY BREAD 01

1

x

no ingredients

INGREDIENTS 4 cups white flour 1/2 teaspoon salt 1 tablespoon baking powder Lard or Shortening DIRECTIONS Combine all ingredients. Add about 1 1/2 cups lukewarm water and knead until dough is soft but not sticky. Shape dough into balls the size of a small peach. Shape into patties by hand; dough should be about l/2 inch thick. Fry one at a time in about l inch of hot lard or shortening in a heavy pan. Brown on both sides. Drain on paper towels and serve hot with honey or jam. If you want an Indian Taco add beans, tomatoes, onions, cheese and salsa on top. Yield: 4 servings

Page 30

FRY BREAD 77

milk baking powder buttermilk flour I do not use yeast in my fry bread, only baking powder or soda. If I use milk --baking powder, buttermilk --soda. I have an old recipe that my grandmother used for her bisquits and I have learned that it is the recipe that most natives here where I am use for their fry bread. Take a big bowl and dump in floer and baking powder. Mix together. Add milk to well in center and mix adding milk antil dough is formed Take by spoonfulls and place on baking sheet for bisquits (drop bisquits) for fry bread place a small amount of flour in your hand and drop dough into hand repeat with other hand and flatten out dough until it is about a 4-5inch circle. Fry.on purpose because he knew I'd make bread ...... > the kneeding was > therapeutic for me when I was mad. We've all > laughed about that over the > years. > > Joanne

FRY BREAD ANIMOSH

1

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no ingredients

Frybread animosh (dogs): This is like corn dogs. The dough is rolled out into a 1/2-inch thick wrapper for each hot dog. Grill the hot dogs first, then place on wrapper and seal. Pinch tightly closed along seam and ends. Use more salt in dough -- about 1 tsp in proportion to my batch ingredients. The above batch will do about 2 dozen - 30 dogs. Yield: 24

Page 31

FRY BREAD CLASS

text KIRTLAND - 'Novices in the fry bread making class at San Juan College West Thursday left with the feeling their fee was well-spent. Helen Benally, along with her assistant Cora Goldtooth, both of Shiprock, treated the 10 non-Native American students who made up the class to step-by step preparation from mixing the ingredients to making the dough and frying it. She gave students an option of making the fry bread out of white flour, whole wheat or blue cornmeal. The high point of the class was eating the hot, puffy bread with toppings of honey, sugar mixed with cinnamon and powdered sugar mixed with cinnamon, and then as the basis for the popular Navajo taco. She suggested serving it with meat, beans, lettuce, onions, tomatoes, green peppers, salsa and sour cream. Traditionally, she said it was served with salt and butter. The culinary spread rated rave reviews from the students and raised questions about when she would be teaching the class again. She conceded she would do it again, but only if she was asked. She interlaced her instructions to the class with humor and anecdotes, spiced with bits of traditional culture. 'It's customary for us to feed our visitors, no matter if they just ate 10 minutes ago. It's having respect for the visitors and if you share what you have, it will bring blessings to you,' Benally explained. 'When making the bread all our thoughts and love and respect go into it and we wish those it's being made for happiness and long life when they leave,' she said. She also offered some she traditional mixing tips. 'If you want to be very traditional, don't mix with spoons, mix with hands,' she said. 'Don't be afraid to use your hands. Mix the flour. Sift it with your fingers.' And she offered encouragement. On letting the dough rest:

Page 32 'Don't be discouraged if it gets hard. I have my days, too. The more it rests, the better it is,' she said. 'You want it soft, flexible, so it can stretch and won't tear. Resting makes it nice and smooth.' She recommended letting it sit for 10 to 15 minutes covered with plastic wrap. 'It can even sit for up to 30 minutes covered,' she added. On elasticity of the dough: 'It's very forgiving, if there's a hole as you stretch it, patch it back up,' she said. On blue cornmeal: 'It's very traditional. But play around with it. The more blue cornmeal you use, the warmer the water needs to be toward lukewarm,' she said. 'Blue cornmeal doesn't take in water and for it to stay together, use butter. 'If you're using blue cornmeal make sure it's very finely ground and says roasted on the package,' she said. On fry bread: 'It's really not an everyday thing. It's for special occasions, like when you're hungry for mutton or with pinto beans. A lot of people think this is our everyday bread,' she said. Vicky Calkins of Farmington took the class because she just moved here from California. 'I wanted to learn how to make it,' she said. Judy Kuhl, also of Farmington, is planning to make it in New York when she and her husband visit her daughter. 'It's a wonderful piece of New Mexico to take to New York. It's neat and unique,' she said. 'It tastes good. You can do a lot with it and I wanted to learn to make it because it wasn't a part of my cooking experience,' said Anna Kinney, also of Farmington.'

Page 33

FRY BREAD HISORY

1

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no ingredients

Health and diet-conscious people will note that fry bread is not very "healthy" food, with its high-fat content, and nothing but white flour. (The milk is water in more trad rez recipes. Who could get milk? Now you can get commodities powdered milk. For kids/school affairs, I add extra dried milk powder if I can get it) Frybread was developed by Indian women in response to commodities issue on early reservations, which included little more than flour, salt, sugar, coffee, and corn oil. It does taste quite good, and is very individual even though almost everybody uses just about the same proportions of ingredients because it tastes different according to how you knead and shape it (and what kind of oil it's fried in). Frybread began as Indian women making the best of what was often poor-quality issue of rations in the new prison camps (reservations). The traditional part -- frying in oil -- does predate rations, using bear and deer tallow to fry cakes made of various seed meals, but frying in deep oil post-dates iron frypans obtained in trade goods. FRYBREAD POWER!

