Aspen B-JAC 11.

1

User Guide
for Windows®

Version Number: 11.1 September 2001
Copyright (c) 2001 by Aspen Technology, Inc. All rights reserved. AspenTech®, Aspen Engineering Suite, Aspen Plus®, Aspen Properties, Aspen B-JAC, B-JAC®, Aspen Hetran, Aerotran®, Aspen Aerotran, Aspen Teams, Teams®, the aspen leaf logo and Plantelligence are trademarks or registered trademarks of Aspen Technology, Inc., Cambridge, MA. All other brand and product names are trademarks or registered trademarks of their respective companies. This manual is intended as a guide to using AspenTech's software. This documentation contains AspenTech proprietary and confidential information and may not be disclosed, used, or copied without the prior consent of AspenTech or as set forth in the applicable license agreement. Users are solely responsible for the proper use of the software and the application of the results obtained. Although AspenTech has tested the software and reviewed the documentation, the sole warranty for the software may be found in the applicable license agreement between AspenTech and the user. ASPENTECH MAKES NO WARRANTY OR REPRESENTATION, EITHER EXPRESSED OR IMPLIED, WITH RESPECT TO THIS DOCUMENTATION, ITS QUALITY, PERFORMANCE, MERCHANTABILITY, OR FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE.

Corporate
Aspen Technology, Inc. Ten Canal Park Cambridge, MA 02141-2201 USA Phone: (617) 949-1000 Fax: (617) 949-1030 Website:http://www.aspentech.com

Division
Design, Simulation and Optimization Systems Aspen Technology, Inc. Ten Canal Park Cambridge, MA 02141-2201 USA Phone: (617) 949-1000 Fax: (617) 949-1030

Contents
1 Introduction......................................................................................................1-1 Related Documentation ....................................................................................................1-1 Technical Support ............................................................................................................1-2 Online Technical Support Center.........................................................................1-2 Contacting Customer Support ..............................................................................1-2 2 The User Interface ...........................................................................................2-1 Aspen B-JAC Programs ...................................................................................................2-1 Aspen Plus Integration .....................................................................................................2-2 Aspen Pinch Integration ...................................................................................................2-2 Aspen Zyqad Integration..................................................................................................2-3 Installation Notes..............................................................................................................2-3 Version Control Utility (BJACVC.exe) ...............................................................2-3 User Customized Database Files..........................................................................2-4 Accessing Aspen B-JAC Program Files...........................................................................2-5 Data Maintenance.............................................................................................................2-5 Units of Measure ..................................................................................................2-5 Heat Exchanger Standards ...................................................................................2-5 Chemical Databank (B-JAC Props & Priprops)...................................................2-5 Materials Databank (B-JAC Databank & Primetals) ...........................................2-6 Materials Defaults (Defmats) ...............................................................................2-6 Costing (Newcost Database) ................................................................................2-6 Frequently Used Materials and Chemical Components.......................................2-6 Program Settings ..................................................................................................2-7 General Program Operation .............................................................................................2-8 Operating Procedure.............................................................................................2-8 The Aspen B-JAC Program Window...............................................................................2-9 Title Bar................................................................................................................2-9 Screen Control Buttons ........................................................................................2-9 Menu Bar............................................................................................................2-10 File Menu ...........................................................................................................2-10 Edit Menu...........................................................................................................2-10 Run Menu...........................................................................................................2-11 Tools Menu ........................................................................................................2-11 View Menu.........................................................................................................2-11 Window Menu....................................................................................................2-12 Help Menu..........................................................................................................2-12
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Toolbar ...............................................................................................................2-13 Toolbar Buttons..................................................................................................2-13 Toolbar ...............................................................................................................2-14 Next ....................................................................................................................2-14 Units Box ...........................................................................................................2-15 Zoom In/Zoom Out ............................................................................................2-15 Navigator Tree, Forms and Sheets .....................................................................2-15 Prompt Area .......................................................................................................2-15 Status Bar ...........................................................................................................2-16 Program Input.................................................................................................................2-16 Key Functions ....................................................................................................2-16 Input Fields.........................................................................................................2-17 Units of Measure – Field Specific......................................................................2-18 Databank Reference ...........................................................................................2-19 Range Checks.....................................................................................................2-20 Change Codes.....................................................................................................2-20 The Database Concept........................................................................................2-20 Program Output ..............................................................................................................2-21 Display Output ...................................................................................................2-21 Printed Output ....................................................................................................2-21 Drawings ............................................................................................................2-21 Help Facility...................................................................................................................2-22 General Help ......................................................................................................2-22 Field Specific General Help Topic.....................................................................2-22 Field Specific "What's This?" Help....................................................................2-22 Importing/Exporting Design Data Information to Other OLE Compliant Applications .......................................................................................................2-22 Filenames & Filetypes....................................................................................................2-23 Filenames ...........................................................................................................2-23 Filetypes .............................................................................................................2-23 3 Aspen Hetran ...................................................................................................3-1 Introduction ......................................................................................................................3-1 Thermal Scope......................................................................................................3-2 Mechanical Scope ................................................................................................3-3 Input .................................................................................................................................3-7 Problem Definition...............................................................................................3-7 Description ...........................................................................................................3-7 Application Options .............................................................................................3-8 Process Data .......................................................................................................3-10 Physical Property Data ...................................................................................................3-13 Property Options ................................................................................................3-13 Hot Side Composition ........................................................................................3-17 Hot Side Properties.............................................................................................3-20

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Cold Side Composition ......................................................................................3-23 Component Properties Cold Side .......................................................................3-24 Cold Side Properties...........................................................................................3-25 Exchanger Geometry......................................................................................................3-28 Exchanger Type..................................................................................................3-28 Tubes ..................................................................................................................3-36 Bundle ................................................................................................................3-42 Layout Limits .....................................................................................................3-49 Clearances ..........................................................................................................3-49 Baffles ................................................................................................................3-50 Rating/Simulation Data ......................................................................................3-55 Nozzles ...............................................................................................................3-59 Design Data ....................................................................................................................3-62 Design Constraints .............................................................................................3-62 Materials.............................................................................................................3-67 Specifications .....................................................................................................3-69 Program Options ............................................................................................................3-72 Thermal Analysis ...............................................................................................3-72 Correlations ........................................................................................................3-75 Change Codes.....................................................................................................3-77 Results ............................................................................................................................3-81 Design Summary................................................................................................3-81 Thermal Summary..........................................................................................................3-86 Performance .......................................................................................................3-86 Coefficients & MTD ..........................................................................................3-87 Pressure Drop .....................................................................................................3-88 TEMA Sheet.......................................................................................................3-92 Mechanical Summary.....................................................................................................3-93 Exchanger Dimensions.......................................................................................3-93 Vibration & Resonance Analysis .......................................................................3-95 Setting Plan & Tubesheet Layout.......................................................................3-98 Calculation Details .......................................................................................................3-100 Interval Analysis – Shell Side & Tube Side.....................................................3-100 VLE – Hot Side ................................................................................................3-102 VLE – Cold Side ..............................................................................................3-102 Maximum Rating..............................................................................................3-103 Property Temperature Limits ...........................................................................3-103 Hetran-Design Methods ...............................................................................................3-104 Optimization Logic ..........................................................................................3-104 No Phase Change .............................................................................................3-109 Simple Condensation .......................................................................................3-109 Complex Condensation ....................................................................................3-111 Simple Vaporization.........................................................................................3-113 Complex Vaporization .....................................................................................3-115 Falling Film Evaporators..................................................................................3-116

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4

Aspen Aerotran................................................................................................4-1 Introduction ......................................................................................................................4-1 Thermal Scope......................................................................................................4-2 Mechanical Scope ................................................................................................4-2 Input .................................................................................................................................4-5 Problem Definition...............................................................................................4-5 Description ...........................................................................................................4-5 Application Options .............................................................................................4-6 Process Data .........................................................................................................4-8 Physical Property Data ...................................................................................................4-12 Property Options ................................................................................................4-12 Tube Side Composition......................................................................................4-16 Tube Side Properties ..........................................................................................4-19 Outside Tubes Composition...............................................................................4-21 Outside Tubes Properties ...................................................................................4-22 Exchanger Geometry..........................................................................................4-24 Rating/Simulation Data ......................................................................................4-28 Headers & Nozzles.............................................................................................4-30 Construction Options .........................................................................................4-32 Design Data ....................................................................................................................4-34 Design Constraints .............................................................................................4-34 Materials - Vessel Components......................................................................................4-38 Specifications .................................................................................................................4-39 Program Options ............................................................................................................4-42 Thermal Analysis ...............................................................................................4-42 Change Codes.....................................................................................................4-46 Results ............................................................................................................................4-49 Recap of Designs................................................................................................4-53 Warnings & Messages........................................................................................4-53 Thermal Summary..........................................................................................................4-54 Performance .......................................................................................................4-54 Coefficients & MTD ..........................................................................................4-55 Pressure Drop .....................................................................................................4-56 API Sheet............................................................................................................4-58 Mechanical Summary.....................................................................................................4-59 Exchanger Dimensions.......................................................................................4-59 Setting Plan & Tubesheet Layout.......................................................................4-60 Calculation Details .........................................................................................................4-62 Interval Analysis – Tube Side ............................................................................4-62 Aerotran Design Methods ..............................................................................................4-65 Optimization Logic ............................................................................................4-65 No Phase Change ...............................................................................................4-67 Simple Condensation .........................................................................................4-68 Complex Condensation ......................................................................................4-68 Simple Vaporization...........................................................................................4-70

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Aspen Teams ...................................................................................................5-1 Introduction ......................................................................................................................5-1 Organization of Input Information .......................................................................5-2 Teams Run Options..............................................................................................5-3 Navigator Contents...............................................................................................5-3 Teams Scope ........................................................................................................5-6 Output...................................................................................................................5-7 Drawings ..............................................................................................................5-8 Input .................................................................................................................................5-9 Problem Definition...............................................................................................5-9 Description ...........................................................................................................5-9 Application Options ...........................................................................................5-10 Design Specifications.........................................................................................5-11 Exchanger Geometry..........................................................................................5-12 Front Head..........................................................................................................5-13 Shell....................................................................................................................5-17 Rear Head...........................................................................................................5-19 Shell Cover.........................................................................................................5-22 Flanges ...............................................................................................................5-23 Tubesheet ...........................................................................................................5-29 Expansion Joints.................................................................................................5-35 Expansion Joint Geometry .................................................................................5-37 Tubes/Baffles .....................................................................................................5-38 Fin Tube Data.....................................................................................................5-40 Tubesheet Layout ...............................................................................................5-44 Nozzles General .................................................................................................5-48 Nozzle Details ....................................................................................................5-50 Horizontal Supports ...........................................................................................5-52 Vertical Supports................................................................................................5-54 Lift Lugs.............................................................................................................5-56 Materials.........................................................................................................................5-57 Main Materials ...................................................................................................5-57 Nozzle Materials ................................................................................................5-58 Program Options ............................................................................................................5-59 Wind/Seismic/External Loads............................................................................5-59 Change Codes.....................................................................................................5-59 Change Codes - Cylinders & Covers .................................................................5-62 Change Codes - Nozzles ....................................................................................5-63 Change Codes – Body Flanges...........................................................................5-64 Change Codes - Floating Head Flange...............................................................5-65 Change Codes - Tubesheets & Expansion Joint ................................................5-66 Change Codes - Supports ...................................................................................5-67 Change Codes - Dimensions ..............................................................................5-67

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Results ............................................................................................................................5-68 Input Summary...................................................................................................5-68 Design Summary................................................................................................5-69 Design Specifications/Materials.........................................................................5-70 Overall Dimensions/Fitting Locations ...............................................................5-72 MDMT/MAWP/Test Pressure ...........................................................................5-73 Vessel Dimensions .............................................................................................5-74 Cylinders & Covers............................................................................................5-75 Nozzles/Nozzle Flanges .....................................................................................5-76 Flanges ...............................................................................................................5-77 Tubesheets/Tube Details ....................................................................................5-77 Supports / Lift Lugs / Wind & Seismic Loads ...................................................5-78 Price................................................................................................................................5-79 Cost Estimate .....................................................................................................5-79 Bill of Materials .................................................................................................5-79 Labor Details ......................................................................................................5-79 Drawings ........................................................................................................................5-80 Setting Plan Drawing .........................................................................................5-80 Tubesheet Layout : Tube Layout Drawing ........................................................5-81 All Drawings: Fabrication Drawings .................................................................5-82 Code Calculations ..............................................................................................5-82 6 Props.................................................................................................................6-1 Introduction ......................................................................................................................6-1 Props Scope ......................................................................................................................6-2 Physical Properties ...............................................................................................6-2 Input .................................................................................................................................6-4 Application Options .............................................................................................6-4 Property Options ..................................................................................................6-5 Composition .....................................................................................................................6-9 Composition .........................................................................................................6-9 Results ............................................................................................................................6-15 Warnings & Messages........................................................................................6-15 VLE ....................................................................................................................6-18 Props Logic ........................................................................................................6-19 References ..........................................................................................................6-22 Databank Symbols..........................................................................................................6-23 7 Priprops ............................................................................................................7-1 Introduction ......................................................................................................................7-1 Accessing the Priprops databank......................................................................................7-1 Accessing an existing component in the databank...............................................7-1 Adding a new component to Priprops ..................................................................7-2 Adding a new component using an existing component as a template:...............7-2 Property Reference...........................................................................................................7-2

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Property Estimation..........................................................................................................7-3 Property Curves....................................................................................................7-3 Property estimation based on NBP.......................................................................7-3 8 Qchex................................................................................................................8-1 Introduction ......................................................................................................................8-1 Mechanical Scope ................................................................................................8-2 Input .................................................................................................................................8-4 Problem Definition...............................................................................................8-4 Description ...........................................................................................................8-4 Exchanger Geometry............................................................................................8-5 Shell type..............................................................................................................8-6 Tube to tubesheet joint .........................................................................................8-9 Exchanger Data ..................................................................................................8-10 Design Data ........................................................................................................8-18 Qchex - Program Operation ...............................................................................8-19 Qchex - Results ..............................................................................................................8-20 Input Summary...................................................................................................8-20 Warnings & Messages........................................................................................8-20 Design Summary................................................................................................8-21 Cost Summary....................................................................................................8-21 Qchex Logic ...................................................................................................................8-21 Qchex References...............................................................................................8-26 9 Ensea ................................................................................................................9-1 Introduction ......................................................................................................................9-1 Mechanical Scope ................................................................................................9-2 Input .................................................................................................................................9-4 Problem Definition...............................................................................................9-4 Application Options .............................................................................................9-4 Exchanger Geometry........................................................................................................9-7 Exchanger.............................................................................................................9-7 Tubes & Baffles .................................................................................................9-10 Tube Layout .......................................................................................................9-13 Tube Row Details...............................................................................................9-18 Program Operation .............................................................................................9-18 Results ................................................................................................................9-19 Input Data...........................................................................................................9-19 Warnings & Messages........................................................................................9-19 Summary & Details........................................................................................................9-20 Summary ............................................................................................................9-20 Tube Row Details...............................................................................................9-20 U-bend Details....................................................................................................9-21 Tubesheet Layout ...............................................................................................9-22 Ensea - Logic......................................................................................................9-23 Ensea References................................................................................................9-24
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Metals..............................................................................................................10-1 Introduction ....................................................................................................................10-1 Metals Scope ......................................................................................................10-2 Input ...................................................................................................................10-3 Program Operation .............................................................................................10-4 Results ............................................................................................................................10-5 Warnings & Messages........................................................................................10-5 References ......................................................................................................................10-8 Metals Directory - ASTM - Generic ..................................................................10-9 Metals Directory - ASTM - Pipe......................................................................10-10 Low Alloy Pipe and Weld Cap ........................................................................10-10 Metals Directory - ASTM - Plate.....................................................................10-13 Metals Directory - ASTM - Bolting.................................................................10-17 Metals Directory - ASTM - Forging ................................................................10-19 Metals Directory - ASTM - Coupling ..............................................................10-20 Metals Directory - ASTM - Gasket..................................................................10-22 Metals Directory - ASTM - Tube.....................................................................10-24 Metals Directory - AFNOR - Genenic .............................................................10-27 Metals Directory - AFNOR - Pipe ...................................................................10-28 Metals Directory - AFNOR - Plate ..................................................................10-29 Metals Directory - AFNOR - Bolting ..............................................................10-31 Metals - Directory - AFNOR - Forging ...........................................................10-31 Metals Directory - AFNOR - Gasket ...............................................................10-33 Metals Directory - AFNOR - Tube ..................................................................10-34 Metals Directory - DIN - Generic ....................................................................10-35 Metals Directory - DIN - Pipe..........................................................................10-36 Metals Directory - DIN - Plate.........................................................................10-38 Metals Directory - DIN - Bolting.....................................................................10-40 Metals Directory - DIN - Forging ....................................................................10-41 Metals - Directory - DIN - Gasket ...................................................................10-43 Metals Directory - DIN - Tube.........................................................................10-44

11

Primetals.........................................................................................................11-1 Introduction ....................................................................................................................11-1 Example Input to Primetals ............................................................................................11-5

12

Newcost Database .........................................................................................12-1 Introduction ....................................................................................................................12-1 Labor & Cost Standards .....................................................................................12-2

13

B-JAC Example Run ......................................................................................13-1 Aspen B-JAC Example ..................................................................................................13-1

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Exporting Results from B-JAC to Excel.......................................................14-1 Introduction ....................................................................................................................14-1 Export features -- B-JAC Templates..................................................................14-1 Creating your own customized Template...........................................................14-2 Copying Data from a B-JAC application to Excel.............................................14-3 Example of Pasting Aspen B-JAC results into Excel. .......................................14-4 Launching B-JAC programs from Excel............................................................14-5

15

Using the ASPEN B-JAC ActiveX Automation Server ................................15-1 Introduction ....................................................................................................................15-1 About the Automation Server ............................................................................15-2 Using the Automation Server.............................................................................15-2 Viewing the ASPEN B-JAC Objects .................................................................15-4 Overview of the ASPEN B-JAC Objects...........................................................15-5 Programming with ASPEN B-JAC Objects.....................................................15-11 Reference Information..................................................................................................15-21

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Introduction
The purpose of this User Guide is to provide a quick overview of the Aspen B-JAC programs, supported operating systems, equipment requirements, program installation instructions, and a summary of the basic program operation. The Aspen B-JAC programs have been designed around the same basic user interface. Once a user is familiar with the operation of one program, that knowledge can easily be transferred to another Aspen B-JAC program. This User Guide outlines the concepts of program input, program operation, and program output used throughout all the Aspen B-JAC programs. For detailed instructions or information on specific programs, you should refer to the appropriate section in this manual. Much of information in the User Guide is also available through the Help facility in the Aspen B-JAC software.

Related Documentation
In addition to this document, a number of other documents are provided to help users learn and use Aspen B-JAC products. All manuals are available in PDF format.

Installation Manuals
Aspen Engineering Suite 11.1 Installation Manual

Aspen Plus
Aspen Plus Getting Started Guides Aspen Plus User Guide Aspen Plus Reference Manuals Aspen Physical Property System Reference Manuals

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Aspen Pinch
Aspen Pinch User Guide

Technical Support
Online Technical Support Center
AspenTech customers with a valid license and software maintenance agreement can register to access the Online Technical Support Center at: http://support.aspentech.com This web support site allows you to: • • • • • • • Access current product documentation Search for tech tips, solutions and frequently asked questions (FAQs) Search for and download application examples Search for and download service packs and product updates Submit and track technical issues Search for and review known limitations Send suggestions

Registered users can also subscribe to our Technical Support e-Bulletins. These e-Bulletins are used to proactively alert users to important technical support information such as: • • • • Technical advisories Product updates Service Pack announcements Product release announcements

Contacting Customer Support
Customer support is also available by phone, fax, and email for customers with a current support contract for this product. For the most up-to-date phone listings, please see the Online Technical Support Center at: http://support.aspentech.com

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Aspen B-JAC 11.1 User Guide

Hours
Support Centers Operating Hours

North America South America Europe Asia and Pacific Region

8:00 – 20:00 Eastern Time 9:00 – 17:00 Local time 8:30 – 18:00 Central European time 9:00 – 17:30 Local time

Phone
Support Centers Phone Numbers

North America

1-888-996-7100 1-281-584-4357 (52) (5) 536-2809

toll-free from U.S., Canada, Mexico North America Support Center Mexico Support Center Argentina Support Center Brazil Support Center Toll-free to U.S. from Argentina Toll-free to U.S. from Brazil Toll-free to U.S. from Venezuela

South America

(54) (11) 4361-7220 (55) (11) 5012-0321 (0800) 333-0125 (000) (814) 550-4084 8001-2410

Europe

(32) (2) 701-95-55 European Support Center Country specific toll-free numbers: Belgium (0800) 40-687 Denmark 8088-3652 Finland (0) (800) 1-19127 France (0805) 11-0054 Ireland (1) (800) 930-024 Netherlands (0800) 023-2511 Norway (800) 13817 Spain (900) 951846 Sweden (0200) 895-284 Switzerland (0800) 111-470 UK (0800) 376-7903 (65) 395-39-00 (81) (3) 3262-1743 Singapore Tokyo

Asia and Pacific Region

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Fax
Support Centers Fax Numbers

North America

1-617-949-1724 (Cambridge, MA) 1-281-584-1807 (Houston, TX: both Engineering and Manufacturing Suite) 1-281-584-5442 (Houston, TX: eSupply Chain Suite) 1-281-584-4329 (Houston, TX: Advanced Control Suite) 1-301-424-4647 (Rockville, MD) 1-908-516-9550 (New Providence, NJ) 1-425-492-2388 (Seattle, WA) (54) (11) 4361-7220 (Argentina) (55) (11) 5012-4442 (Brazil) (32) (2) 701-94-45 (65) 395-39-50 (Singapore) (81) (3) 3262-1744 (Tokyo)

South America Europe Asia and Pacific Region

E-mail
Support Centers E-mail support@aspentech.com (Engineering Suite) atmdsupport@aspentech.com (Aspen ICARUS products) mimi.support@aspentech.com (Aspen MIMI products) pims.support@aspentech.com (Aspen PIMS products) aspenretail.support@aspentech.com (Aspen Retail products) acs.support@aspentech.com(Advanced Control products) AMS.Support@aspentech.com (Manufacturing Suite) Gabriela.Torres@aspentech.com (Mexico) info@tecnosolution.com.ar (Argentina) tecnosp@aspentech.com (Brazil) atesupport@aspentech.com (Engineering Suite) AMS.Support@aspentech.com (All other suites) cimview@aspentech.com (CIMVIEW products) atasupport@aspentech.com (Singapore: Engineering Suite) SG_Support@aspentech.com (Singapore: All other suites) atjsupport@aspentech.com (Tokyo: Engineering Suite) TK_Support@aspentech.com (Tokyo: All other suites)

North America

South America Europe

Asia and Pacific Region

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The User Interface

Aspen B-JAC Programs
The Aspen B-JAC software includes a number of programs for the thermal design, mechanical design, cost estimation, and drawings for heat exchangers and pressure vessels. The major design programs are:
Aspen Hetran Aspen Teams Thermal Design of Shell & Tube Heat Exchangers Mechanical Design, Cost Estimation, and Design Drawings of Shell &Tube Heat Exchangers and Pressure Vessels Thermal Design of Air Cooled Heat Exchangers, Flue Gas Heat Recuperators, and Fired Heater Convection Sections

Aspen Aerotran

In addition to the major design programs, there are a number of programs which support the design programs. These are:
Props Priprops Metals Primetals Ensea Qchex Draw Newcost Defmats Chemical Physical Properties Databank Program to Build a Private Databank for Props Metal Properties Databank Program to Build a Private Databank for Metals Tubesheet Layout Program Budget Cost Estimation Program Graphics Interface Program for Drawings Program for Maintaining Labor & Material Databases Program for Establishing Default Materials

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Aspen Plus Integration
The Aspen B-JAC Hetran and Aerotran programs are completely integrated with the Aspen Plus process simulation software. Users with licenses for both the Aspen B-JAC thermal analysis software and the Aspen Plus simulation software can utilize the Aspen B-JAC thermal models for shell and tube heat exchangers and air-cooled heat exchangers within the Aspen Plus flowsheet. The models can be accessed from Aspen Plus by selecting the blocks Hetran or Aerotran for the heat transfer unit operations. Stream and property curve data for these blocks can be supplied to the Aspen B-JAC programs by Aspen Plus or from within the Aspen B-JAC input file which is referenced in the Aspen Plus input for the block. All exchanger geometry data must be specified through the Aspen B-JAC input file. During simulation the Aspen Plus simulator will repetitively call the Aspen B-JAC analysis programs to predict the outlet conditions of the heat transfer equipment. The results of the analysis are returned to Aspen Plus which then feeds them to subsequent blocks. A subset of the exchanger performance can be viewed from within the Aspen Plus environment or all detailed results of the block can be viewed through the Aspen B-JAC user interface.

Aspen Pinch Integration
The Aspen B-JAC Hetran program is completely integrated with the Aspen Pinch process synthesis software. Users with licenses for both the Aspen B-JAC thermal analysis software and the Aspen Pinch software can utilize the Aspen B-JAC thermal models for shell and tube heat exchangers within the Aspen Pinch flowsheet. The models can be accessed from Aspen Plus by selecting the block Hetran for the heat transfer unit operations. Stream and property curve data for these blocks can be supplied to the Aspen B-JAC programs by Aspen Pinch or from within the Aspen B-JAC input file which is referenced in the Aspen Pinch input for the block. All exchanger geometry data must be specified through the Aspen B-JAC input file. During simulation the Aspen Pinch simulator will repetitively call the Aspen B-JAC analysis programs to predict the outlet conditions of the heat transfer equipment. The results of the analysis are returned to Aspen Pinch which then feeds them to subsequent blocks. A subset of the exchanger performance can be viewed from within the Aspen Pinch environment or all detailed results of the block can be viewed through the Aspen B-JAC user interface.

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Aspen Zyqad Integration
The Aspen B-JAC Hetran program is completely integrated with the Aspen Aspen Zyqad. Aspen Zyqad is an engineering database tool used to capture process knowledge about the design, construction, or operation of a process plant. The database contains a number of data models to store information about the process streams, the process configuration, and the individual pieces of process equipment. The user can retrieve the information & generate any number of specialized reports & equipment specification sheets from the data in the database.

Installation Notes
Version Control Utility (BJACVC.exe)
The Version Control Utility, BJACVC.exe located in the B-JAC 11.*\XEQ folder, will allow you to switch between B-JAC program versions. To execute the BJACVC.exe utility, locate the file using Explorer and double click on it with the mouse cursor.

Selecting a B-JAC program version: Select which version you wish to run and the utility will update the MS Windows registry to allow you to run the selected B-JAC program version. The BJACVC.exe will automatically execute when you open a B-JAC program version that is not registered properly.

Copying customized files: Select the source version where your existing customized database files are located. Next select the target new version where you wish to copy the database files to. Next select what files you wish to transfer and then select Copy to copy the customized files to the new version.

Copying program settings: To copy the program settings from an existing B-JAC version to a new version, first select the source version. Next select the target new program version. Now select Apply and the program settings will be copied to the new targeted version.

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User Customized Database Files
There are a number of database files that you can change to customize the operation of the Aspen B-JAC programs as well as alter the program answers. These customized database files will be located in a default program folder or in a user specified directory. If you elect to use the default folder location, those database files must be copied from the previous B-JAC program default folder to the new B-JAC 11.*\Dat\PDA folder. You can use the Version Control Utility, BJACVC.exe located in the B-JAC 11.*\XEQ folder to transfer these database files. Reference the BJACVC utility instructions above to copy your customized files from an existing version to a new B-JAC version. As an alternate method, you can specify your own directory location for these customized files and the B-JAC program will access the database from your specified folder location. To specify your user customized database folder location, select Tools / Program Settings / Files and provide the folder location for the database files. A list of the database files that can be customized is as follows:
D_FXPRIV.PDA D_IDPRIV.PDA D_VAPRIV.PDA G_COMPNA.PDA G_PROFIL.PDA N_MTLDEF.PDA N_MTLDIN.PDA N_MTLCDP.PDA N_PARTNO.PDA N_PRIVI.PDA N_PRIVP.PDA N_STDLAB.PDA N_STDMTL.PDA N_STDOPR.PDA N_STDWLD.PDA N_STDPRC.PDA Private properties chemical databank properties Private properties chemical databank index Private properties chemical databank properties Company name and address for drawings Default headings, input, operation options Default materials for generic materials (ASME) Default materials for generic materials (DIN) Default materials for generic materials (AFNOR) Part number assignment for bill of materials Private properties materials databank index Private properties materials databank properties Fabrication standards, procedures, costs, etc. Fabrication standards as function of materials Fabrication operation efficiencies Fabrication welding standards Private materials prices

If the update is installed into the directory for the previous version, the install program will not copy over the previous version’s database files.

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Aspen B-JAC 11.1 User Guide

Accessing Aspen B-JAC Program Files
Most users will want their input and output files stored on a directory separate from the Aspen B-JAC programs. The input and output files are read from or written to the current directory on your PC. This allows you to organize your input and output files however you wish. We recommend that you run from a directory other than the directory in which the Aspen B-JAC programs are installed.

Data Maintenance
Units of Measure
You can access the Units of Measure by selecting Tools in the Menu Bar and then selecting the Data Maintenance section. You can set the default units of measure to US, SI, or Metric and also set up your own customized set of units. In the Units Maintenance section you can customize the conversion factors used and the number of decimal point shown in the results.

Heat Exchanger Standards
This function allows you to create a database with your standard exchangers sizes that can reference from the B-JAC design programs.

Chemical Databank (B-JAC Props & Priprops)
This item provides access to the Aspen B-JAC Props, chemical databank, and Priprops, the user private property databases. The Priprops program allows you to build your own private property databank that can be accessed form the Hetran, Aerotran, and Props programs. Reference the Priprops section of this manual for additional information.

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Materials Databank (B-JAC Databank & Primetals)
This item provides access to the Aspen B-JAC Metals, material databank, and Primetals, the private property metals databases. The Primetals program allows you to build your own private property databank that can be accessed from the Hetran, Aerotran, and Teams programs. Reference the Primetals section of this manual for additional information.

Materials Defaults (Defmats)
This item provides access to the B-JAC Defmats, material defaults database for metals in the databanks. The Defmats program allows you to change the specified material specifications to be used when the generic material references are specified.

Costing (Newcost Database)
This item provides access to the Newcost fabrication standards and material pricing databases. Labor, fabrication standards, and material pricing may be customized your applications. For more information, see the Newcost Database section of this manual.

Frequently Used Materials and Chemical Components
You can set a list of frequently used materials and/or chemical components for the databank search engines. This will allow to search for a material or component from your personalized list of items you use often.

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Program Settings
File Save Options: Set the auto-save file functions. You can set the program to save your file information every few minutes or at the time the program is executed. Company Logo: By providing the reference to a Bitmap file, you can add your company logo to the program results and drawings. Default Units of Measure: You can set the default units of measure to US, SI, or Metric. Note that the units may be changed at any time in the Aspen B-JAC program window. Headings/Drawing Title: You can set up the default headings and title block information that will appear on the printed output and drawings. Nozzle size specification on drawings: You can set the units set basis for the nozzle sizes shown on the drawings. For example, US unit size nozzles can be shown even though the drawings are in SI or metric units. Folder for customized database files: You can specify a folder location for your customized database files. The B-JAC programs will then reference your customized database files in the specified folder in lieu of the standard database files in the program PDA folder. Excel templates: Specify the Excel template file you wish to use for each program as a default. When the File / Export / Excel feature is selected, the specified default template will then be used. Heat exchanger standards: Set which exchanger standards database file is to be referenced. Advanced: You can turn on variable attributes so they will be shown in the Aspen B-JAC program prompt area. Set drag-drop format to move data to Excel. Set the maximum disk space for temporary files.

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General Program Operation
Operating Procedure
Most of the Aspen B-JAC programs follow the same general operating procedures. These are: 1. Enter the Aspen B-JAC program environment by clicking on the Aspen B-JAC icon or select the Aspen B-JAC program from the Task Bar. 2. Select the appropriate Aspen B-JAC program by clicking on the New File icon or choosing New under the File Menu. Check the box next to the desired program. 3. Enter the required data by accessing folders from the Navigation Tree and filling out the required input forms with data. 4. Click on the Run icon in the Tool Bar or select the “Run Program” option under the Run command in the Menu Bar. 5. Review the Results section by accessing the results folders in the Navigation Tree. 6. If you want hardcopy results, choose Print from the File menu, check the boxes next to the desired output, and click on “Print.” 7. If appropriate, make changes to the input data. 8. If making changes, then re-run the program. 9. Repeat steps 5 through 9 until you have the desired solution. 10. Update the file with current geometry by selecting the Run command from the Menu Bar and then Update. 11. To transfer design information to other programs, select the Run command from the Menu Bar and then Transfer. 12. Leave the program by selecting Exit from the File menu. The program will ask if you wish to save changes. Click the appropriate button. 13. Save the input data at any time by clicking on Save under the File menu.

