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Foreign Trade Performance of India

Indias Exports, Imports and Balance of Trade


The global slowdown had its impact on the economy of almost all the countries, including India.
The trade deficit in 2008-09 was much more (49.72 %) compare to the previous two years. As
such Indias trade deficit stood at Rs. 533680 crores during 2008-09 with values of exports and
imports at Rs. 840755 crores and Rs. 1374436 crores respectively. However, as may be seen
from Table 3.1 below that the position was better in 2009-10 as the trade deficit had decreased
(2.90 %) compare to last year. This happened due to the negative growth of import during 200910 ( 0.78 %). The trade deficit in 2009-10 was Rs. 518202 crores with values of exports and
imports as Rs. 845534 crores and Rs. 1363736 crores respectively.
Table 3.1: India's Exports, Imports, and Balance of Trade from 2000-01 to 2009-10
value in Rs. '00 crores

percentage growth

Year

Exports

Imports

Balance of
Trade

Exports

Imports

Balance of
Trade

2000-01

2035.71

2308.73

-273.02

27.58

7.26

-50.96

2001-02

2090.18

2452.00

-361.82

2.68

6.21

32.53

2002-03

2551.37

2972.06

-420.69

22.06

21.21

16.27

2003-04

2933.67

3591.08

-657.41

14.98

20.83

56.27

2004-05
(Revised)

3753.40

5010.65

-1257.25

27.94

39.53

91.24

2005-06

4564.18

6604.09

-2039.91

21.60

31.80

62.25

2006-07

5717.79

8405.06

-2687.27

25.28

27.27

31.73

2007-08

6558.64

10123.12

-3564.48

14.71

20.44

32.64

2008-09

8407.55

13744.36

-5336.80

28.19

35.77

49.72

2009-10

8455.34

13637.36

-5182.02

0.57

-0.78

-2.90

Indias imports in 2009-10 was Rs. 1363736 crores compared to Rs. 1374436 crores in 2008-09,
resulting in a negative growth of import for the first time in about more than two decades.
Although there was negative growth of import in 2009-10, export growth was also less (0.57 %).
While negative growth implies importing less, (which may be good for economy in terms of selfsufficiency and foreign exchange reserve, etc.) decrease in export at the same time may not be
desirable.

Indias Export performance


Indias merchandise exports stood at Rs. 845534 crores in 2009-10 as compared to Rs.840755
crores during 2008-09, resulting only in a marginal growth of 0.57 % in 2009-10. The
corresponding growth was 28.19 % in 2008-09 indicating that there was less impact of global
recess/slowdown on Indias economy in the initial year.
Table 3.2A: India's Export to some important countries during the period from 2005-06 to 2009-10
values in Rs. crores
Country

percentage share to total exports

2005-06

2006-07

2007-08

2008-09

2009-10

2005-06

2006-07

2007-08

2008-09

2009-10

UAE

38039

54445

62915

110229

113348

8.33

9.52

9.59

13.11

13.41

USA

76828

85368

83388

96458

92417

16.83

14.93

12.71

11.47

10.93

China P RP

29925

37530

43597

42661

54714

6.56

6.56

6.65

5.07

6.47

Hong Kong

19796

21179

25385

30391

37301

4.34

3.70

3.87

3.61

4.41

Singapore

24020

27462

29662

37757

35948

5.26

4.80

4.52

4.49

4.25

Netherland

10957

12082

21038

28890

30301

2.40

2.11

3.21

3.44

3.58

UK

22399

25421

26967

30345

29476

4.91

4.45

4.11

3.61

3.49

Germany

15877

18007

20599

29195

25633

3.48

3.15

3.14

3.47

3.03

Saudi Arab

8012

11711

14923

22940

18552

1.76

2.05

2.28

2.73

2.19

France

9207

9506

10454

13777

17999

2.02

1.66

1.59

1.64

2.13

Belgium

12712

15722

16943

20309

17757

2.79

2.75

2.58

2.42

2.10

Japan

10985

12954

15516

13808

17143

2.41

2.27

2.37

1.64

2.03

Korea RP

8090

11379

11482

18354

16127

1.77

1.99

1.75

2.18

1.91

11153

16212

15748

17365

16072

2.44

2.84

2.40

2.07

1.90

Indonesia

6111

9177

8693

11578

14605

1.34

1.60

1.33

1.38

1.73

Malaysia
Bangladesh
pr

5144

5902

10337

15780

13504

1.13

1.03

1.58

1.88

1.60

7369

7366

11743

11319

11495

1.61

1.29

1.79

1.35

1.36

Brazil
Sri Lanka
DSR
South
Africa
Total

4829

6577

10132

11874

11365

1.06

1.15

1.54

1.41

1.34

4829

10206

11374

10893

10290

1.06

1.79

1.73

1.30

1.22

6760
456418

10165
571779

10699
655864

8994
840755

9751
845534

1.48
100.00

1.78
100.00

1.63
100.00

1.07
100.00

1.15
100.00

Italy

Major Export Destinations


The most important destination of Indias exports was UAE during the year 2009-10. In terms of
value, Indias exports to UAE exceeded one lakh crores in 2009-10. Closely following UAE was
USA, for which the exports value stood at Rs. 92417. The shares of export values to the total
exports for both these countries were more than 10 % in 2009-10 and the next highest share was
that of China RP (6.47 %). However, in terms of annual growth rates, the exports to these top
two countries, i.e. UAE and USA are quite contrasting. While the exports to UAE grew only by
2.83 % in 2009-10 as compared to huge growth (75.20 %) in 2008-09, the growth of exports to
USA was negative (4.19 %) in 2009-10 and that was 15.67 % in 2008-09 (Table 3.2B). The
percentage shares of exports in the total exports to these top two countries, i.e., UAE and USA,
during the last five years from 2005-06 to 2009-10 are very contrasting. While the shares of
exports to UAE were increasing over the years, those of USA were decreasing during these
years, as may be seen from Table 3.2A. In fact as seen in Table 3.2A, from 2005-06 to 2007-08,
USA was the top destination country for exports and UAE was in the second position. But, for
2008-09 and 2009-10, their positions have just changed, thus UAE has replaced USA at the top.
However, the third positioned destination country, i.e., China RP was consistent in terms of
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shares (between 5 6 %) of exports in the total exports during these years. In terms of shares of
exports, the next two top destination countries after UAE, USA, and China RP, are Hong Kong
and Singapore. While the shares of exports to Hong Kong during these years, i.e., from 2005-06
to 2009-10 were fluctuating, those of exports to Singapore were consistently decreasing. Among
the top 20 Export destinations, the growth of exports in 2009-10 was highest (30.65 %) for
France, followed by China (28.25 %), Indonesia (26.14 %), Japan (24.15 %), Hong Kong (22.74
%), etc. (Table 3.2B).