Page 34

FRY BREAD HISTORY

text There seems to be some questions regarding the history of Fry Bread. Consider these two passages: 'A bread of the Southwest Native Americans, particularly the Navaho and Hopi, that is deep-fried and sometimes served with honey and powdered sugar...fry breads are often featured at county fairs and Native-American festivals throughout the Southwest.'--The Encyclopedia of American Food & Drink, John F. Mariani (p. 135). 'Often thought of as a traditional Native American food, it's been made by the tribes of the Southwest only within the last hundred years. It contains few ingredients indigenous to the lands of the Old West. Most frybread ingredients came from the new settlers and were acquired by tribes through trading.'--The Old West Baking Book, Lon Walters (p. 158). We searched through several Native American reference books, food history sources, old pioneer cookbooks, magazine articles and the Internet for the origin of fry bread. What we found were plenty of mentions/recipes for this *traditional* food but nothing concrete about the history or origin of it. The real problem with modern recipe for traditional Indian Fry Bread (or Squaw Bread) is that the ingredients (white flour & baking powder [1850]) and cooking utensils (frying pans, iron cauldrons) were not traditionally used by Native Americans. They were introduced to this continent by European explorers & pioneer families. European and American cookbooks from all time periods abound with recipes for fried breadstuffs: 'Fritter. The English word for a small portion of deep-fried batter, usually but not always containing a piece of fruit, meat, fish or vegetable. Fritters are generally eaten immediately after cooking, as, like all deep-fried foods, they taste best hot and fresh...Fritters are often sold at fairs, freshly cooked a special stalls. In several countries they are made as part of the carnival binge of rich foods, eaten before the fast of Lent begins...The Roman scriblita', described by Cato in the 2nd Century BC, was probably a precursor of both fritters and doughnuts. Lumps of moist dough (leavened with sourdough) were spooned into hot fat, and allowed to stream in random shapes. Medieval cryspeys' were described in the Harlean MS of 1430; a liquid yeast batter using the whites of eggs only was run down the cook's fingers so that five narrow streams entered the hot oil, where they set into a tangle. They were served sprinkled with sugar...Most medical writers considered that fritters were indigestible, but they were too good to refuse and have been popular ever since...' ---The Oxford Companion to Food, Alan Davidson, (p. 320)

Native Americans traditionally ground corn/maize into flour for tortillas and other breadstuffs. These items were baked, dried, fried and cooked on griddles. They did use leavening agents (wood ash, lime, lye, sourdough). They also used oils & animal fat to cook some of these corn-based foods. Check out The Story of Corn, Betty Fussell, (pps. 167-248) for details. 'In frontier America, as in colonial America, any form of bread made with corn instead of wheat was the sad paste of despair,' writes Ms. Fussell (p. 220). 'Native corn eaters on the Southwest, whose caste status did not depend upon wheat, nonetheless incorporated wheat into their cornmeal pastes as the incorporated the Madonna into their Corn Mothers. A recipe

Page 35 for contemporary Navaho cake, in Traditional Navajo Foods and Cooking [1983], is a true child of the hybrid cuisine engendered when wheat met corn. (p. 225). Modern fry bread dates at least as far back as the early 1930s: 'Squaw bread:2 tablespoons Royal baking powder, 1 quart like warm water, 1 teaspoon salt, 1 tablespoon compound, flour enough to make about like biscuit dough. Roll and cut any shape desired. Fry in kettle of boiling compound. Recipe from Nancy Rogers Ware (Cherokee)' --Indian Cook Book, The Indian Women's Club of Tulsa, Oklahoma [1932-33] (p. 7) You might consider contacting these groups for additional information: Navajo Museum P.O. Box 1904 Window Rock, AZ 86515-1904 (520) 871-6673 Navajo Nation Fair --they sponsor a fry bread contests.

FRY BREAD HOLES

text The reason why the hole is put in the fry bread because when your cooking it in a big pot outside a long stick is used to pick it up and turn it over also the lady kneading it out will lay it over the stick and you roll it into the pot the hole give you something to grab on to,that way you can have several people working kneading cooking and all at the same time,

FRY BREAD NEW

1

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no ingredients

Ingredients: 2 cups flour 3 teaspoons baking powder 1 teaspoon salt 1/2 cup dry milk 1 egg 1 cup warm water

Preparation: *Mix the dry ingredients together, mix the egg and the water, add to the dry mixture. *Add flour or water to adjust mixture to a very soft dough mixture. *Put dough on a well floured board. *Roll out to about a 1 inch thickness. *Let set for about 15 minutes. *Cut into what ever size you would like, I like to do mine in smaller pieces for dipping into wojapi. *You could get about 24 pieces out of this batter. *Deep fry in hot oil, just enough to brown on each side. *Put on a paper towel to get some of the top oil off the bread.

Page 36 Note: I found that when making frybread, it is better to make one batch at one time. My family likes to dip the frybread in wojapi made from blueberries. Yield: 2

FRY BREAD OJIBWE

1

x

no ingredients

Ingredients: Flour (5# Bag) Salt (Approximately 1 Teaspoon) Baking Powder (2 Teaspoons) 2 Cup Water (Warmed) 1 Cup Milk (Warmed)Lard (1#) Preparation: 1. Put the entire amount of Flour into a large mixing bowl. 2. Make a well in the middle of flour.Pour in the warmed liquids 3. Add the salt and baking powder. 4. Mix with a large spoon slowly adding in flour from the sides (similar to mixing a cake by hand). Keep adding flour until you feel you can start to knead it by hand. 5. Knead until it doesn't stick to your hand. Then let the dough rest for 1/2 hour. 6. Beak off golf ball size of dough and put on a floured plate. 7. Heat the lard in a large cast iron skillet. Note: To test the temperature of the lard, sprinkle drops of water on the lard. If it dances quickly, the bread frying is ready to begin. 8. Flatten your individual balls of dough and fry on both sides to a golden brown. 9. Adjust your heat as needed. Yield: 10

FRY BREAD POTAWATOMI

1

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no ingredients

3 cups of bread flour 3 teaspoons of baking powder 1 teaspoon of salt 1 cup of warm water Mix all the dry ingredients and add just enough of the lukewarm water to form a dough that can be handled. Roll out on a floured table about 1/2-inch thick. Cut into squares and make two slits in the center. Cook in deep fat until the bread is golden brown on one side then turn it over and cook the other side. Best when eaten hot.