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The Aspen B-JAC Program Window

Title Bar
The bar at the top of the window displays the current program and file name.

Screen Control Buttons
The Minimize, Maximize and Restore keys change the size of the program window, and return the window to its original settings. The Close key closes the active program or file.

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Menu Bar
The program has a number of additional features that can be accessed through a menu bar at the top of each screen. Using the left mouse button, click on a menu name to see the pull down options available. Click on a desired option or press the “Alt” key and the underscored character shown (some options can be accessed by a given “Ctrl” key + letter combination).

File Menu
Name New (Ctrl+N) Open (Ctrl+O) Close Add Application Remove Application Save (Ctrl+S) Save As Export To Print Setup Print (Ctrl+P) Description Exit Description Opens new file for desired Aspen B-JAC program Opens existing Aspen B-JAC program file Closes a chosen Aspen B-JAC program window Opens a chosen Aspen B-JAC program window Removes a chosen Aspen B-JAC program window Saves current file under chosen filename Saves current file as a different filename Export results to Excel, a DXF file, a RTF file, or a DOC file Allows for change to printing options Prints desired results sections from Aspen B-JAC program Displays the contents of the Description field in the input file Exits Aspen B-JAC program and return user to Windows

Edit Menu
Name Undo Cut (Ctrl+X) Copy (Ctrl+C) Paste (Ctrl+V) Description Undoes the last edit operation. Deletes the highlighted text. Saves a copy of the highlighted text. Paste inserts text from a copy to directed location

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Run Menu
Name Run “Program” Stop Transfer Update Description Runs a chosen Aspen B-JAC program Stops the run of a chosen Aspen B-JAC program Transfers design information into another BJAC program Updates file with final design information

Tools Menu
Name Data Maintenance Program Settings Security Language Plot Add Curve Description Provides access to units of measure, chemical database reference, material database, and Costing database. Default units setting and headings for drawings Access to Aspen B-JAC security program. Sets language to English, French, German, Spanish, Italian (Chinese and Japanese to be offered in a later version). Plots results functions. Allows the addition of another curve to an existing plotted curve

View Menu
Name Tool Bar Status Bar Zoom In Zoom Out Refresh Variable List Description Shows or hides the Tool Bar Shows or hides the Status Bar Enlarges sections of the Aspen B-JAC drawings Returns drawings to normal size Refreshes screen Displays variable list for form.

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Window Menu
Name Cascade Tile Horizontal Tile Vertical Arrange Icons Create Description Arranges program windows one behind the other Arranges program windows one on top another Arranges program windows one besides the other Automatically arranges icons Creates a window for a Aspen B-JAC program

Help Menu
Name Contents Search for Help About B-JAC What’s This Help Description Open Aspen B-JAC help table of Contents Displays a list of topics for detailed help Provides information on the current Aspen B-JAC release Allows the user to place “?” on desired item to receive information about the item

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Toolbar

Toolbar Buttons
Name New Open Save Hetran Teams Aerotran Props Ensea Qchex Teamsc Metals Run Zoom In Zoom Our Plot What’s This? Description Creates a new Aspen B-JAC program file Opens an existing Aspen B-JAC program file Saves the current file data Opens the Hetran program window Opens the Teams program window Opens the Aerotran program window Opens the Props program window Opens the Ensea tube layout window Opens the Qchex budget costing window Opens the Teams Component design window Opens the Metals property database window Runs the chosen Aspen B-JAC Program Enlarges sections of the Aspen B-JAC drawings Returns sections of drawings to normal size Plot results functions Allows user to place “?” on desired item to receive information about the item

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Toolbar

Name Navigator One Level Up Hide Folder List Units Box Go Back Go Forward Previous Form Next Form Next

Description Allows quick access to forms in the Menu Tree Takes the user up one level in the Menu Tree Hides Navigator Menu Tree Allow you to change globally the units of measure Takes the user to the most recently viewed form Takes the user to the next form in the Menu Tree Takes the user to the previous form in the Menu Tree Takes the user to the next form in the Menu Tree Takes the user to the next required input or result sheet

Next
By selecting the Next button, the program will guide you sequentially through the required input forms to complete the input file. Note that the subsequent steps are dependant upon your previous selections in the program. With the Next button, the program will minimize the input information required and use program defaults.

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Units Box
All of the Aspen B-JAC programs run in traditional U.S. units, SI units, and traditional metric units. The programs allow you to dynamically change the system of measure used in the input or results sections. It is therefore possible to view and/or print the same solution in two different systems for easy comparison or checking. Field specific units of measure control is also available. A specific set of units may be specified for each input data field by selecting from the units drop down menu next to the input field. The field specific units will override the global units set in the Units Box. Please note that the solution of a design problem may be dependent upon the system of measure used in the input. This is due to differing standards in incrementing dimensions. This is especially true for the mechanical design programs.

Zoom In/Zoom Out
The user can Zoom In or Zoom Out on selected sections of the Aspen B-JAC drawings by selecting an area and drawing a frame around it. The frame corner is selected by pressing the left mouse button down and dragging to the opposite corner where the left button is released. By clicking on the Zoom In option, the framed section will be resized to the full window size.

Navigator Tree, Forms and Sheets
Each Aspen B-JAC program has a Navigator Tree on the left-hand side of the screen. The tree is organized by forms according to program input and results. The user can quickly access a desired form by moving the mouse to the appropriate spot in the tree and clicking once. To scroll through the list, use the up and down arrow keys to the right of the tree. Each form is then subdivided into sheets, in which the user enters data in various input fields or review results. The tabs at the top of the screen show the names of the different sheets. To access a sheet, click on the appropriate tab.

Prompt Area
This section provides information to help you make choices or perform tasks. It contains a description about the current input field.

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Status Bar
This bar displays information about the current program status and input field status. If value entered for an input field is outside the normal range, a warning will be display in the Status Bar with the recommend value limits.

Program Input
Key Functions
Name F1 Arrow Keys Delete Key Home Key End Key Forward Tab Key Backward Tab Key Control + Delete Keys Page Up/Page Down Keys Backspace Key Description Activates the Help system Moves the location of the cursor within an input field and scrolls through the options in a given list Deletes the character at the current cursor position and shifts the remainder of the input Returns the cursor to the beginning of the input field Moves the cursor to the end of the input field Scrolls the user through the input fields of a form Move cursor back to previous field Erases the characters from the cursor position to the end of the input field Scrolls the user through the forms of the Menu Tree Deletes the character to the left of the current cursor position in an input field

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Input Fields
Sheets are made up of input fields and their descriptions. For each field, the user (1) enters data, (2) chooses from a given list of options, or (3) checks the cell if appropriate. The cursor can be moved from one input field to another by using the Tab key, Enter key, arrow keys, or the mouse. You can navigate through a input form by using the Tab key or Enter key which will take you to the next required input field or you can select the items with the mouse. To navigate through an input field grid, such as for physical properties, or nozzle connections, you can use the Enter key which will move the cursor down to the next field in a column, or you can use the arrow keys to direct the cursor, or you can use the mouse to select the input field. The input fields consist of the following types: • • User defined. You enter the value such as a temperature or operating pressure. User defined with suggested values. You can input a value or select from a list of typical values for the input which are available in a drop down selection menu. You can access by the drop down menu by clicking on the input field with the mouse and then select the down arrow displayed. You can select an item in the drop down menu by using the up and down arrow keys or by selecting with the mouse. Available program selections. You select from a drop down menu list or options list displayed on the input form. You can select an item in the drop down menu by using the up and down arrow keys or by selecting with the mouse. Many of the input fields have graphical support. As you select from the available menu options, a sketch of the selection will appear next to the input field.

• •

There are two types of data that can be entered: alphanumeric and numeric. Alphanumeric fields accept any printable character. Numeric fields accept only the digits zero through nine plus certain special characters such as: + - . You can enter letters of the alphabet in either upper case or lower case. The letters are retained in the case entered for headings, remarks, and fluid names. Whole numbers can be entered without a decimal point. Numbers over one thousand should not have punctuation to separate the thousands or millions. Decimal numbers less than 1 may be entered with or without the leading zero. Scientific notation (E format) can be used.
n
Examples of Valid Entries 125 289100 -14.7 0.9375 Examples of Invalid Entries 15/16 289,100

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If an input field is identified as optional input (white background), you may leave the field blank and the program will use a default value. For physical properties where you want the program to retrieve the value from the physical properties databank (see Search a Databank), you should leave the input field blank. In many cases, you can get additional descriptive information on an item by pressing F1, the Help key. Required input fields will be identified by a green background color for the input field. Optional input fields will have a white background. Any inputted value that exceeds a normal range limit will be highlighted with a red background. Note that the program will still accept and use a value outside the normal range. If a folder or tab is not complete, a red X will be shown on the respective folder in the Navigation Tree and on the Tab label.

Units of Measure – Field Specific
All of the Aspen B-JAC programs run in traditional U.S. units, SI units, and traditional metric units. The global setting for units is set in the Units Box located in the Tools Bar. The programs allow you to dynamically change the system of measure used in the input or results sections. It is therefore possible to view and/or print the same solution in two different systems for easy comparison or checking. Field specific units of measure control is also available. A specific set of units may be specified for each input data field by selecting from the units drop down menu next to the input field. The field specific units will override the global units set in the Units Box. Note that you can input the value in one set of units and then select an alternate unit from the drop down units menu, and the inputted value will be converted. Please note that the solution of a design problem may be dependent upon the system of measure used in the input. This is due to differing standards in incrementing dimensions. This is especially true for the mechanical design programs.

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Databank Reference
You can search for an item in the Chemical Component or Material of Construction Databanks. Click on the Search button located on databank reference form to open the search utility. To find an item in the list, type in the first few letters of the material name. Or, scroll through the material list using the up and down arrows to the right of the field. You can also specify a search preference, database, material class and material type. Click on the desired material. In the Component list, click on the desired component and press Set to match it with the selected reference. You can also erase a reference from the component list by clicking on the component and pressing Clear.

The components in the databank have a component name which is up to 32 characters long, a chemical formula or material specification. You use these for the databank reference. We recommend that you do not use the chemical formula, because the formula may not be a unique reference. You should use the appropriate reference exactly as it appears in the databank directory.

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Range Checks
After data is entered in an input field, the program will check the specified data against a high and low value range. If a value falls outside this range, the input field will turn red and a warning message will be displayed at the bottom left hand of the screen. This does not mean the program will not accept this data. It merely suggests that you should check the data for accuracy. If the data is correct, continue with data input.

Change Codes
Several of the programs have a form for change codes. You can use this form to insert four letter codes and numeric values to specify input data which is not included in the regular input screens. Refer to the Change Code section in the individual Program Guide. First type the change code, then an equals sign (“=”), then the numeric value. For example: SENT=2. It also possible to provide a Super Change Code by defining the change codes to be applied to a design in a separate ASCII file and referencing the file as follows in the Change Code input field: File="Filename"

The Database Concept
We suggest that you use the same input file for all Aspen B-JAC programs for a specific heat exchanger design problem. Save the input data in a convenient filename that can be accessed by all the Aspen B-JAC programs. Using the Transfer function under the Run menu, you can add data to the input for use with other programs. For example, you can use Hetran to thermally design a shell and tube heat exchanger, and then request that the chosen design be transferred to another program such as Hetran into Aerotran, Hetran into Teams, or Teams into Ensea. In this way the appropriate design data is directly available to other programs. This concept also makes it easy for you to compare design solutions in different types of heat exchangers. You can run Hetran to design a shell and tube heat exchanger and then, with very little additional input data, run Aerotran to design an air-cooled heat exchanger.

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Program Output
The primary forms of output from the Aspen B-JAC programs are display output, printed output, and drawings. Details on the output can be found in the Results section of the individual Aspen B-JAC program’s user guide.

Display Output
You can evaluate the results of the program’s execution to determine if any changes in the solution are required. Scroll through the forms in the Results section of the Menu Tree to take a look at the program output. Each form may have multiple sheets of results, which can be accessed by clicking on the different tabs at the top of the screen.

Printed Output
To print a file, choose Print under the File menu. When the print screen comes up, review the printing options, make any desired changes, and click OK.

Drawings
Many of the Aspen B-JAC programs’ output include drawings. Drawings generated by the TEAMS program may be exported to CAD programs.

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Help Facility
The Aspen B-JAC software includes extensive help facilities, which have been designed to minimize the need for printed documentation. You may access the help facility in the following ways:

General Help
This level includes information that applies to all of the Aspen B-JAC programs. You can access the general help index by selecting the Help button from the Menu Bar at any time in the program. You may select the Help Contents to select from the list of topics or you may select to Search for Help On a specific topic.

Field Specific General Help Topic
By selecting an input field with the mouse and then pressing the F1 key, the general help will open at the appropriate index location for that subject.

Field Specific "What's This?" Help
You can obtain input field specific help by selecting the What's This ? in the Tool Bar and dragging the ? to the input field that you need information.

Importing/Exporting Design Data Information to Other OLE Compliant Applications
The Aspen B-JAC input/results file may be exported to other OLE compliant systems for use with other programs via various automation utilities that are available. An example automation file has been provided in the example sub-directory, "XMP", located with the Aspen B-JAC program files.

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Filenames & Filetypes
Although the Aspen B-JAC software works on several different computers and operating systems, there is a high degree of similarity in the use of filenames and filetypes for input and output files. The filename and filetype form the name under which the file is stored on the storage medium (usually disk).

Filenames
The filename must be formed using up to 255 characters in length and may be made up of: letters: A-Z a-z, numbers: 0-9, and special characters: - _ & $.

Filetypes
The filetype (also sometimes called the filename extension) is automatically established by the Aspen B-JAC software as follows:
Filetype BJT BFD BJI BJO BJA Description Aspen B-JAC Input/Output File (Release 10.0 and newer) Aspen B-JAC Drawing File Aspen B-JAC Input File (previous versions) Aspen B-JAC Output File (previous versions) Aspen B-JAC Archive File (Input/Output data previous versions)

Whenever an Aspen B-JAC program requests a filename, it is expecting the name without the filetype. The program will append the filetype.

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3

Aspen Hetran

Introduction
Aspen Hetran is a program for the thermal design, rating, and simulation of shell and tube heat exchangers. It encompasses the great majority of industrial shell and tube heat exchanger applications, including most combinations of no phase change, condensation, and vaporization. In the design mode, Aspen Hetran searches for the optimum heat exchanger to satisfy the specified heat duty within the limits of the allowable pressure drops, velocities, shell diameters, tube lengths, and other user specified restrictions. In the design mode, the program produces a detailed optimization path, which shows the alternatives considered by the program as it searches for a satisfactory design. These "intermediate designs" indicate the constraints that are controlling the design and point out what parameters you could modify to reduce the size of the exchanger. The rating mode is used to check the performance of an exchanger with fully specified geometry under any desired operating conditions. The program will check to see if there is sufficient surface area for the process conditions specified and notify the user if the unit is under surfaced. For the simulation mode, you will specify the heat exchanger geometry and the inlet process conditions and the program will predict the outlet conditions for both streams. The Aspen Hetran program has an extensive set of input default values built-in. This allows you to specify a minimum amount of input data to evaluate a design. For complex condensation and/or vaporization, where the program requires vapor-liquid equilibrium data and properties at many temperature points, you can enter the data directly into the input file, or you can have Aspen Hetran generate the curve. The program includes a basic mechanical design to determine the shell and head cylinder thickness and a reasonable estimate of the tubesheet thickness. However, a detailed mechanical design goes beyond the scope of the Aspen Hetran program. That is the job of the Aspen Teams program, which can be easily interfaced with the Aspen Hetran program.

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Aspen Hetran incorporates all applicable provisions of the standards of the Tubular Exchanger Manufacturers Association (TEMA) and can be used to design all TEMA exchanger types. The program also includes many of the ANSI, DIN, and ISO standards that apply to heat exchangers. A cost estimate is provided for each design to give you feedback on the cost impact of design changes. The cost estimate routine is the same as the one in the Qchex program and uses the same material cost database. Aspen Hetran is an interactive program, which means you can evaluate design changes as you run the program. The program will guide you through the input, calculation, display of results, design changes, and selection of printed output.

Thermal Scope
No Phase Change
Liquid or gas, Newtonian fluids only

Condensation
Shell or tube side Horizontal or vertical Single or multicomponent condensables With or without noncondensables With or without liquid entering Isothermal, linear, or nonlinear Desuperheating of vapor Subcooling below the bubble point Straight through or knockback reflux

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Vaporization
Shell or tube side Horizontal or vertical Single or multi-component With or without gases entering Isothermal, linear, or nonlinear Liquid preheating Superheating above dew point Pool boiling (shell side, horizontal only) Forced circulation Natural circulation (thermosiphon) Falling film evaporation

Mechanical Scope
Front Head Types
TEMA Types: A, B, C, N, D

Shell Types
TEMA Types: E, F, G, H, J, K, X

Rear Head Types
TEMA Types: L, M, N, P, S, T, U, W

Special Types
Vapor & distributor belts, double tubesheets, hemispherical heads

Arrangements
Any number of shells in series or parallel

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Exchanger Positions
Horizontal or vertical

Construction Materials
Most common materials are built-in

Shell Diameter
No limit; in design mode the program will optimize A minimum and maximum can be specified by the user Any increment can be specified by the user

Baffle Types
Segmental baffles - single, double, triple No tubes in window including intermediate supports Grid baffles - rod, strip

Baffle Spacing
No limit; in design mode the program will optimize A minimum and maximum can be specified by the user The program checks for baffle & nozzle conflicts

Baffle Cut
15 to 45% of shell diameter (single segmental) If not specified the program will choose

Impingement Protection
External or internal In nozzle dome or distributor belt Program checks for requirement

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Tube Diameter
No limit

Tube Length
No limit; in design mode the program will optimize A minimum and maximum can be specified by the user Any increment can be specified by the user

Tube Passes
1 to 16; in design mode the program will optimize A minimum and maximum can be specified by the user The increment can be even or odd passes

Pass Layout Types
Quadrant, mixed, ribbon In design mode the program will optimize to the pass type with the most tubes

Tube Pitch
No limit; the program will default to a standard minimum

Tube Patterns
Triangular, rotated triangular, square, rotated square

Number of Tubes
Maximum of 400 tube rows In design mode the program precisely determines the tube count In rating mode the program checks the number of tubes specified

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Tube Wall Thickness
No limit; average or minimum wall The program will check against design pressure

Tube Types
Plain Integral circumferentially externally finned tubes Commercial standards are built-in or the Fin configuration can be specified Twisted tape tube inserts

Nozzle Sizes
The program determines or the user can specify

Clearances
The program defaults to TEMA values for tube hole, baffle, and pass partition clearances The user can specify the clearances

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Input
Problem Definition
The Problem Definition Section is subdivided into three headings: Description, Application Options, and Process Data.

Description
Headings
Headings are optional. You can specify from 1 to 5 lines of up to 75 characters per line. These entries will appear at the top of the TEMA specification sheet. You can have this input preformatted, by specifying your preferences for headings from the Program Settings in the Tools menu.

Fluid names
This descriptive data is optional, but we highly recommend always entering meaningful fluid descriptions, because these fluid names will appear with other input items to help you readily identify to which fluid the data applies. These names also appear in the output, especially the TEMA specification sheet. Each name can be up to 19 characters long and can contain multiple words.

Remarks
The remarks are specifically for the bottom of the output of the TEMA specification sheet. They are optional and each line can be up to 75 characters long.

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Application Options
Hot side application
Liquid, no phase change: Application covers a liquid phase fluid that does not change phase in the exchanger. Gas, no phase change: Application covers a gas phase fluid that does not change phase in the exchanger. Narrow range condensation: Application covers the cases where the condensing side film coefficient does not change significantly over the temperature range. Therefore, the calculations can be based on an assumed linear condensation profile. This class is recommended for cases of isothermal condensation and cases of multiple condensables without noncondensables where the condensing range is less than 6°C (10°F). Multi-component condensation: Application covers the other cases of condensation where the condensing side film coefficient changes significantly over the condensing range. Therefore, the condensing range must be divided into several zones where the properties and conditions must be calculated for each zone. This class is recommended for all cases where noncondensables are present or where there are multiple condensables with a condensing range of more than 6°C (10°F). Saturated steam: Application covers the case where the hot side is pure steam, condensing isothermally. Falling film liquid cooler: Application covers the case where the fluid is flowing downward and being cooled.

Condensation curve
You can input a vapor/liquid equilibrium curve or have the program calculate the curve using ideal gas laws or several other non-ideal methods.

Condenser type
Most condensers have the vapor and condensate flow in the same direction. However, for some special applications where you want to minimize the amount of subcooling you can select a knockback reflux condenser type. The condensate formed flows back towards the vapor inlet. With this type of condenser, you should consider using the differential condensation option if the program calculates the condensation curve.

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Cold side application
Liquid, no phase change: Application covers a liquid phase fluid that does not change phase in the exchanger. Gas, no phase change: Application covers a gas phase fluid that does not change phase in the exchanger. Narrow range vaporization: Application covers the cases where the vaporizing side film coefficient does not change significantly over the temperature range. Therefore, the calculations can be based on an assumed linear vaporization profile. This class is recommended for cases of single components and cases of multiple components where the vaporizing range is less than 6°C (10°F). Multi-component vaporization: Application covers the other cases of vaporization where the vaporizing side film coefficient changes significantly over the vaporizing range. Therefore, the vaporizing range must be divided into several zones where the properties and conditions must be calculated for each zone. This class is recommended for cases where there are multiple components with a vaporizing range of more than 6°C (10°F).

Vaporization curve
You can input a vapor/liquid equilibrium curve or have the program calculate the curve using ideal gas laws or several other non-ideal methods.

Vaporizer type
Pool boiling: Pool boiling is restricted to the shell side and must be horizontal. It can be in a kettle or a conventional shell with a full bundle or a partial bundle where tubes are removed for disengagement space. Thermosiphon: The thermosiphon can vaporize on the shell side (horizontal) or the tube side (vertical or horizontal). The hydraulics of the thermosiphon design are critical for proper operation. You can specify the relationship of the heat exchanger to the column and the associated piping in the input (see Thermosiphon Piping) or the program will select the piping arrangement and dimensions. Forced circulation: Forced circulation can be on either shell or tube side. Here the fluid is pumped through and an allowable pressure drop is required input. This can be for a once through vaporizer. Falling film: Falling film evaporation can be done only on the tube side in a vertical position where the liquid enters the top head and flows in a continuous film down the length of the tube. Part of the liquid is vaporized as it flows down the tube. Normally the vapor formed also flows down the tube due to the difference in pressure between the top head and the bottom head. This type of vaporizer helps minimize bubble point elevation and minimizes pressure drop.

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Location of hot fluid
This required input identifies on which side to put the hot fluid. You can change this during execution of the Aspen Hetran program, so it is easy to compare the two possibilities. As a general guideline, allocate fluids with these preferences: shell side: more viscous fluid, cleaner fluid, lower flow rate tube side: more corrosive fluid, higher pressure fluid, higher temperature fluid, dirtier fluid, more hazardous fluid, more expensive fluid.

Program mode
Design Mode: In design mode, you specify the performance requirements, and the program searches for a satisfactory heat exchanger configuration. Rating Mode: In rating mode, you specify the performance requirements and the heat exchanger configuration, and the program checks to see if that heat exchanger is adequate. Simulation Mode: In simulation mode, you specify the heat exchanger configuration and the inlet process conditions, and the program predicts the outlet conditions of the two streams. Select from standard file: You can specify a exchanger size standards file, a file which contains a list of standard heat exchanger sizes available to the user. The Hetran program will select an exchanger size from the list that satisfies the performance requirements. The standard files can be generated in the Tools / Data Maintenance / Heat Exchanger Standards section.

Process Data
Fluid quantity, total
Input the total flow rates for the hot and cold sides. For no phase change, the flow rates can be left blank and the program will calculate the required flow rates to meet the specified heat load or the heat load on the opposite side. All temperatures must be specified if the flow rates are omitted. For phase change applications, the total flow rate should be at least approximated. The program will still calculate the total required flow rate to balance the heat loads.

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Vapor quantity
For change in phase applications, input vapor flow rates entering or leaving the exchanger for the applicable hot and/or cold sides. The program requires at least two of the three following flow rates at the inlet and outlet: vapor flow, liquid flow, or total flow. It can then calculate the missing value.

Liquid quantity
For change in phase applications, input the liquid flow rates entering and/or leaving the exchanger for applicable hot and/or cold sides. The program requires at least two of the three following flow rates at the inlet and outlet: vapor flow, liquid flow, total flow. It can then calculate the missing value.

Temperature (in/out)
Enter the inlet and outlet temperatures for the hot and cold side applications. For no phase change applications, the program can calculate the outlet temperature based on the specified heat load or the heat load on the opposite side. The flow rate and the inlet temperature must be specified. For narrow condensation and vaporization applications, an outlet temperature and associated vapor and liquid flows is required. This represents the second point on the VLE curve, which we assume to be a straight line. With this information, the program can determine the correct vapor/liquid ratio at various temperatures and correct the outlet temperature or total flow rates to balance heat loads.

Dew point / Bubble point
For narrow range condensation and narrow range vaporization, enter the dew point and bubble point temperatures for the applicable hot and/or cold side. For condensers, the dew point is required but the bubble point may be omitted if vapor is still present at the outlet temperature. For vaporizers, the bubble point is required but the dew point may be omitted if liquid is still present at the outlet temperature.

Operating pressure (absolute)
Specify the pressure in absolute pressure (not gauge pressure). Depending on the application, the program may permit either inlet or outlet pressure to be specified. In most cases, it should be the inlet pressure. For a thermosiphon reboiler, the operating pressure should reflect the pressure at the surface of the liquid in the column.

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In the case of condensers and vaporizers where you expect the pressure drop to significantly change the condensation or vaporization curves, you should use a pressure drop adjusted vapor-liquid equilibrium data. If you had Hetran calculate the curve, you can indicate to adjust the curve for pressure drop.

Heat exchanged
You should specify a value for this input field when you want to design to a specific heat duty. If the heat exchanged is specified, the program will compare the hot and cold side calculated heat loads with the specified heat load. If they do not agree within 2%, the program will correct the flow rate, or outlet temperature. If the heat exchanged is not specified, the program will compare the hot and cold side calculated heat loads. If they do not agree within 2%, the program will correct the flow rate, or outlet temperature. To set what the program will balance, click on the Heat Exchange Balance Options tab and select to have the program change flow rate, outlet temperature, or to allow an unbalanced heat load.

Allowable pressure drop
Where applicable, the allowable pressure drop is required input. You can specify any value up to the operating pressure, although the allowable pressure drop should usually be less than 40% of the operating pressure.

Fouling resistance
The fouling resistance will default to zero if you leave it unspecified. You can specify any reasonable value. The program provides a suggestion list of typical values.

Heat Load Balance Options
This input allows you to specify whether you want the total flow rate or the outlet temperature to be adjusted to balance the heat load against the specified heat load or the heat load calculated from the opposite side. The program will calculate the required adjustment. There is also an option to not balance the heat loads, in which case the program will design the exchanger with the specified flows and temperatures but with the highest of the specified or calculated heat loads.

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Physical Property Data
This section includes: Property Options, Hot Side Composition, Hot Side Properties, Cold Side Composition, Cold Side Properties

Property Options
Databanks: Hot Side and Cold Side
Properties from B-JAC Databank / User Specified properties / Interface properties from Aspen Plus: By selecting this option, you can reference the B-JAC Property Databank, specify your own properties in the Hot Side and Cold property sections, or have properties directly passed into the B-JAC file directly from Aspen Plus simulation program. The B-JAC Property Databank consists of over 1500 compounds and mixtures used in the chemical process, petroleum, and other industries. You can reference the database by entering the components for the Hot Side and/or Cold Side streams in the Composition sections. Use the Search button to locate the components in the database. If you specify properties in the Hot Side and/or Cold Side property sections, do not reference any compounds in the Hot Side and/or Cold Side Composition sections unless you plan to use both the B-JAC Databank properties and specified properties. Any properties specified in the property sections will override properties coming from a property databank. If properties have been passed into the B-JAC file from the Interface to a Aspen Plus simulation run, these properties will be shown in the Hot Side and/or Cold Side Property sections. If you have passed in properties from Aspen Plus, do not specify a reference to an *.APPDF file below since properties have already been provided by the Aspen Plus interface in the specified property sections. Aspen Properties Databank: Aspen B-JAC provides access to the Aspen Properties physical property databank of compounds and mixtures. To access the databank, first create an Aspen input file with stream information and physical property models. Run Aspen Plus and create the property file, xxxx.APPDF. Specify the name of the property file here in the Hetran input file. Specify the composition of the stream in the Hetran Property Composition section. When the B-JAC program is executed, the Aspen Properties program will be accessed and properties will be passed back into the B-JAC design file. Default: Aspen B-JAC Databank / Specified Properties

Flash Option
If you are referencing the Aspen Properties databank, and providing the XXXX.APPDF file, specify the flash option you want Aspen Properties program to use with the VLE generation. Reference the Aspen Properties documentation for further detailed information on this subject. Default: Vapor-Liquid

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The Aspen Plus run file
If you are referencing the Aspen Properties databank, provide the XXXX.APPDF file. If the file is not located in the same directory as your B-JAC input file, use the browse button to set the correct path to the *.APPDF file.

Condensation Curve Calculation Method
The calculation method determines which correlations the program will use to determine the vapor-liquid equilibrium. The choice of method is dependent on the degree of non-ideality of the vapor and liquid phases and the amount of data available. The methods can be divided into three general groups: Ideal - correlations for ideal mixtures. The ideal method uses ideal gas laws for the vapor phase and ideal solution laws for the liquid phase. You should use this method when you do not have information on the degree of nonideality. This method allows for up to 50 components. Uniquac, Van Laar, Wilson, and NRTL - correlations for non-ideal mixtures which require interaction parameters. These methods are limited to ten components. The Uniquac, Van Laar, Wilson, and NRTL methods need binary interaction parameters for each pair of components. The Uniquac method also needs a surface parameter and volume parameter and the NRTL method requires an additional Alpha parameter. The Wilson method is particularly suitable for strongly non-ideal binary mixtures, e.g., solutions of alcohols with hydrocarbons. The Uniquac method is applicable for both vapor-liquid equilibrium and liquid-liquid equilibrium (immiscibles). It can be used for solutions containing small or large molecules, including polymers. In addition, Uniquac's interaction parameters are less temperature dependent than those for Van Laar and Wilson. Soave-Redlich-Kwong, Peng-Robinson, and Chao-Seader - correlations for non-ideal mixtures which do not require interaction parameters. The Soave-Redlich-Kwong and PengRobinson methods can be used on a number of systems containing hydrocarbons, nitrogen, carbon dioxide, carbon monoxide, and other weakly polar components. They can also be applied with success to systems which form an azeotrope, and which involve associating substances such as water and alcohols. They can predict vapor phase properties at any given pressure. The Chao-Seader method uses Redlich-Kwong equations for vapor phase nonideality and an empirical correlation for liquid phase non-ideality. It is used with success in the petroleum industry. It is recommended for use at pressures less than 68 bar (1000 psia) and temperatures greater than -18°C (0°F). The program uses the original Chao-Seader correlation with the Grayson-Streed modification. There is no strict demarcation between these two methods since they are closely related. These methods allow for up to 50 components.

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Condensation Curve Calculation Type
For a condensing stream, you should determine if your case is closer to integral or differential condensation. Integral condensation assumes that the vapor and liquid condensate are kept close enough together to maintain equilibrium, and that the condensate formed at the beginning of the condensing range is carried through with the vapor to the outlet. Vertical tube side condensation is the best case of integral condensation. Other cases which closely approach integral condensation are: horizontal tube side condensation, vertical shell side condensation, and horizontal shell side crossflow condensation (X-shell). In differential condensation the liquid condensate is removed from the vapor, thus changing the equilibrium and lowering the dew point of the remaining vapor. The clearest case of differential condensation is seen in the knockback reflux condenser, where the liquid condensate runs back toward the inlet while the vapor continues toward the outlet. Shell side condensation in a horizontal E or J shell is somewhere between true integral condensation and differential condensation. If you want to be conservative, treat these cases as differential condensation. However, the industry has traditionally designed them as integral condensation. More condensate will be present at any given temperature with integral condensation versus differential condensation. In the heat exchanger design, this results in a higher mean temperature difference for integral condensation compared to differential condensation.