Table 3.2B India's Export to some important countries during the period from 2005-06 to 2009-10
values in Rs. crores
Country

percentage growth

2005-06

2006-07

2007-08

2008-09

2009-10

2006-07

2007-08

2008-09

2009-10

UAE

38039

54445

62915

110229

113348

43.13

15.56

75.20

2.83

USA

76828

85368

83388

96458

92417

11.12

-2.32

15.67

-4.19

China P RP

29925

37530

43597

42661

54714

25.41

16.17

-2.15

28.25

Hong Kong

19796

21179

25385

30391

37301

6.99

19.86

19.72

22.74

Singapore

24020

27462

29662

37757

35948

14.33

8.01

27.29

-4.79

Netherland

10957

12082

21038

28890

30301

10.27

74.12

37.32

4.88

UK

22399

25421

26967

30345

29476

13.49

6.08

12.52

-2.86

Germany

15877

18007

20599

29195

25633

13.42

14.39

41.73

-12.20

Saudi Arab

8012

11711

14923

22940

18552

46.16

27.42

53.73

-19.13

France

9207

9506

10454

13777

17999

3.25

9.97

31.78

30.65

Belgium

12712

15722

16943

20309

17757

23.68

7.77

19.87

-12.57

Japan

10985

12954

15516

13808

17143

17.92

19.78

-11.01

24.15

8090

11379

11482

18354

16127

40.66

0.90

59.85

-12.13

Korea RP
Italy

11153

16212

15748

17365

16072

45.37

-2.86

10.27

-7.44

Indonesia

6111

9177

8693

11578

14605

50.18

-5.28

33.19

26.14

Malaysia

5144

5902

10337

15780

13504

14.73

75.15

52.65

-14.43

Bangladesh pr

7369

7366

11743

11319

11495

-0.04

59.43

-3.62

1.56

Brazil

4829

6577

10132

11874

11365

36.21

54.05

17.20

-4.29

Sri Lanka DSR

4829

10206

11374

10893

10290

111.38

11.44

-4.23

-5.54

South Africa

Total

6760

10165

10699

8994

9751

50.37

5.25

-15.93

8.42

456418

571779

655864

840755

845534

25.28

14.71

28.19

0.57

Major Exports
Table 3.3 below gives the export values of major items during 2005-06 to 2009-10. The most
important item group exported by India in 2009-10 was Engineering goods with value of exports
more than 1.5 lakh crores and accounting for 18.25 % of Indias total exports. But, export of

engineering goods during this period has decreased by 16.13 %, as compared to 2008-09 when
it was Rs. 183998 crores. The main markets for these items are developed countries and
emerging economies like China. It is heartening to learn that Indias exports of these
sophisticated manufactured items to major economies have gone up substantially in recent
years. This indicates the newly gained maturity of Indias manufacturing base.
Gems and Jewellery is next important item in Indias export basket. Its share in total exports was
15.06 % in 2005 06 but decreased to 12.64 % and to 12.08 % in 2006-07 and 2007-08
respectively. However, it has recorded increases in the years 2008-09 (15.29 %) and 200910(16.27 %). Gems and jewellery are mainly exported to rich countries like USA, UK, Japan,
Belgium and Switzerland, trading nations like Hong Kong and Singapore, and also newly
industrialised countries like Thailand. UAE is also an important market.
Table 3.3: India's Export of major items during the period from 2005-06 to 2009-10
value in Rs. crores
Tea
Coffee
Rice
Tobacco
Spices
Cashew
Oil Meals
Fruits & Vegetables
Marine Products
Iron Ore
Mica, Coal & Other Ores, Minerals
including processed minerals
Leather & leather manufactures
Gems & Jewellery
Drug, Phrmcutes & Fine Chemls
Other Basic Chemicals
Engineering Goods
Electronic Goods
Computer Software
Cotton Yarn/Fabs./made-ups etc.
Man-made Yarn/Fabs./made-ups etc.
RMG of all Textiles
Jute Mfg. including Floor Covering
Carpet
Handicrafts excl. hand made carpet
Petroleum Products
Plastic & Linoleum
Total Exports

2005-06
1731
1589
6221
1331
2116
2585
4875
2535
7036
16829

2006-07
1970
1969
7036
1685
3158
2491
5504
3611
8001
17656

2007-08
2034
1872
11752
1932
4204
2210
8141
3527
6927
23400

2008-09
2689
2256
11164
3461
6338
2901
10269
5111
7066
21725

2009-10
2944
2032
11254
4344
6157
2802
7832
5963
9900
28366

10460
11600
68753
22116
18293
85462
9621
419
17465
8668
38154
1312
3775
2045
51533
12482
456418

14030
13278
72295
26895
22693
119874
12916
378
19089
9975
40237
1178
4199
1982
84520
14718
571779

13317
13674
79228
30760
25345
135717
13484
599
18721
11663
39001
1313
3796
2046
114192
13763
655864

14152
15931
128575
40422
31458
183998
31301
1557
18930
13919
50293
1376
3565
1384
123398
13817
840755

12731
15551
137568
42456
32351
154320
25895
859
18732
17092
50791
1033
3482
1067
132899
15913
845534

An obvious development in the field of exports is the recent surge in exports of petroleum
products. The share of this group in Indias export basket has gone up from 4.84 % in 2001-02 to
as much as 17.41% in 2007-08, making it the third most important export item group. After 200708 it showed a decrease in terms of its share in total exports to 14.68% in 2008-09 but recorded
a marginal increase in 2009-10 (15.72 %). In terms of export growth over the previous year,
petroleum products recorded maximum growth in 2006-07 (64.01 %). Thereafter it recorded a

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decrease in growth over the last three years (35.11 % in 2007-08, 8.06 % in 2008-09 and 7.70 %
in 2009-10). The major export destinations for this commodity also include some oil-producing
countries like Iran, UAE and Indonesia. The countries like Singapore, Netherlands, Brazil and Sri
Lanka are other important buyers.
Table 3.3A: India's Export growth of major items during the period from 2005-06 to 2009-10
growth (%) over the previous year
2006-07

2007-08

2008-09

2009-10

Tea

13.8

3.2

32.2

9.5

Coffee

23.9

-4.9

20.5

-9.9

Rice

13.1

67.0

-5.0

0.8

Tobacco

26.6

14.7

79.1

25.5

Spices

49.2

33.1

50.8

-2.9

Cashew

-3.6

-11.3

31.3

-3.4

Oil Meals

12.9

47.9

26.1

-23.7

Fruits & Vegetables

42.4

-2.3

44.9

16.7

Marine Products

13.7

-13.4

2.0

40.1

4.9

32.5

-7.2

30.6

Mica, Coal & Other Ores, Minerals including


processed minerals

34.1

-5.1

6.3

-10.0

Leather & leather manufactures

14.5

3.0

16.5

-2.4

5.2

9.6

62.3

7.0

Drug, Phrmcutes & Fine Chemls

21.6

14.4

31.4

5.0

Other Basic Chemicals

24.1

11.7

24.1

2.8

Engineering Goods

40.3

13.2

35.6

-16.1

Electronic Goods

34.2

4.4

132.1

-17.3

Computer Software

-9.8

58.5

159.9

-44.8

Iron Ore

Gems & Jewellery

Cotton Yarn/Fabs./made-ups etc.

9.3

-1.9

1.1

-1.0

15.1

16.9

19.3

22.8

5.5

-3.1

29.0

1.0

-10.2

11.5

4.8

-24.9

Carpet

11.2

-9.6

-6.1

-2.3

Handicrafts excl. hand made carpet

-3.1

3.2

-32.4

-22.9

Petroleum Products

64.0

35.1

8.1

7.7

Plastic & Linoleum

17.9

-6.5

0.4

15.2

Total Exports

25.3

14.7

28.2

0.6

Man-made Yarn/Fabs./made-ups etc.