Page 37

Yield: 6 servings

Page 38

FRY BREAD RECIPES

recipes INDIAN TACO: Place 2 cups fry bread mix in large bowl.€ Gradually add 3/4 cups warm water.€ Stir until well mixed. € Let stand 30 to 45 minutes (longer makes lighter bread).€ Heat shortening in deep fryer (or 1/2 inch deep in skillet) to 350 degrees F.€ Pinch dough into 1/4 pound pieces (about the size of a baseball) and place on heavily floured surface and roll into 1/4 inch thickness keeping shape as round as possible.€ Cut two slits in center of dough for shortening to fry through and place in preheated fryer.€ Turn when brown.€ When brown on both sides, lift out and drain on paper towel.€ Place fried bread in deep plate, and top with chili beans, shredded lettuce, diced tomatoes, and grated cheese.€ Dough will keep for several days when refrigerated or can be frozen. Make sure dough is at room temperature before preparing.€ Yields 6-8 servings. FRY BREAD: Mix dough the same as for Indian Taco.€ Heat shortening in deep fryer or skillet to 350 degrees F.€ Place dough on lightly floured surface and knead.€ Roll all of dough to 1/4 inch thickness, cut into 3 inch squares with pizza cutter. Gently pull and stretch each piece as you drop into preheated fryer. € Turn when brown.€ Do not puncture.€ Serve hot with any meal or with butter, honey, powdered sugar for breakfast or dessert. Yields 6-8 servings. PANCAKES: Place 1 cup dry mix in large bowl.€ Add 1 cup milk and stir with fork until mix is moistened.€ Cook pancakes using 1/4 cup batter per pancake.€ Cook until bubbly and bubbles burst; edges will look dry. € With pancake turner, turn and cook until underside is brown.€ Serve with butter or margarine and syrup or other topping as desired.€ For buttermilk pancakes mix with 1 1/4 cup buttermilk in place of 1 cup milk.€ Yields 6 pancakes. OLD FASHIONED BISCUITS: Place 2 cups fry bread mix in large bowl.€ Gradually add 1 cup buttermilk. Stir until well mixed.€ Turn on lightly floured surface.€ Knead and roll into 1/2 inch thickness.€ Cut into desired size and place on well greased pan.€ Bake at 450 degrees (approximately 8-10 minutes) or until brown.€ Yields 11-12 biscuits. WAFFLES: In large bowl, with wire whisk or slotted spoon, mix 1 1/2 cups mix to 1 1/2 cups of milk and 2 eggs, beat until well blended. When waffle baker is ready to use, pour batter into center of lower half until it spreads to about 1 inch from edges.€ Do not lift cover during baking.€ When waffle is done, loosen with fork and serve at once.€ Yields 8 waffles. RED CORN DOG: Mix dough same as for Indian Taco.€ Roll into 1/2 inch thickness and cut in 3x5 inch strips. € Place wieners on dough strips folding dough over to cover wiener.€ roll wrapped wiener back and forth on floured surface until sealed.€ Drop in pre-heated fryer (425 degrees F) turning until brown.€ Remove and drain on paper towel. € Serve hot.€ Yield 10-12 red corn dogs. INDIAN MEAT PIE: Mix 1 1/4 lb. ground chuck, 3/4 lb. kidney suet, 1/2 cup water, 1 1/4 t. salt, 1 t. pepper and set aside.€ Mix dough as directed for for Indian Taco and divide into four parts.€ Roll each as for pie dough (approximately 6 inch diameter).€ Place 1/4 of meat mixture on 1/2 of dough and fold over sealing edges.€ Place on greased cookie sheet with sealed side down and bake at 450 degrees F for 20 minutes turning over after 10 minutes.€ Lightly brush with oil when brown. GRAPE DUMPLINGS: Using a well floured surface roll fry bread dough very thin.€ Cut into 2 inch squares, let dry then freeze in plastic bag.€ Bring one can frozen grape juice to boil, add 2 T. red food coloring and 3/4 cup sugar.€ Drop dumplings into boiling juice mixture and cook until desired thickness

Page 39 adding more juice if they become too thick.€ Serve warm. €

FRY BREAD#A.

2 1 2 1/2

cups cup teaspoons cup

of self rising or regular flour of warm milk..(the commodity dry mi; lk mixed with water works of baking powder hon

mix dry ingredients first with your hand...make a well in the center... add the warm milk, and honey.. mix well with hands on floured board or table sprinkled with flour mixture should be solft, but not sticky cover with dish towel for about 20 minutes break off golf ball size balls , roll out on floured surface thickness depends on how you want it poke a hole in middle of each circle of dough with rolling pin or finger. deep fry in hot, not smoking, oil or lard (the grandma's prefer lard) turn with fork or tongs when edges start to get brown.. brown on both sides stand frybread on its edge to drain on paper towels. you can put honey on it, or powdered sugar, or jam, or anything you want! if you make the frybread thin, you can make i