Effect of pressure drop on condensation
The program will default to calculating the condensing curve in isobaric conditions (constant operating pressure). If you are having the B-JAC Property program generate the VLE curve, you may specify non-isobaric conditions and the program will allocate the specified pressure drop based on temperature increments along the condensing curve. The vapor/liquid equilibrium at various temperature points will be calculated using an adjusted operating pressure.

Estimated pressure drop for hot side
Provide the estimated hot side pressure drop through the exchanger. The program will use this pressure drop to adjust the VLE curve, if you are using the B-JAC Property program to generate the VLE curve. If actual pressure varies more than 20 percent from this estimated pressure drop, adjust this value to the actual and rerun Hetran. The VLE calculation program will not permit the condensate to re-flash. If calculations indicate that this is happening, the program will suggest using a lower estimated pressure drop.

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Vaporization Curve Calculation Method
The calculation method determines which correlations the program will use to determine the vapor-liquid equilibrium. The choice of method is dependent on the degree of nonideality of the vapor and liquid phases and the amount of data available. The methods can be divided into three general groups: Ideal - correlations for ideal mixtures. The ideal method uses ideal gas laws for the vapor phase and ideal solution laws for the liquid phase. You should use this method when you do not have information on the degree of non-ideality. This method allows for up to 50 components. Uniquac, Van Laar, Wilson, and NRTL - correlations for non-ideal mixtures which require interaction parameters. These methods are limited to ten components. The Uniquac, Van Laar, Wilson, and NRTL methods need binary interaction parameters for each pair of components. The Uniquac method also needs a surface parameter and volume parameter and the NRTL method requires an additional Alpha parameter. The Wilson method is particularly suitable for strongly non-ideal binary mixtures, e.g., solutions of alcohols with hydrocarbons. The Uniquac method is applicable for both vapor-liquid equilibrium and liquid-liquid equilibrium (immiscibles). It can be used for solutions containing small or large molecules, including polymers. In addition, Uniquac's interaction parameters are less temperature dependent than those for Van Laar and Wilson. Soave-Redlich-Kwong, Peng-Robinson, and Chao-Seader - correlations for non-ideal mixtures that do not require interaction parameters. The Soave-Redlich-Kwong and PengRobinson methods can be used on a number of systems containing hydrocarbons, nitrogen, carbon dioxide, carbon monoxide, and other weakly polar components. They can also be applied with success to systems which form an azeotrope, and which involve associating substances such as water and alcohols. They can predict vapor phase properties at any given pressure. The Chao-Seader method uses Redlich-Kwong equations for vapor phase nonideality and an empirical correlation for liquid phase non-ideality. It is used with success in the petroleum industry. It is recommended for use at pressures less than 68 bar (1000 psia) and temperatures greater than -18°C (0°F). The program uses the original Chao-Seader correlation with the Grayson-Streed modification. There is no strict demarcation between these two methods since they are closely related. These methods allow for up to 50 components.

Effect of pressure drop on vaporization
The program will default to calculating the vaporization curve in isobaric conditions (constant operating pressure). If you are having the B-JAC Property program generate the VLE curve, you may specify non-isobaric conditions and the program will allocate the specified pressure drop based on temperature increments along the vaporization curve. The vapor/liquid equilibrium at various temperature points will be calculated using an adjusted operating pressure.

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Estimated pressure drop for cold side
Provide the estimated cold side pressure drop through the exchanger. The program will use this pressure drop to adjust the VLE curve. If actual pressure varies more than 20% from this estimated pressure drop, adjust this value to the actual and rerun Hetran.

Hot Side Composition
If the stream physical properties are being accessed from the Aspen B-JAC databank or the program is calculating a vapor/liquid equilibrium curve (B-JAC Props or Aspen Properties); the stream composition must be defined in this table.

Hot side composition specification
Enter weight flow rate or %, mole flow rate or %, volume flow rate or %. The composition specification determines on what basis the mixture physical properties calculations should be made.

Components
The components field identifies the components in the stream. Properties for components can be accessed from the databanks by specifying the B-JAC Compound name. A "Search" facility has been provided to allow you to easily scan and select compounds from the databank. When the program is calculating a vapor/liquid equilibrium curve, you also have the option of specifying individual component physical properties by using the "Source" entry. If this is used, the component field will be used to identify the component in the results.

Vapor in, Liquid in, Vapor out, Liquid out
These fields identify the composition of the stream in each phase and is dependant on the Composition Specification described above. You must specify the inlet compositions if referencing the databank for physical properties. If outlet compositions are not specified, the program will assume the same composition as the inlet. The data for each column is normalized to calculate the individual components fraction.

Component Type
Component type field is available for all complex condensing applications. This field allows you to specify noncondensables and immiscible components. If you are not sure of the component type, the program will attempt to determine if it is a noncondensable but in general it is better to identify the type if known. If a component does not condense any liquid over the temperature range in the exchanger, it is best to identify it as a noncondensable.

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Source
The Source field is currently only available for components when the program is calculating vapor/liquid equilibrium curves. The Source of the component may be "Databank" or "User". "Databank" indicates that all component properties will be retrieved from one of the B-JAC databanks. "User" indicates that this component's physical properties are to be specified by the user.

Component Properties Hot Side
Used only for calculating condensing curves within Aspen Hetran. Allows the user to override databank properties or input properties not in the databank. The physical properties required for various applications on the hot side are listed below: Reference temperature Viscosity vapor Thermal conductivity vapor Vapor pressure Viscosity liquid Thermal conductivity liquid Molecular volume Critical pressure Density vapor Specific heat vapor Latent heat Density liquid Specific heat liquid Surface tension liquid Molecular weight Critical temperature

Interaction Parameters
The Uniquac, Van Laar, Wilson, and NRTL methods need binary interaction parameters for each pair of components. This data is not available from the databank and must be provided by the user. An example for the NRTL parameters is shown below. NRTL Method --Example with 3 components (Reference Dechema) NRTL “A” Interactive Parameters –Hetran inputted parameters 1 1 -2 3

A21 A31 A32

2 A12 --

3 A13 A23 --

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NRTL “Alpha” Parameters –Hetran inputted parameters 1 1 -------2 Alpha12 3 Alpha13 2 Alpha21 -------Alpha23 3 Alpha31 Alpha32 --------

NRTL – Conversion from Aspen Properties parameters to Hetran parameters: Aspen Properties NRTL Parameters – The parameters AIJ, AJI, DJI, DIJ, EIJ, EJI, FIJ, FJI, TLOWER, & TUPPER in Aspen Properties, which are not shown below, are not required for the Hetran NRTL method. Aspen Properties NRTL Interactive Parameters Component I Component J BIJ BJI CIJ Component 1 Component 1 Component 2 Component 3 BIJ12 BJI12 CIJ12 BIJ13 BJI13 CIJ13 Component 2 Component 3 BIJ23 BJI23 CIJ23

“A” Interactive Parameters – Conversion from Aspen Properties to Hetran 1 1 -2 A12=BIJ12*1.98721 3 A13=BIJ13*1.98721 2 A21=BJI12*1.98721 -A23=BIJ23*1.98721 3 A31=BJI13*1.98721 A32-BJI23*1.98721 --

“Alpha” Parameters – Conversion from Aspen Properties to Hetran 1 1 -2 Alpha12= CIJ12 3 Alpha13=CIJ13 2 Alpha21=CIJ12 -Alpha23=CIJ23 3 Alpha31=CIJ13 Alpha32=CIJ23 --

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NRTL – Alpha parameters
The NRTL method requires binary interaction parameters for each pair of components and an additional Alpha parameter. This data is not available from the databank. Reference the section on Interactive Parameters for an example.

Uniquac – Surface & Volume parameters
The Uniquac method requires binary interaction parameters for each pair of components and also needs a surface parameter and volume parameter. This data is not available from the databank.

Hot Side Properties
The physical properties required for the hot side fluids. Any inputted properties will override information coming from the B-JAC Property Database or Aspen Properties programs.

Temperature
If you are entering a vapor-liquid equilibrium curve, you must specify multiple temperature points on the curve encompassing the expected inlet and outlet temperatures of the exchanger. The dew and bubble points of the stream are recommended. Condensation curves must have the dew point and vaporization curves must have the bubble point. The first point on the curve does not have to agree with the inlet temperature although it is recommended. For simulation runs, it is best to specify the curve down to the inlet temperature of the opposite side. You can specify as few as one temperature or as many as 13 temperatures. The temperatures entered for no phase change fluids should at least include both the inlet and outlet temperatures. The inlet temperature of the opposite side fluid should also be included as a 3rd temperature point for viscous fluids. Multiple temperature points, including the inlet and outlet, should be entered when a change of phase is present.

Heat Load
For each temperature point you must specify a parameter defining the heat load. For heat load you may specify cumulative heat load, incremental heat load, or enthalpies.

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Vapor/Liquid Composition
For each temperature point you must also specify a parameter defining the vapor/liquid composition. For the composition, you may specify vapor flowrate, liquid flowrate, vapor mass fraction, or liquid mass fraction. The program will calculate the other parameters based on the entry and the total flow specified under process data. Vapor and liquid mass fractions are recommended because they are independent of flow rates. For complex condensers, the composition should be the total vapor stream including noncondensables.

Liquid and Vapor Properties
The necessary physical properties are dependent on the type of application. If you are referencing the databank for a fluid, you do not need to enter any data on the corresponding physical properties input screens. However, it is also possible to specify any property, even if you are referencing the databank. Any specified property will then override the value from the databank. The properties should be self-explanatory. A few clarifications follow.

Specific Heat
Provide the specific heat for the component at the referenced temperature.

Thermal Conductivity
Provide the thermal conductivity for the component at the referenced temperature.

Viscosity
The viscosity requested is the dynamic (absolute) viscosity in centipoise or mPa*s (note that centipoise and mPa*s are equal). To convert kinematic viscosity in centistokes to dynamic viscosity in centipoise or mPa*s, multiply centistokes by the specific gravity. The Aspen Hetran program uses a special logarithmic formula to interpolate or extrapolate the viscosity to the calculated tube wall temperature. However when a liquid is relatively viscous, say greater than 5 mPa*s (5 cp), and especially when it is being cooled, the accuracy of the viscosity at the tube wall can be very important to calculating an accurate film coefficient. In these cases, you should specify the viscosity at a third point, which extends the viscosity points to encompass the tube wall temperature. This third temperature point may extend to as low (if being cooled) or as high (if being heated) as the inlet temperature on the other side.

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Density
Be sure to specify density and not specific gravity. Convert specific gravity to density by using the appropriate formula: density, lb/ft3 = 62.4 * specific gravity density, kg/m3 = 1000 * specific gravity The density can also be derived from the API gravity, using this formula: density, lb/ft3 = 8829.6 / ( API + 131.5 )

Surface Tension
Surface tension is needed for vaporizing fluids. If you do not have surface tension information available, the program will estimate a value.

Latent Heat
Provide latent heat for change of phase applications.

Molecular Weight
Provide the molecular weight of the vapor for change of phase applications.

Diffusivity
The diffusivity of the vapor is used in the determination of the condensing coefficient for the mass transfer method. Therefore, provide this property if data is available. If these are not know, the program will estimate.

Noncondensables
Noncondensables are those vapor components in a condensing stream, which do not condense in any significant proportions at the expected tube wall temperature. Examples: hydrogen, CO2, Air, CO, etc. The following properties need to be provided for the noncondensables or referenced from the database: Specific Heat, Thermal Conductivity, Viscosity, Density, Molecular Weight, and Molecular Volume of the noncondensable. The noncondensable flow rate is required if it has not been defined in the databank composition input.

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Cold Side Composition
If the stream physical properties are being accessed from the Aspen B-JAC databank or the program is calculating a vapor/liquid equilibrium curve (B-JAC Props or Aspen Properties); the stream composition must be defined in this table.

Composition specification
Enter weight flow rate or % , mole flow rate or % , volume flow rate or %. The composition specification determines on what basis the mixture physical properties calculations should be made.

Components
The components field identifies the components in the stream. Properties for components can be accessed from the databanks by specifying the Aspen B-JAC Compound name. A "Search" facility has been provided to allow you to easily scan and select compounds from the databank. When the program is calculating a vapor/liquid equilibrium curve, you also have the option of specifying individual component physical properties by using the "Source" entry. If this is used, the component field will be used to identify the component in the results.

Vapor In, Liquid In, Vapor Out, Liquid Out
These fields identify the composition of the stream in each phase and is dependant on the Composition Specification described above. You must specify the inlet compositions if referencing the databank for physical properties. If outlet compositions are not specified, the program will assume the same composition as the inlet. The data for each column is normalized to calculate the individual component fraction.

Component Type
Specify the component type, inert, for each component. If you are not sure of the component type, the program will select for you but in general it is better to identify the type if known.

Source
The Source field is currently only available for components when the program is calculating vapor/liquid equilibrium curves. The Source of the component may be "Databank" or "User." "Databank" indicates that all component properties will be retrieved from one of the B-JAC databanks. "User" indicates that this component's physical properties are to be specified by the user.

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Component Properties Cold Side
Used only for calculating vaporization curves within Aspen Hetran. Allows the user to override databank properties or input properties not in the databank. The required physical properties required for the various applications on the cold side are listed below: Reference temperature Viscosity vapor Thermal conductivity vapor Vapor pressure Viscosity liquid Thermal conductivity liquid Molecular volume Critical pressure Density vapor Specific heat vapor Latent heat Density liquid Specific heat liquid Surface tension liquid Molecular weight Critical temperature

Interaction Parameters
The Uniquac, Van Laar, Wilson, and NRTL methods need binary interaction parameters for each pair of components. This data is not available from the databank.

NRTL – Alpha parameters
The NRTL method requires binary interaction parameters for each pair of components and an additional Alpha parameter. This data is not available from the databank.

Uniquac – Surface & Volume parameters
The Uniquac method requires binary interaction parameters for each pair of components and also needs a surface parameter and volume parameter. This data is not available from the databank.

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Cold Side Properties
The physical properties required for the hot side fluids. Any properties inputted will override information from B-JAC Props or Aspen Properties programs.

Temperature
If you are entering a vapor-liquid equilibrium curve, you must specify multiple temperature points on the curve encompassing the expected inlet and outlet temperatures of the exchanger. The dew and bubble points of the stream are recommended. Condensation curves must have the dew point and vaporization curves must have the bubble point. The first point on the curve does not have to agree with the inlet temperature although it is recommended. For simulation runs, it is best to specify the curve up to the inlet temperature of the opposite side. You can specify as few as one temperature or as many as 13 temperatures. The temperatures entered for no phase change fluids should at least include both the inlet and outlet temperatures. The inlet temperature of the opposite side fluid should also be included as a 3rd temperature point for viscous fluids. Multiple temperature points, including the inlet and outlet, should be entered when a change of phase is present.

Heat Load
For each temperature point you must specify a parameter defining the heat load. For heat load you may specify cumulative heat load, incremental heat load, or enthalpies.

Vapor/Liquid Composition
For each temperature point you must also specify a parameter defining the vapor/liquid composition. For the composition, you may specify vapor flowrate, liquid flowrate, vapor mass fraction, or liquid mass fraction. The program will calculate the other parameters based on the entry and the total flow specified under process data. Vapor and liquid mass fractions are recommended because they are independent of flow rates.

Liquid and Vapor Properties
The necessary physical properties are dependent on the type of application. If you are referencing the databank for a fluid, you do not need to enter any data on the corresponding physical properties input screens. However, it is also possible to specify any property, even if you are referencing the databank. Any specified property will then override the value from the databank. The properties should be self-explanatory. A few clarifications follow.

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Specific Heat
Provide the specific heat for the component at the referenced temperature.

Thermal Conductivity
Provide the thermal conductivity for the component at the referenced temperature.

Viscosity
The viscosity requested is the dynamic (absolute) viscosity in centipoise or mPa*s (note that centipoise and mPa*s are equal). To convert kinematic viscosity in centistokes to dynamic viscosity in centipoise or mPa*s, multiply centistokes by the specific gravity. The Aspen Hetran program uses a special logarithmic formula to interpolate or extrapolate the viscosity to the calculated tube wall temperature. However when a liquid is relatively viscous, say greater than 5 mPa*s (5 cp), and especially when it is being cooled, the accuracy of the viscosity at the tube wall can be very important to calculating an accurate film coefficient. In these cases, you should specify the viscosity at a third point, which extends the viscosity points to encompass the tube wall temperature. This third temperature point may extend to as low (if being cooled) or as high (if being heated) as the inlet temperature on the other side.

Density
Be sure to specify density and not specific gravity. Convert specific gravity to density by using the appropriate formula: density, lb/ft3 = 62.4 * specific gravity density, kg/m3 = 1000 * specific gravity The density can also be derived from the API gravity, using this formula: density, lb/ft3 = 8829.6 / ( API + 131.5 )

Surface Tension
Surface tension is needed for vaporizing fluids. If you do not have surface tension information available, the program will estimate a value.

Molecular Weight
Provide the molecular weight of the vapor for change of phase applications.

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Diffusivity
If diffusivity values are not provided the program will estimate them. This property is important for the accurate prediction of condensing film coefficients using the mass transfer model.

Critical Pressure
The critical pressure is the pressure above which a liquid cannot be vaporized no matter how high the temperature. For mixtures, the critical pressure should be the sum of the critical pressures of each component weighted by their mole fractions. This input is required to calculate the nucleate boiling coefficient. If you do not enter a value for the critical pressure, the program will estimate a value.

Vaporization curve adjustment for pressure
For certain applications (thermosiphons reboilers, pool boilers, etc.), it is advisable to adjust the vaporization curve for pressure changes during the analysis of the exchanger. This input specifies the type of adjustment to be made.

Reference Pressure
For vaporization applications, a second reference pressure with the corresponding bubble and/or dew point(s) is recommended. By inputting this data, the program can determine the change in bubble point temperature with the change in pressure. This will be used to correct the vaporization curve for pressure changes.

Bubble point at reference pressure
For vaporization applications, a bubble point at reference pressure may be optionally specified. The bubble point at reference pressure and bubble point at operating pressure are used to determine the change in bubble point temperature with change in pressure. This will be used to correct the vaporization curve for pressure changes.

Dew point at reference pressure
For vaporization applications, a dew point at reference pressure may be optionally specified. The dew point at reference pressure and dew point at operating pressure are used to determine the change in dew point temperature with change in pressure. This will be used to correct the vaporization curve for pressure changes.

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Exchanger Geometry
The Geometry Section is subdivided into six sections: Exchanger Type, Tubes, Bundle, Baffles, Rating/Simulation Data, Nozzles

Exchanger Type
Front head type

The front head type should be selected based upon the service needs for the exchanger. A full access cover provided in the A, C, and N type heads may be needed if the tube side of the exchanger must be cleaned frequently. The B type is generally the most economical type head. Default: B Type

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Shell type

E type: Generally provides the best heat transfer but also the highest shell side pressure drop. Used for temperature cross applications where pure counter current flow is needed. F type: This two pass shell can enhance shell side heat transfer and also maintain counter current flow if needed for temperature cross applications. G type: Will enhance the shell side film coefficient for a given exchanger size. H type: A good choice for low shell side operating pressure applications. Pressure drop can be minimized. Used for shell side thermosiphons. J type: Used often for shell side condensers. With two inlet vapor nozzles on top and the single condensate nozzle on bottom, vibration problems can be avoided. K type: Used for kettle type shell side reboilers. X type: Good for low shell side pressure applications. Units is provided with support plates which provides pure cross flow through the bundle. Multiple inlet and outlet nozzles or flow distributors are recommended to assure full distribution of the flow along the bundle. V type shell: This type is not currently part of the TEMA standards. It is used for very low shell side pressure drops. It is especially well suited for vacuum condensers. The vapor belt is an enlarged shell over part of the bundle length. Default: E type (except K type shell side pool boilers)

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Rear head type

The rear head type affects the thermal design, because it determines the outer tube limits and therefore the number of tubes and the required number of tube passes. Default: U type for kettle shells, M type for all others

Exchanger position
Specify that the exchanger is to be installed in the horizontal or vertical position. Default: vertical for tube side thermosiphon; horizontal for all others

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Front cover type

Flat

E llip so idal
`

T orisp herical

H em i

Co ne

E lbo w

K lo pper

K o rbbo gen

This item will only appear when you have specified a B type front head. A flat bolted cover is assumed for the other front head types. This is included for the accuracy of the cost estimate and a more complete heat exchanger specification. Default: ellipsoidal

Cover welded to a cylinder
The cover welded to a cylinder option determines if there is a cylinder between the front head flange (or tubesheet in the case of a hemispherical cover) and the attached cover. This is included for the accuracy of the cost estimate and a more complete heat exchanger specification. Default: yes, except when the cover is hemispherical

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Rear cover type

Flat Bolted

Flat Welded

Ellipsoidal

Torispherical

Hemi

Cone

Elbow

Dished

Klopper

Korbbogen

The flat bolted cover is for L, N, P and W type rear heads. The flat welded and form covers (except for the dished cover) are available on the M type rear heads. The dished and ellipsoidal is available on the S and T rear heads. This is included for accuracy of the cost estimate and a more complete heat exchanger specification. Default: flat bolted for L, N, P, or W; ellipsoidal for M type; dished for S or T type

Cover welded to a cylinder
The cover welded to a cylinder option only applies to M type rear heads. For other cases it is ignored. It determines if there is a cylinder between the rear head flange (or tubesheet in the case of a hemispherical cover) and the attached cover. This is included for the accuracy of the cost estimate and a more complete heat exchanger specification. Default: yes, except when the cover is hemispherical

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Shell cover type

Flat Bolted

Flat Welded

Ellipsoidal

Torispherical

Hemi

Klopper

Korbbogen

A shell cover type should be specified for a U-tube, S, or T type rear head exchangers. Shell cover may be welded directly to shell cylinder or bolted to the shell cylinder with a pair of mating body flanges. Default: Ellipsoidal for U-tube, S, T type rear heads

Tubesheet type

The tubesheet type has a very significant effect on both the thermal design and the cost. Double tubesheets are used when it is extremely important to avoid any leakage between the shell and tube side fluids. Double tubesheets are most often used with fixed tubesheet exchangers, although they can also be used with U-tubes and outside packed floating heads. Double tubesheets shorten the length of the tube which is in contact with the shell side fluid and therefore reduce the effective surface area. They also affect the location of the shell side nozzles and the possible baffle spacings. The gap type double tubesheet has a space, usually about 150 mm (6 in.), between the inner (shell side) and outer (tube side) tubesheets. The integral type double tubesheet is made by machining out a honeycomb pattern inside a single thick piece of plate so that any leaking

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fluid can flow down through the inside of the tubesheet to a drain. This type is rare, since it requires special fabrication tools and experience. Default: normal single tubesheet(s)

Tube to tubesheet joint

The tube to tubesheet joint does not affect the thermal design, but it does have a small effect on the mechanical design and sometimes a significant effect on the cost. The most common type of tube to tubesheet joint is expanded only with 2 grooves. Although TEMA Class C allows expanded joints without grooves, most fabricators will groove the tube holes whenever the tubes are not welded to the tubesheet. For more rigorous service, the tube to tubesheet joint should be welded. The most common welded joints are expanded and seal welded with 2 grooves and expanded and strength welded with 2 grooves. Default: expanded only with 2 grooves for normal service; expanded and strength welded with 2 grooves for lethal service

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Include expansion joint
The specification of an expansion joint will not affect the thermal design calculations, but it will have a significant effect on the cost. This item only applies to fixed tubesheet heat exchangers; it is ignored for all other types. The calculations required to determine the need for an expansion joint are quite complex and are beyond the scope of the Hetran program. These calculations are part of the Teams program. However the Hetran program will estimate the differential expansion between the tubes and the shell and make a simple determination on the need for an expansion joint if you use the program default. Default: program will choose based on estimated differential expansion

Flange type – hot side
The body flange type refers to the type of flanges that are attached to the shell cylinder for the shell side and the head cylinder(s) for the tube side. This item can have a significant effect on the cost. The shell side body flange type (applicable to removable bundle designs only) also can have an effect on the thermal design, since the choice will determine how close the shell side nozzles can be to the tubesheet and therefore where the first and last baffles can be located. The program will default to a ring type body flange if cylinder is carbon steel. If the cylinder is alloy, the default will be a lap-joint type flange.

Ring

Ring with Overlay

Lap Joint

Hub

Default: Ring if attached to a carbon steel cylinder and not TEMA R Hub if attached to a carbon steel cylinder and TEMA R Lap joint if attached to an alloy cylinder

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Flange type – cold side
The body flange type refers to the type of flanges that are attached to the shell cylinder for the shell side and the head cylinder(s) for the tube side. This item can have a significant effect on the cost. The shell side body flange type (applicable to removable bundle designs only) also can have an effect on the thermal design, since the choice will determine how close the shell side nozzles can be to the tubesheet and therefore where the first and last baffles can be located. The program will default to a ring type body flange if cylinder is carbon steel. If the cylinder is alloy, the default will be a lap-joint type flange.

Ring

Ring with Overlay

Lap Joint

Hub

Default: Ring if attached to a carbon steel cylinder and not TEMA R Hub if attached to a carbon steel cylinder and TEMA R Lap joint if attached to an alloy cylinder

Tubes
Tube type
The program covers plain tubes and external integral circumferentially finned tubes. Externally finned tubes become advantageous when the shell side film coefficient is much less than the tube side film coefficient. However there are some applications where finned tubes are not recommended. They are not usually recommended for cases where there is high fouling on the shell side, or very viscous flow, or for condensation where there is a high liquid surface tension. The dimensional standards for Wolverine's High Performance finned tubes, are built into the program. These standard finned tubes are available in tube diameters of 12.7, 15.9, 19.1, and 25.4 mm or 0.5, 0.625, 0.75, and 1.0 inch. Reference the appendix for available sizes. Default: plain tubes

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Tube outside diameter
You can specify any size for the tube outside diameter, however the correlations have been developed based on tube sizes from 10 to 50 mm (0.375 to 2.0 inch). The most common sizes in the U.S. are 0.625, 0.75, and 1.0 inch. In many other countries, the most common sizes are 16, 20, and 25 mm. If you do not know what tube diameter to use, start with a 20 mm diameter, if you work with ISO standards, or a 0.75 inch diameter if you work with American standards. This size is readily available in nearly all tube materials. The primary exception is for graphite which is made in 32, 37, and 50 mm or 1.25, 1.5, and 2 inch outside diameters. For integral low fin tubes, the tube outside diameter is the outside diameter of the fin. Default: 19.05 mm or 0.75 inch

Tube wall thickness
You should choose the tube wall thickness based on considerations of corrosion, pressure, and company standards. If you work with ANSI standards, the thicknesses follow the BWG standards. These are listed for your reference in the Appendix of this manual and in the Help facility. The program defaults are a function of material per TEMA recommendations and a function of pressure. The Aspen Hetran program will check the specified tube wall thickness for internal pressure and issue a warning if it is inadequate. The selections to the right of the input field are provided for easy selection using the mouse. The values are not limited to those listed. Default: 0.065 in. or 1.6 mm for carbon steel; 0.028 in. or 0.7 mm for titanium; 0.180 in. or 5 mm for graphite; 0.049 in. or 1.2 mm for other materials

Tube wall roughness
The relative roughness of the inside tube surface will affect the calculated tube side pressure drops. The program defaults a relatively smooth tube surface (5.91 x 10-5 inch). A commercial grade pipe has a relative roughness of 1.97 x 10-3 inch. Default: Smooth tube, 5.91 x 10-5 inch ( .0015 mm)

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Tube wall specification
In many countries, the tube wall thickness is specified as either average or minimum. Average means the average wall thickness will be at least the specified thickness; typically the thickness may vary up to 12%. With minimum wall, all parts of the tube must be at least the specified thickness. In the U.S., most heat exchanger tubes are specified as average wall thickness. In other countries, for example Germany, the standard requires minimum wall. This item has a small effect on tube side pressure drop and a moderate effect on heat exchanger cost. Default: average

Tube pitch
The tube pitch is the center to center distance between two adjacent tubes. Generally the tube pitch should be approximately 1.25 times the tube O.D. It some cases, it may be desirable to increase the tube pitch in order to better satisfy the shell side allowable pressure drop. It is not recommended to increase the tube pitch beyond 1.5 times the tube O.D. Minimum tube pitches are suggested by TEMA as a function of tube O.D., tube pattern, and TEMA class. The program will default to the TEMA minimum tube pitch, if you are designing to TEMA standards. The DIN standards also cover tube pitch. The DIN tube pitches are a function of tube O.D., tube pattern, and tube to tubesheet joint. The program will default to the DIN standard if you are designing to DIN standards. Default: TEMA minimum or DIN standard

Tube material
For available tube materials, reference the material section. Default: Carbon steel

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Tube Pattern
The tube pattern is the layout of the tubes in relation to the direction of the shell side crossflow, which is normal to the baffle cut edge. The one exception to this is pool boiling in a kettle type reboiler where the tube supports are sometimes baffles with a vertical cut. Use triangular when you want to maximize the shell side film coefficient and maximize the number of tubes, and shell side cleaning is not a major concern. If you must be able to mechanically clean the shell side of the bundle, then choose square or rotated square. Rotated square will give the higher film coefficient and higher pressure drop, but it will usually have fewer tubes than a square layout. Rotated triangular is rarely the optimum, because it has a comparatively poor conversion of pressure drop to heat transfer. Square is recommended for pool boilers to provide escape lanes for the vapor generated. Default: triangular - fixed tubesheet exchangers, square - pool boilers

Fin density
If you specify fin tubes as the tube type, then you must specify the desired fin density (i.e., the number of fins per inch or per meter depending on the system of measure). Since the possible fin densities are very dependent on the tube material, you should be sure that the desired fin density is commercially available. The dimensional standards for finned tubes made by Wolverine, and High Performance Tube are built into the program. If you choose one of these, the program will automatically supply the corresponding fin height, fin thickness, and ratio of tube outside to inside surface area. If you do not choose one of the standard fin densities, then you must also supply the other fin data, which follows in the input.

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The standard fin densities for various materials are:
Carbon Steel Stainless Steel Copper Copper-Nickel 90/10 Copper-Nickel 70/30 Nickel Carbon Alloy 201 Nickel Alloy 400 (Monel) Nickel Alloy 600 (Inconel) Nickel Alloy 800 Hastelloy Titanium Admiralty Aluminum-Brass Alloy 687 19 16, 28 19, 26 16, 19, 26 19, 26 19 28 28 28 30 30 19, 26 19

Fin height
The fin height is the height above the root diameter of the tube.

Fin thickness
The fin thickness is the average fin thickness.

Surface area per unit length
The outside tube surface area per unit length of tube. Average outside surface area / Unit length: Tube O.D. Tube O.D. 0.750 in 19.05 mm 0.406-0.500 ft2/ft 0.124-0.152 m2/m

Standard fin dimensions: Fin Density Fin Height 16-30 fins/in 0.0625-0.032 in 630-1181 fins/m 1.59-0.81 mm 0.28-0.31 mm

Fin Thickness 0.011-0.012 in

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Outside/Inside surface area ratio
The ratio of the tube outside to inside surface area is the developed surface area outside divided by the surface area inside per unit length.

Twisted Tape Insert Ratio of Length to Width for 180 Degree Twist
Provide the ratio of the length of tape required to make a 180 degree twist to the width of the tape. The smaller the ratio, the tighter the twist.

Twisted Tape Insert Width
Specify the width of twisted tape insert.

Tapered tube ends for knockback condensers
Select to have tapered tube ends at inlet tubesheet. Tapered tube ends promote better condensate drainage from the tubes and reduce the potential for flooding.