RMG of all Textiles
Jute Mfg. including Floor Covering

Basic chemicals (Drug, Phrmcutes & Fine Chemls and other basic chemicals combined) is an
area in which India is consistently doing well as far as exports are concerned. In the recent
years, basic chemicals have replaced readymade garments from the fourth most important
source of foreign exchange earner. In 2006-07, basic chemicals accounted for around 8.67 % of
Indias total value of export. In the next two years it remained at 8.55 % and thereafter it showed
a marginal increase in 2009-10(8.85 %).
Traditionally, India has had a comparative advantage in textiles. But the share of this item in
Indias total exports is gradually decreasing over the years. The share of this commodity in
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Indias total volume of export has come down to 7.04 % in 2006-07 from 11.42 % in 2001-02 and
it has further decreased to 5.95 % in 2007-08. Thereafter it recorded a marginal increase in the
following two years (5.98 % in 2008-09 and 6.01% in 2009-10). However, it still continues to be
the fourth largest foreign exchange earner for the country when considered basic chemicals
separately from other basic chemicals. Indias main markets for this item group are the
developed western countries like USA, UK, Germany, France and Italy and also UAE.
Table 3.3B: India's Export of major items during the period from 2005-06 to 2009-10
percentage share in total exports
2005-06

2006-07

2007-08

2008-09

2009-10

Tea

0.38

0.34

0.31

0.32

0.35

Coffee

0.35

0.34

0.29

0.27

0.24

Rice

1.36

1.23

1.79

1.33

1.33

Tobacco

0.29

0.29

0.29

0.41

0.51

Spices

0.46

0.55

0.64

0.75

0.73

Cashew

0.57

0.44

0.34

0.35

0.33

Oil Meals

1.07

0.96

1.24

1.22

0.93

Fruits & Vegetables

0.56

0.63

0.54

0.61

0.71

Marine Products

1.54

1.40

1.06

0.84

1.17

Iron Ore

3.69

3.09

3.57

2.58

3.35

Mica, Coal & Other Ores, Minerals


including processed minerals

2.29

2.45

2.03

1.68

1.51

Leather & leather manufactures

2.54

2.32

2.08

1.89

1.84

15.06

12.64

12.08

15.29

16.27

4.85

4.70

4.69

4.81

5.02

Gems & Jewellery


Drug, Phrmcutes & Fine Chemls
Other Basic Chemicals

4.01

3.97

3.86

3.74

3.83

18.72

20.97

20.69

21.88

18.25

Electronic Goods

2.11

2.26

2.06

3.72

3.06

Computer Software

0.09

0.07

0.09

0.19

0.10

Cotton Yarn/Fabs./made-ups etc.

3.83

3.34

2.85

2.25

2.22

Man-made Yarn/Fabs./made-ups etc.

1.90

1.74

1.78

1.66

2.02

RMG of all Textiles

8.36

7.04

5.95

5.98

6.01

Jute Mfg. including Floor Covering

0.29

0.21

0.20

0.16

0.12

Carpet

0.83

0.73

0.58

0.42

0.41

Handicrafts excl. hand made carpet

0.45

0.35

0.31

0.16

0.13

Petroleum Products

11.29

14.78

17.41

14.68

15.72

Plastic & Linoleum

2.73

2.57

2.10

1.64

1.88

100.00

100.00

100.00

100.00

100.00

Engineering Goods

Total Exports

Although Indias iron ore exports had increased by leaps and bounds in the last few years, a
slowdown in the export growth for iron ore was observed in 200506 which further detoriated in
2006-07 (4.91 %). Although it showed a sudden increase in growth during 2007-08 (32.52 %), a
negative growth was recorded again in 2008-09 (7.16 %). However, in 2009-10, the growth was
again positive by 30.57 %. The reason for decrease in exports of this commodity during
intermediate years is mainly due to a slowdown in the demand from China. Indias main markets
for iron ores are USA, China, Belgium, Italy and Spain.
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Cotton yarn, fabrics, man-made yarns, made-ups, etc. accounted for 2.22 % and 2.02 % of
Indias total exports in 2009-10. Cotton yarn/ fabrics /made-ups handloom products etc. has
decreased steadily over the years from 2005-06 to 2009-10 (from 3.83 % to 2.22 %). However,
that of man-made yarns, fabrics, made-ups, etc. has recorded marginal fluctuations in terms of
its share in Indias total exports over the same period.
Share of Export of leather and leather manufacture has been gradually and continuously
declining from 4.28 % in 200102 to 1.84 % in 2009-10. Exports share of electronic goods has
also recorded a marginal growth over the last two years compared to the more or less same level
it recorded a few years prior to 2008-09. The share of Tea exports also showed stagnation over
the last five years (between 0.3 % to 0.4 %).
Exports through major Ports
Among Indian ports, Nhava Sheva Sea handles the largest value of export cargo. About one-fifth
of Indias merchandise exports are made through this port during the last five years. Indias total
export through this port was 19.84 % in 2006-07. But it showed a marginal decrease over the
following two years (19.32 % in 2007-08 and 17.91 % in 2008-09). However, the export share
(18.27 %) through this Port recorded a marginal increase of 3 % in 2009-10 as compared to
2008-09.
Close behind Nhava Sheva Sea is Mumbai Air, with a share of 11.20 % during 2009-10 and
registering an increase of growth of export value by around 7 % as compared to the previous
year. In fact, Nhava Sheva Sea and Mumbai Air are the two most important ports of the country

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that handled more than 30 % of the total exports for four years out of the last five years (during
2008-09, the combines shares of these two ports was 28.43 %).
The next major port was Chennai Sea. It consistently handled 7 8 % of the total exports during
the last five years from 2005-06 to 2009-10.
Other major ports handling Indias exports are Delhi Air, Mumbai Sea, Tuticorin Sea, Kandla Sea,
Kolkata Sea, Delhi ICD etc. The ports which achieved the highest growth rates in 2009-10, as
compared to the previous year, are Marmagoa Sea and Chennai Air.
Table 3.4: India's Export through some important ports during last Five years
value in Rs. crores
Port

2005-06

percentage share to total exports

2006-07

2007-08

2008-09

2009-10

2005-06

2006-07

2007-08

2008-09

2009-10

Nhava Sheva
sea

89023

113434

126711

150540

154489

19.50

19.84

19.32

17.91

18.27

Mumbai air

68827

68082

80798

88407

94679

15.08

11.91

12.32

10.52

11.20

Chennai sea

33177

44257

44627

58115

59395

7.27

7.74

6.80

6.91

7.02

Delhi air

15559

13735

14532

34797

35109

3.41

2.40

2.22

4.14

4.15

Mumbai sea

16471

21379

19448

24689

20691

3.61

3.74

2.97

2.94

2.45

Tuticorin sea

13891

19190

19564

20857

19897

3.04

3.36

2.98

2.48

2.35

Kandla sea

11511

16280

17231

18380

16346

2.52

2.85

2.63

2.19

1.93

Kolkata sea

13972

14855

16428

20606

14928

3.06

2.60

2.50

2.45

1.77

Delhi ICD

15618

17992

15260

13323

13927

3.42

3.15

2.33

1.58

1.65

Chennai air

7175

7571

8004

10108

11873

1.57

1.32

1.22

1.20

1.40

Bangalore
airport

11272

15762

12727

11916

11868

2.47

2.76

1.94

1.42

1.40

Visakhapatnam
sea

7438

8825

9193

12813

11704

1.63

1.54

1.40

1.52

1.38

Cochin sea

9165

10985

9992

11310

10933

2.01

1.92

1.52

1.35

1.29

Kakinada sea

4346

4914

8726

15320

8838

0.95

0.86

1.33

1.82

1.05

20177

19158

19472

16507

8765

4.42

3.35

2.97

1.96

1.04

Hyderabad
airport

3833

4077

5431

7395

8470

0.84

0.71

0.83

0.88

1.00

ICDSabarmati

5448

7002

7688

8430

8095

1.19

1.22

1.17

1.00

0.96

Marmagoa sea

4139

5884

3625

5888

7419

0.91

1.03

0.55

0.70

0.88

Paradip sea

3244

3974

7857

8369

7344

0.71

0.69

1.20

1.00

0.87

ICD Bangalore

4935

6663

6907

8899

6873

1.08

1.17

1.05

1.06

0.81

456418

571779

655864

840755

845534

100.00

100.00

100.00

100.00

100.00

New Mangalore
sea

Total

14

Import performance
Major Import Sources
Indias imports from top twenty countries, based on 2009-10 figures and covering 73.72 % value
share of imports, during last five years, i.e., from 2005-06 to 2009-10, are presented in Table
3.5A. The table also indicates the percentage share of these countries. It can be seen from the
table that for the last five years, Indias imports from the Peoples Republic of China remained
consistently maximum. Although the percentage shares of imports from China was less than 10
% in the initial two years (7.29 % in 2005-06 and 9.40 % in 2006-07), it is around 11 % for the
last three years. This indicates the importance of Chinese goods in Indian markets as the shares
of imports from the next four major countries are much less the United Arab Emirates (UAE)
has a share of 6.73 %, followed by Saudi Arab and USA (both at 5.91 %), and Switzerland (5.08
%). The United Arab Emirates is the second major source of imports for the last two years. Saudi
Arab and USA remain at the top three or four countries for the last four years.
Table 3.5A: Percentage share of Top 20 Major Importer Countries (based on 2009-10 import values) to the total imports
value in Rs. crores