Page 40

FRY BREAD, MY VERSON

1 1 1 1

4 cups flour 1/2 teaspoon salt 2 tbsp baking powder 1/4 cup oil

1/2 to 1 cup powdered milk (don't use the commercial kind, if you can get commodity) 2 cups water (a little more if more milk is used) Mix dry ingredients in a large bowl, make a well in it and pour in the water and oil. Knead thoroughly to a stiff dough. Add more flour -- it shouldn't be sticky. Flour in bread varies by moisture in the air. Take a handful and pat it into a flat round with a depression in both sides of the center, or make a twisted round. Depending on the shape and how much you knead and twist and pull it, the fry bread will taste quite different. Slap it around plenty, and make sure that dought isn't sticky. For Indian tacos (or to serve with wojape berry pudding over it), make a flat taco, about 8-9" in diameter and 1 1/2" thick at the edges, with a depression in the center of both sides (to hold the sauce). Fry it in hot oil, either a fryer or frypan with at least 1 1/2" of oil in it. Keep crumbs and such skimmed off the oil. Oil temperature should be about 375, not smoking. Breads will puff and turn golden. Flip over to fry on both sides. Remove to drain on paper, don't stack them on top of each other until cool. Even if you're going to make thousands for a powwow, this is about the right size for a working batch. Make batch after batch after batch..... It will be noticeable that the ones different people shape come out different even if making them from the same dough. If feeding kids, work more powdered milk into it. How many it makes depends on the size you make them. Cleanup and saving the frying oil: skim out all crumbs on the top. Cut up an apple and fry slices in the fat. Cool it. Pour through a funnel lined with a cloth towel back into can, discarding the brown sludge at the bottom. Yield: 24

Page 41

FRYBREAD (ZAHSAKOKWAHN)

2 3 1 1

cups tsp. tsp. cup

flour baking powder salt milk

Staple of Powwows, Symbol of Intertribal Indian Unity Deep hot fat in frying pan or fryer. Sift dry ingredients. Lightly stir in milk. Add more flour as necessary to make a dough you can handle. Kneed and work the dough on a floured board with floured hands until smooth. Pinch off fist-sized limps and shape into a disk -- everyone has their own characteristic shapes. Shape affects the taste, by the way because of how it fries). For Indian tacos, the disk must be rather flat, with a depression -- almost a hole -- in the center of both sides. Make it that way if the fry bread is going to have some sauce over it. Smaller, round ones are made to put on a plate. Fry in fat (about 375_)until golden and done on both sides, about 5 minutes. Drain on absorbent paper. Yield: 8-10 small ones

GOOD FRYBREAD
By: From the Tulalip Tribes 3 1 1 1 1 1/2 cups tablespoon teaspoon tablespoon cups of flour baking powder of salt of sugar of water

Making the dough: Mix all the ingredients {except water} together. Mix it. Then add the water. Then kneed the dough. Let the dough sit for 20-25 minutes. Making the frybread: Take a roll out of the dough flatten it to about 1 1/2 inches. Then put a hole in the middle. Frying: Add 1 1/2 cups of butter. Then 3-5 cups of oil into a frying pan. After the oil gets done boiling put the frybread in.

Page 42

INDIAN FRIED BREAD 2
By: Mary Freeman in Texas 2 1/4 1 1/2 1 cup tsp. tsp. T flour baking powder salt shortening

Mix dry ingredients in a bowl. Add shortening and mix with fingers. Add 3/4 cup water. Keep mixing with hands until soft dough. Pinch off small pieces about golf ball size, flatten in your fingers and palm of your hand to make a small flat cake. Place in hot frying pan with grease or shortening, fry until speckled brown turn and fry the other side. Remove from pan, use as bread or roll in sugar and eat as a dessert. ( It is good rolled in sugar and cinnamon)

INDIAN FRIED PUMPKIN BREAD
By: Miccosukee tribe. 4 1 1 1 1 2 cups tablespoon 16 oz. teaspoon cup cups self-rising flour baking powder (if using regular; flour) can pumpkin (not pumpkin pie filli) salt white or brown sugar corn oil

1. In large mixing bowl, combine 3 1/2 cups of flour with the baking powder, pumpkin, and sugar. 2. Blend well and knead briefly, forking in the rest of the flour if needed ot make a smooth dough. Refrigerate for 2 hours to firm up the dough. 3. Divide dough into fourths and knead each portion on a floured board or cloth for few minutes. 4. Using floured rolling pin, roll each portion into a cylinder 8 to 10 inches long. 5. Cut each cylinder into 6 slices. 6. Flour each slice and form into a cake no more than 1/2 inch thick. Dough cooks faster if thinner. 7. Heat 3/4 inch of oil in a deep, heavy frying pan until a bit of dough begins to bubble immediately. 8. Fry the cakes in hot oil. Turn after 2 or 3 minutes, when bottom side is brown. You can reduce spattering by covering the pan with a screen. 9. When both sides are brown, remove from pan with skimmer, drain on paper to

Page 43

INDIAN FRY BREAD

2 1/2 1 1 1 1/2 1 1 1/2

T. t. pkg. t. c. c.

honey salt yeast baking powder oil hot water flour

Stir together honey, oil, salt and hot water. Add yeast and allow to stand 10 min. to dissolve yeast.Add flour and baking powder. Use enough flour to make a firm ball. Take enough dough to flatten as pizza crust 6-8 in. in diameter. Deep fry in more oil.