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Bundle
Shell entrance construction

Normally, it is advantageous to use a full tube layout, i.e., to place as many tubes as possible within the outer tube limits. This maximizes the surface area within a given shell diameter and minimizes bypassing. However when this results in excessive velocities entering the shell, then it is recommended that some tubes near the inlet nozzle be removed or a dome or distributor belt be installed. If you choose the option to remove tubes within the nozzle projection, the program will eliminate any tubes, which would extend beyond the lowest part of the nozzle cylinder. In many cases, using this option will have no effect since nozzles, which are relatively small in comparison to the shell diameter (say smaller than 1/4 the shell diameter) will not extend to the first row of tubes anyway. A nozzle dome with a full layout reduces the velocity entering the shell, but does not effect the velocity entering the bundle. A distributor belt with a full layout is the most effective way to reduce entrance velocities, but it is usually the most expensive. When you remove tubes so that the shell entrance area equals the inlet nozzle area, the tube layout is the same as when installing an impingement plate on the bundle, although the presence of the impingement plate is determined by another input item described next. This is usually a very effective way of decreasing entrance velocities. Default: normal with full layout if no impingement plate; nozzle dome with full layout if impingement plate in nozzle dome; remove tubes so that shell entrance area equals inlet nozzle area if impingement plate on bundle

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Shell exit construction

Normally, it is advantageous to use a full tube layout, i.e., to place as many tubes as possible within the outer tube limits. This maximizes the surface area within a given shell diameter and minimizes bypassing. However when this results in excessive velocities exiting the bundle or shell, then it is recommended that some tubes near the outlet nozzle be removed or a dome or distributor belt be installed. If you choose the option to remove tubes within the nozzle projection, the program will eliminate any tubes, which would extend beyond the lowest part of the nozzle cylinder. In many cases, using this option will have no effect since nozzles, which are relatively small in comparison to the shell diameter (say smaller than 1/4 the shell diameter) will not extend to the first row of tubes anyway. A nozzle dome with a full layout reduces the velocity exiting the shell, but does not effect the velocity exiting the bundle. A distributor belt with a full layout is the most effective way to reduce exit velocities, but it is usually the most expensive. When you remove tubes so that the shell entrance area equals the inlet nozzle area, it is usually a very effective way of decreasing exit velocities. Default: same as shell entrance construction if inlet and outlet nozzles are at the same orientation; otherwise, normal with full layout

Provide disengagement space in shell (pool boilers only)
If specified, the shell diameter will be increased to provide disengagement space for the vapor generated. If a kettle shell is specified, the program will always provide the disengagement space.

Percent of shell diameter for disengagement (pool boilers only)
You can specify the percentage of disengagement space needed.

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Impingement protection type

The purpose of impingement protection is to protect the tubes directly under the inlet nozzle by deflecting the bullet shaped flow of high velocity fluids or the force of entrained droplets. TEMA recommends that inlet impingement protection be installed under the following conditions: • • • • • When the rho*V2 through the inlet nozzle exceeds 2232 kg/(m*s2) or 1500 lb/(ft*s2) for non-corrosive, non-abrasive, single phase fluids When the rho*V2 through the inlet nozzle exceeds 744 kg/(m*s2) or 500 lb/(ft*s2) for corrosive or abrasive liquids When there is a nominally saturated vapor When there is a corrosive gas When there is two phase flow at the inlet

If you choose a plate on the bundle the program will automatically remove tubes under the inlet nozzle so that the shell entrance area equals the cross-sectional area of the nozzle. This is approximately equal to removing any tubes within a distance of 1/4 the nozzle diameter under the center of the nozzle. For purposes of calculating the bundle entrance velocity, the program defaults to an impingement plate that is circular, unperforated, equal in diameter to the inside diameter of the nozzle, and approximately 3 mm or 1/8 in. thick. An alternative is to put a plate in a nozzle dome, which means suspending the impingement plate in an enlarged nozzle neck, which may be a dome or a cone. Both types have their advantages and disadvantages. If the plate is on the bundle, the flow is more widely distributed, and there is neither the expense for the enlarged nozzle neck nor the increased potential of fabrication problems when cutting a large hole in the shell (as can often happen with vapor inlet nozzles). However, since tubes are removed, it may require larger diameter shell, tubesheets, flanges, etc. Especially in cases where the tubesheets and/or shell are made of alloy and the inlet nozzle is not large, the impingement plate in the nozzle dome may be significantly less expensive. For some special applications, the plate may be perforated. The primary advantage being that the perforations will help reduce the velocity into the bundle. The main concern with perforated plates is that flow through the holes could cause localized erosion for certain tube materials. Default: circular plate on bundle if condensation or vaporization is occurring on the shell side; none otherwise

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Impingement plate diameter
The program will use this input to determine the position and the dimension of the impingement plate This input is not required if you have already specified the shell inlet nozzle OD. The default is the shell inlet nozzle O.D.

Impingement plate length and width
You can specify a rectangular impingement plate size. The default is the shell inlet nozzle O.D. for length and width (square plate).

Impingement plate thickness
This input is required if you specify there is an impingement field. You can specify any thickness for the impingement plate. The default is 3 mm or 0.125 inch.

Impingement distance from shell ID
You can specify the distance from the shell inside diameter to the impingement plate. The default is the top row of tubes.

Impingement clearance to tube edge
You can specify the distance from the impingement plate to the first row of tubes.

Impingement plate perforation area %
If you are using a perforated type impingement plate, you can specify the percent of area that the plate is perforated.

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Layout Options Pass layout

Quadrant

Mixed

Ribbon

There are several possible ways to layout tubes for four or more passes. The primary effect on the thermal design is due to the different number of tubes, which are possible for each type. Quadrant layout has the advantage of usually (but certainly not always) giving the highest tube count. It is the required layout for all U-tube designs of four or more passes. The tube side nozzles must be offset from the centerline when using quadrant layout. The program will automatically avoid quadrant layout for shells with longitudinal baffles and 6, 10, or 14 pass, in order to avoid having the longitudinal baffle bisect a pass. Mixed layout has the advantage of keeping the tube side nozzles on the centerline. It often gives a tube count close to quadrant and sometimes exceeds it. The program will automatically avoid mixed layout for shells with longitudinal baffles and 4, 8, 12, or 16 passes. Ribbon layout nearly always gives a layout with fewer tubes than quadrant or mixed layout. It is the layout the program always uses for an odd number of tube passes. It is also the layout preferred by the program for X-type shells. The primary advantage of ribbon layout is the more gradual change in operating temperature of adjacent tubes from top to bottom of the tubesheet. This can be especially important when there is a large change in temperature on the tube side, which might cause significant thermal stresses in mixed and especially quadrant layouts. Default: program will optimize

Design symmetrical tube layout
Program will make the tube pattern as symmetrical as possible for the top to bottom.

Maximum % deviation in tubes per pass
This input determines the acceptable deviation from the median number of tubes per pass. This value is used in the tubesheet layout subroutine to determine the maximum number of tubes.

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Ideally, it is desirable to have the same number of tubes in each pass when there is no change of phase on the tube side. However, for most layouts of more than two passes, this would require removing tubes which would otherwise fit within the outer tube limit. Since it is preferable to maximize the surface area within a given shell and minimize the possible shell side bypassing, a reasonable deviation in tubes per pass is usually acceptable. It is recommended that you avoid large deviations since this gives significantly different velocities in some passes and wastefully increases the pressure drop due to additional expansion and contraction losses. Since the Aspen Hetran program bases the tube side calculations on an average number of tubes per pass, such aberrations are not reflected in the thermal design. Default: 5 %

Number of tie rods
The tie rods hold the spacers, which hold segmental baffles in place. This input has no meaning in the case of grid baffles (rod and strip baffles). TEMA has recommendations for a minimum number of tie rods, which is a function of the shell diameter. Additional tie rods are sometimes desirable to block bypassing along pass partition lanes or to better anchor double or triple segmental baffles. The Aspen Hetran program will first try to locate the tie rods so that they do not displace any tubes. If this is not possible, it will then displace tubes as necessary. The program will only locate tie rods around the periphery of the bundle, not in the middle of the bundle. Default: TEMA Standards

Number of sealing strip pairs
Sealing strips are used to reduce bypassing of the shell side flow around the bundle between the shell ID and the outer most tubes. In fixed tubesheet (L, M, & N rear heads) and U-tube heat exchangers the clearance between shell ID and the outer tube limit is comparatively small. Therefore sealing strips are seldom used for these types. In inside floating head (S & T rear heads), outside packed floating head (P rear head), and floating tubesheet (W rear head) heat exchangers, the potential for bypassing is much greater. In these cases sealing strips should always be installed. The thermal design calculations in Aspen Hetran assume that sealing strips are always present in P, S, T, & W type heat exchangers. Default: none for L, M, N, U, & W types 1 pair per 5 tube rows for S, T, & P types

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Minimum u-bend diameter
This is the minimum distance from tube center to tube center that a U-tube can be bent. The program defaults to a generally safe minimum of three times the tube O.D. The true minimum is a function of the material, the tube wall thickness, and the bending process. This has a significant effect on the thermal design, because it determines the number of tubes in a U-tube layout. You can also use this input to force the program to simulate a U-tube layout where the innermost U-tubes are installed at an angle other than the normal vertical plane (for 2 passes) or horizontal plane (for 4 or more passes). However, when doing this, the program will overpredict the number of tubes by one for each pass. Default: three times the tube outside diameter

Pass partition lane width
The pass partition lane is the opening between passes as measured from the outermost edge of the tube of one pass to the outermost edge of a tube in the next pass. This necessary distance is a function of the thickness of the pass partition plate and, in the case of U-tubes, the minimum U-bend diameter. The program default equals the thickness of the pass partition plate plus 3 mm or 0.125 in. The thickness of the pass partition plate is determined according to the TEMA standards. Default: pass partition plate thickness + 3 mm or 0.125 in.

Location of center tube in 1st row
You can select the tube position in the first row to be on the center line or off center. If set to program, the tube position will be set to maximize the number of tubes in the layout. Default: program will optimize

Outer tube limit diameter
The outer tube limit (OTL) is the diameter of the circle beyond which no portion of a tube will be placed. This input only applies to rating mode. In design mode, the program ignores this entry. An alternative means of controlling the OTL, in both rating and design mode is to specify the "Shell ID to Baffle OD" and the "Baffle OD to outer tube limit" under Diametric Clearances in the Clearances/Options Screen. Default: program will calculate

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Layout Limits
Open space between shell ID and outermost tube
You can control where the program will place tubes by specifying limits at the top of the bundle, bottom of the bundle, and/or both sides of the bundle. The tubesheet layout is always symmetrical left to right, but it can be asymmetrical top to bottom. You can specify each limit as either a percentage of the shell inside diameter or as an absolute distance. Default: limited by outer tube limit

Distance from tube center
You can control the distances between the center tube rows and the horizontal / vertical centerlines. Default: program optimized

Clearances
Shell ID to baffle OD
It is recommended that you choose the program defaults for diametrical clearances that are in accordance with the TEMA standards. If you want to override any of the default values, specify the desired diametrical clearance (two times the average gap). Default: TEMA Standards

Baffle OD to outer tube limit
It is recommended that you choose the program defaults for diametrical clearances that are in accordance with the TEMA standards. If you want to override any of the default values, specify the desired diametrical clearance (two times the average gap). Default: TEMA Standards

Baffle tube hole to tube OD
Note that the tolerance on the baffle hole to tube clearance is highly dependent on the drilling equipment used. Therefore be careful when specifying a baffle hole to tube clearance less than 0.8 mm or 0.03125 in. Default: TEMA standards

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Baffles
Baffle Type

Single Segmental

Double Segmental

Triple Segmental

Full Support

No Tubes in Window

Rod

Strip

Baffle types can be divided up into two general categories - segmental baffles and grid baffles. Segmental baffles are pieces of plate with holes for the tubes and a segment that has been cut away for a baffle window. Single, double, triple, and no tubes in window are examples of segmental baffles. Grid baffles are made from rods or strips of metal, which are assembled to provide a grid of openings through which the tubes can pass. The program covers two types of grid baffles: rod baffles and strip baffles. Both are used in cases where the allowable pressure drop is low and the tube support is important to avoid tube vibration. Segmental baffles are the most common type of baffle, with the single segmental baffle being the type used in a majority of shell and tube heat exchangers. The single segmental baffle gives the highest shell film coefficient but also the highest pressure drop. A double segmental baffle at the same baffle spacing will reduce the pressure drop dramatically (usually somewhere between 50% - 75%) but at the cost of a lower film coefficient. The baffles should have at least one row of overlap and therefore become practical for a 20 mm or 0.75 in. tube in shell diameters of 305 mm (12 in.) or greater for double segmental and 610 (24 in.) or greater for triple segmental baffles. (Note: the B-JAC triple segmental baffle is different than the TEMA triple segmental baffle.) Full Supports are used in K and X type shells where baffling is not necessary to direct the shell side flow. No Tubes In Window is a layout using a single segmental baffle with tubes removed in the baffle windows. This type is used to avoid tube vibration and may be further enhanced with intermediate supports to shorten the unsupported tube span. The standard abbreviation for no tubes in the window is NTIW. Rod Baffle design is based on the construction and correlations developed by Phillips Petroleum. Rod baffles are limited to a square tube pattern. The rods are usually about 6 mm (0.25 in.) in diameter. The rods are placed between every other tube row and welded to a

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circular ring. There are four repeating sets where each baffle is rotated 90 degrees from the previous baffle. Strip Baffles are normally used with a triangular tube pattern. The strips are usually about 25 mm (1 in.) wide and 3 mm (0.125 in.) thick. The strips are placed between every tube row. Intersecting strips can be notched to fit together or stacked and tack welded. The strips are welded to a circular ring. Strip baffles are also sometimes referred to as nest baffles. Default: single segmental except X shells; full support for X shell

Baffle cut (% of diameter)
The baffle cut applies to segmental baffles and specifies the size of the baffle window as a percent of the shell I.D. For single segmental baffles, the program allows a cut of 15% to 45%. Greater than 45% is not practical because it does not provide for enough overlap of the baffles. Less than 15% is not practical, because it results in a high pressure drop through the baffle window with relatively little gain in heat transfer (poor pressure drop to heat transfer conversion). Generally, where baffling the flow is necessary, the best baffle cut is around 25%. For double and triple segmental baffles, the baffle cut pertains to the most central baffle window. The program will automatically size the other windows for an equivalent flow area. Refer to the Appendix for a detailed explanation of baffle cuts. Default: single segmental: 45% for simple condensation and pool boiling; 25% for all others; double segmental: 28% (28/23); triple segmental: 14% (14/15/14)

Baffle cut orientation

Horizontal

Vertical

Rotated

The baffle orientation applies to the direction of the baffle cut in segmental baffles. It is very dependent on the shell side application for vertical heat exchangers; the orientation has little meaning or effect. It may affect the number of tubes in a multipass vertical heat exchanger. For horizontal heat exchangers it is far more important. For a single phase fluid in a horizontal shell, the preferable baffle orientation of single segmental baffles is horizontal, although vertical and rotated are usually also acceptable. The choice will not affect the performance, but it will affect the number of tubes in a multipass

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heat exchanger. The horizontal cut has the advantage of limiting stratification of multicomponent mixtures, which might separate at low velocities. The rotated cut is rarely used. Its only advantage is for a removable bundle with multiple tube passes and rotated square layout. In this case the number of tubes can be increased by using a rotated cut, since the pass partition lane can be smaller and still maintain the cleaning paths all the way across the bundle. (From the tubesheet, the layout appears square instead of rotated square.) For horizontal shell side condensers, the orientation should always be vertical, so that the condensate can freely flow at the bottom of the heat exchanger. These baffles are frequently notched at the bottom to improve drainage. For shell side pool boiling, the cut (if using a segmental baffle) should be vertical. For shell side forced circulation vaporization, the cut should be horizontal in order to minimize the separation of liquid and vapor. For double and triple segmental baffles, the preferred baffle orientation is vertical. This provides better support for the tube bundle than a horizontal cut which would leave the topmost baffle unsupported by the shell. However this can be overcome by leaving a small strip connecting the topmost segment with the bottommost segment around the baffle window between the O.T.L. and the baffle O.D. Default: vertical for double and triple segmental baffles; vertical for shell side condensers; vertical for F, G, H, and K type shells; horizontal for all other cases

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Number of Intermediate Supports
Specify number of intermediate supports at the inlet, outlet and center spacing.

Intermediate supports are support plates or grids which are used to give additional support to the tubes in order to avoid tube vibration. Grid supports can be used between baffles, at the inlet or outlet, or at the U-bend and with any type of baffle. Support plates at other positions can only be used in conjunction with No Tubes In the Window (NTIW) baffles. Intermediate supports are assumed to have an insignificant effect on the thermal performance. Their presence will however be considered in the vibration analysis. Default: None

Type U-bend support

One or more supports can be placed at the U-bend to give additional support to the tubes in order to avoid tube vibration. Default: Full support at U-bend

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Distance from nearest support/baffle to tangent of U-bend
Provide the distance from the nearest support or baffle to the tangent point of the U-bends. Normally this clearance is a minimum of 3 inches.

Distance between partial supports at U-bend
If two partial supports at U-bend have been specified, you can indicate the spacing between those supports. Default: 6 inch spacing

U-bend mean radius
This mean radius will determine the unsupported tube span for the U-bends used in the tube vibration calculations. If not provided, the program will determine the mean radius based upon the actual tube layout. Default: Program calculated

Rod baffle dimensions
You can provide the ring dimensions and support rod diameter for rod type baffles. If you leave blank, the program will select these based upon the shell diameter.

Total length of support rods per baffle
Provide the total length of support rods per baffle so that the available flow area can be determined for heat transfer and pressure drop calculations. Default: Program calculated

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Rating/Simulation Data
If you specified in the Application Options that a check rating or simulation of an existing exchanger is to be performed, the exchanger mechanical information shown below must be provided. Other geometry parameters such as shell type and tube size will be set at defaults unless specified in the geometry section of the input.

Shell outside diameter
Provide the actual shell outside diameter. For pipe size exchangers, it is recommended to input a shell OD rather than an ID since the program will reference standard pipe schedules. For exchangers made of rolled and welded plate materials, the shell OD or ID may be inputted. For kettles, the shell diameter is for the small cylinder near the front tubesheet, not the large cylinder.

Shell inside diameter
Provide the actual shell inside diameter. If the shell OD has been specified, it is recommend to leave the ID blank. For pipe size exchangers, it is recommended to input a shell OD rather than an ID since the program will reference standard pipe schedules. For exchangers made of rolled and welded plate materials, the shell OD or ID may be inputted. For kettles, the shell diameter is for the small cylinder near the front tubesheet, not the large cylinder.

Baffle spacing center to center
Specify the center to center spacing of the baffles in the bundle.

Baffle inlet spacing
Specify the inlet baffle spacing at the entrance to the bundle. For G, H, J, and X shell types, this is the spacing from the center of the nozzle to the next baffle. These types should have a full support under the nozzle. If left blank, the program will calculate the space based upon the center to center spacing and the outlet spacing. If the outlet spacing is not provided, the program will determine the remaining tube length not used by the center to center spacing and provide equal inlet and outlet spacings.

Baffle outlet spacing
Specify the outlet baffle spacing at the exit of the bundle. For G, H, J, and X shell types, this is the spacing from the center of the nozzle to the next baffle. These types should have a full support under the nozzle. If the outlet spacing is not provided, the program will determine the remaining tube length not used by the center to center spacing and provide equal inlet and outlet spacings.

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Baffle number
The number of baffles is optional input. If you do not know the number of baffles, inlet, or outlet spacing, you can approximate the number of baffles by dividing the tube length by the baffle spacing and subtracting 1. However, if you do not know the number of baffles, it is best to let the program calculate it, because it will also consider the tubesheet thickness and nozzle sizes. The number of baffles for G, H, and J type shells should include the baffle or full support under the nozzle.

Tube length
Provide the tube length. The length should include the length of tubes in the tubesheets. For U-tube exchangers, provide the straight length to the U-bend tangent point.

Tube number
Specify the number of tube holes in the tubesheet. This is the number of straight tubes or the number of straight lengths for a U-tube. If you specify the number, the program will check to make sure that number of tubes can fit into the shell. If you do not specify it, the program will calculate number of tubes using the tubesheet layout subroutine.

Tube passes
Provide the number of tube passes in the exchanger.

Shells in series
If you have multiple exchangers for a rating case, be sure to specify the appropriate number in parallel and/or series. Remember that the program requires that both shell side and tube side be connected in the same way (both in parallel or both in series). You can specify multiple exchangers in both parallel and series; for example you can have two parallel banks of three in series for a total of six heat exchangers.

Shells in parallel
If you have multiple exchangers for a rating case, be sure to specify the appropriate number in parallel and/or series. Remember that the program requires that both shell side and tube side be connected in the same way (both in parallel or both in series). You can specify multiple exchangers in both parallel and series; for example you can have two parallel banks of three in series for a total of six heat exchangers.

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Tube Layout Option
You can select to have the Hetran program generate a new tube layout every time the program runs or you can select to use an existing layout. For the second option, you must first run Hetran to establish a layout and then select the option to use the existing layout for all subsequent runs. Default: create a new layout

Kettle outside diameter
Provide the actual kettle outside diameter. For pipe size exchangers, it is recommended to input a kettle OD rather than an ID since the program will reference standard pipe schedules. For exchangers made of rolled and welded plate materials, the kettle OD or ID may be inputted.

Kettle inside diameter
Provide the actual kettle inside diameter. If the kettle OD has been specified, it is recommend to leave the ID blank. For pipe size exchangers, it is recommended to input a kettle OD rather than an ID since the program will reference standard pipe schedules. For exchangers made of rolled and welded plate materials, the kettle OD or ID may be inputted.

Vapor belt outside diameter
Provide the actual vapor belt outside diameter. For pipe size exchangers, it is recommended to input a vapor belt OD rather than an ID since the program will reference standard pipe schedules. For exchangers made of rolled and welded plate materials, the vapor belt OD or ID may be inputted.

Vapor belt inside diameter
Provide the actual vapor belt inside diameter. If the vapor belt OD has been specified, it is recommend to leave the ID blank. For pipe size exchangers, it is recommended to input a vapor belt OD rather than an ID since the program will reference standard pipe schedules. For exchangers made of rolled and welded plate materials, the vapor belt OD or ID may be inputted.

Vapor belt length
The length of the vapor belt is approximately two thirds the length of the shell. The length specified will affect the entrance area pressure drop.

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Shell cylinder thickness
Provide the actual shell cylinder thickness. If the shell OD has been provided, the program will use the cylinder thickness to calculate a shell ID and establish the OTL and tube count for the exchanger.

Front head cylinder thickness
Provide the actual front head cylinder thickness.

Front tubesheet thickness
Provide the actual front tubesheet thickness. The program will use the tubesheet thickness to determine the effective tube length for effective surface area calculations.

Rear tubesheet thickness
Provide the actual rear tubesheet thickness. The program will use the tubesheet thickness to determine the effective tube length for effective surface area calculations.

Baffle thickness
Provide the actual baffle thickness.

Tube Layout
Once you have a specified an exchanger geometry and executed the Hetran in the Rating Mode, you can interactively make modifications to the tube layout. Tubes: Tubes can be removed from the layout by clicking on the tube to be removed (tube will be highlighted in red) and then selecting the red X in the menu. If you want to designate a tube as a plugged tube or as a dummy tube, click on the tube (tube will be highlighted in red) and then select the plugged tube icon or dummy tube icon from the menu. Tie Rods: To remove a tie rod, click on the tie rod (tie rod will be highlighted in red) and then select the red X in the menu. To add a tie rod, select the add a tie rod icon in the menu and then specify the location for the tie rod. Sealing Strips: To remove a sealing strip, click on the sealing strip (sealing strip will be highlighted in red) and then select the red X in the menu. To add a sealing strip, select the add a sealing strip icon in the menu and then specify the location for the sealing strip.

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Nozzles
Nozzle OD
Provide the nominal nozzle diameter size. If not provided the program will size the nozzle based upon nozzle mass velocity limits per TEMA and allowable pressure drop. Default: program will determine in accordance with TEMA Standards

Nozzle quantity
Indicate the number of nozzles required. Default: TEMA shell type

Nozzle orientation
The logical orientation of the nozzles follows the laws of nature, that is, fluids being cooled should enter the top and exit the bottom, and fluids being heated should enter the bottom and exit the top. Normally you should let the program determine the orientation. If you specify the orientation, make sure that it is compatible with the baffle cut and the number of baffles. For example, if your design has an odd number of single segmental baffles with a horizontal cut, it will necessitate that the inlet and outlet be at the same orientation. Default: program will determine

Dome OD
Provide the nominal dome diameter for standard pipe schedule sizes and actual OD for larger formed head domes. Default: none

Nozzle flange rating
The specification of the nozzle flange rating does not affect the thermal design calculations or the cost estimate. It is included in the input to make the specification of the heat exchanger more complete (e.g., on the TEMA specification sheet output). The pressure-temperature charts are built into the program. If you let the program determine the rating, it will choose based on the design pressure and design temperature. The values are not limited to those shown next to the input field, but you should be sure to choose a rating, which is consistent with the desired standard (ANSI, ISO, or DIN). Default: program will determine based on design pressure and temperature

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Nozzle flange facing type
The Aspen Hetran program will set the nozzle flange facing as flat face as a default. Other optional flange faces, flat face, raised face, or tongue/groove, can be specified.

Flow direction for first tube pass
For a single pass shell/single pass tube or a two pass shell/two pass tube exchanger arrangement, you can set the tube and shell side flows to be in counter current or co-current flow directions. For multi passes on the tube side, setting the flow direction for the first pass will locate the inlet shell nozzle accordingly.

Location of nozzle at U-bend
The program default location for the nozzle near the U-bends is between the U-bend support and the first baffle. By locating the nozzle at this location, you can avoid the passing of the fluid across the U-bends that could result in vibration. Generally the U-bend surface area is not considered as effective heat transfer area as the rest of the tube bundle due to the nonuniformity of the tube spacing. If you want the U-bend surface area to be included, you can set the percentage effective in the Thermal Analysis section.

Height above top tubesheet of liquid level in column (vertical thermosiphons only)
These input items are important for the calculation of the hydraulics of the thermosiphon reboiler, in that they are used to determine the static head. The reference point is the top face of the top tubesheet. The level of the return connection to the column is at the centerline of the connection. + if above tubesheet if below tubesheet

Default: even with top tubesheet

Height above top tubesheet of outlet piping back to column (vertical thermosiphons only)
These input items are important for the calculation of the hydraulics of the thermosiphon reboiler, in that they are used to determine the static head. The reference point is the top face of the top tubesheet. The level of the return connection to the column is at the centerline of the connection. Defaults: Level of return connection is one shell diameter above top tubesheet

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Height above vessel centerline of liquid level in column (horizontal thermosiphons only)
These input items are important for the calculation of the hydraulics of the thermosiphon reboiler, in that they are used to determine the static head. The reference point is the centerline of the vessel. The level of the return connection to the column is at the centerline of the connection. + if above vessel centerline if below vessel centerline

Default: even with vessel centerline

Height above vessel centerline of outlet piping back to column (horizontal thermosiphons only)
These input items are important for the calculation of the hydraulics of the thermosiphon reboiler, in that they are used to determine the static head. The reference point is the centerline of the vessel. The level of the return connection to the column is at the centerline of the connection. Defaults: Level of return connection is one shell diameter above vessel centerline

Equivalent length of inlet piping (thermosiphons only)
Equivalent length is a method of specifying a length of piping which accounts for the pressure drop of pipe as a ratio of length to diameter and the effect of valves, bends, tees, expansions, contractions, etc. Refer to a piping handbook for more details. If these items are not specified the program will calculate an equivalent length for the column to the inlet based on a pipe equal in diameter to the inlet nozzle and one 90 degree elbow. The default for the outlet to the column is based on a horizontal pipe equal in diameter to the outlet nozzle and without any bends. Defaults: program will calculate as described above

Equivalent length of outlet piping (thermosiphons only)
Equivalent length is a method of specifying a length of piping which accounts for the pressure drop of pipe as a ratio of length to diameter and the effect of valves, bends, tees, expansions, contractions, etc. Refer to a piping handbook for more details. If these items are not specified the program will calculate an equivalent length for the column to the inlet based on a pipe equal in diameter to the inlet nozzle and one 90 degree elbow. The default for the outlet to the column is based on a horizontal pipe equal in diameter to the outlet nozzle and without any bends. Defaults: program will calculate as described above

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Thermosiphon Piping Specs (thermosiphons only)
In lieu of specifing the equivalent lengths of piping described above, you can specify the piping details (size, straight lengths, number of elbows) and the program will calculate the equivalent length of piping. Defaults: program will use equivalent length defaults if no piping specs are given

Design Data
The Design Data Section is subdivided into three sections: Design Constraints, Materials, and Specifications.

Design Constraints
Shell diameter increment
This is the increment that the program will use when it increases the shell diameter of a shell made of plate, when in design mode. This parameter is ignored when the shell is made of pipe. Default: 2 in. or 50 mm

Shell diameter minimum
This is the minimum shell diameter that the program will consider in design mode. For pipe shells, this refers to the outside diameter. The input specification for "Shell & Front Head Reference for Plate Shells" (described later in this section) will determine if this is for the outside or inside diameter of a shell made from plate. Acceptable values: lower limit of 2 in. or 50 mm; no upper limit Default: 6 in. or 150 mm

Shell diameter maximum
This is the maximum shell diameter that the program will consider in design mode. For pipe shells, this refers to the outside diameter. The input specification for "Shell & Front Head Reference for Plate Shells" (described later in this section) will determine if this is for the outside or inside diameter of a shell made from plate. It must be greater than or equal to the minimum. Acceptable values: lower limit of 2 in. or 50 mm; no upper limit Default: 72 in or 2000 mm

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Tube length increment
This is the increment, which the program uses when it increases or decreases the tube length in design mode. Default: 2 ft. or 500 mm

Tube length minimum
This is the minimum tube length, which the program will consider in design mode. For Utubes this is the minimum straight length. Default: 4 ft. or 1000 mm

Tube length maximum
This is the maximum tube length, which the program will consider in design mode. For Utubes this is the maximum straight length. It must be greater or equal to the minimum. Default: 20 ft. or 6000 mm

Tube passes increment
odd 1,3,5,7,... even 1,2,4,6,... (default) all 1,2,3,4,... This applies to the selection of tube passes in design mode. The normal progression of tube passes is 1, 2, 4, 6, 8, 10, 12, 14, 16. However there are times when an odd number of passes above 1 may be desirable. One possible case is when 4 passes results in enough surface, but the pressure drop is too high and 2 passes results in an acceptable pressure drop, but the surface is inadequate. Since pressure drop is increased by about 8 times when going from 2 to 4 passes, a 3 pass design may be the optimum compromise. Another case is when a 2 or 4 pass design is controlled by a low MTD correction factor (say 0.75), but the 1 pass design has too low a velocity or requires too much surface. Since a 3 pass heat exchanger can have 2 counter-current passes to only 1 co-current pass; the F factor can be significantly higher than other multipass designs. Default: even

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Tube passes minimum
This is the minimum number of tube passes, which the program will consider in design mode. Acceptable values: 1 to 16 Default: 1 for straight tubes; 2 for U-tubes

Tube passes maximum
This is the maximum number of tube passes, which the program will consider in design mode. It must be greater than or equal to the minimum. The actual number of tube passes tried is also a function of the shell diameter. The program will not try the higher tube passes if they are inappropriate for the shell diameter. Acceptable values: 1 to 16 Default: 8 for single phase in tubes; 2 for two-phase in tubes

Baffle spacing minimum
This is the minimum baffle spacing, which the program will consider in design mode. TEMA recommends that segmental baffles should not be placed closer than a distance equal to 20% of the shell I.D. or 50 mm (2 in), whichever is greater. Default: the greater of 20% of the shell I.D. or 50 mm (2 in)

Baffle spacing maximum
This is the maximum baffle spacing, which the program will consider in design mode. TEMA recommends that segmental baffles should not be placed further apart than a distance equal to the shell I.D. or 1/2 the maximum unsupported span, whichever is less (except NTIW and grid baffles). Default: the greater of the shell I.D. or 610 mm (24 in)

Use shell ID or OD as reference
This determines whether the references to shell diameter in input and output are to the outside or inside diameter. When you specify outside diameter, both the shell and front head cylinders will have the same outside diameter. Likewise the shell and front head cylinders will have equal inside diameters when you specify inside diameter. When the required thickness for the front head is significantly greater than the shell, it is usually preferable to specify that the inside diameters be equal, in order to avoid an increased gap between the shell I.D. and the O.T.L. Default: outside diameter

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Use pipe or plate for small shells
This applies to shell diameters up to 24 in. or 610 mm. It determines if the shell incrementing should follow the standard pipe sizes or go in exact increments as specified with the input value for Shell Diameter Increment. Default: pipe

Minimum shells in series
You can use this item to force the program to evaluate multiple shells in series. Default: 1

Minimum shells in parallel
You can use this item to force the program to evaluate multiple shells in parallel. Default: 1

Allowable number of baffles
This controls how the program will determine the number of baffles in design mode. This is of special importance for single segmental baffles in a horizontal heat exchanger. An even number of single segmental baffles means that the nozzles will be at opposite orientations (usually 0 and 180 degrees for horizontal cut baffles); an odd number means they will be at the same orientation. Nozzles at opposite orientations have the advantage of being self-venting on startup and selfdraining on shutdown. If nozzles are installed at the same orientation, it is important to have couplings opposite the nozzles to facilitate venting and draining. For multi-segmental baffles and grid baffles, the number of baffles does not dictate the nozzle orientation. To improve flow distribution at the inlet and outlet, double and triple segmental baffles should have an odd number of baffles. The first and last multi-segmental baffle should be the one with the centermost segment. Default: Even number for horizontal exchangers with single segmental baffle; odd number for multi-segmental baffles; any number for all other cases

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Allow baffles under nozzles
This controls whether baffles are allowed to be placed under the nozzle in design mode. Normally baffles should not be placed under nozzles, because it will lead to poor flow distribution in the inlet or outlet zone, thus decreasing the efficiency of the heat transfer surface there. However when there is a very large inlet or outlet nozzle, which would force the tube span to exceed the maximum unsupported span, or when tube vibration is probable, it may be necessary to place a baffle or support under the nozzle. This is reasonable when using multi-segmental baffles or grid baffles. Default: No for single segmental baffles; yes for other baffles, if no other solution

Use proportional baffle cut
Normally in design mode, the program chooses the baffle cut based on the baffle type and the shell side application. However, with single segmental baffles, it is sometimes desirable to maintain a reasonable balance between crossflow velocity and window velocity. By choosing to make the baffle cut proportional to the baffle spacing, the program will increase the baffle cut as the baffle spacing is increased. The logic behind this is based on maximizing pressure drop to heat transfer conversion. If pressure drop is controlling, it may be counter-productive to take an inordinate amount of pressure drop through a small baffle window where the heat transfer is less effective than in crossflow. This input item only applies to single segmental baffles. Default: not proportional

Allowable pressure drop
Where applicable, the allowable pressure drop is required input. You can specify any value up to the operating pressure, although the allowable pressure drop should usually be less than 40 percent of the operating pressure. The typical values are displayed so you can select a value by clicking on it with the mouse. Default: None

Minimum fluid velocity
This is the lowest velocity the program will accept in design mode. The program may not find a design, which satisfies this minimum, but it will issue a warning if the design it chooses does not satisfy the minimum. The program tries to maximize the velocities within the allowable pressure drops and the maximum allowable velocities. Therefore, this constraint does not enter into the design mode logic. On the shell side, this refers to the crossflow velocity. For two phase flow it is the vapor velocity at the point where there is the most vapor. Note that since there is usually significant bypassing in baffled exchangers, the crossflow velocities, which can be attained, are usually below the velocities you would expect on the tube side. Default: none

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Maximum fluid velocity
This is the highest velocity the program will accept in design mode. The optimization logic is controlled by this item. On the shell side, this refers to the crossflow velocity. For two phase flow it is the vapor velocity at the point where there is the most vapor. The default value calculated by the program for maximum allowable velocity is equal to the appropriate constant shown below divided by the square root of the density (kg/mÛ in SI units or lb/ftÛ in US units). Vmax = k / (Density)0.5 k in SI units k in US units Shell Side Fluid Tube Side Fluid Default: none 60.9 93.8 50.0 77.0

Minimum % excess surface area required
The program will optimize the design with the minimum percent excess surface area specified. Default: none

Materials
Cylinder – hot side
Select a generic material, a general material class, for the hot side components (includes all items except tubesheets, tubes, and baffles) from the list provided. If you wish to specify a material grade, select the search button. Default: Carbon Steel

Cylinder – cold side
Select a generic material, a general material class, for cold side components (includes all items except tubesheets, tubes, and baffles) from the list provided. If you wish to specify a specific material grade, select the search button. Default: Carbon Steel

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Tubesheet
Select a generic material, a general material class, for the tubesheet from the list provided. If you wish to specify a specific material grade, select the search button. Default: Carbon Steel

Double tubesheet (inner)
Select a generic material, a general material class, for the inner tubesheet(s) from the list provided. If you wish to specify a specific material grade, select the search button. Default: Carbon Steel

Baffles
Select a generic material, a general material class, for the baffles from the list provided. The baffles are generally of the same material type as the shell cylinder. If you wish to specify a specific material grade, select the search button. Default: Carbon Steel

Tubes
Select a generic material, a general material class, for the tubes from the list provided. If you wish to specify a specific material grade, select the search button. Default: Carbon Steel

Thermal conductivity of tube material
If you specify a material designator for the tube material, the program will retrieve the thermal conductivity of the tube from its built-in databank. However, if you have a tube material, which is not in the databank, then you can specify the thermal conductivity of the tube at this point.