2009-10

% of
total
import

Country

China P RP

2008-09

% of
total
import

2007-08

% of
total
import

2006-07

% of
total
import

200506

% of
total
import

146049

10.71

147606

10.74

109116

10.78

79009

9.40

48117

7.29

UAE

91799

6.73

105926

7.71

54233

5.36

39175

4.66

19277

2.92

Saudi Arab

80664

5.91

89747

6.53

78110

7.72

60562

7.21

7227

1.09

USA

80584

5.91

84818

6.17

84625

8.36

53105

6.32

41859

6.34

Switzerland

69232

5.08

52703

3.83

39571

3.91

41283

4.91

29025

4.39

Australia

58662

4.30

50497

3.67

31552

3.12

31711

3.77

21906

3.32

Iran

54636

4.01

55822

4.06

43946

4.34

34515

4.11

3110

0.47

Germany

48886

3.58

54922

4.00

39736

3.93

34147

4.06

26669

4.04

Indonesia

41009

3.01

30751

2.24

19421

1.92

18865

2.24

13318

2.02

Korea RP

40551

2.97

39658

2.89

24308

2.40

21747

2.59

20206

3.06

Kuwait

38988

2.86

43199

3.14

30960

3.06

27114

3.23

2045

0.31

Nigeria

34377

2.52

39995

2.91

30663

3.03

31797

3.78

321

0.05

Iraq

33273

2.44

34285

2.49

27495

2.72

25005

2.97

0.00

Japan

31894

2.34

35833

2.61

25458

2.51

20795

2.47

17980

2.72

Singapore

30623

2.25

34529

2.51

32682

3.23

24840

2.96

14848

2.25

Belgium

28466

2.09

26058

1.90

17546

1.73

18742

2.23

20920

3.17

South Africa

26900

1.97

24882

1.81

14547

1.44

11184

1.33

10944

1.66

Malaysia

24494

1.80

32592

2.37

24176

2.39

23959

2.85

10695

1.62

Hong Kong

22317

1.64

29733

2.16

10867

1.07

11239

1.34

9771

1.48

Qatar

22010

1.61

15895

1.16

9889

0.98

9359

1.11

3992

0.60

Major
Countries
Total

1005412

73.72

1029452

74.90

748900

73.98

618152

73.55

322237

48.79

All Countries
Total

1363735

100.00

1374436

100.00

1012312

100.00

840506

100.00

660409

100.00

Imports from China has exceeded one lakh crores since 2007-08 Rs. 146049 crores in 200910, Rs. 147606 crores in 2008-09 and 109116 crores in 2007-08. In absolute terms, imports from
China in 2009-10 have multiplied by almost three times from 2005-06 and almost doubled from
2006-07. Although imports from UAE were more than one lakh crores in 2008-09, it came down
to Rs. 91799 crores in 2009-10.

15

The countries namely Saudi Arabia, Iran, Kuwait, Nigeria, Iraq, UAE etc. are the major countries
from where imports of Petroleum Crude and Products took place. The value of petroleum
imports from theses six countries were as high as 62 %, 70 % and 72 % of total petroleum
imports during 2007-08, 2008-09 and 2009-10 respectively (Table 3.9B, Chart 3.12). Due to the
increased petroleum prices over the years, the volume of imports (in value) from these countries
are very high and thus these countries rank high during these years. The imports from each of
these countries are mainly petroleum products as may be seen from Table 3.10.
In terms of growth, the total imports of India has decreased, though insignificantly, during 200910 by 0.78 % in comparison to the previous three years, when the annual growths were 27.27 %,
20.44 % and 35.77 % respectively in 2006-07, 2007-08 and 2008-09. This negative growth of
import for 2009-10 is reflected in the imports from almost all major countries except Qatar (38.47
%), Indonesia (33.36 %), Switzerland (31.36 %), Australia (16.17 %), Belgium (9.24 %) and
South Africa (8.11 %) where there are still positive growths over the previous year.
Table 3.5B: annual growth of import of Top 20 Major Importer Countries (based on 2009-10 import values)

value in Rs. crores


200506

2006-07

% growth

2007-08

%
growth

2008-09

% growth

2009-10

% growth

China P RP

48117

79009

64.20

109116

38.11

147606

35.27

146049

-1.05

UAE

19277

39175

103.22

54233

38.44

105926

95.32

91799

-13.34

7227

60562

738.00

78110

28.98

89747

14.90

80664

-10.12

USA

41859

53105

26.87

84625

59.35

84818

0.23

80584

-4.99

Switzerland

29025

41283

42.23

39571

-4.15

52703

33.19

69232

31.36

Australia

21906

31711

44.76

31552

-0.50

50497

60.04

58662

16.17

3110

34515

1009.80

43946

27.32

55822

27.02

54636

-2.13

Germany

26669

34147

28.04

39736

16.37

54922

38.22

48886

-10.99

Indonesia

13318

18865

41.65

19421

2.95

30751

58.34

41009

33.36

Korea RP

20206

21747

7.63

24308

11.78

39658

63.15

40551

2.25

Kuwait

2045

27114

1226.01

30960

14.18

43199

39.53

38988

-9.75

Nigeria

321

31797

9811.02

30663

-3.57

39995

30.44

34377

-14.05

25005

275285.68

27495

9.96

34285

24.70

33273

-2.95

Japan

17980

20795

15.66

25458

22.42

35833

40.75

31894

-10.99

Singapore

14848

24840

67.29

32682

31.57

34529

5.65

30623

-11.31

Belgium

20920

18742

-10.41

17546

-6.38

26058

48.51

28466

9.24

South Africa

10944

11184

2.20

14547

30.06

24882

71.05

26900

8.11

Malaysia

10695

23959

124.02

24176

0.91

32592

34.81

24494

-24.85

Hong Kong

9771

11239

15.03

10867

-3.31

29733

173.60

22317

-24.94

Qatar

3992

9359

134.46

9889

5.66

15895

60.73

22010

38.47

Major
Countries
Total

322237

618152

91.83

748900

21.15

1029452

37.46

1005412

-2.34

All Countries
Total

660409

840506

27.27

1012312

20.44

1374436

35.77

1363735

-0.78

Country

Saudi Arab

Iran

Iraq

16

Imports through major ports


Table 3.6A gives the value of Indias imports and the percentage shares through major ports for
the last five years from 2005-06 to 2009-10. It can be seen from the table that the values of
imports through Nhava Sheva Sea Port were the maximum during the last four years, thus
indicating the busy schedule and importance of the port. The same is true for Chennai Sea port
also in the recent past. Although Mumbai Air has the largest share in 2005-06, the share of this
port has declined over the years. Still the values of imports through Mumbai Air customs are very
significant. The import values and their shares through other ports such as Vadinar, Sikka, etc.
have increased over the period from 2005-06 to 2009-10. The value shares of imports are
consistent at 5 to 8 % over the past four years for these ports. After the inclusion of SEZs and
similar custom stations, the imports through these types of ports are also increasing. The most
significant custom zones in this regard are SEZ Jamnagar and ICD/CFS Surat Hira as these are
the two ports that have emerged as the major ports in the recent past. In fact SEZ Jamnagar has
positioned itself in the 7th position (4.65 %) of the list in 2009-10 with Rs. 63466 crores worth of
import cargo. It is expected that in the coming years, other SEZs will also positioned themselves
in the major port list.
Table 3.6A: Percentage share of Top 20 Major Importer Ports (based on 2009-10 import values) to the total imports

value in Rs. crores

2009-10

% of
total
import

2008-09

% of
total
import

2007-08

% of
total
import

2006-07

% of
total
import

2005-06

% of
total
import

Nhava Sheva Sea

147985

10.85

133766

9.73

101027

9.98

80348

9.56

58653

8.88

Chennai Sea

118141

8.66

124273

9.04

88158

8.71

76064

9.05

46306

7.01

Mumbai Air

84525

6.20

71997

5.24

73801

7.29

69480

8.27

67655

10.24

Vadinar

82083

6.02

94133

6.85

60130

5.94

42688

5.08

Mumbai Sea

77964

5.72

83319

6.06

65169

6.44

62533

7.44

32017

4.85

Sikka
SEZ Jamnagar
(Reliance)