Page 44

INDIAN FRY BREAD O'ODHAM TASH

4 3 1 2 1 3 2 2-4

tblsp tabl tabl cups package cups teaspoon cups

honey€ oil€ salt€ hot water€ active dry yeast unbleached white flour baking powder€ additional flour € start

Start the dough mixture about 2 to 2 1/2 hours before serving.€ Be sure to poke a hole in the center of your dough before you fry it...otherwise your fry bread may have a doughy undercooked center. Mix together the honey, oil, and salt.€ Stir in the hot water.€ Mix well.€ Sprinkle the yeast on top of this mixture.€ Cover with a cloth and allow to stand about 10 minutes or until yeast bubbles.€ Add Flour and baking powder.€ Stir well. Add more flour until mixture is firm and cleans hands. (2-4 cups of flour) Place dough in greased bowl, turning over to grease the top.€ Cover and allow to raise until double in bulk (about half an hour).€ Punch down and divide in half, then each half into 8 parts.€ Form each piece into a ball and place on waxed paper.€ Allow to raise until ready to cook. Head deep fat to frying temperature.€ Take a ball of dough and flatten with your hands using a stretching action until the dough is very thin and round (about six to eight inches in diameter).€ Poke a hole in the middle and drop in deep fat.€ Fry until golden, about 1 1/2 minutes on each side.€ Drain on paper towels. Serve hot topped with honey, powdered sugar, or cinnamon sugar. For a more substantial meal...cover with refried beans, meat, shredded lettuce, and shredded cheese and salsa. I might mention that the first cake I made was not very flat so I located my wife's rolling pin and used it on the remaining cakes and they turned out perfectly!€ If you would like to keep up the spirit of this recipe and would like to donate to local Indian Missions, send your check to North Trekell Baptist Church, 2492 North Trekell Road, Casa Grande, AZ€ 85222 and Mark in the comment field of the check, 'Local Indian Missions'.€ Your donation will be tax deductible and will help a worthy cause.

4 Yield: kes 16

Page 45

INDIAN FRY BREAD RECIPE
By: Wooden Knife Company

3 1 1/2 1 1/2

cups tablespoon teaspoon cups

all-purpose flour baking powder salt warm water oil, for frying

Put flour, baking powder, and salt in a large bowl. Mix well, add warm water and stir until dough begins to ball up. On a lightly floured surface knead dough. Do not over-work the dough. After working dough, place in a bowl and refrigerate for 1/2 to 1 hour. Heat oil to 350 degrees in a frying pan or kettle. Lightly flour surface and pat and roll out baseball size pieces of dough. Cut hole in middle with a knife (so the dough will fry flat) to 1/4-inch thickness and place in oil and cook until golden brown and flip over and cook opposite side until same golden brown. Dough is done in about 3 minutes depending on oil temperature and thickness of dough. After fry bread is done top with favorite topping or, chile and cheese first, then cover with lettuce and tomatoes, onions, green chile and you have an Indian Taco. Episode#: BE1B23 Copyright © 2003 Television Food Network, G.P., All Rights Reserved Preparation Time (hh:mm): : 40

Page 46

INDIAN POPOVERS (INDIAN TACOS)

1

ingredients

1 recipe Frybread dough (your favorite baking powder based recipe) 1 lb. Coarse ground beef 1 Jalapeno, chopped 1 Onion, minced 1 package Taco seasoning 1 can Green Enchilada Sauce 1/2 can water 1 can Pinto beans, drained Cheddar &/or Monterey Jack Cheese, shredded Tomato(s), diced Lettuce, shredded Oil (for deep frying) Directions "Brown" the ground beef until done, then drain off the grease. Add the jalapeno, onion, taco seasoning, enchilada sauce, and 1/2 can of water. Cook this mixture according to the instructions on the taco seasoning package. Add the pinto beans and heat through. Remove from heat and allow to cool. Portion out the frybread dough so that you end up with 8" diameter circles of rolled dough 1/4-1/2" inch thick. Spoon some of the meat mixture onto half a rolled out piece of dough, sprinkle with the shredded cheese (if desired), and fold the other half over to form a half-moon-shaped turnover. Seal the edges by crimping with the tines of a fork. Deep fry the popover as you would the fry bread (until golden brown). Drain on paper towels. The meat and cheese will be nice and hot. Serve with lettuce, tomatoes, more onions, and taco sauce (store bought) as desired. This is a favorite at all of our Oglala powwows! Liz Cornelius originally posted this recipe at http://www.bmcc.org, and it is reprinted here with her permission. She writes: "I am glad you like our 'Oglala' version of Indian Tacos (popovers). They were very popular in Pine Ridge when I was there...by all means use it, good luck! Toksha ye, Liz Cornelius" Liz also says the reason for the baking powder-based frybread dough is because it's "Less labor, less tough."

Page 47

LOW FAT FRY BREAD

2 2 4 1/4 1

cups cups tablespoon level cup cup

whole wheat flour flour white baking pouder vegetable oil Water; warm

Mix together both flours, baking powder, and salt. Add vegetable oil a little at a time, only enough to make the mixture look like corn meal. Slowly add 1 cup warm water, only enough to make dough stick together. Roll into fist-sized balls. Cover the bowl with a towel for 10 minutes. Pat dough out with your hands to size of large pancakes. Fry in hot vegetable oil (375 degrees) until golden brown on both sides. Lower fat because: animal fat is customarily used.

MOHAVE FRY BREAD
By: Mohave Indian Reservation 1 1 1 lb tsp oz white flour salt oil enough warm water to make all hold; together Pinch off a small ball and flatten by hand till very thin. Then deep fry in lard (yep this is not for the weight watching bunch....) till fluffed up and brown, just a few minutes. Serve with either honey, or 'the works': fried ground hamburger, refried beans, onions, grated cheese, tomatoes and salsa. Delicious!

NAVAJO FRY BREAD
By: Mary Harris 6 1 2 1/2 2 2/3 cups tbls. tbls. cup cup unsifted flour salt baking powder dry milk warm water lard for frying. Mix together dry ingredients Mix in water & knead on floured surface 'till it isn’t sticky anymore. Then I usually put the dough in a plastic bag or wrap with plastic wrap to keep the dough from drying out. Heat lard in cast iron frying pan, but don’t let it smoke! Pull off a piece of dough about the size of an egg & shape into about a 9 inch round. Poke a hole in the middle & add to hot lard & fry on each side until golden. Drain on paper towels ( I use pieces of brown paper bags, it's cheaper & works just as well!!)