Tubesheet cladding – hot side
Select tubesheet cladding material for the hot side if cladding is required.

Tubesheet cladding – cold side
Select tubesheet cladding material for the cold side if cladding is required.

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Gasket – hot side
Select a generic material, a general material class, for the gaskets from the list provided. If you wish to specify a specific material grade, select the search button.

Gasket – hot side
Select a generic material, a general material class, for the gaskets from the list provided. If you wish to specify a specific material grade, select the search button.

Gasket Defaults
The program asks for gasket materials on both sides, although in the case of a fixed tubesheet type heat exchanger there will be gaskets on only one side. You can specify either the generic material designators or the four digit material designators listed in the METALS databank or the Help facility. If you do not specify a value the program will use compressed fiber as the material for the mechanical design and cost estimate. The heat exchanger specification sheet will not show a gasket material if left unspecified.

Specifications
Design Code
Select one of the following design codes: ASME (American), CODAP (French), or ADMerkblatter (German). The design code has a subtle, but sometimes significant effect on the thermal design. This is because the design code determines the required thicknesses for the shell and heads (therefore affecting the number of tubes), the thickness of the tubesheet (therefore affecting the effective heat transfer area), and the dimensions of the flanges and nozzle reinforcement (therefore affecting the possible nozzle and baffle placements). Due to the fact that the mechanical design calculations themselves are very complex, the Aspen Hetran program only includes some of the basic mechanical design calculations. The full calculations are the function of the Aspen B-JAC TEAMS program. This input is used to tell the program which basic mechanical design calculations to follow and also to make the heat exchanger specification more complete. The program defaults to the design code specified in the program settings. Default: as defined in the program settings

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Service class
If you select low temperature (design temperature less than -50°F) or lethal service (exchanger contains a lethal substance), the program will select the corresponding Code requirements for that class such as full radiography for butt welds and PWHT for carbon steel construction. Default: normal service class

TEMA class
If you want the heat exchanger to be built in accordance with the TEMA standards, choose the appropriate TEMA class - B, C, or R. If TEMA is not a design requirement, then specify Cody only, and only the design code will be used in determining the mechanical design. Default: TEMA B

Material standard
You can select ASTM, AFNOR, or DIN. Your choice of material standard determines the selection of materials you will see in the input for materials of construction. Default: as defined in the Program Settings under Tools

Dimensional standard
Dimensional standards to ANSI (American), ISO (International), or DIN (German). The dimensional standards apply to such things as pipe cylinder dimensions, nozzle flange ratings, and bolt sizes. DIN also encompasses other construction standards such as standard tube pitches. The selection for dimensional standards is primarily included to make the heat exchanger specification complete, although it does have some subtle effects on the thermal design through the basic mechanical design. Default: as defined in the Program Settings under Tools

Design pressure
This is the pressure, which is used in the mechanical design calculations. It influences the shell, head, and tubesheet required thicknesses and therefore affects the thermal design. If you do not specify a value, the program will default to the operating pressure plus 10% rounded up to a logical increment. This is in gauge pressure so it is one atmosphere less than the equivalent absolute pressure. Default: operating pressure + 10%

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Aspen B-JAC 11.1 User Guide

Design temperature
This is the temperature, which is used in the mechanical design calculations. It influences the shell, head, and tubesheet required thicknesses and therefore affects the thermal design. If you do not specify a value, the program will default to the highest operating temperature plus 33ºC (60ºF) rounded down to a logical increment. Default: highest operating temperature + approx. 33ºC (60ºF)

Vacuum design pressure
If the heat exchanger is going to operate under a full or partial vacuum, you should specify a vacuum service design pressure. The basic mechanical design calculations do not consider external pressure therefore this item will have no effect on the thermal design from Aspen Hetran. Default: not calculated for vacuum service

Test pressure
This is the pressure at which the heat exchanger will be tested by the manufacturer. This has no effect on the thermal design, but is included to make the heat exchanger specification more complete. Default: "Code"

Corrosion allowance
The corrosion allowance is included in the thickness calculations for cylinders and tubesheets and therefore has a subtle effect on thermal design. Default: 0.125 in. or 3.2 mm for carbon steel, 0 for other materials

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Program Options
The Program Options Section is subdivided into two sections: • • Thermal Analysis Change Codes

Thermal Analysis
Heat transfer coefficient
Normally, the film coefficients are two of the primary values you want the program to calculate. However, there may be cases where you want to force the program to use a specific coefficient, perhaps to simulate a situation that the Aspen Hetran program does not explicitly cover. You can specify neither, either, or both. Default: Program will calculate

Heat transfer coefficient multiplier
You can specify a factor that becomes a multiplier on the film coefficient, which is calculated by the program. You may want to use a multiplier greater than 1 if you have a construction enhancement that is not covered by the program, for example tube inserts or internally finned tubes. You can use a multiplier of less than 1 to establish a safety factor on a film coefficient. This would make sense if you were unsure of the composition or properties of a fluid stream. Default: 1.0

Pressure drop multiplier
Similar to the multipliers on the film coefficients, you can also specify a factor that becomes a multiplier on the bundle portion of the pressure drop, which is calculated by the program. It does not affect the pressure drop through the inlet or outlet nozzles or heads. These multipliers can be used independently or in conjunction with the multipliers on film coefficients. Default: 1.0

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Percent of u-bend area used for heat transfer
Since the shell side fluid does not usually flow over the U-bends in the same way as it flows over the straight portion, the effectiveness of the area in the U-bends is limited. The Aspen Hetran program assumes that there is a full support at the end of the straight length, which will limit flow over the U-bends, except in the case of kettle-type reboilers. Default: 100% effective for kettle-type reboiler; 0% effective for all other cases

Maximum rating for thermosiphons
You may specify to have the program vary flows to balance pressure for thermosiphon applications. Hetran must be set to the Rating Mode in the Application Option section before you can select to balance hydraulics & surface area or to balance hydraulics only.

Mean temperature difference
Usually you rely on the program to determine the MTD, however you can override the program calculated corrected (or weighted) MTD by specifying a value for this item. Default: Program will calculate

Minimum allowable temperature approach
You can limit the minimum approach temperature. Program will increase the number of shells in series and/or limit the exchanger to a one pass-one pass countercurrent geometry to meet the minimum approach temperature. Default: 3 to 5 degrees F depending on application

Minimum allowable MTD correction factor
Most of the correction factor curves become very steep below 0.7, so for this reason the Aspen Hetran program defaults to 0.7 as the minimum F factor before going to multiple shells in series in design mode. The only exception is the X-type shell, where the program allows the F factor to go as low as 0.5 in design mode. In rating mode, the default is 0.5. With this input item, you can specify a lower or higher limit. Default: 0.7 for shell types E, F, G, H, J in design mode 0.5 for shell type X in design mode 0.5 in rating mode

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Maximum allowable heat flux
For vaporizing applications, it is often important to limit the heat flux (heat exchanged per unit area) in order to avoid the generation of too much vapor too quickly so as to blanket the tube surface, resulting in a rapid decline in the film coefficient. The Aspen Hetran program has built in limits on the heat flux, but you can also establish your own limit by specifying a value for this item. Default: Program will calculate

Flow direction for first tube pass
For a single pass shell/single pass tube or a two pass shell/two pass tube exchanger arrangement, you can set the tube and shell side flows to be in counter current or co-current flow directions. For multi passes on the tube side, setting the flow direction for the first pass will locate the inlet shell nozzle accordingly.

Maximum number of design mode iterations
The Aspen Hetran program, in the Design Mode, will reiterate through the specified design parameters to converge on the lowest cost solution. You may set the maximum number of iterations for the optimization.

Simulation mode area convergence tolerance
Specify the convergence tolerance for the simulation mode of the program. Note that a very low convergence tolerance may result in a longer calculation time.

Number of calculation intervals
The Aspen Hetran program does an interval analysis by dividing the heat exchanger into sections. Indicate how many interval sections are to be considered.

Type of interval calculation
The Aspen Hetran program does an interval analysis by dividing the heat exchanger into sections. Indicate if you want the program to use equal heat load or equal temperature increments for the sectional analysis of the exchanger.

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Fouling calculation options
You can adjust how the Hetran program allocates the excess fouling (extra fouling that is available due to excess surface area) for the Maximum Rating case reported in the Thermal Resistance Analysis report located in the Thermal Summary results section. You can specify to apply a different fouling ratio, Hot side to cold side, from the specified fouling factors or you call apply all the excess fouling to the Hot or Cold sides. Note that if you select to apply all excess fouling to the Hot or Cold Sides, any Hot / Cold ratio specified will be ignored.

Correlations
Calculate desuperheating zone with dry gas coefficient
The program will default to determining the tube wall temperature at the hot side inlet. If the wall temperature is below the dew point the program will assume the tube wall is "wet" with condensation and will use a condensing coefficient for heat transfer. If the tube wall temperature is above the dew point, it will determine at what hot side gas temperature the tube wall temperature falls below the dew point. This hot side gas temperature would represent the low temperature for the desuperheating zone. If this option is turned "on", the program will assume a desuperheating zone exists from the specified inlet temperature down to the dew point. Default: Program will determine

Condensation correlation
Researchers have developed several different methods of predicting the film coefficient for a condensing vapor. Each has its strengths and weaknesses. If the composition of the vapor is well known, the mass transfer method is the most accurate. The mass transfer film model is based on a Colburn-Hougen correlation for condensable(s) with noncondensable(s) and a Colburn-Drew correlation for multiple condensables. The modified proration method is an equilibrium method based on a modification of the SilverBell correlation. Default: Mass transfer film method

Shell side two phase heat transfer condensing correlation
The three major two phase condensing correlations to determine shell side film coefficients referenced in the industry are the Taborek, McNaught, and Chen methods. Default: Taborek method

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Liquid subcooling heat transfer method
Select the calculation method to determine the liquid subcooling coefficient for a condensing application. For most applications, the larger of the free or forced convection should be considered. Default: larger of free or forced convection coefficient

Tube side two phase heat transfer condensing correlation
The two major two phase condensing correlations to determine tube side film coefficients referenced in the industry are the Taborek and the Chen methods. Default: Taborek method

Suppress nucleate boiling coefficient
Indicate here to suppress the nucleate boiling coefficient in the determination of the overall film coefficient.

Minimum temperature difference for nucleate boiling
You may specify a minimum temperature difference requirement for nucleate boiling to be considered.

Shell side two phase heat transfer vaporization correlation
The major two phase vaporization correlations to determine shell side film coefficients referenced in the industry are the Steiner-Taborek, Polley, and the Dengler-Addoms methods. Default: Steiner-Taborek method

Tube side two phase heat transfer vaporization correlation
The major two-phase vaporization correlations to determine tube side film coefficients referenced in the industry are the Steiner-Taborek, Collier-Polley, Chen, Dengler-Addoms, and the Guerrieri-Talty methods. Default: Steiner-Taborek method

Shell side pressure drop calculation methods
You can select which shell side stream analysis method for pressure drop you wish to be applied, ESDU, VDI Heat Atlas, or the B-JAC method. Default: B-JAC method

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Shell side two phase pressure drop correlation
You can select which shell side two phase pressure drop correlation will be applied, LochartMartinelli, or Grant-Chisholm methods. Default: Lochart-Martinelli

Tube side two phase pressure drop correlation
You can select which tube side two phase pressure drop correlation will be applied, LochartMartinelli, Friedel, Chisholm, McKetta, or Nayyar. If not specified the program will select the one most appropriate for the application. Default: Lochart-Martinelli

Velocity Heads for Pressure Drop
You can enter the velocity heads to be applied for the flow to enter and exit the tube and for each of the nozzles. The program default is ½ of a velocity head for each entrance and each exit of the tubes and ½ velocity head for each of the nozzles.

Change Codes
Change Codes Variables
The last screen of the long form input allows you to specify change codes with the associated values. The format for change code entries is: CODE=value Change codes are processed after all other input and override any previously set value. For instance, if you specify the tube outside diameter as 20 mm in the regular input screens, then enter the change code TODX=25, the 25 will override the 20. If you enter the same change code more than once, the last value will prevail. One of the best uses of the change code screen is to provide a visual path of the various changes made during execution of Aspen Hetran. For this purpose, we recommend that changes for a particular alternative design be placed on a separate line. Another good use of the change code screen is to "chain" to another file containing only change codes. This is especially convenient if you have a line of standard designs, which you want to use after you have found a similar solution in design mode. This can be done by using the FILE= change code, followed by the name of the file containing the other change codes with the file type (example: ABC-1.BJI). The other file must also have a .BJI filetype.

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You can create this change code file with a standard edit program. For example, the entry FILE=S-610-2 would point to a file named S-610-2.BJI, which might contain the following data:
MODE=2,SODX=610,TLNG=5000,TNUM=458,TPAS=2,BSPA=690,TODX=20,TPAT=1

The following pages review the change codes that are available in the Aspen Hetran program.

Design Mode Change Codes
MODE = program mode: 1 = design, 2 = rating SDMN = shell diameter, minimum SDMX = shell diameter, maximum TLMN = tube length, minimum TLMX = tube length, maximum TPMN = tube passes, minimum TPMX = tube passes, maximum BSMN = baffle spacing, minimum BSMX = baffle spacing, maximum PAMN = shells in parallel, minimum SEMN = shells in series, minimum EXMN = excess surface, minimum POSI = exchanger position: 1 = horizontal, 2 = vertical

Rating Mode Change Codes
MODE = program mode: 1 = design, 2 = rating SODX = shell outside diameter SIDX = shell inside diameter BSPA = baffle spacing center-center BSIN = baffle spacing at inlet BSOU = baffle spacing at outlet BNUM = number of baffles TLNG = tube length

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TNUM = number of tubes TPAS = tube passes PNUM = number of shells in parallel SNUM = number of shells in series KODX = kettle outside diameter KIDX = kettle inside diameter VODX = vapor belt outside diameter VIDX = vapor belt inside diameter VLNG = vapor belt length

Shell & Head Types Change Codes
FTYP = front head type: 1=A 2=B 3=C 4=N 5=D STYP = shell type: 1=E 2=F 3=G 4=H 5=J 6=K 7=X 8 =V RTYP = rear head type: 1=L 2=M 3=N 4=P 5=S 6=T 7=U 8=W

Baffle Change Codes
BTYP = baffle type: 1 = single 2 = double 3 = triple 4 = full 5 = NTIW 6 = rod 7 = strip BORI = baffle orientation: 1 = H BCUT = baffle cut 2=V 3=R

Tube Change Codes
TODX = tube outside diameter TWTK = tube wall thickness TTYP = tube type: 1 = plain, 2 = finned FDEN = fin density (fins/in or fins/m) FHGT = fin height FTKS = fin thickness AOAI = ratio of outside area to inside area

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Tubesheet Layout Change Codes
TPAT = tube pattern: 30 = triangular 60 = rotated triangular 90 = square 45 = rotated square TPIT = tube pitch PTYP = pass type: 1 = quadrant 2 = mixed 3 = ribbon IIMP = impingement plate: 1 = none 2 = on bundle 3 = in nozzle dome

Miscellaneous Change Codes
TSTK = tubesheet thickness STRH = Strouhal number used for vibration analysis FILE = filename for additional file containing change codes

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Results
The Results section is divided into these basic sections: • • • • Design Summary Thermal Summary Mechanical Summary Calculation Details

Design Summary
The Design Summary Section is subdivided into four sections: • • • • Input Summary Optimization Path Recap of Designs Warnings & Messages

Input Summary
This section provides you with a summary of the information specified in the input file. It is recommended that you request the input data as part of your printed output so that it is easy to reconstruct the input, which led to the design.

Optimization Path
This part of the output is the window into the logic of the program. It shows some of the heat exchangers the program has evaluated in trying to find one, which satisfies your design conditions. These intermediate designs can also point out the constraints that are controlling the design and point out what parameters you could change to further optimize the design. To help you see which constraints are controlling the design, the conditions that do not satisfy your specifications are noted with an asterisk (*) next to the value. The asterisk will appear next to the required tube length if the exchanger is undersurfaced, or next to a pressure drop if it exceeds the maximum allowable. In design mode, the Hetran program will search for a heat exchanger configuration that will satisfy the desired process conditions. It will automatically change a number of the geometric parameters as it searches. However Hetran will not automatically evaluate all possible configurations, and therefore it may not necessarily find the true optimum by itself. It is up to the user to determine what possible changes to the construction could lead to a better design and then present these changes to the program.

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Hetran searches to find a design which satisfies the following: 1. enough surface area to do the desired heat transfer 2. pressure drops within the allowable 3. physical size within acceptable limits 4. velocities within an acceptable range 5. mechanically sound and practical to construct

In addition to these criteria, Hetran also determines a budget cost estimate for each design and in most cases performs a vibration analysis. However cost and vibration do not affect the program's logic for optimization. There are over thirty mechanical parameters which directly or indirectly affect the thermal performance of a shell and tube heat exchanger. It is not practical for the program to evaluate all combinations of these parameters. In addition, the acceptable variations are often dependent upon process and cost considerations which are beyond the scope of the program (for example the cost and importance of cleaning). Therefore the program automatically varies only a number of parameters which are reasonably independent of other process, operating, maintenance, or fabrication considerations. The parameters which are automatically optimized are:

shell diameter tube length number of tubes

baffle spacing number of baffles tube passes

pass layout type exchangers in parallel exchangers in series

The design engineer should optimize the other parameters, based on good engineering judgment. Some of the important parameters to consider are: shell type rear head type nozzle sizes tubesheet type baffle cut tube outside diameter tube pitch tube type baffle type fluid allocation impingement protection tube pattern exchanger orientation materials tube wall thickenss

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Optimization Path items
Optimization of Shell Diameter: The highest priority variable in design mode is the shell diameter. The program attempts to find the smallest diameter shell which will satisfy surface area, pressure drop, and velocity requirements. The diameter is incremented based on the shell diameter increment and is limited by the minimum shell diameter, and the maximum shell diameter. Each of these can be specified in the input. This is the shell outside or inside diameter depending upon the input specification to use shell ID or shell OD as the reference. Optimization of Tube Length: Once the smallest shell diameter has been found, the program optimizes the tube length to the shortest standard length, within the allowable range, which will satisfy surface area, pressure drop, and velocity requirements. The length is incremented or decremented based on the tube length increment and is limited by the minimum tube length and maximum tube length. Each of these can be specified in the input. The actual tube length will be shown which is the length of the straight tubes or the straight length to the tangent for U-tubes. This includes the portion of the tube, which is in the tubesheet. This length will be compared to the required tube length calculated by the program to achieve the desired heat transfer duty. This length will also include the portion of the tube in the tubesheet, which is ineffective for heat transfer. Pressure Drop – Shell side and Tube side: These are the calculated pressure drops. For a single phase applications, it is based on the actual tube length. For a two phase application, if the exchanger is oversurfaced it is based on the actual tube length; if it is undersurfaced it is based on the required tube length. Optimization of Baffle Spacing: The program seeks the minimum reasonable center to center baffle spacing which gives a pressure drop and velocity within the maximums allowed. The program wants to maximize the shell side velocity thereby maximizing the shell side film coefficient and minimizing any velocity dependent fouling. The minimum baffle spacing is usually equal to 20% of the shell inside diameter or 50 mm (2 in.), whichever is larger. The maximum baffle spacing is usually equal to one half the maximum unsupported span, as suggested by TEMA, for segmental baffles, and one times the maximum unsupported span for grid baffles or no tubes in the window construction. You can override these default values by specifying the minimum and/or maximum baffle spacing in the input. Optimization of Number of Baffles: The program attempts to find the maximum number of baffles that will fit between the inlet and outlet nozzles. Since the exact locations of the inlet and outlet nozzles are very much dependent upon the mechanical design, the program attempts to locate the nozzles by estimating the thickness of the tubesheet, the thickness of any shell or backing ring flanges, the maximum reinforcement pad diameters, and the necessary clearances. This is the number of baffles and/or support plates. For G, H, and J shells it includes the full support under the nozzle. Optimization of Tube Passes: The program seeks the maximum reasonable number of tube passes that gives a pressure drop and velocity within the maximums allowed. The program wants to maximize the tube side velocity thereby maximizing the tube side film coefficient and minimizing any velocity dependent fouling. This is the number of tube passes in one shell.

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The maximum reasonable number of tube passes is usually a function of the shell diameter and the tube outside diameter, although it can also be a function of the tube side application (e.g., a tube side condenser is usually limited to one pass and should never be more than two passes) or a function of the rear head type (e.g., the W type head is limited to two passes). The tube passes for tubes with an outside diameter up to 25.4 mm (1.00 in) are limited by shell diameter as follows: Shell O.D., mm 102-168 169-610 611-914 915-3000 Shell O.D., in Maximum tube passes 4-6 7-24 25-36 37-120 4 8 12 16

The maximum number of tube passes are further restricted for tubes with an outside diameter larger than 25.4 mm (1.00 in). Optimization of Tube Count: The HETRAN program contains the same tube count subroutine which is in the ENSEA tubesheet layout program. Therefore it determines an exact number of tubes and their location for each design. The program will try different tube pass layout types (quadrant, mixed, and ribbon) when appropriate and choose the layout giving the highest number of tubes. This is the number of straight tubes or the number of straight lengths for a U-tube exchanger (twice the number of U-s). This is also the number of tube holes in one tubesheet. Optimization of Exchangers in Parallel: The program will automatically increase the number of exchangers in parallel when it reaches the maximum allowable shell diameter and minimum allowable tube length and still is unable to satisfy the allowable pressure drop. This is the number of exchangers in parallel. Note that both the shell side streams and tube side streams are considered to be flowing in parallel. Optimization of Exchangers in Series: The program will automatically increase the number of exchangers in series when it reaches the maximum allowable shell diameter and tube length and still is unable to find a design with enough heat transfer area. It will also go to exchangers in series when the correction factor on the MTD falls below 0.7 (or the minimum allowable correction factor specified in the input). This is the number of shells in series. Note that both the shell side stream and the tube side stream are considered to be flowing in series. Total Price: This is the estimated budget price for the total number of heat exchangers in series and parallel. It is the price determined using the QCHEX program subroutines

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Recap of Designs
The recap of design cases summarizes the basic geometry and performance of all designs reviewed up to that point. This side by side comparison allows you to determine the effects of various design changes and to select the best exchanger for the application. As a default, the recap provides you with the same summary information that is shown in the Optimization Path. You can customize what information is shown in the Recap by selecting the Customize button. You can recall an earlier design case by selecting the design case you want from the Recap list and then select the Select Case button. The program will then regenerate the design results for the selected case.

Warnings & Messages
Aspen Hetran provides an extensive system of warnings and messages to help the designer of heat exchanger design. Messages are divided into five types. There are several hundred messages built into the Aspen Hetran program. Those messages requiring further explanation are described here. Warning Messages: These are conditions, which may be problems, however the program will continue. Error Messages: Conditions which do not allow the program to continue. Limit Messages: Conditions which go beyond the scope of the program. Notes: Special conditions which you should be aware of. Suggestions: Recommendations on how to improve the design.

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Thermal Summary
The Thermal Summary Section is subdivided into four sections: Performance, Coefficients & MTD, Pressure Drop, TEMA Sheet

Performance
This section provides a concise summary of the thermal process requirements, basic heat transfer values, and heat exchanger configuration.

General Performance
In the general performance section, flow rates, Gases (in/out) and Liquids (in/out), for the shell and tube sides are shown to summarize any phase change that occurred in the exchanger. The Temperature (in/out) for both side of the exchanger are given along with Dew point and bubble point temperatures for phase change applications. Film coefficients for the shell and tube sides are the weighted coefficients for any gas cooling/heating and phase change that occurred in the heat exchanger. Velocities for single phase applications are based on an average density. For condensers, the velocity is based on the inlet conditions. For vaporizers, it is based on the outlet conditions. Shell side velocities are the crossflow velocity at the diametric cross-section. Overall performance parameters are given, such as Heat exchanged, MTD with any applied correction factor and the effective total surface area. For single phase applications on both sides of the shell, a MTD correction factor will be applied in accordance with TEMA standards. For multi-component phase change applications, the MTD is weighted based upon a heat release curve. The effective surface area does not include the U-bend area for U-tubes unless it was specified to do so. The exchanger geometry provided in the summary includes: TEMA type, exchanger position, number of shells in parallel and in series, exchanger size, number of tubes and tube outside diameter, baffle type, baffle cut, baffle orientation, and number of tube passes.

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Thermal Resistance Analysis
This portion gives information to help you evaluate the surface area requirements in the clean, specified fouled (as given in the input), and the maximum fouled conditions. The clean condition assumes that there is no fouling in the exchanger, in the new condition. The overall coefficient shown for this case has no fouling resistance included. Using this clean overall coefficient, the excess surface area is then calculated. The specified foul condition summarizes the performance of the exchanger with the overall coefficient based upon the specified fouling. The maximum fouled condition is derived by taking the specified fouling factors and increasing them (if the exchanger is oversurfaced) or decreasing them (if undersurfaced), proportionately to each other, until there is no over or under surface. The distribution of overall resistance allows you to quickly evaluate the controlling resistance(s). You should look in the "Clean" column to determine which film coefficient is controlling, then look in the "Spec. Foul" column to see the effect of the fouling resistances. The difference between the excess surface in the clean condition and the specified fouled condition is the amount of surface added for fouling. You should evaluate the applicability of the specified fouling resistances when they dictate a large part of the area, say more than 50%. Such fouling resistances often increase the diameter of the heat exchanger and decrease the velocities to the point where the level of fouling is self-fulfilling.

Coefficients & MTD
This output section shows the various components of each film coefficient. Depending on the application, one or more of the following coefficients will be shown: desuperheating, condensing, vapor sensible, liquid sensible, boiling and liquid cooling coefficients. The Reynolds number is included so that you can readily evaluate if the flow is laminar (under 2000), transition (2000-10000), or turbulent (over 10000). The fin efficiency factor is used in correcting the tube side film thermal resistance and the tube side fouling factor resistance. The mean metal temperature of the shell is the average of the inlet and outlet temperatures on the shell side. The mean metal temperature of the tube wall is a function of the film coefficients on both sides as well as the temperatures on both sides. These two temperatures are intended for use in the mechanical design in order to determine the expansion joint requirements in a fixed tubesheet heat exchanger.

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The calculated corrected MTD (Mean Temperature Difference) for no phase change applications is the product of the LMTD (Log Mean Temperature Difference), the correction factor (F), and the longitudinal baffle efficiency factor (if using an F, G, or H shell). For phase change applications, the process is divided into a number of intervals and a MTD is determined for each interval. The overall MTD for the exchanger is then determined by weighting the interval MTD’s based on heat load. If you have specified a value for the Corrected Mean Temperature Difference in the input, it is this value which the program uses in the design instead of the calculated Corrected MTD. The flow direction is displayed when there is a single tube pass, in which case it is either counter-current or co-current. The heat flux is the heat transferred per unit of surface area. This is of importance for boiling applications where a high flux can lead to vapor blanketing. In this condition, the rapid boiling at the tube wall covers the tube surface with a film of vapor, which causes the film coefficient to collapse. The program calculates a maximum flux for nucleate boiling on a single tube and a maximum flux for bundle boiling (nucleate and flow boiling), which can be controlled by other limits (e.g., dryout). If you specify a maximum flux in the input, this overrides the program calculated maximum flux. To analyze this data, you should check to see if the maximum flux is controlling. If it is, consider reducing the temperature of the heating medium.

Pressure Drop
Pressure drop distribution
The pressure drop distribution is one of the most important parts of the output for analysis. You should observe if significant portions or the pressure drop are expended where there is little or no heat transfer (inlet nozzle, entering bundle, through baffle windows, exiting bundle, outlet nozzle). If too much pressure drop occurs in a nozzle, consider increasing the nozzle size. If too much is consumed entering or exiting the bundle, consider using a distributor belt. If too much pressure drop is taken through the baffle windows, consider a larger baffle cut. On the shell side, the program determines the dirty pressure drop by assuming that the fouling will close the clearance between the shell I.D. and the baffle OD and the clearance between the baffle and the tube OD. The bypassing around the outside of the bundle (between the shell I.D. and the outer tube limit) is still present in the dirty pressure drop. The program determines the dirty pressure drop in the tubes by estimating a thickness for the fouling, based on the specified tube side fouling resistance, which decreases the crosssectional area for flow.