76197

5.59

86110

6.27

76162

7.52

66551

7.92

1465

0.22

63466

4.65

9298

0.68

Kolkata Sea

56316

4.13

71613

5.21

60322

5.96

50869

6.05

20155

3.05

Delhi Air

52033

3.82

67412

4.90

49289

4.87

46690

5.55

41992

6.36

Chennai Air

50434

3.70

40136

2.92

32078

3.17

28716

3.42

20454

3.10

Visakhapatnam
Sea

42646

3.13

51969

3.78

33665

3.33

30269

3.60

10008

1.52

Kandla Sea

40282

2.95

48703

3.54

31189

3.08

27161

3.23

19762

2.99

Mundra

38277

2.81

55855

4.06

32147

3.18

15298

1.82

2440

0.37

Paradip Sea

38219

2.80

24326

1.77

13293

1.31

8044

0.96

5127

0.78

Ahmedabad Air
cargo complex

35748

2.62

20032

1.46

16303

1.61

10496

1.25

15836

2.40

New Mangalore
Sea

31201

2.29

34798

2.53

29082

2.87

22398

2.66

4702

0.71

Bangalore Air port

31114

2.28

26870

1.95

29365

2.90

30189

3.59

18842

2.85

Cochin Sea

25241

1.85

24911

1.81

20650

2.04

18089

2.15

4861

0.74

ICD/CFS Surat Hira

23690

1.74

2687

0.20

Port name

Dehej

21729

1.59

21776

1.58

18767

1.85

16681

1.98

8077

1.22

Major ports total

1137291

83.40

1093984

79.60

830597

82.05

702564

83.59

378351

57.29

All Ports Total

1363735

100.00

1374436

100.00

1012312

100.00

840506

100.00

660409

100.00

17

The values of imported cargoes handled during 2009-10 by Nhava Sheva Sea and Chennai Sea
were Rs. 147985.24 crores and Rs. 118141.43 crores respectively and their combined share in
percentage was about 20 % of the total imports. Over the last five years, the percentage shares
of import values for these two ports alone were over and above 15 % of total imports in the
corresponding years. This indicates the importance and busy schedules of these two sea ports.
Other than these two ports, the ports such as Mumbai Air, Mumbai Sea, Kolkata Sea, etc. are
also important. The contributions of the seven (7) top ports namely Nhava Sheva Sea, Chennai
Sea, Mumbai Air, Mumbai Sea, Kolkata Sea, Vadinar, and Sikka are consistent at 53.37 %,
51.84 %, 48.40 %, and 47.17 % during 2006-07, 2007-08, 2008-09 and 2009-10 respectively
(Table 3.6C, Fig. 3.8).
Table 3.6C: Percentage share of Top 7 Major Importer Ports
(based on 2009-10 import values) to the total imports
2006-07

2007-08

2008-09

Value

% of
total
import

9.56

101027

76064

9.05

Mumbai Air

69480

Vadinar

2009-10

Value

% of
total
import

Value

% of
total
import

9.98

133766

9.73

147985

10.85

88158

8.71

124273

9.04

118141

8.66

8.27

73801

7.29

71997

5.24

84525

6.20

42688

5.08

60130

5.94

94133

6.85

82083

6.02

Mumbai Sea

62533

7.44

65169

6.44

83319

6.06

77964

5.72

Sikka

66551

7.92

76162

7.52

86110

6.27

76197

5.59

Kolkata Sea

50869

6.05

60322

5.96

71613

5.21

56316

4.13

Seven Ports Total

448533

53.36

524768

51.84

665212

48.40

643212

47.17

Major ports total

702564

83.59

830597

82.05

1093984

79.60

1137291

83.40

All Ports Total

840506

100.00

1012312

100.00

1374436

100.00

1363735

100.00

Port name
Value

% of total
import

Nhava Sheva Sea

80348

Chennai Sea

18

However, in terms of growth (Table 3.6B), the imports of cargoes through Ahmedabad Air was
maximum (78.46 %) in 2009-10, followed by Paradeep Sea (57.11 %), Chennai air (25.66 %),
Mumbai air (17.40 %), Bangalore air (15.80 %). Customs stations like Sikka port, SEZ Jamnagar, ICD
Surat Hira, etc. are on the rise over the years. Thus the importance of customs stations/ports are
changing over the years as in the case of source countries which are also changing due to increase of
imports of petroleum products and declining of electronics goods imports.
Table 3.6B: annual growth of import of Top 20 Major Importer Ports (based on 2009-10 import values)
value in Rs. crores
Port

2005-06

2006-07

% growth

2007-08

% growth

2008-09

% growth

2009-10

% growth

Nhava Sheva Sea

58653

80348

36.99

101027

25.74

133766

32.41

147985

10.63

Chennai sea

46306

76064

64.26

88158

15.90

124273

40.97

118141

-4.93

Mumbai Air

67655

69480

2.70

73801

6.22

71997

-2.44

84525

17.40

60130

40.86

94133

56.55

82083

-12.80

Vadinar
Mumbai Sea
Sikka

42688
32017

62533

95.31

65169

4.21

83319

27.85

77964

-6.43

1465

66551

4444.01

76162

14.44

86110

13.06

76197

-11.51

63466

582.57

SEZ Jamnagar
(Reliance)

9298

Kolkata Sea

20155

50869

152.39

60322

18.58

71613

18.72

56316

-21.36

Delhi Air

41992

46690

11.19

49289

5.57

67412

36.77

52033

-22.81

Chennai Air

20454

28716

40.40

32078

11.71

40136

25.12

50434

25.66

Visakhapatnam Sea

10008

30269

202.44

33665

11.22

51969

54.37

42646

-17.94

Kandla Sea

19762

27161

37.44

31189

14.83

48703

56.15

40282

-17.29

Mundra

2440

15298

526.87

32147

110.13

55855

73.75

38277

-31.47

Paradip Sea

5127

8044

56.91

13293

65.25

24326

83.00

38219

57.11

15836

10496

-33.72

16303

55.33

20032

22.87

35748

78.46

Ahmedabad Air cargo


complex
New Mangalore Sea
Bangalore Air port
Cochin Sea

4702

22398

376.34

29082

29.84

34798

19.65

31201

-10.34

18842

30189

60.22

29365

-2.73

26870

-8.50

31114

15.80

4861

18089

272.15

20650

14.16

24911

20.64

25241

1.32

23690

781.58

ICD/CFS Surat Hira


Dehej
All Ports Total

2687
8077

16681

106.53

18767

12.51

21776

16.03

21729

-0.22

660409

840506

27.27

1012312

20.44

1374436

35.77

1363735

-0.78

19

Major Import
Table 3.7 presents Indias import by principal commodity groups during 2003-04 to 2009-10. The
most important item group imported by India is Petroleum, Crude & Products. It is the imports of
this item group and the increasing price of petroleum products globally that has changed the
scenario of the imports and has put countries such as UAE, Saudi Arabia, etc. into the top five
countries and other countries like Iran, Indonesia, Iraq, Kuwait, etc. into the top 20 countries over
the last five years. Table 3.10 presents the petroleum products (POL) vis--vis non-POL items
imported from these petroleum products exporter countries and the total import values from
these countries. It can be seen from this table that these countries are significant mainly for POL
imports.