Page 48

NAVAJO FRY BREAD - 1

1 1/2 1 1/2 1/4 1/2

cup cup tablespoon teaspoon teaspoon cup

white flour whole wheat flour sugar baking powder salt honey vegetable oil

Mix dry ingredients. Add water to dry ingredients, mix well. Knead dough on a floured board till it becomes elastic. Let dough rest 10 minutes, covered. Roll out dough till it is 1/2 inch thick. Cut into squares or circles. Deep-fry at 370F till golden brown; drain on paper towels. Drizzle with honey and serve. Yield: 8 fry breads

NAVAJO FRY BREAD - 2

4 1 1 1 1/2 1

cups tablespoon teaspoon cups cup

all purpose flour double-acting baking powder salt warm water vegetable shortening

In a bowl whisk together the flour, the baking powder, and the salt, stir in the water, and knead the mixture on a floured surface until it forms a soft but not sticky dough. Let the dough stand, covered with a kitchen towel, for 15 minutes. Pull off egg-size pieces of the dough and pat and stretch them into 1/4-inch thick rounds. Poke a hole with a finger through the center of each round so that the breads will fry evenly. In a large heavy skillet heat the shortening over moderately high heat until it is hot but not smoking, in it fry the rounds, 1 at a time, for 2 minutes on each side, or until they are golden, and transfer the breads as they are fried to paper towels to drain. Yield: 8 fry breads

Page 49

NAVAJO FRY BREAD 2

1 1/2 1 1/2 1/4 1/2

cup cup tablespoon teaspoon teaspoon cup

white flour whole wheat flour sugar baking powder salt honey vegetable oil

Mix dry ingredients. Add water to dry ingredients, mix well. Knead dough on a floured board till it becomes elastic. Let dough rest 10 minutes, covered. Roll out dough till it is 1/2 inch thick. Cut into squares or circles. Deep-fry at 370F till golden brown; drain on paper towels. Drizzle with honey and serve. ------------------

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Page 50

Preparation Time (hh:mm): 0:00

NAVAJO FRY BREAD 22
By: Cherryl Rogers 3 1/4 1 1 1/2 5 1 1 1 cups cup tablespoon teaspoon tablespoons cup tablespoon cup all-purpose flour nonfat dry milk powder baking powder salt lard, chilled and cut into small pi; eces ice water sea salt (optional) lard for frying

A traditional Native American bread. Great served with honey, jam, or butter. 1 In a large bowl mix together flour, non-fat dry milk powder, baking powder, and salt. Cut in 5 tablespoons of the lard into the dry mixture until it resembles fine crumbs. Add the ice water and mix until the dough pulls cleanly away from the sides of the bowl. 2 Cover with a towel and set aside for 2 hours. 3 Divide the dough into two large pieces. Shape each piece into a circle. Roll each piece out on a lightly floured board to 1/4 inch thick. Make 2 parallel cuts through the dough without cutting all the way through. Let the dough rest briefly. 4 Heat the remaining lard in a large cast iron skillet over medium-high heat. Once it is hot, add the first shaped dough. Fry for 4-5 minutes on the first side, until golden, turn over and finish cooking on the second side for 3-4 minutes. Remove the bread from the skillet and drain onto paper towels. Sprinkle with sea salt, if desired. Keep warm while second section cooks. 5 Cut bread into wedges. Serve warm. Yield: 8 servings

Page 51

NEW MEXICO FRY BREAD

3 1 1/2 1/2 1 1/2

cups teaspoon Tsp cups

flour baking powder Salt Water; warm

Mix flour, baking powder and salt together in a bowl. Add water and mix well, and knead the dough on a floured board until soft. Roll out the dough until it is 1/4 inch thick. Cut out 8-inch diameter rounds. In a large frying pan, add oil till 3 inches deep and heat. Fry the bread in the oil, turning with a slotted spoon until puffed and brown on both sides.

NEW NATIVE FRYBREAD
By: Lower Brule Sioux, Bernice Rencountre Swick 2 3 1 1/2 1 1 cup cups teaspoons teaspoon cup flour baking powder salt dry milk egg warm water

Mix the dry ingredients together, mix the egg and the water, add to the dry mixture. Add flour or water to adjust mixture to a very soft dough mixture. Put dough on a well floured board. Roll out to about a 1 inch thickness. Let set for about 15 minutes. Cut into what ever size you would like, I like to do mine in smaller pieces for dipping into wojapi. You could get about 24 pieces out of this batter. Deep fry in hot oil, just enough to brown on each side. Put on a paper towel to get some of the top oil off the bread.

Page 52

PIMA WOJAPI AND FRY BREAD

1

x

no ingredients

I was taught to make wojapi by Roberta Wilson, whose family is from Pine Ridge. She taught me to mash fresh fruit--for example, blueberries, and bring them to a boil, and then thicken with arrowroot, cornstarch, or flour until it becomes the thickness of a thin pudding. My mom would kill me for this, but when she has been pressed for time (eg, strangers show up unexpectedly) she has been known to break open a "can" of pillsbury bisquits and stretch them out a bit and deep fry them as a quickie fry bread. I want to stress this is unusual--she makes gallons of dough from scratch for our frybread and indian taco stand for to help with the fundraising for our big powwow. We normally make it with oil, flour and baking powder with a little salt. If you mix it/knead it too long, it gets a bit tough. There's also another way of making it using yeast, and letting it rise once, then rolling it flat and cutting it into kinda diamond shapes and frying those--it's a bit lighter and has the yeast taste. As a quickie way, you can also "cheat" and fry crescent rolls from Pillsbury's Indian Doughboy :) I was told that a long time ago the flour was made with wild rye, rather than the current wheat flour. If you use whole wheat, it doesn't really rise. You can mix some whole wheat flour into. One of the elders in Seattle, who has since past on, Tilly Cavanaugh, used to put raisins in the dough as a special treat, but she's the only one I know who would do that. After you fry them and they turn a golden brown on both sides, you can sprinkle them with powdered sugar, or pour some honey on top of them. As Cecilia FireThunder says, eating them makes us Indians like frybread--round, brown, and greasy :) ps--have no idea why the Pimas are getting credit for all this--we do frybread at Taos and at Warm Springs. Wojapi is a Lakota word.