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User specified bundle multiplier
The user specified bundle multiplier, which you can specify in the input, is included in the bundle portion of the calculated pressure drop, clean and dirty.

Velocity distribution
The velocity distribution, between the inlet and outlet nozzle, is shown for reference. In other parts of the output, the velocity, which is shown for the shell side, is the diametric crossflow velocity. For the tube side it is the velocity through the tubes. For two phase applications, the velocities for crossflow, through baffle windows, and through tubes are the highest velocities based on the maximum vapor flow.

Shell Side Stream Analysis
The shell side stream analysis displays the characteristics and potential problems of the shell side flow. The program determines the shell side film coefficient and pressure drop by using the stream analysis method. This method is based on the concepts originally developed by Townsend Tinker at the University of Delaware in the early 1950's. B-JAC has further developed and fine-tuned this method which attempts to predict how much of the fluid will flow through each of the possible flow paths. The stream analysis method considers many variables, including shell diameter, baffle spacing, baffle cut, baffle type, tube diameter, tube hole diameter, baffle diameter, tube rows, and outer tube limits. The flow fractions are shown for the various streams and the clearances, which the program has used. The clearances are either those based on the TEMA standards or specified in the input. The crossflow stream is the portion of the flow, which crosses the bundle and flows through the baffle window. This is sometimes referred to as the "B" stream. Since crossflow gives the highest film coefficient, we usually want to maximize the percentage of flow in crossflow, unless the design is solely controlled by shell side pressure drop. In turbulent flow, you should expect a crossflow percentage of 40 to 70%. In laminar flow, the crossflow often drops to 25 to 40%.

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Thermal Details - Shell Side Flow
The tube-baffle hole clearance is the annular opening between the tube OD and the baffle. This is the location of the primary leakage stream and is sometimes referred to as the "A" stream. Leakage through this opening can significantly decrease the pressure drop and will also reduce the film coefficient. The opening between the shell I.D. and the baffle OD is shown as the shell-baffle clearance. This is a secondary leakage stream and is sometimes called the "E" stream. The last stream shown is through the opening between the shell I.D. and the outermost tubes as defined by the outer tube limits (OTL). This is called a bypass stream, because it largely bypasses the heat transfer surface. This is also known as the "C" stream. When this shellbundle OTL clearance is large as in the case of an inside floating head exchanger (TEMA rear head types S & T) the program automatically adds sealing strips to force the flow back into the bundle.

Rho*V2 Analysis
The rho*V2 Analysis is shown on the lower half of this output and is based on the analysis suggested by TEMA at the five locations listed. Rho*V2 is the product of the density and the velocity squared. Experience has shown that these limits set by TEMA are good guidelines for avoiding excessive erosion, vibration, and stress fatigue of the tubes at the inlet and outlet. The program does not automatically change the design when the TEMA limits are exceeded, but instead gives you a warning message and suggests that you change the shell inlet or outlet construction in order to lower inlet or outlet velocities. If the rho*V2 is too high through the shell inlet nozzle, consider a larger nozzle, reducer piece, or dome. The shell entrance and exit velocities are based on the flow area between the tubes under the nozzle and the radial flow area into the shell between the tube bundle and the shell I.D. If the rho*V2 is excessive at shell entrance or exit, consider increasing the appropriate nozzle diameter, removing tubes under the nozzle, or using a nozzle dome. The bundle entrance and exit velocities are based on the flow area between the tubes in the first row(s) in the inlet and outlet compartments between the tubesheet and the first baffle, excluding area blocked by any impingement plate. When the rho*V2 entering or exiting the bundle are too high, consider increasing the inlet or outlet baffle spacing or removing tubes under the nozzle

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Thermosiphon Reboilers
This output only appears for thermosiphon applications. This section shows the equivalent length of piping from the column to the heat exchanger inlet and the piping from the outlet back to the column. Equivalent length is a method of specifying a length of piping which accounts for the pressure drop of pipe as a ratio of length to diameter and the effect of valves, bends, tees, expansions, contractions, etc. Refer to a piping handbook for more details. The liquid level above the top tubesheet, shows the relationship between the liquid level in the column and the top face of the top tubesheet. A positive value indicates the level is above the tubesheet; a negative value indicates the level is below the tubesheet. Height of return connection above top tubesheet provides the elevation difference of the return connection to the column. It is from the top face of the top tubesheet to the centerline of the opening into the column.

Used and Specified
These columns indicate the values actually used in the calculations and values specified in input. The bubble point in the column, which was specified in the input, is given. The bubble point in the exchanger is calculated based on the effect of the liquid head, which will elevate the bubble point. The sensible zone is the tube length required to heat the liquid back up to its boiling point due to the elevation of the boiling point caused by the pressure of the fluid head. If this is a significant part of the tube length, say more than 20%, you should consider putting a valve or orifice in the inlet line to take a pressure drop, which will reduce the flow rate and area, required. The vaporization zone is the tube length required for the specified or calculated amount of vaporization.

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TEMA Sheet
HEAT EXCHANGER SPECIFICATION SHEET
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 50 51 52 53 54 55 56 57 58 Company: Location: Service of Unit: Item No.: Date: Size 690-4000 Surf/unit(eff)

153.7

Fluid allocation Fluid name Fluid quantity, total Vapor (in/out) Liquid Noncondensable Temperature (in/out) Dew point/bubble point Density Viscosity Molecular weight, vapor Molecular weight, noncondensable Specific heat Thermal conductivity Latent heat Inlet pressure Velocity Pressure drop, allow./calc. Fouling resist. (min.) Heat exchanged 6215819 Transfer rate, service

Our Reference: Your Reference: Rev No.: Job No.: Type BEM hor Connected in 1 parallel 1 series m2; Shells/unit 1 Surf/shell(eff) 153.7 m2 PERFORMANCE OF ONE UNIT Shell Side Tube Side kg/s kg/s kg/s kg/s C C kg/m3 mPa*s 133.5 133.5 110 1747.87 3.637 133.5 80 1777.42 6.057 98.923 28 997.75 0.837 98.923 98.923 43 993.46 0.619

kJ/(kg*K) 1.58 1.524 4.191 4.187 W/(m*K) 0.37 0.353 0.604 0.624 kJ/kg bar 6 4 m/s 0.71 1.45 bar 0.7 / 0.569 0.5 / 0.14 m2*K/W 0.00035 0.00018 W ; MTD (corrected) 57.9 C 698 dirty 792 clean 1431 W/(m2*K) CONSTRUCTION OF ONE SHELL Sketch Shell Side Tube Side Design/test pressure bar 5.5 /code 5.2 /code Design temperature C 143 77 No. passes per shell 1 2 Corrosion allowance mm 0 0 Connections in mm 305 / 305 /150 size/rating out mm 305 / 305 /150 / / Tube no. 618 od 20 ;thk-avg 1.6 mm;length 4000 mm;pitch 25 mm Tube type plain Material Hast C Pattern 30 Shell Hast C id od 700 mm Shell cover Channel or bonnet SS304 Channel cover Tubesheet-stationary Hast C Tubesheet-floating Floating head cover Impingement protection none Baffles-cross SS304 Type sseg Cut (%d) 25 h;Spacing: c/c 578 mm Baffles-long Seal type Inlet 536 mm Supports-tube U-bend Type Bypass seal Tube-tubesheet joint groove/expand Expansion joint Type Rho*V2-inlet nozzle 1917 Bundle entrance 1970 Bundle exit 1937 Gaskets-shell side Tube side -floating head Code requirements ASME Code Sec VIII Div 1 TEMA class B Weight/shell 3219 Filled with water 4989 Bundle 2375 kg Remarks

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Mechanical Summary
The Mechanical Summary Section is subdivided into three headings: • • • Exchanger Dimensions Vibration & Resonance Analysis Setting Plan & Tubesheet Layout

Exchanger Dimensions
The shell, front head, and nozzle, tube, and bundle dimensions are briefly described in this output. Some of these items are clarified below.

Cylinder diameters
The shell and front head cylinder outside and inside diameters are provided. The thicknesses used to derive the cylinder inside or outside diameter are based on a basic mechanical design. However, due to assumptions made by the program or unknown data (e.g., exact material specifications) this may not match the thicknesses calculated in the detailed mechanical design. For kettle type exchangers, the shell cylinder diameter refers to the smaller cylinder at the tubesheet, and the kettle outside diameter is the larger cylinder containing the disengagement space.

Vapor belt length
The vapor belt length is the total length of the vapor belt including the transition pieces that are attached to the shell.

Nozzles
Nozzle Sizing: The program will automatically determine the diameter of a nozzle, if you do not specify it in the input. The default nozzle diameter is determined by the calculated maximum velocity which is a function of the density of the fluid and the allowable pressure drop. The maximum velocity is calculated as follows: max. velocity = k / (density)0.5 where: velocity is in m/s or ft/s k is a constant as shown below density is in kg/mÛ or lb/ftÛ

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For all nozzles, except condensate drains, when the allowable pressure drop is greater than or equal to 0.12 bar (1.7 psi): for SI units:k = 47.2 for US units:k = 38.7 For all nozzles, except condensate drains and X-shell nozzles, when the allowable pressure drop is less than 0.12 bar (1.7 psi): for SI units:k = 296 * (allowable pressure drop in bar) + 12.2 for US units:k = 16.70 * (allowable pressure drop in psi) + 10.0 For condensate drains: for SI units:k = 30.49 for US units:k = 25.0 Nozzle sizes selected or specified in the input will then be checked for compliance with TEMA recommend mass velocity limits. If exceeded a warning will be issued. The program will increase the diameter of the nozzles larger than TEMA minimums to avoid excessive pressure drop in the nozzles, if greater than 15% of the allowable pressure drop.

Tube length and number of tubes
These are for straight tubes. In the case of U-tubes they are the straight length and the number of tube holes in the tubesheet.

Area ratio Ao/Ai
This is the ratio of the outside tube surface to the inside tube surface for finned tubes.

Pass partition lane
This is the opening across a pass partition from tube edge to tube edge.

Deviation in tubes/pass
This is the largest deviation from the median number of tubes per pass.

Baffle Cut
This is the window expressed as a percent of the shell inside diameter. For double segmental baffles, it is printed with the percent of the innermost window / percent of one of the outer windows (e.g., 28/23). For triple segmental baffles, it is printed with the percent of the innermost window / percent of one intermediate window / percent of one outermost window (e.g., 15/17/15).

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Open Distance at Top
This is the distance from the top of the inside of the shell to the top edge of the topmost tube row. Similarly, the Open Distance at Bottom is the distance from the bottom of the inside of the shell to bottom edge of the bottom-most tube row.

Clearances
These are diametric clearances.

Vibration & Resonance Analysis
Vibration
Flow-induced tube vibration on the shell side of a heat exchanger can cause serious damage to a tube bundle, sometimes very quickly. It is very important to try to avoid potential vibration damage by making changes at the design stage to limit the probability of vibration occurring. Although vibration analysis is not yet an exact science, TEMA has included two methods, which are fully implemented in the Aspen Hetran program. The calculations are done at three or four points:

Vibration Analysis at Inlet
This is the longest tube span at the inlet. For segmental baffles (except NTIW) this is from the inside face of the tubesheet to the second baffle. For grid baffles and NTIW this is from the inside face of the tubesheet to the first baffle.

Vibration Analysis at Bundle
This is the longest tube span excluding the inlet and outlet zones. For segmental baffles (except NTIW) this is two times the baffle spacing. For grid baffles and NTIW this is the baffle spacing.

Vibration Analysis at Outlet
This is the longest tube span at the outlet. For segmental baffles (except NTIW) this is from the next to last baffle to the inside face of the tubesheet. For grid baffles and NTIW this is from the last baffle to the inside face of the tubesheet.

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Vibration Analysis at Other Areas
This is for other tube spans resulting from using intermediate supports with the NTIW construction.

Crossflow and Critical Velocities
The most dependable predictor of vibration is the check on critical velocity. It is based on the comparison of the crossflow velocity to the critical velocity for fluid elastic whirling, which was developed by Connors. Basically it indicates the point at which the kinetic energy can not be dampened through the structure of the heat exchanger and the tube will move. The crossflow velocity is based on the average velocity of the fluid across a representative tube row in that region using the stream analysis method. The crossflow velocity for two phase mixtures is based on a homogeneous fluid density.

Acoustic and Natural Frequencies
When the shell side fluid is a gas, TEMA also recommends checking the relationship between the natural frequency of the tubes and the acoustic frequency of the gas. If these two frequencies are close, the tubes may vibrate in resonance. The program indicates vibration when the acoustic frequency matches the natural frequency within + or - 20%.

Design Strategies
The best design strategies to avoid tube vibration are primarily design changes, which reduce the shell side velocity, such as: using a multi-segmental baffle (double or triple) or a grid baffle (rod or strip); using a J-shell or X-shell; increasing the tube pitch. Also, you may want to consider using a no tubes in the window (NTIW) baffle arrangement.

Acoustic Resonance Analysis
The acoustic resonance analysis is also based on the latest edition of TEMA and is done at the same points described previously for vibration analysis. Acoustic resonance is a problem of sound, but not usually tube vibration. Therefore its avoidance may not be as critical as tube vibration, but still should be avoided if practically possible. When a low density gas is flowing on the shell side of the heat exchanger at a relatively high velocity, there is the possibility that it will oscillate as a column somewhat like an organ pipe. This results in a noise, which can be very loud. Noise levels of more than 140 decibels have been reported, which would be very painful to the human ear.

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Problems Resulting from Acoustic Resonance
If acoustic resonance occurs and its frequency approaches the tube natural frequency, vibration may also occur. Even if tube vibration does not occur, it is wise to avoid acoustic resonance for many reasons. First, the noise levels may not be allowable under company standards or government regulations (e.g., OSHA in the U.S.) or acceptable to insurance companies. Second, the noise may produce significant stresses in the shell and attached piping. Third, it may result in an increase in the shell side pressure drop, which is not considered in the Aspen Hetran program.

Determination
The primary mechanisms, which cause acoustic resonance, are vortex shedding and turbulent buffeting. If either the vortex shedding frequency or the turbulent buffeting frequency match the acoustic frequency within + or - 20%, then the program will predict acoustic resonance. TEMA also describes two other conditions, which indicate acoustic resonance--a condition B and a condition C velocity which are compared to the crossflow velocity. Acoustic resonance is indicated when the crossflow velocity exceeds either the condition B velocity or the condition C velocity and the limit C is exceeded. These indicators seem to be less reliable than the frequency matching, and the program may not show the results in some cases.

Design Strategies
The best design strategies to avoid acoustic resonance are the same for avoiding tube vibration, such as: using a multi-segmental baffle (double or triple) or a grid baffle (rod or strip); using a J-shell or X-shell; increasing the tube pitch. If such design changes are not practical, then deresonating baffles can be installed. These are designed to break the column of gas in order to minimize oscillation. These baffles are plates, which are positioned between the conventional segmental baffles, perpendicular to the segmental baffle and perpendicular to the baffle cut.

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Setting Plan & Tubesheet Layout
Setting plan drawing
The scaled outline drawing provides an accurate depiction of the exchangers under review. It shows the types of heads, types of flanges, nozzle positions and functions, and the actual position of the baffles with respect to the inlet and outlet shell side nozzles. This allows you to determine any potential conflicts between nozzles and baffles. The drawing can be zoomed in by dragging a frame around a drawing section and selecting “Zoom In” from the “View” command in menu bar.

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Tubesheet Layout
The tubesheet layout drawing provides an accurate depiction of the tube arrangement selected by the program for the exchanger under review. It shows the shell side nozzles, tubes, tie rods, impingement plate, baffle cuts, pass lanes, tube pattern, tube pitch, and tubes per row. This drawing is particularly useful in understanding and resolving high velocity problems at the shell and/or bundle entrance and exit. You can zoom in by dragging a frame around a drawing section and selecting “Zoom In” from the “View” command in the menu bar. Once you have a specified an exchanger geometry and executed the Hetran in the Rating Mode, you can interactively make modifications to the tube layout. Reference the Tube Layout description in the Rating/Simulation Data program input section.

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Calculation Details
The Calculation Details Section is subdivided into six sections: • • • • • • Interval Analysis – Shell Side Interval Analysis – Tube Side VLE – Hot Side VLE – Cold Side Maximum Rating Property Temperature Limits

Interval Analysis – Shell Side & Tube Side
The Interval analysis section provides you with table of values for liquid properties, vapor properties, performance, heat transfer coefficients and heat load over the shell & tube side temperature ranges.

Liquid Properties
Summary of liquid properties over the temperature in the heat exchanger.

Vapor Properties
Summary of liquid properties over the temperature in the heat exchanger.

Performance
This section gives an incremental summary of the performance. Overall coefficient, surface area, temperature difference, and pressure drop are given for each heat load/temperature increment.

Heat Transfer Coefficient – Single Phase
Flow regimes are mapped in this section with the corresponding overall calculated film coefficients. The overall film coefficients are base upon the following: • • The liquid coefficient is the calculated heat transfer coefficient assuming the total flow is all liquid. The gas coefficient is the calculated heat transfer coefficient assuming the total flow is all vapor.

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Heat Transfer Coefficient - Condensation
Flow regimes are mapped in this section with the corresponding overall calculated film coefficients. The overall film coefficients are base upon the following: "Desuperheating Dry Wall" is for the part of the desuperheating load, which is removed, where no condensing is occurring. This only happens when the tube wall temperature is above the dew point temperature. In such a case, the film coefficient is based on a dry gas rate and the temperature difference is based on the inlet temperature. "Desuperheating Wet Wall" which shows the part of the desuperheating load which is removed coincident with condensation occurring at the tube wall. This case is more common. The film coefficient and temperature difference are the same as the first condensing zone. Liquid Cooling coefficient is for the cooling of any liquid entering and the condensate after it has formed and flows further through the heat exchanger. The program assumes that all liquid will be cooled down to the same outlet temperature as the vapor. The dry gas coefficient is the heat transfer coefficient when only gas is flowing with no condensation occurring. It is used as the lower limit for the condensing coefficient for pure component condensation and in the mass transfer and proration model for complex condensation applications. The pure condensing coefficients (shear and gravity) are the calculated condensing coefficients for the stream for that regime. The resulting pure condensing coefficient is a pure shear coefficient, pure gravity coefficient or a proration between the two, depending on the condensing regime. The condensing film coefficient is the heat transfer coefficient resulting from the combined effects of the pure condensing coefficient and the dry gas coefficient.

Heat Transfer Coefficient - Vaporization
The two phase factor is the correction factor applied to the liquid coefficient to calculate the two phase heat transfer coefficient. The two phase coefficient is the heat transfer coefficient calculated based on the combined liquid and vapor flow. The nucleate coefficient is the heat transfer coefficient due to the nucleation of bubbles on the surface of the heat transfer surface. The vaporization film coefficient is the heat transfer coefficient for the specified side resulting from the vectorial addition of the two-phase and nucleate boiling coefficient. Observe the change in the film coefficient to see if it decreases severely at the end of the vaporizing range. This usually indicates that the tube wall is drying out and the film coefficient is approaching a dry gas rate. If a significant percentage of the area required is at this low coefficient, consider a higher circulation rate (less vaporized each time through) if it is a reboiler.

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VLE – Hot Side
If the Aspen Hetran program generated the heat release curve, the following VLE information will be provided.

Vapor-Liquid Equilibrium
The condensation curve will be provided as a function of equal heat load increments or temperature increments. Cumulative heat load and vapor/liquid flow rates as a function of temperature will be shown.

Condensation Details
Component flow rates as function of temperature increments will be provided.

Vapor Properties
Vapor properties will be provided as a function of temperature increments.

Liquid Properties
Liquid properties will be provided as a function of temperature increments.

VLE – Cold Side
If the Aspen Hetran program generated the heat release curve, the following VLE information will be provided:

Vapor-Liquid Equilibrium
The vaporization curve will be provided as a function of equal heat load increments or temperature increments. Cumulative heat load and vapor/liquid flow rates as a function of temperature will be shown.

Vaporization Details
Component flow rates as function of temperature increments will be provided.

Vapor Properties
Vapor properties will be provided as a function of temperature increments.

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Liquid Properties
Liquid properties will be provided as a function of temperature increments.

Maximum Rating
In design mode, the program searches for a heat exchanger to satisfy the performance requirements you have specified in the input. In rating mode, the program checks the specified heat exchanger against these process requirements. In both cases it is often important to know what the actual outlet temperatures and heat exchanged will be when the exchanger is clean and when it reaches the specified fouling. Since the heat exchanger is usually oversurfaced or undersurfaced, the actual outlet temperatures will differ from those in the input. The Maximum Performance Rating output predicts these actual outlet temperatures and heat exchanged. To do this, the program uses the overall coefficient and effective surface area calculated in design or rating mode. It then varies the outlet temperatures, which will determine the heat duty and the mean temperature difference until the basic heat transfer equation is in exact balance:

Q =U * A CMTD
Where there are multiple exchangers in series, the program will show each exchanger separately.

Property Temperature Limits
Vapor and liquid property temperature limits will be listed.

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Hetran-Design Methods
Optimization Logic
In design mode, the Aspen Hetran program will search for a heat exchanger configuration, which will satisfy the desired process conditions. It will automatically change a number of the geometric parameters as it searches. However, Aspen Hetran will not automatically evaluate all possible configurations and it may not find the true optimum by itself. It is up to the user to determine what possible changes to the construction could lead to a better design and then present these changes to the program. Aspen Hetran searches to find a design, which satisfies the following: • • • • • Enough surface area to do the desired heat transfer Pressure drops within the allowable Physical size within acceptable limits Velocities within an acceptable range Mechanically sound and practical to construct

In addition to these criteria, Aspen Hetran also determines a budget cost estimate for each design and in most cases performs a vibration analysis. However cost and vibration do not affect the program's logic for optimization. There are over thirty mechanical parameters which directly or indirectly affect the thermal performance of a shell and tube heat exchanger. It is not practical for the program to evaluate all combinations of these parameters. In addition, the acceptable variations are often dependent upon process and cost considerations, which are beyond the scope of the program (for example the cost and importance of cleaning). Therefore the program automatically varies only a number of parameters which are reasonably independent of other process, operating, maintenance, or fabrication considerations. The parameters which are automatically optimized are: • • • • • • • • • Shell diameter Baffle spacing Pass layout type Tube length Number of baffles Exchangers in parallel Number of tubes Tube passes Exchangers in series

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The design engineer should optimize the other parameters, based on good engineering judgement. Some of the important parameters to consider are: • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • Shell type Tube outside diameter Impingement protection Rear head type Tube pitch Nozzle sizes Tube pattern Tubesheet type Baffle type Tube type Materials Exchanger orientation Baffle cut Tube wall thickness Fluid allocation

Optimization of Shell Diameter
The highest priority variable in design mode is the shell diameter. The program attempts to find the smallest diameter shell that will satisfy surface area, pressure drop, and velocity requirements. The diameter is incremented based on the shell diameter increment and is limited by the minimum shell diameter, and the maximum shell diameter. Each of these can be specified in the input.

Optimization of Tube Length
Once the smallest shell diameter has been found, the program optimizes the tube length to the shortest standard length, within the allowable range, which will satisfy surface area, pressure drop, and velocity requirements. The length is incremented or decremented based on the tube length increment and is limited by the minimum tube length and maximum tube length. Each of these can be specified in the input.

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Optimization of Baffle Spacing
The program seeks the minimum reasonable baffle spacing, which gives a pressure drop and velocity within the maximums allowed. The program wants to maximize the shell side velocity thereby maximizing the shell side film coefficient and minimizing any velocity dependent fouling. The minimum baffle spacing is usually equal to 20% of the shell inside diameter or 50 mm (2 in.), whichever is larger. The maximum baffle spacing is usually equal to one half the maximum unsupported span, as suggested by TEMA, for segmental baffles, and one times the maximum unsupported span for grid baffles or no tubes in the window construction. You can override these default values by specifying the minimum and/or maximum baffle spacing in the input.

Optimization of Number of Baffles
The program attempts to find the maximum number of baffles, which will fit between the inlet and outlet nozzles. Since the exact locations of the inlet and outlet nozzles are very much dependent upon the mechanical design, the program attempts to locate the nozzles by estimating the thickness of the tubesheet, the thickness of any shell or backing ring flanges, the maximum reinforcement pad diameters, and the necessary clearances.

Optimization of Tube Passes
The program seeks the maximum reasonable number of tube passes that gives a pressure drop and velocity within the maximums allowed. The program wants to maximize the tube side velocity thereby maximizing the tube side film coefficient and minimizing any velocity dependent fouling. The maximum reasonable number of tube passes is usually a function of the shell diameter and the tube outside diameter. It can also be a function of the tube side application (e.g., a tube side condenser is usually limited to one pass and should never be more than two passes) or a function of the rear head type (e.g., the W type head is limited to two passes). The tube passes for tubes with an outside diameter up to 25.4 mm (1.00 in) are limited by shell diameter as follows:
Shell OD mm-in 102-168 169-610 611-914 915-3000 Maximum Tube Passes 4-6 7-24 25-36 4 8 12

37-120 16

The maximum number of tube passes is further restricted for tubes with an outside diameter larger than 25.4 mm (1.00 in).

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Optimization of Tube Count
The Aspen Hetran program contains the same tube count subroutine, which is in the ENSEA tubesheet layout program. Therefore it determines an exact number of tubes and their location for each design. The program will try different tube pass layout types (quadrant, mixed, and ribbon) when appropriate and choose the layout giving the highest number of tubes.

Optimization of Exchangers in Series
The program will automatically increase the number of exchangers in series when it reaches the maximum allowable shell diameter and tube length and still is unable to find a design with enough heat transfer area. It will also go to exchangers in series when the correction factor on the MTD falls below 0.7 (or the minimum allowable correction factor specified in the input).

Optimization of Exchangers in Parallel
The program will automatically increase the number of exchangers in parallel when it reaches the maximum allowable shell diameter and minimum allowable tube length and still is unable to satisfy the allowable pressure drop.

Nozzle Sizing
The program will automatically determine the diameter of a nozzle, if you do not specify it in the input. The default nozzle diameter is determined by the calculated maximum velocity, which is a function of the density of the fluid and the allowable pressure drop. The maximum velocity is calculated as follows: max. velocity = k / (density)0.5 where: velocity is in m/s or ft/s k is a constant as shown below density is in kg/m3 or lb/ft3 For all nozzles, except condensate drains, when the allowable pressure drop is greater than or equal to 0.12 bar (1.7 psi): for SI units: k = 47.2

for US units k = 38.7

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For all nozzles, except condensate drains and X-shell nozzles, when the allowable pressure drop is less than 0.12 bar (1.7 psi): for SI units: k = 296 * (allowable pressure drop in bar)+12.2 for US units: k = 16.70 * (allowable pressure drop in psi)+10.0 For condensate drains: for SI units: k = 30.49

for US units: k = 25.0

Minimum Velocities
Although the program requests minimum velocities as an input option, these values do not directly affect the logic of the program. The program does compare the calculated velocity with the specified or defaulted minimum velocity and it then issues a warning if the calculated is less than the minimum velocity. The minimum velocity is not used to change the logic, because in design mode, the program is already trying to maximize the velocity within the allowable pressure drop and the maximum allowable velocity.

Maximum Velocities
It is important to establish maximum allowable velocities for both the shell and tube sides. On the shell side, a well-chosen maximum velocity will avoid vibration, excessive erosion, and stress fatigue of the tubes. For the tube side, avoiding excessive velocities will limit erosion of the tube and wear of the tube to tubesheet joint. On the shell side, the maximum velocity is for the crossflow stream. Where there is a change of phase, the maximum velocity applies to the vapor velocity. If you do not specify the maximum velocity in the input, the program will calculate one. This default value is independent of tube material. Some materials can withstand higher velocities than the maximum velocity chosen by the program. The default value calculated by the program for maximum allowable velocity is equal to the appropriate constant shown below divided by the square root of the density (kg/m3 in SI units or lb/ft3 in US units). Vmax = k / (Density)0.5
k in SI units Shell Side Fluid Tube Side Fluid 60.9 93.8 k in US units 50.0 77.0

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No Phase Change
No Phase Change - Film Coefficient
The shell side film coefficient is based on a Sieder-Tate correlation using the velocity which is determined using a modified Tinker stream analysis method. The tube side film coefficient is based on a Dittus-Boelter correlation.

No Phase Change - MTD
The program uses a corrected log mean temperature difference for all geometries.

No Phase Change - Pressure Drop
The pressure drop is determined by using a Fanning-type equation. On the shell side a modified Tinker stream analysis method is used. Velocity heads are used to determine pressure losses through the nozzles and various types of baffle windows. The program uses end zone corrections for the pressure drop in the inlet spacing and outlet spacing on the shell side. It also considers the number of tube rows crossed and the shell and bundle inlet and outlet losses based on the actual tube layout.

Simple Condensation
The program divides the condensing range up into ten equal zones based on temperature from the dew point to the bubble point or outlet temperature. For each zone it calculates a film coefficient (made up of a condensing coefficient, gas cooling coefficient, liquid cooling coefficient, and two phase coefficient), MTD, and two phase pressure drop, based on the vapor liquid equilibrium and physical properties for each zone. The user may also select the number of zones to be used in the analysis as well as the division of the zones by equal temperature or heat load increments.

Desuperheating- Film Coefficient
The program determines at what temperature point the tube wall will be wet by using a dry gas coefficient on the hot side and the coolant coefficient on the cold side. If the program determines that any part of the desuperheating range will result in a dry wall, it will calculate a separate desuperheating zone using a dry gas coefficient. Once the tube is wet, any remaining superheat is removed coincident with the condensation in the first condensing zone and the first zone film coefficient is used.

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Condensing - Film Coefficient - Horizontal Inside Tube
The program determines the dominant flow regime in each of the zones. The flow regimes are divided into annular, annular with stratification, wavy/stratified, intermediate wavy, high wavy/slug/plug, and bubble. For each flow regime there is a separate equation, which reflects the contribution of shear, controlled or gravity controlled flow. The shear controlled equations are derived from a single phase Dittus-Boelter equation with a two phase multiplier as a function of the Martinelli parameter. The gravity controlled equations are modified Nusselt and Dukler equations.

Condensing - Film Coefficient - Horizontal Outside Tube, Vertical Inside or Outside Tube
The program determines if the flow is shear controlled or gravity controlled in each of the zones. If it is in transition, then the result is prorated. The shear controlled equations are derived from a single phase Dittus-Boelter equation with a two phase multiplier as a function of the Martinelli parameter. The gravity controlled equations are modified Nusselt and Dukler equations.

Liquid Cooling and Subcooling - Film Coefficient
The cooling of the condensate (and any liquid entering) down to the outlet temperature and any subcooling below the bubble point are calculated using the greater of a forced convection or free convection equation for the full temperature range. In the case of a knockback reflux condenser the program does not consider any liquid cooling or subcooling.

MTD
The program assumes that the MTD is linear over the condensing range. Subcooling is also assumed to be linear. The MTD calculation is based upon the interval's local temperature difference. For multipass exchangers, the local temperature difference of the multipass stream is weighted based upon the stream temperatures at each pass.

Pressure Drop
The program uses a two phase Martinelli equation to calculate pressure drop.

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Complex Condensation
The program divides the condensing range up into a number of equal zones based on temperature or heat load from the dew point to the bubble point or outlet temperature. For each zone it calculates a film coefficient (made up of a condensing coefficient, gas cooling coefficient, liquid cooling coefficient, and two phase coefficient), MTD, and two phase pressure drop, based on the vapor liquid equilibrium and physical properties for each zone. The user may also select the number of zones to be used in the analysis as well as the division of the zones by temperature or heat load.

Desuperheating - Film Coefficient
The program determines at what temperature point the tube wall will be wet by using a dry gas coefficient on the hot side and the coolant coefficient on the cold side. If the program determines that any part of the desuperheating range will result in a dry wall, it will calculate a separate desuperheating zone using a dry gas coefficient. Once the tube is wet, any remaining superheat is removed coincident with the condensation in the first condensing zone and the first zone film coefficient is used.

Condensing - Film Coefficient
A separate condensing coefficient is determined for each zone, based on the flow regime and whether it is shear or gravity controlled.

Gas Cooling - Film Coefficient
The cooling of the vapor once condensation has begun (after any desuperheating) and the cooling of any noncondensables is based on a single phase coefficient for each zone. On the shell side it is a modified Sieder-Tate equation. On the tube side it is a modified DittusBoelter equation.

Liquid Cooling and Subcooling - Film Coefficient
The cooling of the condensate and any liquid entering down to the outlet temperature and any subcooling below the bubble point is calculated using a two phase coefficient based on the Martinelli equation. It is calculated for each of the ten zones, based on the liquid carried over from previous zones.