20

From Table 3.7A, it can be seen that POL group had a share of about 30.19 % in Indias total
imports during 2009-10 with Rs. 411649 crores of import values. The value of imports rose
sharply from Rs. 94520 crores in 2003-04 to Rs. 411649 crores in 2009-10, a crude increase of
about 48 % over seven years mainly owing to spiraling fuel prices worldwide. When this growth is
measured in cumulative terms, the Cumulative Annual Growth Rate (CAGR) becomes 23.39 %
for these seven years from 2003-04 to 2009-10. It is a very good sign that there was a negative
growth (2 %) in imports of petroleum products in 2009-10 compare to 31 % increase during
2008-09 (the year of world recession). The negative growth of imports of petroleum products with
30.19 % share of total imports has a whipping effect on the economy as the total import has a
negative growth for the first time after many years. The effects of POL and Non-POL imports vis-vis total imports during last three years from 2007-08 to 2009-10 is presented in Table 3.8/3.10
and Chart 3.11.
Table 3.8 : Value, percentage share and percentage growth of POL, Non-POL items of imports
for 2007-08, 2008-09 and 2009-10
value in Rs. crores

Percentage share in Total

Percentage growth

Item
2007-08

2008-09

2009-10

2007-08

2008-09

2009-10

2007-08

2008-09

2009-10

POL

320655

419946

411649

31.68

30.55

30.19

24.01

30.97

1.98

NonPOL

691657

954489

952087

68.32

69.45

69.81

18.85

38.00

0.25

Total

1012312

1374435

1363736

100.00

100.00

100.00

20.44

35.77

0.78

21

Gold & Silver, the second most important item group after Petroleum, Crude & Products, has a
share of 10.30 % to the total imports in 2009-10. Although the total value of Gold & Silver import
was Rs. 31506 crores in 2003-04, it became Rs. 50098 crores the very next year resulting in a
growth of 59.01 %. After 2004-05, there was a steady increase for next three years, i.e., for
2005-06, 2006-07 and 2007-08. But in 2008-09, the growth of Gold & Silver import shoot up
(39.67 %) with Rs. 100467 crores value of import. The trend continued in 2009-10 also.
Electrical and non-electrical machinery comes third, as far as the value of imports are
concerned. It contributes 7.93 % in the total merchandise imports with a value of Rs. 108154
crores during 2009-10. However, there was a negative growth (6.58 %) of import of this
commodity group over last year. It can also be seen that there is a steady decrease of imports of
Electrical and non-electrical machinery items over the last five years from 2006-07 to 2009-10
(Table 3.7B).
Electronic Goods is the next important item group as far as value of imports is concerned. It
constitutes 7.29 % of total merchandise imports during 2009-10. This item group has contributed
consistently to the total imports over the years (9.60 % in 2003-04 to 7.29 % in 2009-10).
Although, there was positive annual growth of 28.43 % for Electronic Goods imports in 2008-09,
it has declined by 7.20 % in 2009-10.
The item group Pearls, precious & semi-precious stones also has made its presence felt by the
value of imports to the total imports. It was Rs. 76678 crores (5.62 % of the total imports) in
2009-10 and Rs. 76130 crores (5.54 % of the total imports) in 2008-09. The percentage shares
of this item group was 9.12 % in 2003-04 but subsequently dropped in 2004-05 (8.45 %), 200506 (6.12 %), 2006-07 (4.03 %) and 2007-08 (3.17 %). As the imports had a downward trend
during these years, the percentage growth in these years was negative. But as there was an
increase in share of import during 2008-09, the growth increased by 137.06 %. However, the
growth was only 0.72 % in 2009-10.

22

Besides these five major commodity groups with larger shares of imports, there are other
commodity groups that has significantly increasing growth of import in 2009-10. The commodity
groups such as Vegetable oil-fixed (67.41 %), Project goods (51.46 %), Artificial resins, plastic
material etc. (30.74 %), Wood & wood Products (23.63 %), Medicinal & Pharmaceutical products
(15.15 %), and Chemical material & products (13.11 %) have positive growth of imports. But the
commodity groups like Raw Cotton & Waste ( 26.55 %), Textile yarn Fabric-made-up articles
( 51.90 %), Fertilisers, Crude & manufactures ( 46.69 %), Sulphur & Unroasted Iron Pyrts
( 76.28 %), Newsprint ( 39.67 %), Iron & steel ( 10.19 %), Non-ferrous metals ( 46.56%),
Machine tools ( 24.24 %), etc. have negative growth of imports in 2009-10.
Import of Petroleum Products
As already mentioned, due to increase of petroleum prices globally, the value of import of
petroleum products has increased. As a result, the import scenario in terms of percentage shares
of item groups, sources countries, major port formation, etc. has changed. Table 3.9A shows the
value and percentage shares of top 20 major countries from where petroleum products have
been imported during last three years. Table3.9C shows the value and growth of import of
petroleum products over previous year. It may be seen from the Table 3.9A that the top 20
countries from where petroleum products have been imported, have shares of 93 %, 92 % and
92 % of the total petroleum products imported to India during 2007-08, 2008-09 and 2009-10
respectively. Of these 20 countries, the top 6 countries, namely Saudi Arabia, Iran, Kuwait,
Nigeria, Iraq and UAE have combined shares of 71.68 %, 70.09 % and 62.25 % of the total
imports of petroleum products in 2007-08, 2008-09 and 2009-10 respectively (Table 3.9B). The
main item of import from these countries was petroleum products as may be seen from Table 3.10.
Table 3.9A: Petroleum import from 20 major countries during 2007-08, 2008-09 and 2009-10
value in Rs. crores
Country