Page 53

PUMPKIN FRYBREAD (#9)

Ingredients 3 cups unbleached flour 1 cup puréed pumkin meat 1/2 cup honey, maple syrup, or granulated sugar 1/2 tsp. salt (optional) 1/4 tsp. ground cinnamon 2 tsp baking powder 1 cup warm water or milk (more if needed) 1 Tbsp. sunflower seed oil Directions Cmobine first seven ingredients plus 1/2 tablespoon oil in a large mixing bowl. Mix thoroughly and knead until smooth, balancing the flour and moisture components as needed. Lightly rub the smooth surface of the finished raw dough with the remaining oil. Cover bowl with a damp towel, and allow to rest for 30 minutes to an hour or two, if desired. Heat sufficient oil or shortening in a heavy pot or skillet so that oil is about 3 inches deep and the pot is no more than half full. Heat on the stove to a medium-high temperature (about 375º). With lightly floured hands, pinch off small golf-ball-sized pieces of dough and gently flatten each piece in the palm of your hand until it forms a circle or triangle of 1/2-inch thickness, thinner in the middle (or with a hole in the center). You can also choose to roll each pinched piece of dough into a ball. Rest these pieces on lightly floured brown paper until ready to fry. The less you handle the dough, the lighter and more tender the finished breads will be. Carefully ease each freshly shaped piece of dough into the hot oil, being careful not to splatter. Fry quickly, turning with long-handled tongs or a slotted spoon. Do not crowd dough pieces in the pot. Remove in 2 to 4 minutes and drain on brown paper or absorbent paper towels. Remove while warm to a serving plate and dust lightly with powdered sugar. Serve warm. Enjoy!

Page 54

PUMPKIN OR SWEET POTATO FRY BREAD

2 2 1 16 1 16 1 3/4

cups cups -ounce -ounce tablespoon cup

self-rising flour, plus 1 to 2 cups; for kneading cooked, mashed, fresh pumpkin fresh yams mashed or can pumpkin or can of yams warm milk or water* brown or white sugar oil or shortening for frying my additions:

1/4 1/4 1/4 1 2

teaspoon teaspoon teaspoon teaspoons

cinnamon nutmeg vanilla butter (melted into the milk) milk

Place 2 cups of flour in a large mixing bowl. In another bowl, combine pumpkin, warm milk, and sugar. Make a well in the bowl and pour in the pumpkin (or sweet potato mixture) and knead and knead. Form into a ball. Wrap in saran wrap or ziplock bag and put into the refrigerator for 2 hours. This mixture can also be frozen for a later date too. Heat oil in cast iron skillet (I used my electric wok for this one) to 350 degrees. Cut the firm dough into quarters and roll up into balls, then pat them -- like hamburger patties. You can make them large or small. Put into the hot oil. Let cook on one side for 2-1/2 minutes and then on the other side. They will rise up to the top like frybread or donuts. Take them out and drain off excess oil. Sprinkle confectionery sugar on them and serve hot.

RAO'S FRIED BREAD BISCUITS
By: Astai'yi Southeast Kituwah Nation flour (self rising preferably) water canola or other polyunsaturated oil Mix the flour and water together as you would for frybread. After mixing, add enough flour to knead the dough without making the dough too 'dusty'. Put some flour on your fingertips and flatten the dough into thin 'biscuits', about 3/8 to a half inch thick. They will rise, so be careful!! Take these and drop them in preheated oil. Check your oil temperature as you would when you make your frybread, and fry on each side for about 2 minutes. Take the pones out and drain the little bit of oil on them off. Let them cool and top them with either powdered sugar, jam or your fave topping.

Page 55

RED CORN FRYBREAD--SOUTHWESTERN

1/2 1 1 2/3

to cup tsp. cup

1 cup red corn meal all purpose wheat flour baking powder or culinary ashes to 1 cup water light oil for frying

(to use the ashes will enchance the red/pink color) Mix dry ingredients together; form a well in the center and add the water, until you have a good doughy consistency (one that you can work with, either by patting or rolling--I usually pat). If the dough is too sticky, add more of the red corn meal; if it is too dry add more water. Lightly knead dough and let sit for at least 10 minutes, either covered or lightly oiled on top. Meanwhile heat oil. The oil needs to be really hot or the breads will be rather heavy or not cooked through. Pat or roll the dough into rounds and fry in hot oil until puffed slightly and golden rosy. Salt if you like--strickly optional. With the cornmeal in the mix, these are heavier than most all wheat frybreads, but I think they taste better.

SALÀPON (FRYBREAD)
By: Lanape flour; 3 1/2 cups water; lukewarm salt; 1/2 teas. more flour baking powder; 3 teas. heaping grease Mix the first three ingredients with enough Water until like pancake batter. Let stand a few minutes while heating enough Grease for deep-fat frying. In a large bread mixing pan have more Flour. After making a depression in the Flour, pour into it some of the mix, and knead it. Knead until about like biscuit dough. Make round cakes, about 5 inches in diameter and 3/4 inch thick. Use a 'tester' (a small piece of dough) to test the heat of the Grease. When hot enough, the dough will first sink, then immediately rise. When the Grease is hot enough, the bread can be fried. Turn it and remove

Page 56 with a spoon or tongs. Never pierce the bread with a fork.

SEMINOLE FRYBREAD:

2 2 1 1 1/2 1

cups tsp. tsp. tsp. cup tbsp

wheat flour baking powder baking soda salt melted lard (or warm oil or melted; butter) wild honey (optional) warm water as needed to form a doug; h hot lard or oil for frying.