Overall Heat Transfer Coefficient
The overall heat transfer coefficient calculated for each zone is dependent on the condensing correlation chosen. The program defaults to the mass transfer method, which is a film model based on a Colburn-Hougen correlation for condensable(s) with noncondensable(s) and a Colburn-Drew correlation for multiple condensables. Our experience and research indicate that if the composition of the vapor is well known, the mass transfer method is the most accurate method. The program also allows you to choose the Silver-Bell proration method, which is an equilibrium model.

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Desuperheating - MTD
The program determines at what temperature point the tube wall will be wet by using a dry gas coefficient on the hot side and the coolant coefficient on the cold side. If the program determines that any part of the desuperheating range will result in a dry wall, it will use the inlet temperature and the vapor temperature point, which yields the wet tube wall to determine the MTD for the desuperheating zone. Once the tube wall is wet, the rest of the desuperheating occurs using the dew point to calculate the MTD. The MTD calculation is based upon the interval's local temperature difference. For multipass exchangers, the local temperature difference of the multipass stream is weighted based upon the stream temperatures at each pass.

Condensing - MTD
The program calculates an MTD for each of the zones using the starting and ending temperature for each zone. The MTD calculation is based upon the interval's local temperature difference. For multipass exchangers, the local temperature difference of the multipass stream is weighted based upon the stream temperatures at each pass.

Liquid Cooling - MTD
The liquid cooling load is divided evenly among the zones. This avoids the common mistake of assuming that the vapor and liquid are kept in equilibrium and are at the same temperature. In fact much of the liquid cooling may actually occur early in the heat exchanger. An MTD for the liquid cooling is calculated for each zone and then weighted.

Desuperheating - Pressure Drop
If the program determines that there is a dry wall zone, as described above, then the pressure drop for this zone is calculated using the stream analysis method if on the shell side or a modified Fanning equation if on the tube side.

Condensing - Pressure Drop
The pressure drop for the vapor cooling, condensing, and condensate formed is determined using a two phase Martinelli equation.

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Simple Vaporization
Liquid Preheating - Film Coefficient
The film coefficient for the heating of the liquid from its inlet temperature to the bubble point is the greater of the forced convection coefficient and the free convection coefficient.

Pool Boiling - Film Coefficient
The pool boiling coefficient is derived by the vectorial addition of the nucleate boiling coefficient and the flow boiling coefficient. The nucleate boiling coefficient is based on the Stephan-Abdelsalam equation corrected for pressure and molecular weight. If a boiling range exists and is specified in the input, the program also corrects for the depression of the coefficient resulting from the boiling of mixtures. The flow boiling coefficient is based on a no phase change liquid coefficient with a two phase multiplier. This coefficient is corrected for the effect of recirculation of the liquid around the tube bundle. The program automatically determines the recirculation rate based on the geometry of the shell and tube bundle. In a kettle, the program divides the boiling into a number of vertical zones, from the bottom of the bundle to the top of the bundle. The boiling temperature for each zone is calculated based on the effect of the static head of the liquid in the zones above. A separate boiling coefficient is calculated for each zone. The effect of liquid recirculation around the bundle in a kettle can be very significant and is used to modify the coefficient accordingly.

Forced Circulation - Film Coefficient
The boiling coefficient for forced circulation is also determined by using a vectorial addition of the nucleate boiling coefficient and the flow boiling coefficient and corrected as described above for pool boiling. However there is no recirculation of liquid around the bundle.

Thermosiphon - Tube Side - Film Coefficient
The vaporization side is divided into a liquid preheating zone and a number of vaporizing zones divided equally by temperature. The boiling coefficient is determined by using a vectorial addition of the nucleate boiling coefficient and the flow boiling coefficient and corrected as described above for pool boiling. The flow regime is determined using a modified Baker flow regime map.

Liquid Preheating - MTD
The liquid preheat MTD is calculated as a linear LMTD.

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Pool Boiling - MTD
The MTD for the boiling zones is determined as a linear LMTD using the calculated boiling temperatures of the bottom zone and top zone and the average temperature of the heating medium on the tube side.

Forced Circulation - MTD
The MTD calculation is based upon the interval's local temperature difference. For multipass exchangers, the local temperature difference of the multipass stream is weighted based upon the stream temperatures at each pass.

Thermosiphon - MTD
The MTD is calculated as an arithmetic MTD using the average temperature in each of the eleven zones and the corresponding temperature of the heating medium on the shell side.

Pool Boiling - Pressure Drop
The pressure drop in pool boiling is the total of the liquid pressure drop, determined using a Fanning equation, times a two phase Martinelli multiplier, plus the vapor acceleration pressure drop and the static head pressure drop.

Forced Circulation - Pressure Drop
The liquid pressure drop, determined using a Fanning equation, is multiplied by a two phase Martinelli multiplier. If the exchanger is in a vertical position, a vapor acceleration pressure drop and static head pressure drop are also added.

Thermosiphon - Pressure Drop
The program considers the pressure changes due to the inlet and outlet piping. The pressure drop within the heat exchanger is calculated in the same way as described under forced circulation.

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Complex Vaporization
The program divides the vaporization range up into a number of equal zones based on temperature or heat load from the bubble point to the outlet temperature. For each zone it calculates a film coefficient, MTD, and two phase pressure drop, based on the vapor liquid equilibrium and physical properties for each zone.

Liquid Preheating - Film Coefficient
The film coefficient for the heating of the liquid from its inlet temperature to the bubble point is the greater of the forced convection coefficient and the free convection coefficient.

Forced Circulation - Film Coefficient
The boiling coefficient for each zone is derived by the vectorial addition of the nucleate boiling coefficient and the flow boiling coefficient. The nucleate boiling coefficient is based on the Stephan-Abdelsalam equation corrected for pressure and molecular weight. If a boiling range exists and is specified in the input, the program also corrects for the depression of the coefficient resulting from the boiling of mixtures. The flow boiling coefficient is based on a no phase change liquid coefficient with a two phase multiplier.

Complex Vaporization - MTD
The program calculates an MTD for each of the ten zones using the starting and ending temperature for each zone. The MTD calculation is based upon the interval's local temperature difference. For multipass exchangers, the local temperature difference of the multipass stream is weighted based upon the stream temperatures at each pass.

Complex Vaporization - Pressure Drop
The liquid pressure drop, determined using a Fanning equation, is multiplied by a two phase Martinelli multiplier for each zone. If the exchanger is in a vertical position, a vapor acceleration pressure drop and static head pressure drop are also added.

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Falling Film Evaporators
The program uses the design methods of Chun and Seban for determining the film coefficient and acceptable liquid loading of the tube. In design mode the program determines the cross-sectional area for tube side flow so that the liquid loading of the tube is below the point where the liquid would begin to move down the center of the tube (rather than remain as a film). The liquid loading is kept above the point where the film would no longer be continuous. In rating mode, the program warns if the liquid loading is above or below these respective points. The program assumes that the vapor also continues to move down the tube and is separated from the liquid in the bottom head or a receiver below the bottom tubesheet.

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4

Aspen Aerotran

Introduction
Aspen Aerotran is a program for the thermal design, rating, and simulation of heat exchangers in which a gas flows perpendicular to a rectangular bank of tubes. Specific exchanger types covered in Aspen Aerotran are air-cooled heat exchangers, hot-gas recuperators (also called flue gas economizers), and the convection section of fired heaters. It encompasses most industrial applications for this type of equipment, including tube side cases of no phase change, condensation, and vaporization. For air-cooled heat exchangers, the program can determine the required fans for forced or induced draft and includes a wide variety of wrapped, welded, and embedded fins. Aspen Aerotran is also well adapted for designing flue gas economizers, since it allows for soot blowers, segmented fins, and various header orientations. When designing the convection section of a fired heater, it can account for both convective and radiant heat transfer. In the design mode, the program optimizes on the exchanger size required to do a specified heat transfer job, searching for the minimum exchanger size that satisfies the heat duty, allowable pressure drops, and velocities. Aspen Aerotran optimizes on the number of tubes in the face row, number of rows deep, tube length, tube passes, number of bays, number of bundles in parallel or series within a given bay, and sizes the appropriate fan or fans for those bays. The design engineer can adjust gas side flow rate or outlet temperatures interactively, permitting operating cost to be optimized as well as equipment size. As the program runs it produces a detailed optimization path, which shows the alternatives considered by the program as it searches for a satisfactory design. These "intermediate designs" indicate the constraints which are controlling the design and point out what parameters you could modify to reduce the size of the exchanger. The rating mode is used to check the performance of an exchanger with fully specified geometry under any desired operating conditions. The program will check to see if there is sufficient surface area for the process conditions specified and notify the user if the unit is under surfaced.

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For the simulation mode, you will specify the heat exchanger geometry and the inlet process conditions and the program will predict the outlet conditions for both streams. The Aspen Aerotran program has an extensive set of input default values built-in. This allows you to specify a minimum amount of input data to evaluate a design. For complex condensation and/or vaporization, where the program requires vapor-liquid equilibrium data and properties at many temperature points, you can enter the data directly into the input file, or you can have the Aspen Aerotran generate the curve. The program includes a basic mechanical design to determine a budget cost estimate. Aspen Aerotran incorporates all applicable provisions of the API 661 standards. A detailed mechanical design is currently beyond the scope of the Aspen Aerotran program. Aspen Aerotran is an interactive program, which means you can evaluate design changes as you run the program. You can control the operation of the program by using a series of menus which guide you through the input, calculation, display of results, design changes, and selection of printed output.

Thermal Scope
Air/Gas Side No Phase Change No Phase Change No Phase Change No Phase Change No Phase Change Tube Side No Phase Change Simple Condensation Complex Condensation Simple Vaporization Complex Vaporization

Mechanical Scope
Code
ASME Section VIII Div. 1

Standards
API 661

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Header Types
Plug Studded Cover Flanged Confined Cover Flanged Full-Face Cover Bonnet U-Tube Pipe

Tube Size
No Practical Limitation

Tube Patterns
Inline Staggered

Fin Configuration
Circular Segmented Plate

Fin Types
Extruded L-Type Weld U-Type Weld I-Type Weld L-Type Tension L-Type Tension Overlapped Embedded Extruded Sleeve Metal Coated Plate

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Tube Pass Arrangement
Horizontal, Vertical, Mixed

Draft Types
Forced, Induced, Natural

Plenums
None, Transition, Panel

Bundle Arrangements
Bundles in series are assumed to be stacked Bundles in parallel are assumed to be side by side

Fan Sizes
Minimum fan diameter is 3 ft (915 mm) Maximum fan diameter is 28 ft (8540 mm) Any commercially available fan size (The program determines the horsepower requirements.)

Units of Measure
U. S., SI, or Metric

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Input
The Input Section is divided into five sections: • • • • • Problem Definition Physical Property Data Exchanger Geometry Design Data Program Options

Problem Definition
The Problem Definition Section is subdivided into three sections: • • • Description Application Options Process Data

Description
Headings
Headings are optional. You can specify from 1 to 5 lines of up to 75 characters per line. These entries will appear at the top of the API specification sheet.

Fluid names
This descriptive data is optional, but we highly recommend always entering meaningful fluid descriptions, because these fluid names will appear with other input items to help you readily identify to which fluid the data applies. These names also appear in the specification sheet output. Each name can be up to 19 characters long and can contain multiple words.

Remarks
The remarks are specifically for the bottom of the specification sheet output. They are optional and each line can be up to 75 characters long.

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Application Options
Equipment type
You must select one of the four items for the type of equipment. Air-cooled heat exchangers use air as the outside heat transfer medium. The fluid on the tube side will either be a no phase change fluid that is being cooled or a fluid that is condensing. Hot-gas heat recuperators typically use a hot gas as the outside heat transfer medium. The fluid on the tube side will either be a no phase change fluid that is being heated or a fluid that is vaporizing. Fired heater convection section typically use a hot gas such as steam as the outside heat transfer medium. The fluid on the tube side will either be a no phase change fluid that is being heated or a fluid that is vaporizing. In addition to forced convection heat transfer, the program also considers heat transfer due to radiation for this application. Gas-cooled heat exchangers use gas as the outside heat transfer medium. The fluid on the tube side will either be a no phase change fluid that is being cooled or a fluid that is condensing.

Tube side application
Narrow range condensation covers the cases where the condensing side film coefficient does not change significantly over the temperature range. Therefore, the calculations can be based on an assumed linear condensation profile. This class is recommended for cases of isothermal condensation and cases of multiple condensables without noncondensables where the condensing range is less than 6°C (10°F). Multi-component condensation covers the other cases of condensation where the condensing side film coefficient changes significantly over the condensing range. Therefore, the condensing range must be divided into several zones where the properties and conditions must be calculated for each zone. This class is recommended for all cases where noncondensables are present or where there are multiple condensables with a condensing range of more than 6°C (10°F). Narrow range vaporization covers the cases where the vaporizing side film coefficient does not change significantly over the temperature range. Therefore, the calculations can be based on an assumed linear vaporization profile. This class is recommended for cases of single components and cases of multiple components where the vaporizing range is less than 6°C (10°F). Multi-component vaporization: Application covers the other cases of vaporization where the vaporizing side film coefficient changes significantly over the vaporizing range. Therefore, the vaporizing range must be divided into several zones where the properties and conditions must be calculated for each zone. This class is recommended for cases where there are multiple components with a vaporizing range of more than 6°C (10°F).

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Condensation curve
You can input a vapor/liquid equilibrium curve or have the program calculate the curve using ideal gas laws or several other non-ideal methods.

Vaporization curve
You can input a vapor/liquid equilibrium curve or have the program calculate the curve using ideal gas laws or several other non-ideal methods.

Draft type
Forced draft has air pushed through the bundle by a fan. This normally provides a higher fan efficiency, and the fan is not subjected to the air outlet temperature. Induced draft pulls the air across the bundle with the fan. This normally provides better air distribution across the bundle, but the fan is subjected to the air outlet temperature.

Program mode
You must select the mode in which you want the program to operate. Design mode: In design mode, you specify the performance requirements, and the program searches for a satisfactory heat exchanger configuration. Rating mode: In rating mode, you specify the performance requirements and the heat exchanger configuration, and the program checks to see if that heat exchanger is adequate. Simulation mode: In simulation mode, you specify the heat exchanger configuration and the inlet process conditions, and the program predicts the outlet conditions of the two streams.

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Process Data
Fluid quantity, total (tube side)
Input the total flow rates for the hot and cold sides. For no phase change, the flow rates can be left blank and the program will calculate the required flow rates to meet the specified heat load or the heat load on the opposite side. All temperatures must be specified if the flow rates are omitted. For phase change applications, the total flow rate should be at least approximated. The program will still calculate the total required flow rate to balance the heat loads.

Vapor quantity (tube side)
For change in phase applications, input vapor flows rates entering or leaving the exchanger for the applicable hot and/or cold sides. The program requires at least two of the three following flow rates at the inlet and outlet: vapor flow, liquid flow, or total flow. It can then calculate the missing value.

Liquid quantity (tube side)
For change in phase applications, input the liquid flows rates entering and /or leaving the exchanger for applicable hot and/or cold sides. The program requires at least two of the three following flow rates at the inlet and outlet: vapor flow, liquid flow, total flow. It can then calculate the missing value.

Temperature (in/out) (tube side)
Enter the inlet and outlet temperatures for the hot and cold side applications. For no phase change applications, the program can calculate the outlet temperature based on the specified heat load or the heat load on the opposite side. The flow rate and the inlet temperature must be specified. For narrow condensation and vaporization applications, an outlet temperature and associated vapor and liquid flows is required. This represents the second point on the VLE curve, which we assume to be a straight line. With this information, the program can determine the correct vapor/liquid ratio at various temperatures and correct the outlet temperature or total flow rates to balance heat loads.

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Dew point & bubble point temperatures (tube side)
For narrow range condensation and narrow range vaporization, enter the dew point and bubble point temperatures for the applicable hot and/or cold side. For condensers, the dew point is required but the bubble point may be omitted if vapor is still present at the outlet temperature. For vaporizers, the bubble point is required but the dew point may be omitted if liquid is still present at the outlet temperature.

Operating pressure (tube side)
Specify the pressure in absolute pressure (not gauge pressure). Depending on the application, the program may permit either inlet or outlet pressure to be specified. In most cases, it should be the inlet pressure. For a thermosiphon reboiler, the operating pressure should reflect the pressure at the surface of the liquid in the column. In the case of condensers and vaporizers where you expect the pressure drop to significantly change the condensation or vaporization curves, you should use a pressure drop adjusted vapor-liquid equilibrium data. If you had Aspen Hetran calculate the curve, you can indicate to adjust the curve for pressure drop.

Allowable pressure drop (tube side)
Where applicable, the allowable pressure drop is required input. You can specify any value up to the operating pressure, although the allowable pressure drop should usually be less than 40% of the operating pressure.

Fouling resistance (tube side)
The fouling resistance will default to zero if left unspecified. You can specify any reasonable value.

Fluid quantity, total (outside tube)
Input the total flow rate for no phase fluid. The flow rate can be left blank and the program will calculate the required flow rates to meet the specified heat load or the heat load on the opposite side. All temperatures must be specified if the flow rates are omitted. For phase change applications, the total flow rate should be at least approximated. The program will still calculate the total required flow rate to balance the heat loads.

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Temperature (outside tube)
Enter the inlet and outlet temperatures for the fluid outside the tubes. For no phase change applications, the program can calculate the required outlet temperature based on the specified heat load or the heat load on the opposite side. The flow rate and the inlet temperature must be specified.

Altitude above sea level (outside tube)
The altitude is used to determine the operating pressure outside the tube bundle in order to retrieve properties from the physical property data bank.

Static pressure at inlet (outside tube)
The gauge pressure of the flow outside the tube bundle. The gauge pressure is the pressure above or below atmospheric pressure. If below atmospheric, the pressure should be specified as a negative value.

Minimum ambient temperature (outside tube)
This temperature is used to determine the possibility of the tube side fluid freeze-up when the air inlet temperature is at its minimum.

Allowable pressure drop (outside tube)
Where applicable, the allowable pressure drop across the bundle and fan, if present, is required input. You can specify any value up to the operating pressure, although the allowable pressure drop should usually be less than 40% of the operating pressure. Axial flow fans can develop a maximum static pressure of approximately 1.25 in H2O (32 mm H2O). The allowable pressure drop should not exceed this value when a fan is to be used.

Fouling resistance (outside tube)
The fouling resistance will default to zero if left unspecified. You can specify any reasonable value.

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Heat exchanged
You should specify a value for this input field when you want to design to a specific heat duty. If the heat exchanged is specified, the program will compare the hot and cold side calculated heat loads with the specified heat load. If they do not agree within 2%, the program will correct the flow rate, or outlet temperature. If the heat exchanged is not specified, the program will compare the hot and cold side calculated heat loads. If they do not agree within 2%, the program will correct the flow rate, or outlet temperature. To set what the program will balance, click on the Heat Exchange Balance Options tab and select to have the program change flow rate, outlet temperature, or to allow an unbalanced heat load.

Heat load balance options
This input allows you to specify whether you want the total flow rate or the outlet temperature to be adjusted to balance the heat load against the specified heat load or the heat load calculated from the opposite side. The program will calculate the required adjustment. There is also an option to not balance the heat loads; in that case the program will design the exchanger with the specified flows and temperature but with the highest of the specified or calculated heat loads.

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Physical Property Data
This section includes: • • • • Property Options Hot side Composition Cold Side Composition Cold Side Properties

Property Options
Databanks: Tube Side and Outside Tubes
Properties from B-JAC Databank / User Specified properties / Interface properties from Aspen Plus: By selecting this option, you can reference the B-JAC Property Databank, specify your own properties for the Tube Side and Outside Tubes property sections, or have properties directly passed into the B-JAC file directly from Aspen Plus simulation program. The B-JAC Property Databank consists of over 1500 compounds and mixtures used in the chemical process, petroleum, and other industries. You can reference the database by entering the components for the Tube Side and/or Outside Tube streams in the Composition sections. Use the Search button to locate the components in the database. If you specify properties in the Tube Side and/or Outside Tubes property sections, do not reference any compounds in the Tube Side and/or Outside Tube Composition sections unless you plan to use both the B-JAC Databank properties and specified properties. Any properties specified in the property sections will override properties coming from a property databank. If properties have been passed into the B-JAC file from the Interface to a Aspen Plus simulation run, these properties will be shown in the Tube Side and/or Outside Tube Property sections. If you have passed in properties from Aspen Plus, do not specify a reference to an *.APPDF file below since properties have already been provided by the Aspen Plus interface in the specified property sections. Aspen Properties Databank: Aspen B-JAC provides access to the Aspen Properties physical property databank of compounds and mixtures. To access the databank, first create an Aspen input file with stream information and physical property models. Run Aspen Plus and create the property file, xxxx.APPDF. Specify the name of the property file here in the Aerotran input file. Specify the composition of the stream in the Aerotran Property Composition section. When the B-JAC program is executed, the Aspen Properties program will be accessed and properties will be passed back into the B-JAC design file. Default: Aspen B-JAC Databank / Specified Properties

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Flash Option
If you are referencing the Aspen Properties databank, and providing the XXXX.APPDF file, specify the flash option you want Aspen Properties program to use with the VLE generation. Reference the Aspen Properties documentation for further detailed information on this subject. Default: Vapor-Liquid

The Aspen Plus run file
If you are referencing the Aspen Properties databank, provide the XXXX.APPDF file. If the file is not located in the same directory as your B-JAC input file, use the browse button to set the correct path to the *.APPDF file.

Condensation Curve Calculation Method
The calculation method determines which correlations the program will use to determine the vapor-liquid equilibrium. The choice of method is dependent on the degree of nonideality of the vapor and liquid phases and the amount of data available. The methods can be divided into three general groups: Ideal - correlations for ideal mixtures. The ideal method uses ideal gas laws for the vapor phase and ideal solution laws for the liquid phase. You should use this method when you do not have information on the degree of nonideality. This method allows for up to 50 components. Uniquac, Van Laar, Wilson, and NRTL - correlations for nonideal mixtures which require interaction parameters. These methods are limited to ten components. The Uniquac, Van Laar, Wilson, and NRTL methods need binary interaction parameters for each pair of components. The Uniquac method also needs a surface parameter and volume parameter and the NRTL method requires an additional Alpha parameter. The Wilson method is particularly suitable for strongly nonideal binary mixtures, e.g., solutions of alcohols with hydrocarbons. The Uniquac method is applicable for both vapor-liquid equilibrium and liquid-liquid equilibrium (immiscibles). It can be used for solutions containing small or large molecules, including polymers. In addition, Uniquac's interaction parameters are less temperature dependent than those for Van Laar and Wilson. Soave-Redlich-Kwong, Peng-Robinson, and Chao-Seader - correlations for nonideal mixtures which do not require interaction parameters. The Soave-Redlich-Kwong and PengRobinson methods can be used on a number of systems containing hydrocarbons, nitrogen, carbon dioxide, carbon monoxide, and other weakly polar components. They can also be applied with success to systems which form an azeotrope, and which involve associating substances such as water and alcohols. They can predict vapor phase properties at any given pressure. The Chao-Seader method uses Redlich-Kwong equations for vapor phase nonideality and an empirical correlation for liquid phase nonideality. It is used with success in the petroleum industry.

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It is recommended for use at pressures less than 68 bar (1000 psia) and temperatures greater than -18°C (0°F). The program uses the original Chao-Seader correlation with the GraysonStreed modification. There is no strict demarcation between these two methods since they are closely related. These methods allow for up to 50 components.

Condensation Curve Calculation Type
For a condensing stream, you should determine if your case is closer to integral or differential condensation. Integral condensation assumes that the vapor and liquid condensate are kept close enough together to maintain equilibrium, and that the condensate formed at the beginning of the condensing range is carried through with the vapor to the outlet. Vertical tube side condensation is the best case of integral condensation. Horizontal tube side condensation is generally considered to integral. In differential condensation the liquid condensate is removed from the vapor, thus changing the equilibrium and lowering the dew point of the remaining vapor. The clearest case of differential condensation is seen in the knockback reflux condenser, where the liquid condensate runs back toward the inlet while the vapor continues toward the outlet. More condensate will be present at any given temperature with integral condensation versus differential condensation. In the heat exchanger design, this results in a higher mean temperature difference for integral condensation compared to differential condensation.

Effect of pressure drop on condensation
The program will default to calculating the condensing curve in isobaric conditions (constant operating pressure). If you are having the B-JAC Property program generate the VLE curve, you may specify nonisobaric conditions and the program will allocate the specified pressure drop based on temperature increments along the condensing curve. The vapor/liquid equilibrium at various temperature points will be calculated using an adjusted operating pressure.

Estimated pressure drop for hot side
Provide the estimated hot side pressure drop through the exchanger. The program will use this pressure drop to adjust the VLE curve. If actual pressure varies more than 20% from this estimated pressure drop, adjust this value to the actual and rerun Aspen Aerotran.

Vaporization Curve Calculation Method
The calculation method determines which correlations the program will use to determine the vapor-liquid equilibrium. The choice of method is dependent on the degree of nonideality of the vapor and liquid phases and the amount of data available.

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The methods can be divided into three general groups: Ideal - correlations for ideal mixtures. The ideal method uses ideal gas laws for the vapor phase and ideal solution laws for the liquid phase. You should use this method when you do not have information on the degree of nonideality. This method allows for up to 50 components. Uniquac, Van Laar, Wilson, and NRTL - correlations for nonideal mixtures which require interaction parameters. These methods are limited to ten components. The Uniquac, Van Laar, Wilson, and NRTL methods need binary interaction parameters for each pair of components. The Uniquac method also needs a surface parameter and volume parameter and the NRTL method requires an additional Alpha parameter. The Wilson method is particularly suitable for strongly nonideal binary mixtures, e.g., solutions of alcohols with hydrocarbons. The Uniquac method is applicable for both vapor-liquid equilibrium and liquid-liquid equilibrium (immiscibles). It can be used for solutions containing small or large molecules, including polymers. In addition, Uniquac's interaction parameters are less temperature dependent than those for Van Laar and Wilson. Soave-Redlich-Kwong, Peng-Robinson, and Chao-Seader - correlations for nonideal mixtures which do not require interaction parameters. The Soave-Redlich-Kwong and PengRobinson methods can be used on a number of systems containing hydrocarbons, nitrogen, carbon dioxide, carbon monoxide, and other weakly polar components. They can also be applied with success to systems which form an azeotrope, and which involve associating substances such as water and alcohols. They can predict vapor phase properties at any given pressure. The Chao-Seader method uses Redlich-Kwong equations for vapor phase nonideality and an empirical correlation for liquid phase nonideality. It is used with success in the petroleum industry. It is recommended for use at pressures less than 68 bar (1000 psia) and temperatures greater than -18°C (0°F). The program uses the original Chao-Seader correlation with the Grayson-Streed modification. There is no strict demarcation between these two methods since they are closely related. These methods allow for up to 50 components.

Effect of pressure drop on vaporization
The program will default to calculating the vaporization curve in isobaric conditions (constant operating pressure). If you are having the B-JAC Property program generate the VLE curve, you may specify nonisobaric conditions and the program will allocate the specified pressure drop based on temperature increments along the vaporization curve. The vapor/liquid equilibrium at various temperature points will be calculated using an adjusted operating pressure.

Estimated pressure drop for cold side
Provide the estimated cold side pressure drop through the exchanger. The program will use this pressure drop to adjust the VLE curve. If actual pressure varies more than 20% from this estimated pressure drop, adjust this value to the actual and rerun Aspen Aerotran.

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Tube Side Composition
If the stream physical properties are being accessed from the Aspen B-JAC databank or the program is calculating a vapor/liquid equilibrium curve; the stream composition must be defined in this table.

Composition specification
weight flow rate or %, mole flow rate or %, volume flow rate or % The composition specification determines on what basis the mixture physical properties calculations should be made.

Components
The components field identifies the components in the stream. Properties for components can be accessed from the databanks by specifying the Aspen B-JAC Compound name. A "Search" facility has been provided to allow you to easily scan and select compounds from the databank. When the program is calculating a vapor/liquid equilibrium curve, you also have the option of specifying individual component physical properties by using the "Source" entry. If this is used, the component field will be used to identify the component in the results.

Vapor In, Liquid In, Vapor Out, Liquid Out
These fields identify the composition of the stream in each phase and is dependant on the Composition Specification described above. You must specify the inlet compositions if referencing the databank for physical properties. If outlet compositions are not specified, the program will assume the same composition as the inlet. The data for each column is normalized to calculate the individual components fraction.

Component Type
Component type field is available for all complex condensing applications. This field allows you to specify noncondensables and immiscible components. If you are not sure of the component type, the program will attempt to determine if it is a noncondensable but in general it is better to identify the type if known. If a component does not condense any liquid over the temperature range in the exchanger, it is best to identify it as a noncondensable.

Source
The Source field is currently only available for components when the program is calculating vapor/liquid equilibrium curves. The Source of the component may be "Databank" or "User". "Databank" indicates that all component properties will be retrieved from one of the Aspen BJAC databanks. "User" indicates that this component's physical properties are to be specified by the user.

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Component Properties (tube side)
Used only for calculating condensing curves within Aspen Aerotran. Allows the user to override databank properties or input properties not in the databank. The physical properties required for various applications on the tube side are listed below:
Reference temperature Viscosity vapor Thermal conductivity vapor Vapor pressure Viscosity liquid Thermal conductivity liquid Molecular volume Critical pressure Density vapor Specific heat vapor Latent heat Density liquid Specific heat liquid Surface tension liquid Molecular weight Critical temperature

Interaction Parameters
The Uniquac, Van Laar, Wilson, and NRTL methods need binary interaction parameters for each pair of components. This data is not available from the databank. An example for the NRTL parameters is shown below. NRTL Method --Example with 3 components (Reference Dechema) NRTL “A” Interactive Parameters –Hetran inputted parameters 1 1 -2 3

A21 A31 A32

2 A12 --

3 A13 A23 --

NRTL “Alpha” Parameters –Hetran inputted parameters 1 1 -------2 Alpha12 3 Alpha13 2 Alpha21 -------Alpha23 3 Alpha31 Alpha32 --------

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NRTL – Conversion from Aspen Properties parameters to Hetran parameters: Aspen Properties NRTL Parameters – The parameters AIJ, AJI, DJI, DIJ, EIJ, EJI, FIJ, FJI, TLOWER, & TUPPER in Aspen Properties, which are not shown below, are not required for the Hetran NRTL method. Aspen Properties NRTL Interactive Parameters Component I Component J BIJ BJI CIJ Component 1 Component 1 Component 2 Component 3 BIJ12 BJI12 CIJ12 BIJ13 BJI13 CIJ13 Component 2 Component 3 BIJ23 BJI23 CIJ23

“A” Interactive Parameters – Conversion from Aspen Properties to Hetran 1 1 -2 A12=BIJ12*1.98721 3 A13=BIJ13*1.98721 2 A21=BJI12*1.98721 -A23=BIJ23*1.98721 3 A31=BJI13*1.98721 A32-BJI23*1.98721 --

“Alpha” Parameters – Conversion from Aspen Properties to Hetran 1 1 -2 Alpha12= CIJ12 3 Alpha13=CIJ13 2 Alpha21=CIJ12 -Alpha23=CIJ23 3 Alpha31=CIJ13 Alpha32=CIJ23 --

NRTL – Alpha parameters
The NRTL method requires binary interaction parameters for each pair of components and an additional Alpha parameter. This data is not available from the databank. Reference the section on Interactive Parameters for an example.

Uniquac – Surface & Volume parameters
The Uniquac method requires binary interaction parameters for each pair of components and also needs a surface parameter and volume parameter. This data is not available from the databank.

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Tube Side Properties
The physical properties required for the tube side fluids.

Temperature
If you are entering a vapor-liquid equilibrium curve, you must specify multiple temperature points on the curve encompassing the expected inlet and outlet temperatures of the exchanger. The dew and bubble points of the stream are recommended. Condensation curves must have the dew point and vaporization curves must have the bubble point. The first point on the curve does not have to agree with the inlet temperature although it is recommended. For simulation runs, it is best to specify the curve down to the inlet temperature of the opposite side. You can specify as few as one temperature or as many as 13 temperatures. The temperatures entered for no phase change fluids should at least include both the inlet and outlet temperatures. The inlet temperature of the opposite side fluid should also be included as a 3rd temperature point for viscous fluids. Multiple temperature points, including the inlet and outlet, should be entered when a change of phase is present.

Heat Load
For each temperature point you must specify a parameter defining the heat load. For heat load you may specify cumulative heat load, incremental heat load, or enthalpies.