2009-10

% share

2008-09

% share

2007-08

% share

Saudi ARAB

72586

17.63

82488

19.64

71209

22.21

Iran

48922

11.88

50693

12.07

40274

12.56

Kuwait

37391

9.08

41401

9.86

29291

9.13

Nigeria

33965

8.25

39628

9.44

30227

9.43

Iraq

33057

8.03

34063

8.11

27482

8.57

UAE

30342

7.37

46084

10.97

31372

9.78

Angola

19987

4.86

6499

1.55

4084

1.27

Qatar

19429

4.72

13160

3.13

7639

2.38

Oman

13601

3.30

2811

0.67

2747

0.86

Venezuela

13329

3.24

18447

4.39

1568

0.49

Malaysia

7594

1.84

15195

3.62

11348

3.54

Yemen Republic

7364

1.79

3302

0.79

5864

1.83

Singapore

7048

1.71

9440

2.25

10569

3.30

Egypt A RP

6572

1.60

7190

1.71

7062

2.20

Korea RP

5144

1.25

2864

0.68

2320

0.72

Brazil

5114

1.24

212

0.05

0.00

Turkey

5064

1.23

3660

0.87

5234

1.63

Algeria

4512

1.10

4024

0.96

4690

1.46

Mexico

3330

0.81

4369

1.04

3305

1.03

Russia

3189

0.77

1282

0.31

561

0.17

Major countries total

377541

91.71

386814

92.11

296846

92.58

All countries total

411649

100.00

419968

100.00

320654

100.00

23

Table 3.9B: Petroleum import from top six countries


during 2007-08, 2008-09 and 2009-10
value in Rs. crores
Country

2009-10

% share

2008-09

% share

2007-08

% share

Saudi ARAB

72586

17.63

82488

19.64

71209

22.21

Iran

48922

11.88

50693

12.07

40274

12.56

Kuwait

37391

9.08

41401

9.86

29291

9.13

Nigeria

33965

8.25

39628

9.44

30227

9.43

Iraq

33057

8.03

34063

8.11

27482

8.57

UAE

30342

7.37

46084

10.97

31372

9.78

256262

62.25

294357

70.09

229855

71.68

24

Table 3.9C: Petroleum import from 20 major countries


during 2007-08, 2008-09 and 2009-10
value in Rs. crores
Country

2007-08

2008-09

% growth

2009-10

% growth

Saudi ARAB

71209

82488

15.84

72586

-12.00

Iran

40274

50693

25.87

48922

-3.49

Kuwait

29291

41401

41.34

37391

-9.69

Nigeria

30227

39628

31.10

33965

-14.29

Iraq

27482

34063

23.95

33057

-2.95

UAE

31372

46084

46.89

30342

-34.16

Angola

4084

6499

59.13

19987

207.54

Qatar

7639

13160

72.28

19429

47.64

Oman

2747

2811

2.35

13601

383.82

Venezuela

1568

18447

1076.86

13329

-27.74

11348

15195

33.90

7594

-50.02

5864

3302

-43.68

7364

123.00

Singapore

10569

9440

-10.68

7048

-25.34

Egypt A RP

7062

7190

1.82

6572

-8.59

Korea RP

2320

2864

23.47

5144

79.60

212

14035.16

5114

2313.51

Turkey

5234

3660

-30.07

5064

38.35

Algeria

4690

4024

-14.21

4512

12.12

Mexico

3305

4369

32.20

3330

-23.78

Russia

561

1282

128.60

3189

148.77

Major countries
total

296846

386814

30.31

377541

-2.40

All countries total

320654

419968

30.97

411649

-1.98

Malaysia
Yemen Republic

Brazil

25

Table 3.7A: Percentage share of imports by Principal Commodities (based on 2009-10 import values) to the total imports
value in Rs. crores
Commodities
2009-10

% of
total
import

2008-09

% of
total
import

Cotton Raw & Waste

1241

Vegetable Oil (Fixed)

26483

0.09

1690

1.94

15819

Pulp and Waste paper

4178

Textile yarn Fabric, made-up articles

5366

0.31
0.39

31755

2.33

682

Metaliferrous ores & metal scrap


Coal, Coke & Briquettes, etc.
Petroleum, Crude & products

Fertilisers, Crude & manufactures


Sulphur & Unroasted Iron Pyrts

Wood & Wood products

2007-08

% of
total
import

2006-07

% of
total
import

2005-06

% of
total
import

2004-05

% of
total
import

0.12

912

1.15

10301

3681

0.27

11156

0.81

59569

0.05

36450
42511

2003-04

% of
total
import

0.09

663

1.02

9540

0.08

704

1.14

8961

0.11

1136

1.36

11077

0.23

1570

0.44

2.21

11683

3.25

3132

0.31

9510

0.94

2893

0.34

9400

1.12

2537

0.38

8827

1.34

2199

0.44

1880

0.52

6910

1.38

5602

4.33

20307

2.01

13732

1.63

8815

1.56

1.33

5612

1.12

2916

2875

0.21

1457

0.14

495

0.06

0.81

602

0.09

576

0.11

396

0.11

2.67

36331

3.12

45948

2.64

31854

3.34

25862

3.15

37764

2.55

20710

4.49

17186

2.60

11091

2.21

5955

1.66

2.46

17128

2.59

14371

2.87

6483

411649

30.19

419946

30.55

320655

31.68

1.81

258572

30.76

194640

29.47

134094

26.76

94520

26.32

7461

0.55

6035

0.44

5456

0.54

4684

0.56

4103

0.62

3995

0.80

3269

0.91

Organic & Inorganic Chemicals

56473

4.14

56016

4.08

39883

3.94

35433

4.22

30921

4.68

25610

5.11

18527

5.16

Dyeing/tanning/colouring mtrls.

4284

0.31

3782

0.28

3000

0.30

2695

0.32

2226

0.34

1853

0.37

1601

0.45

Artificial resins, plastic materials, etc.

23675

1.74

18109

1.32

14839

1.47

11696

1.39

10040

1.52

6546

1.31

4972

1.38

Chemical material & products

10874

0.80

9614

0.70

6544

0.65

5980

0.71

4660

0.71

3681

0.73

2902

0.81

2245

0.16

3720

0.27

2227

0.22

2407

0.29

1933

0.29

1766

0.35

1611

0.45

Pearls, precious & Semi-precious


stones

76678

5.62

76130

5.54

32114

3.17

33881

4.03

40441

6.12

42338

8.45

32757

9.12

Iron & Steel

39098

2.87

43531

3.17

34987

3.46

29071

3.46

20243

3.07

11995

2.39

6921

1.93

Non-ferrous metals

14264

1.05

26203

1.91

14116

1.39

11787

1.40

8166

1.24

5887

1.17

4360

1.21

7855

0.58

10369

0.75

8890

0.88

6703

0.80

4765

0.72

2788

0.56

2114

0.59

108154

7.93

115770

8.42

92007

9.09

71540

8.51

50977

7.72

36003

7.19

25805

7.19

Transport equipment

55472

4.07

60803

4.42

80981

8.00

42709

5.08

39131

5.93

19444

3.88

14833

4.13

Project goods

22217

1.63

14668

1.07

5208

0.51

8126

0.97

3908

0.59

2679

0.53

1820

0.51

Professional instrument, Optical


goods, etc.

17157

1.26

20211

1.47

12349

1.22

10593

1.26

8734

1.32

6876

1.37

5653

1.57

Electronic goods

99419

7.29

107128

7.79

83138

8.21

72275

8.60

58626

8.88

44901

8.96

34492

9.60

9959

0.73

8649

0.63

6734

0.67

5866

0.70

4551

0.69

3169

0.63

2958

0.82

Gold & Silver

140440

10.30

100467

7.31

71934

7.11

66272

7.88

50108

7.59

50098

10.00

31506

8.77

Total Import

1363736

100.00

1374435

100.00

1012312

100.00

840506

100.00

660409

100.00

501065

100.00

359108

100.00

Newsprint

Machine tools
Machinery, electrical & non-electrical

Medcnl. & Pharmaceutical products

26

Table 3.7B: Annual Growth of imports by Principal Commodities (based on 2009-10 import values) to the total imports
value in Rs. crores
Commodities

2003-04

2004-05

%
growth

2005-06

%
growth

2006-07

%
growth

2007-08

%
growth

2008-09

%
growth

2009-10

%
growth

Cotton Raw & Waste

1570

1136

-27.64

704

-38.03

663

-5.82

912

37.58

1690

85.30

1241

-26.55

Vegetable Oil (Fixed)

11683

11077

-5.19

8961

-19.10

9540

6.46

10301

7.98

15819

53.57

26483

67.41

Pulp and Waste paper

1880

2199

16.97

2537

15.37

2893

14.03

3132

8.28

3681

17.51

4178

13.51

Textile yarn Fabric, made-up articles

5602

6910

23.35

8827

27.74

9400

6.49

9510

1.17

11156

17.31

5366

-51.90

Fertilisers, Crude & manufactures

2916

5612

92.46

8815

57.07

13732

55.78

20307

47.88

59569

193.34

31755

-46.69

Sulphur & Unroasted Iron Pyrts

396

576

45.45

602

4.51

495

-17.77

1457

194.43

2875

97.25

682

-76.28

Metaliferrous ores & metal scrap

5955

11091

86.25

17186

54.95

37764

119.74

31854

-15.65

36331

14.05

36450

0.33

Coal, Coke & Briquettes, etc.