1. Mix all dry ingredients together. 2. Make a well in the center and pour in the melted lard (or other fat) and honey if you are using it, and some water. Gently stir flour into the well, mixing in more water as needed to make a firm dough. knead just a minute or two to make dough springy. 3. Cover with cloth and let sit for 15 minutes to an hour. Meanwhile heat lard or oil in frying pan. When the oil is ready, pat out small rounds of dough and fry into golden brown.

SWEET POTATO OR PUMPKIN FRY BREAD

1 1 1/4

c. c. c.

self-rising flour puréed sweet potatoes or pumpkin, f; resh or canned granulated sugar, or to taste vegetable oil (for frying)

Put the flour and sugar in a large bowl and add puréed sweet potatoes or pumpkin a little at a time. Blend together well and knead until the dough is soft and elastic, not sticky. Cut the dough into 4 to 6 pieces and flatten on your palms until 1/4 to 1/2 inch thick and approximately 4 inches in diameter. Heat 2 inches of oil in a heavy skillet, add the dough pieces, and fry until puffed and golden brown on each side, turning once. Drain on absorbent paper and serve hot with butter and syrup. Or, make smaller sizes, dust with confectioners' sugar and serve for dessert or snacks.

Page 57

TUCKABATCHEE
By: Glenn recipe I am of Alabama Creek descent and my grandmother made a frybread from pumpkin. She called it Tuckabatchee Tabalege. I'm not sure of the spelling, she never wrote the words down. I grew up hearing her speaking Creek, but never saw any of the language in print. I'm not sure of the measurements because I learned to make it by watching her and she never measured anything. The recipe contains self-rising flour, sugar, and pumpkin. She grew pumpkins and when they were in season, she would cook them down and use in the bread, but during the off season she would use canned pumpkin. To make the bread, she would place self-rising flour in a bowl and shape a well in it. She would then put pumpkin and sugar in the well and mix the dough until it was similar to a frybread dough. She would then pinch off a small ball and flatten it out. The flattened dough was then immersed in hot oil and fried like frybread. I can still see her making flat rounds and placing them around the rim of her mixing bowl while she waited for the bread in the oil to fry. I'm sorry I don't know the measurements to tell you. I know when I make it, I taste little pieces of the dough, like my grandmother taught me, until it tastes right. Maybe you cna play with the ingredients and come up with measurements. The dough is sweet to taste. I am pretty sure that you are talking about the same pumpkin bread made by the Seminoles. Much of the food is the same between the 2 tribes.

Page 58

WIND DANCER FRY BREAD

recipe Hi Wind_dancer28. Here's another way to fix fry bread. This is how my family & my husband's family & other Natives at Pacific NW Pow Wows prepare fry bread. Note, this is not the non-leavened recipe that would have been used 500+ yrs ago, but it most certainly is delicious & easy. 1) Prepare standard white bread dough, as though you are making bread. You can do this by hand or by a bread machine. If by hand, let it rise twice (punch down after first rise, & then rise again). 2) In deep frier, very deep skillet, or electric frying pan melt crisco, lard, or put in cooking oil. Fill to 1/2 way. Turn up heat to about 300 to 350 degrees. Allow oil to get quite hot. 3) Take tennis ball size pieces of dough & stretch into large (plate size) circle. 4) Place circle(s) of dough into oil & pierce center with knife or fork. Cook until golden brown on each side (a couple minutes). 5) Place fried bread on platter that has been covered with a layer or two of paper towels (to soak up oil). If you plan on making a large batch, you can also place bread in baking dish and place in oven that is on low/warm temp. 6) Serve fried bread with butter, honey, jam, cinnamon sugar, peanut butter, etc. We serve fried bread with chili, stews, soups, or just to eat as snack. Indian Tacos can be made with this fried bread by topping the fried bread with taco filling (chicken, beef, pork, turkey, beefalo, etc.), cheese, lettuce, tomatoes, salsa, sour cream, & guacamole (sp?). Enjoy! :-)

YEAST FRY BREAD

info frybread Doesn't anyone make their fry bread with yeast? That's the way my grandma (Cherokee) did hers. Just curious if she was unique or what...... -My wife often makes fry bread with yeast in the sense that she fries regular bread dough. Her family called them Dough Gods. (She's a Salteau-Cree Metis from northern Alberta and her Dad was a Hudson's Bay trader who was familiar with the cuisine of several nations throughout Alberta and the NWT.) I have also seen lots of old fashioned recipes from various central and eastern European countries for thick yeast raised pancakes which are somewhat similar in nature. Sometimes the dough gods were just a bit of leftover dough from making bread and a cook's treat and sometimes she makes several of them from a whole recipe of dough.

Page 59

YUMMY, FLUFFY,FRYBREAD
By: Eden Marie 4 4 1 1/3 1 1 1 1/2 spoonfulls cups tbsp tsp. cup cup flour baking powder salt oil warm water egg sugar deep pan for frying bowl for mixing oil deep enough for bread to float!; (about 350 degrees) hey this here is a frybread recipe I love to use....if ya put your lovin' prayer into it I promise warm fluffy bread comes up every time!:) 1. measure out flour...I like to sift it with my hands real good 2. put in baking powder....mix real good 3. put in salt...mix real good 4. measure out water; add sugar and egg...whip together real good,until it is bubbly :) 5. add mixture to dry ingredients and start to knead(may need to add more water at this point folks) 6. knead dough until it is sticky but doesn't stick to your hands 7. start to heat up oil 8. pull fist size balls of dough, and roll them into circles 9. let stand for 10 minutes 10. flatten out a dough ball, make a hole in the middle,and get out air bubbles best you can 11. if oil is ready get em' going...it cooks real fast and is real good...fluffy...just right for dippin'! 12. Be blessed and enjoy with your loved ones!

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