6483

14371

121.67

17128

19.18

20710

20.91

25862

24.88

45948

77.66

42511

-7.48

Petroleum, Crude & products

94520

134094

41.87

194640

45.15

258572

32.85

320655

24.01

419946

30.97

411649

-1.98

Wood & Wood products

3269

3995

22.21

4103

2.70

4684

14.16

5456

16.49

6035

10.60

7461

23.63

Organic & Inorganic Chemicals

18527

25610

38.23

30921

20.74

35433

14.59

39883

12.56

56016

40.45

56473

0.82

Dyeing/tanning/colouring mtrls.

1601

1853

15.74

2226

20.13

2695

21.07

3000

11.30

3782

26.07

4284

13.29

Artificial resins, plastic materials, etc.

4972

6546

31.66

10040

53.38

11696

16.49

14839

26.88

18109

22.03

23675

30.74

Chemical material & products

2902

3681

26.84

4660

26.60

5980

28.33

6544

9.44

9614

46.90

10874

13.11

Newsprint

1611

1766

9.62

1933

9.46

2407

24.52

2227

-7.46

3720

67.02

2245

-39.67

Pearls, precious & Semi-precious stones

32757

42338

29.25

40441

-4.48

33881

-16.22

32114

-5.21

76130

137.06

76678

0.72

Iron & Steel

6921

11995

73.31

20243

68.76

29071

43.61

34987

20.35

43531

24.42

39098

-10.19

Non-ferrous metals

4360

5887

35.02

8166

38.71

11787

44.34

14116

19.76

26203

85.63

14264

-45.56

Machine tools

2114

2788

31.88

4765

70.91

6703

40.67

8890

32.63

10369

16.63

7855

-24.24

Machinery, electrical & non-electrical

25805

36003

39.52

50977

41.59

71540

40.34

92007

28.61

115770

25.83

108154

-6.58

Transport equipment

14833

19444

31.09

39131

101.25

42709

9.14

80981

89.61

60803

-24.92

55472

-8.77

Project goods

1820

2679

47.20

3908

45.88

8126

107.93

5208

-35.91

14668

181.65

22217

51.46

Professional instrument, Optical goods, etc.

5653

6876

21.63

8734

27.02

10593

21.28

12349

16.58

20211

63.66

17157

-15.11

34492

44901

30.18

58626

30.57

72275

23.28

83138

15.03

107128

28.86

99419

-7.20

Electronic goods
Medcnl. & Pharmaceutical products

2958

3169

7.13

4551

43.61

5866

28.89

6734

14.80

8649

28.43

9959

15.15

Gold & Silver

31506

50098

59.01

50108

0.02

66272

32.26

71934

8.54

100467

39.67

140440

39.79

Total Import

359108

501065

39.53

660409

31.80

840506

27.27

1012312

20.44

1374435

35.77

1363736

-0.78

27

Table 3.10: Petroleum import from 20 major countries during 2007-08, 2008-09 and 2009-10
value in Rs. crores
2009-10
%
share
of tot

Country

%
share
of tot

%
share
of
POL
imp

2008-09

%
share
of
POL
imp

2007-08

%
share
of POL
imp

POL

imp

non_pol

imp

total

POL

%
share
of tot
imp

non_pol

%
share
of tot
imp

POL

%
share
of tot
imp

non_pol

%
share
of tot
imp

Saudi ARAB

72586

90

8078

10

80664

17.63

82488

92

7259

89747

19.64

71209

91

6902

78110

22.21

Iran

48922

90

5713

10

54636

11.88

50693

91

5129

55822

12.07

40274

92

3671

43946

12.56

Kuwait

37391

96

1597

38988

9.08

41401

96

1798

43199

9.86

29291

95

1669

30960

9.13

Nigeria

33965

99

412

34377

8.25

39628

99

367

39995

9.44

30227

99

436

30663

9.43

Iraq

33057

99

216

33273

8.03

34063

99

222

34285

8.11

27482

100

13

27495

8.57

UAE

30342

33

61457

67

91799

7.37

46084

44

59843

56

105926

10.97

31372

58

22861

42

54233

9.78

256262

77

77474

23

333736

62.25

294357

80

74618

20

368975

70.09

229855

87

35552

13

26540
7

71.68

Angola

19987

100

31

20018

4.86

6499

99

40

6539

1.55

4084

100

12

4096

1.27

Qatar

19429

88

2581

12

22010

4.72

13160

83

2735

17

15895

3.13

7639

77

2250

23

9889

2.38

Oman

13601

83

2843

17

16443

3.30

2811

51

2653

49

5464

0.67

2747

60

1817

40

4564

0.86

Venezuela

13329

99

178

13507

3.24

18447

100

32

18479

4.39

1568

98

30

1598

0.49

Malaysia

7594

31

16900

69

24494

1.84

15195

47

17396

53

32592

3.62

11348

47

12828

53

24176

3.54

Yemen
republic

7364

99

59

7423

1.79

3302

99

43

3345

0.79

5864

99

50

5914

1.83

Singapore

7048

23

23575

77

30623

1.71

9440

27

25089

73

34529

2.25

10569

32

22113

68

32682

3.30

Egypt A RP

6572

82

1464

18

8036

1.60

7190

74

2575

26

9765

1.71

7062

88

921

12

7983

2.20

Korea RP

5144

13

35406

87

40551

1.25

2864

36794

93

39658

0.68

2320

10

21988

90

24308

0.72

Brazil

5114

31

11146

69

16260

1.24

212

5238

96

5450

0.05

3817

100

3818

0.00

Turkey

5064

66

2596

34

7659

1.23

3660

55

2982

45

6642

0.87

5234

77

1568

23

6801

1.63

Algeria

4512

97

134

4646

1.10

4024

89

493

11

4518

0.96

4690

95

271

4962

1.46

Mexico

3330

68

1578

32

4908

0.81

4369

55

3629

45

7998

1.04

3305

69

1460

31

4765

1.03

Russia

3189

19

13734

81

16924

0.77

1282

18505

94

19787

0.31

561

9377

94

9938

0.17

Top 6
countries

total

total

Top 20
countries

377541

91.71

386814

92.11

296846

92.58

All
countries

411649

100.00

419968

100.00

320654

100.00

28

Table 5.2: Percentage share of major airports in the air-borne trade during 2006-07 to 2007-08
value in Rs. crores
2006-07
Ports

2007-08

Export

%
share

Import

%
share

Total
Trade

%
share

Export

%
share

Import

%
share

Total
Trade

%
share

Sahar(S.Cruz)

68082

58.37

69480

33.35

137561

42.33

80798

61.77

73801

31.20

154598

42.08

I.G.I (Palam)

13735

11.78

46690

22.41

60425

18.59

14532

11.11

49289

20.84

63821

17.37

7571

6.49

28716

13.78

36288

11.17

8004

6.12

32078

13.56

40082

10.91

Bangalore

15762

13.51

30189

14.49

45951

14.14

12727

9.73

29365

12.41

42093

11.46

Dum-Dum

3169

2.72

10134

4.86

13303

4.09

3340

2.55

11791

4.98

15132

4.12

Cochin Airport

116

0.10

511

0.25

626

0.19

527

0.40

759

0.32

1285

0.35

Ahmedabad

808

0.69

10496

5.04

11304

3.48

1014

0.78

16303

6.89

17317

4.71

Hyderabad

4077

3.50

9158

4.40

13235

4.07

5431

4.15

11215

4.74

16646

4.53

Other Airports

3316

2.84

2951

1.42

6268

1.93

4438

3.39

11960

5.06

16397

4.46

116637

100.00

208325

100.00

324961

100.00

130811

100.00

236560

100.00

367372

100.00

Meenambakam

TOTAL

29