Vapor/Liquid Composition
For each temperature point you must also specify a parameter defining the vapor/liquid composition. For the composition, you may specify vapor flowrate, liquid flowrate, vapor mass fraction, or liquid mass fraction. The program will calculate the other parameters based on the entry and the total flow specified under process data. Vapor and liquid mass fractions are recommended because they are independent of flow rates. For complex condensers, the composition should be the total vapor stream including noncondensables.

Liquid and Vapor Properties
The necessary physical properties are dependent on the type of application. If you are referencing the databank for a fluid, you do not need to enter any data on the corresponding physical properties input screens. However, it is also possible to specify any property, even if you are referencing the databank. Any specified property will then override the value from the databank. The properties should be self-explanatory. A few clarifications follow.

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Specific Heat
Provide the specific heat for the component at the referenced temperature.

Thermal Conductivity
Provide the thermal conductivity for the component at the referenced temperature.

Viscosity
The viscosity requested is the dynamic (absolute) viscosity in centipoise or mPa*s (note that centipoise and mPa*s are equal). To convert kinematic viscosity in centistokes to dynamic viscosity in centipoise or mPa*s, multiply centistokes by the specific gravity. The Hetran program uses a special logarithmic formula to interpolate or extrapolate the viscosity to the calculated tube wall temperature. However when a liquid is relatively viscous, say greater than 5 mPa*s (5 cp), and especially when it is being cooled, the accuracy of the viscosity at the tube wall can be very important to calculating an accurate film coefficient. In these cases, you should specify the viscosity at a third point, which extends the viscosity points to encompass the tube wall temperature. This third temperature point may extend to as low (if being cooled) or as high (if being heated) as the inlet temperature on the other side.

Density
Be sure to specify density and not specific gravity. Convert specific gravity to density by using the appropriate formula: density, lb/ft3 = 62.4 * specific gravity density, kg/m3 = 1000 * specific gravity The density can also be derived from the API gravity, using this formula: density, lb/ft3 = 8829.6 / ( API + 131.5 )

Surface Tension
Surface tension is needed for vaporizing fluids. If you do not have surface tension information available, the program will estimate a value.

Latent Heat
Provide latent heat for change of phase applications.

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Molecular Weight
Provide the molecular weight of the vapor for change of phase applications.

Diffusivity
The diffusivity of the vapor is used in the determination of the condensing coefficient for the mass transfer method. Therefore, provide this property if data is available. If these are not known, the program will estimate.

Noncondensables
Noncondensables are those vapor components in a condensing stream, which do not condense in any significant proportions at the expected tube wall temperature. Examples: hydrogen, CO2, Air, CO, etc. The following properties need to be provided for the noncondensables or referenced from the database: Specific Heat, Thermal Conductivity, Viscosity, Density, Molecular Weight, and Molecular Volume of the noncondensable. The noncondensable flow rate is required if it has not been defined in the databank composition input.

Outside Tubes Composition
If the stream physical properties are being accessed from the Aspen B-JAC databank or the program is calculating a vapor/liquid equilibrium curve; the stream composition must be defined in this table.

Composition specification
weight flow rate or %, mole flow rate or %, volume flow rate or % The composition specification determines on what basis the mixture physical properties calculations should be made.

Components
The components field identifies the components in the stream. Properties for components can be accessed from the databanks by specifying the Aspen B-JAC Compound name. A "Search" facility has been provided to allow you to easily scan and select compounds from the databank.

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When the program is calculating a vapor/liquid equilibrium curve, you also have the option of specifying individual component physical properties by using the "Source" entry. If this is used, the component field will be used to identify the component in the results.

Vapor In
These fields identify the composition of the stream in each phase and is dependant on the Composition Specification described above. You must specify the inlet compositions if referencing the databank for physical properties. If outlet compositions are not specified, the program will assume the same composition as the inlet. The data for each column is normalized to calculate the individual components fraction.

Source
The Source field is currently only available for components when the program is calculating vapor/liquid equilibrium curves. The Source of the component may be "Databank" or "User". "Databank" indicates that all component properties will be retrieved from one of the B-JAC databanks. "User" indicates that this component's physical properties are to be specified by the user.

Outside Tubes Properties
The necessary physical properties are dependent on the type of application. If you are referencing the databank for a fluid, you do not need to enter any data on the corresponding physical properties input screens. However, it is also possible to specify any property, even if you are referencing the databank. Any specified property will then override the value from the databank. The properties should be self-explanatory. A few clarifications follow.

Liquid and Vapor Properties
The necessary physical properties are dependent on the type of application. If you are referencing the databank for a fluid, you do not need to enter any data on the corresponding physical properties input screens. However, it is also possible to specify any property, even if you are referencing the databank. Any specified property will then override the value from the databank. The properties should be self-explanatory. A few clarifications follow.

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Temperature
If you are entering a vapor-liquid equilibrium curve, you must specify multiple temperature points on the curve encompassing the expected inlet and outlet temperatures of the exchanger. The dew and bubble points of the stream are recommended. Condensation curves must have the dew point and vaporization curves must have the bubble point. The first point on the curve does not have to agree with the inlet temperature although it is recommended. For simulation runs, it is best to specify the curve up to the inlet temperature of the opposite side. You can specify as few as one temperature or as many as 13 temperatures. The temperatures entered for no phase change fluids should at least include both the inlet and outlet temperatures. The inlet temperature of the opposite side fluid should also be included as a 3rd temperature point for viscous fluids. Multiple temperature points, including the inlet and outlet, should be entered when a change of phase is present. The number of temperatures specified depends on how the composition of the fluid changes, and the effect on the changing physical properties from inlet to outlet temperatures.

Specific Heat
Provide the specific heat for the component at the referenced temperature.

Thermal Conductivity
Provide the thermal conductivity for the component at the referenced temperature.

Viscosity
The viscosity requested is the dynamic (absolute) viscosity in centipoise or mPa*s (note that centipoise and mPa*s are equal). To convert kinematic viscosity in centistokes to dynamic viscosity in centipoise or mPa*s, multiply centistokes by the specific gravity. The Hetran program uses a special logarithmic formula to interpolate or extrapolate the viscosity to the calculated tube wall temperature. However when a liquid is relatively viscous, say greater than 5 mPa*s (5 cp), and especially when it is being cooled, the accuracy of the viscosity at the tube wall can be very important to calculating an accurate film coefficient. In these cases, you should specify the viscosity at a third point, which extends the viscosity points to encompass the tube wall temperature. This third temperature point may extend to as low (if being cooled) or as high (if being heated) as the inlet temperature on the other side.

Density
Be sure to specify density and not specific gravity. Convert specific gravity to density by using the appropriate formula: density, lb/ft3 = 62.4 * specific gravity density, kg/m3 = 1000 * specific gravity The density can also be derived from the API gravity, using this formula: density, lb/ft3 = 8829.6 / ( API + 131.5 )

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Exchanger Geometry
The Exchanger Geometry Section is subdivided into four sections: • • • • Tubes Rating/Simulation Data Headers & Nozzles Construction Options

Tube outside diameter
This is the outside diameter of the bare tube. Default: 20 mm or 0.75 in.

Tube wall thickness
You should choose the tube wall thickness based on considerations of corrosion, pressure, and company standards. If you work with ANSI standards, the thicknesses follow the BWG standards. These are listed for your reference in the Appendix of this manual and in the Help facility. Default: 1.6 mm or 0.065 in.

Tube wall roughness
The relative roughness of the inside tube surface will affect the calculated tube side pressure drops. The program defaults a relatively smooth tube surface (5.91 x 10-5 inch). A commercial grade pipe has a relative roughness of 1.97 x 10-3 inch. Default: Smooth tube, 5.91 x 10-5 inch ( .0015 mm)

Tube wall specification
In many countries, the tube wall thickness is specified as either average or minimum. Average means the average wall thickness will be at least the specified thickness; typically the thickness may vary up to 12%. With minimum wall, all parts of the tube must be at least the specified thickness. In the U.S., most heat exchanger tubes are specified as average wall thickness. In other countries, for example Germany, the standard requires minimum wall. This item has a small effect on tube side pressure drop and a moderate effect on heat exchanger cost. Default: Average wall

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Tube pattern
This is the tube pattern in reference to the flow outside the tube bundle. The staggered pattern is used most often and will give you the best heat transfer coefficient. The in-line pattern is normally used when the pressure drop outside the tubes is controlling. Default: Program defaults to staggered pattern

Tube pitch face row
Specify the tube center to center spacing between the tubes in the first tube row. The minimum spacing is dependent upon the outside diameter of the tube or fin. Default: Plain tubes: 1.25 * Tube O.D. Finned tubes: Fin O.D. + 12.7 mm or 0.5 in. Plate fins: 1.5 * Tube O.D.

Tube pitch rows deep
Specify the distance between the centerline of adjacent tube rows along the path of gas flow outside the tubes. Default: Staggard pattern: Tube pitch face row * 0.866 Square pattern: Tube pitch face row

Tube pass arrangement
Arrangement of the pass partition plates. Set the plates to be horizontal or vertical. Note that pass arrangement may affect performance if temperature approach is limiting. Default: Program optimized

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Fin type

Extruded fins are an integral part of the tube. There is no fin-to-tube bond resistance. L-type welded fins are welded to the tube as shown. Fin-to-tube bond resistance is minor. Ltype welded fins can be used up to the solder melting temperature. U-type welded fins have a minor fin-to-tube bond resistance. U-type welded fins can be used up to the solder melting temperature. I-type welded fins have a minor fin-to-tube bond resistance. I-type welded fins can be used up to the solder melting temperature. L-type tension wrapped fins have a fin-to-tube bond resistance that increases with temperature and restricts their use to lower temperatures. L-type tension overlapped fins have a fin-to-tube bond resistance that increases with temperature and restricts their use to lower temperatures. Embedded fins are mounted in a groove in the tube and back filled. The fin-to-tube bond resistance is minor. Extruded sleeve fins are extruded from a thick walled aluminum sleeve and fitted onto core tubes. The fin-to-tube bond resistance is minor so that higher operating temperatures are possible than with tension wrapped fins. Metal coated fins are tension wrapped and then metal coated. The fin-to-tube bond resistance is minimal and operating temperatures are possible up to the melting point of the solder.

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Plate fins are made from multiple tubes pushed through a series of plates. The tube-to-plate joint is pressure fitted. The fin-to-tube contact could represent a significant thermal resistance in some circumstances. Default: None

Fin density
This is the number of fins per unit length of tube. Typical fin spacings are between 2 and 12 fins/in or 78 and 473 fins/m. Default: 4 fins/in or 156 fins/m

Fin outside diameter
This is the outside diameter of the fin on the finned tube. If plate fins are specified, the program will calculate an equivalent fin outside diameter based on the tube pitch. Default: Tube Outside Diameter + 0.75 in or 19.05 mm

Fin thickness
This is the average thickness of each fin. A list of typical fin thicknesses are provided in the appendix. Default: 0.58 mm or 0.23 in (Tube O.D. less than 50.8 mm (2 in.)) 0.91 mm or 0.36 in (Tube O.D. larger than 50.8 mm (2 in) )

Finned tube root diameter
The root diameter is the outside diameter of the sleeve or coating.

Fins segment width
Segmented fin tubes are finned tubes in which pie-shaped segments have been removed from the fins. Segmented fin tubes are normally used in economizers to augment the heat transfer coefficient and reduce the tendency for fouling.

Fins design temperature
This is the maximum design temperature for which the fin material should be used. The program will check the fin temperature at normal operating conditions against this fin design temperature and issue a warning if it is exceeded.

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Fins bond resistance
This is the thermal resistance due to contact between the fin and the tube. The type of finned tubing will dictate the magnitude of the fin to tube bond resistance. The bond resistance for extruded and welded fins is normally negligible. The bond resistance for wrapped and plate fins can become significant for poorly fabricated fins. Default value: no resistance

Rating/Simulation Data
Number of tubes per bundle
This is the total number of tubes per bundle. The program will select the maximum number of tubes per bundle if a value is not entered.

Tube passes per bundle
This is the number of times the tube side fluid runs the length of the bundle.

Tube rows deep per bundle
The number of tube rows deep in the bundle (the number rows crossed by fluid flowing across the outside of the tubes).

Tube length
This is the straight length of the tubes from front tubesheet to rear tubesheet or tangent point of the u-bends.

Bundles in series
This is the number of tube bundles per bay, or per exchanger, to which the tube side flow is fed in series. The program assumes that the flow outside the tube bundle is also in series (reference the picture on the right).

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Bundles in parallel
This is the number of tube bundles per bay or per exchanger to which the tube side flow is fed in parallel. The program assumes that the flow outside the tubes is also in parallel. (left picture).

Bundles in Parallel

Bundles in Series

Bays in series
This is the number of bays fed with the tube side flow in series (right picture). Note that the flow outside the tubes is considered to be in parallel to the bays.

Bays in parallel
This is the number of bays fed with the tube side flow in parallel (left picture). The program also sets the flow outside the tubes in parallel to the bays.

Bays in Parallel

Bays in Series

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Fans per bay
Enter 0 if the fan calculations are not required. The program will attempt to determine the power requirements for the fans based on commercial fan manufacturer standards. These standards may not be applicable to an existing fan.

Fan diameter
This is the fan blade diameter. Enter 0 if the fan calculations are not required.

Headers & Nozzles
Front header type
A Plug type header provides a limited access the tubes for cleaning. The removable bonnet type or flanged covers provide full access to the tubes. The type of header will affect the overall dimensions of the exchanger and the price estimate. Default: bonnet

Rear header type
A Plug type header provides a limited access the tubes for cleaning. The removable bonnet type or flanged covers provide full access to the tubes. U-tubes, which eliminate the rear header, are a low cost alternate if access to the tubes is not needed. The type of header will affect the overall dimensions of the exchanger and the price estimate. Default: bonnet

Dual front header
This indicates if a split front header and a single rear header is required. Split headers are commonly used when there is a large pass to pass temperature difference, which could result in excessive thermal stresses on the tubesheet. Default: single header

Header position
This indicates the position of the header with respect to the ground and the tube orientation. Default: horizontal

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Header slope
This is the slope of the header with respect to ground level. Headers are sometimes sloped to insure drainage of the tube side fluid during condensation and for shutdown. Default: none

Header box type
Specify if the header has the tubesheet and plug sheet of the same thickness or if the plates are different thicknesses. This item is primarily used for the budget cost estimate of the headers. Default: tubesheet and plug sheet are the same thickness

Header Dimensions
You can specify the header size and thicknesses and the program will use these dimensions for the design and costing. Default: none

Nozzle nominal OD
The program allows you to specify the size of the nozzles or let the program determine them based on standard pipe sizing formulas. See Nozzle Sizing in the Logic section for more details. Default: program will determine in accordance with TEMA standards

Number of nozzles
When in design mode, you should let the program determine the number of nozzles. For most rating cases, the program will also determine the appropriate number of nozzles. Default: program will determine

Nozzle flange rating
The specification of the nozzle flange rating does not affect the thermal design calculations or the cost estimate. It is included in the input to make the specification of the heat exchanger more complete. The pressure-temperature charts are built into the program. If you let the program determine the rating, it will choose based on the design pressure, design temperature, and material of construction.

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The values are not limited to those shown next to the input field, but you should be sure to choose a rating that is consistent with the desired standard (ANSI, ISO, or DIN). Default: program will determine based on design pressure and temperature

Nozzle flange type
This is the type of nozzle flange desired. The nozzle flange type will appear on the specification sheet. Default: unspecified

Nozzle flange facing type
This is the type of nozzle flange facing desired. The type of nozzle flange facing will appear on the specification sheet. Default: unspecified

Construction Options
Plenum type
This is the type of ductwork used to direct air between the fan and the tube bundle. The plenum type affects the cost estimate and has a minor affect on the pressure drop outside the tubes. Default: unspecified

Recirculation type
This indicates the type of air recirculation (if any) to be used for the exchanger. The type of recirculation will appear on the specification sheet. However, it does not affect the actual design. Default: unspecified

Louvers control
Louvers are used to provide process side temperature control and prevent damage to the bundle due to climatic conditions. Louvers will affect the outside bundle pressure drop and the price estimate. Default: unspecified

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Control action on air failure – louvers
This indicates the desired response of the louvers upon air failure. The louver control will appear on the equipment specification sheet. Default: unspecified

Bundle frame
This is the material used in the fabrication of the bundle frame and is used in the cost estimate. Default: unspecified

Structure mounting
This indicates where the exchanger will be mounted. Grade indicates the exchanger will require ground structural supports. Piperack indicates the exchanger will be mounted on existing piperacks. This option is used to estimate the price. Default: unspecified

Fan pitch control
This is the type of control used for the fan blade pitch. The type of fan pitch will appear on the equipment specification sheet. Default: unspecified

Fan drive type
This is the type of driver used for the fans. The driver type will appear on the equipment specification sheet. Default: unspecified

Control action on air failure – fan pitch
This indicates the desired response of the fan pitch upon air failure. The air failure control will appear on the equipment specification sheet. Default: unspecified

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Steam coil
Steam coils are sometimes used to prevent freeze-up in the tubes during severe climatic conditions. The requirement for steam coils will appear on the equipment specification sheet. Default: unspecified

Soot blowers
This is only available for the fired heat convection section. This equipment is used to periodically clean the heat transfer surface of fouling deposits. Use of soot blowers will affect the size and price of the exchanger. Default: unspecified

Design Data
The Design Data Section is subdivided into three sections: • • • Design Constraints Materials Specifications

Design Constraints
Tube Length Increment
This is the increment that the program uses when it increases or decreases the tube length in design mode. Default: 500 mm or 2 ft.

Tube Length Minimum
This is the minimum tube length that the program will consider in design mode. Default: 1000 mm or 4 ft.

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Tube Length Maximum
This is the maximum tube length that the program will consider in design mode. It must be greater or equal to the minimum. Default: 6000 mm or 20 ft.

Bundle width minimum
This is the minimum width of the bundle (hot gas recuperator, fired heater convection section, or a gas cooled exchangers only) that the program will consider in design mode. Default: 915 mm or 36 in

Bundle width maximum
This is the maximum bundle width that the program will consider in design mode. The program default maximum bundle width is based on normal shipping and handling limitations. Default: 2440 mm or 96 in

Tube rows deep per bundle - minimum
Specify the minimum number of rows deep per bundle (hot gas recuperator, fired heater convection section, or a gas cooled type exchangers only) for the program to hold during design. Default: 3 rows

Tube rows deep per bundle - maximum
This will set the maximum number of rows deep in the bundle for the program to hold during design. Default: 20 rows

Tube passes per bundle minimum
Specify the minimum number of tube passes per bundle limits for design. Default: 1 pass

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Tube passes per bundle maximum
Specify the maximum number of tube passes per bundle limits for design. Default: none

Minimum bundles in series
Specify the minimum number of bundles in series (hot gas recuperator, fired heater convection section, or a gas cooled exchangers only). Note that the tube side and outside fluids flow in series through the exchanger bundles.

Minimum bundles in parallel
Specify the minimum number of bundles in parallel (hot gas recuperator, fired heater convection section, or a gas cooled exchangers only). Note that the program considers both the tube side and outside fluids flow in parallel.

Minimum bays in series
Specify the minimum number of bays in series (air cooler applications only). Note that the tube side flow is considered to be series and outside fluid flow is considered to be in parallel through the exchanger.

Minimum bays in parallel
Specify the minimum number of bays in parallel (air cooler applications only). Note that the program considers both the tube side and outside fluids flow to be in parallel.

Bay width minimum
This is the minimum width of a bay (air cooler applications only) that the program will consider in design mode. Default: 36 in or 915 mm

Bay width maximum
This is the maximum width of a bay (air cooler applications only) that the program will consider in design mode. Default: 192 in or 5238 mm

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Tube rows deep per bay minimum
This is the minimum number of tube rows per bay (air cooler applications only) that the program will consider in design mode. Typical values: Less than 3 rows not recommended Default: 3

Tube rows deep per bay maximum
This is the maximum number of tube rows per bay (air cooler applications only) that the program will consider in design mode. Typical values: More than 20 rows not recommended Default: 20

Tube passes per bay minimum
This is the minimum number of tube passes per bay air cooler applications only) that the program will consider in design mode. The program will attempt to maximize the number of tube passes within the limits of maximum velocity and tube side pressure drops. Default: 1

Tube passes per bay maximum
This is the maximum number of tube passes per bay (air cooler applications only) that the program will consider in design mode. The program default will restrict the maximum tube passes to 2 passes per tube rows deep. Default: 2 passes per tube rows deep

Minimum fans per bay
This design restriction will force the program to design the bay with a width and length that will accommodate the minimum number of fans specified (air cooler applications only). Multiple fans per bay are sometimes desirable so that exchangers can be operated at reduced loads by turning fans off. If a fan fails, the exchanger could also operate with a reduced load. Default: 1

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Minimum fluid velocity - Tube/ Outside
The minimum velocities are the lowest velocities the program will accept in design mode. The program may not find a design that satisfies this minimum, but it will issue a warning if the design it chooses does not satisfy the minimum. The program tries to maximize the velocities within the allowable pressure drops and the maximum allowable velocities. Therefore, this constraint does not enter into the design mode logic. For two phase flow it is the vapor velocity at the point where there is the most vapor. Default: none

Maximum fluid velocity - Tube/Outside
The maximum velocities are the highest velocities the program will accept in design mode. The optimization logic is controlled by this item. For two phase flow it is the vapor velocity at the point where there is the most vapor. Default: none

Minimum % excess surface area required
This is the percent of excess surface that must be in the design in order to satisfy the heat transfer surface area requirements when in design mode. Default: 0

Materials - Vessel Components
Tubes
Select a generic material, a general material class, for the tubes from the list provided. If you wish to specify a specific material grade, select the search button. Default: Carbon Steel

Fins
Select a generic material, a general material class, for the fins, if present, from the list provided. If you wish to specify a specific material grade, select the search button. Default: Aluminum

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Header
Select a generic material, a general material class, for the hot side components from the list provided. If you wish to specify a material grade, select the search button. Default: Carbon Steel

Plugs
Select a generic material, a general material class, for the plugs, if present, from the list provided. If you wish to specify a specific material grade, select the search button. Default: Carbon Steel

Gasket
Select a generic material, a general material class, for the plugs, if present, from the list provided. If you do not specify a value, the program will use compressed fiber as the material for the mechanical design and cost estimate. If you wish to specify a specific material grade, select the search button.

Thermal conductivity of tube material and fins
If you specify a material designator for the tube material, the program will retrieve the thermal conductivity of the tube from its built-in databank. However, if you have a tube or fin material that is not in the databank, then you can specify the thermal conductivity of the tube or fin at this point. Default: program based upon tube material specified

Specifications
Design Code
Select one of the following design codes: ASME (American), CODAP (French), or ADMerkblatter (German). The design code has a subtle, but sometimes significant effect on the thermal design. This is because the design code determines the required thicknesses for the shell and heads (therefore affecting the number of tubes), the thickness of the tubesheet (therefore affecting the effective heat transfer area), and the dimensions of the flanges and nozzle reinforcement (therefore affecting the possible nozzle and baffle placements).

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Due to the fact that the mechanical design calculations themselves are very complex, the Aspen Aerotran program only includes some of the basic mechanical design calculations. This input is used to tell the program which basic mechanical design calculations to follow and also to make the heat exchanger specification more complete. The program defaults to the design code specified in the program settings. Default: as defined in the program settings

Service class
The program defaults to normal service class. If you select low temperature (design temperature less than -50°F) or lethal service (exchanger contains a lethal substance), the program will select the corresponding Code requirements for that class such as full radiography for butt welds and PWHT for carbon steel construction.

TEMA class
If you want the heat exchanger to be built in accordance with the TEMA standards, choose the appropriate TEMA class - B, C, or R. If TEMA is not a design requirement, specify Code only and only the design code will be used in determining the mechanical design. API 661 may also be specified. Default: as defined in the program settings under Tools

Material standard
You can select ASTM, AFNOR, or DIN. Your choice of material standard determines the selection of materials you will see in the input for materials of construction. Default: as defined in the Program Settings under Tools

Dimensional standard
Dimensional standards to ANSI (American), ISO (International), or DIN (German) The dimensional standards apply to such things as pipe cylinder dimensions, nozzle flange ratings, and bolt sizes. DIN also encompasses other construction standards such as standard tube pitches. The selection for dimensional standards is primarily included to make the heat exchanger specification complete, although it does have some subtle effects on the thermal design through the basic mechanical design. Default: as defined in the Program Settings under Tools

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Design pressure
This is the pressure that is used in the mechanical design calculations. It influences the shell, head, and tubesheet required thicknesses and therefore affects the thermal design. If you do not specify a value, the program will default to the operating pressure plus 10% rounded up to a logical increment. This is in gauge pressure so it is one atmosphere less than the equivalent absolute pressure. Default: operating pressure + 10%

Design temperature
This is the temperature that is used in the mechanical design calculations. It influences the shell, head, and tubesheet required thicknesses and therefore affects the thermal design. If you do not specify a value, the program will default to the highest operating temperature plus 33ºC (60ºF) rounded down to a logical increment. Default: highest operating temperature + approx. 33ºC (60ºF)

Vacuum design pressure
If the heat exchanger is going to operate under a full or partial vacuum, you should specify a vacuum service design pressure. The basic mechanical design calculations do not consider external pressure therefore this item will have no effect on the thermal design from Aspen Aerotran. Default: not calculated for vacuum service

Test pressure
This is the pressure at which the manufacturer will test the heat exchanger. This has no effect on the thermal design, but is included to make the heat exchanger specification more complete. Default: "Code"

Corrosion allowance
The corrosion allowance is included in the thickness calculations for cylinders and tubesheets and therefore has a subtle effect on thermal design. Default: 0.125 in. or 3.2 mm for carbon steel, 0 for other materials

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Program Options
The Program Options Section is subdivided into two sections: • • Thermal Analysis Change Codes

Thermal Analysis
Heat transfer coefficient
Normally, the film coefficients are two of the primary values you want the program to calculate. However, there may be cases where you want to force the program to use a specific coefficient, perhaps to simulate a situation which the Aerotran program does not explicitly cover. You can specify neither, either, or both. Default: program will calculate

Heat transfer coefficient multiplier
You can specify a factor that becomes a multiplier on the film coefficient, which is calculated by the program. You may want to use a multiplier greater than 1 if you have a construction enhancement that is not covered by the program, for example tube inserts or internally finned tubes. You can use a multiplier of less than 1 to establish a safety factor on a film coefficient. This would make sense if you were unsure of the composition or properties of a fluid stream. Default: 1.0

Pressure drop multiplier
Similar to the multipliers on the film coefficients, you can also specify a factor that becomes a multiplier on the bundle portion of the pressure drop, which is calculated by the program. It does not affect the pressure drop through the inlet or outlet nozzles or heads. These multipliers can be used independently or in conjunction with the multipliers on film coefficients. Default: 1.0

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Maximum allowable heat flux
For vaporizing applications, it is often important to limit the heat flux (heat exchanged per unit area) in order to avoid the generation of too much vapor too quickly so as to blanket the tube surface, resulting in a rapid decline in the film coefficient. The Aspen Aerotran program has built in limits on the heat flux, but you can also establish your own limit by specifying a value for this item. Default: program will calculate

Vaporization curve adjustment for pressure
The program will default to calculating the vaporization curve in isobaric conditions (constant operating pressure). You may specify non-isobaric conditions and the program will allocate the specified pressure drop based on heat load increments along the vaporization curve. The vapor/liquid equilibrium at various temperatures will be calculated using an adjusted operating pressure.

Mean temperature difference
Usually you rely on the program to determine the MTD, however you can override the program calculated corrected (or weighted) MTD by specifying a value for this item. Default: program will calculate

Minimum allowable temperature approach
You can limit the minimum approach temperature. Program will increase the number of shells in series and/or limit the exchanger to a one pass-one pass countercurrent geometry to meet the minimum approach temperature. Default: 3 to 5°F depending on application

Minimum allowable MTD correction factor
Most of the correction factor curves become very steep below 0.7, so for this reason the Aerotran program defaults to 0.7 as the minimum F factor before going to multiple shells in series in design mode. The only exception is the X-type shell, where the program allows the F factor to go as low as 0.5 in design mode. In rating mode, the default is 0.5. With this input item, you can specify a lower or higher limit.

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Flow direction for single tube pass
For special economizer applications, you can indicate counter current or co-current flow which will adjust the temperature driving force.

Desuperheating heat transfer method
The program will default to determining the tube wall temperature at the hot side inlet. If the wall temperature is below the dew point the program will assume the tube wall is "wet" with condensation and will use a condensing coefficient for heat transfer. If the tube wall temperature is above the dew point, it will determine at what hot side gas temperature the tube wall temperature fall below the dew point. This hot side gas temperature would represent the low temperature for the desuperheating zone. If this option is turned "on", the program will assume a desuperheating zone exists from the specified inlet temperature down to the dew point. Default: program will determine

Condensation heat transfer model
Researchers have developed several different methods of predicting the film coefficient for a condensing vapor. Each has its strengths and weaknesses. If the composition of the vapor is well known, the mass transfer method is the most accurate. The mass transfer film model is based on a Colburn-Hougen correlation for condensable(s) with noncondensable(s) and a Colburn-Drew correlation for multiple condensables. The modified proration model is an equilibrium model based on a modification of the SilverBell correlation. Default: mass transfer film model

Tube side two phase heat transfer condensing correlation
The two major two phase condensing correlations to determine tube side film coefficients referenced in the industry are the Taborek and the Chen methods. Default: Taborek method

Liquid subcooling heat transfer method
Select the calculation method to determine the liquid subcooling coefficient for a condensing application. For most applications, the larger of the free or forced convection should be considered. Default: larger of free or forced convection coefficient

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Suppress nucleate boiling coefficient
Indicate here to suppress the nucleate boiling coefficient in the determination of the overall film coefficient.

Minimum temperature difference for nucleate boiling
You may specify a minimum temperature difference requirement for nucleate boiling to be considered.

Tube side two phase pressure drop correlation
You can select which two phase pressure drop correlation will be applied, Lochart-Martinelli, Friedel, Chisholm, McKetta, or Nayyar. If not specified the program will select one based upon the application.

Tube side two phase heat transfer vaporization correlation
The two major two-phase vaporization correlations to determine tube side film coefficients referenced in the industry are the Steiner-Taborek, Collier-Polley, Chen, Dengler-Addoms, and the Guerrieri-Talty methods. Default: Steiner-Taborek method

Simulation mode area convergence tolerance
Specify the convergence tolerance for the simulation mode of the program. Note that a very low convergence tolerance may result in a longer calculation time.

Maximum number of design mode iterations
The Aspen Aerotran program, in the Design Mode, will reiterate through the specified design parameters to converge on the lowest cost solution. You may set the maximum number of iterations for the optimization.

Number of calculation intervals
The Aspen Aerotran program does an interval analysis by dividing the heat exchanger into sections. Indicate how many interval sections are to be considered.

Type of interval calculation
The Aspen Aerotran program does an interval analysis by dividing the heat exchanger into sections. Indicate if you want the program to use equal heat load or equal temperature increments for the sectional analysis of the exchanger.

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Change Codes
Some items do not have an input field in the regular input screens and can only be specified with a change code. The format for change code entries is: CODE=value Change codes are processed after all of the other input and override any previously set value. For instance, if you specify the tube outside diameter as 20 mm in the regular input screens, then enter the change code TODX=25, the 25 will override the 20. If you enter the same change code more than once, the last value will prevail. One of the best uses of the change code screen is to provide a visual path of the various changes you make during execution of Aspen Aerotran. For this purpose, we recommend that you place changes for a particular alternative design on a separate line. Another good use of the change code screen is to "chain" to another file containing only change codes. This is especially convenient if you have a line of standard designs, which you want to use after you have found a similar solution in design mode. You can do this by using the FILE= change code, followed by the name of the file containing the other change codes. This can be done by using the FILE= change code, followed by the name of the file containing the other change codes with the file type (example: ABC-1.BJI). The other file must also have a .BJI filetype. You can create this change code file with a standard edit program. For example, the entry FILE=S-610-2 would point to a file named S-610-2.BJI, which might contain the following data:
MODE=2,TLNG=3600,TPPB=2,TRBU=6,BUSE=2

The following pages review the change codes, which are available in the Aspen Aerotran program.

Design Mode
MODE= program mode: 1=design 2=rating TLMN= tube length, minimum TLMX= tube length, maximum BWMN= minimum bay width BWMX= maximum bay width MBAP= minimum bays in parallel MBAS= minimum bays in series MBUW= maximum bundle width MFBA= minimum fans per bay TRMN= minimum tube rows per bay

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TRMX= maximum tube rows per bay TPMN= minimum tube passes TPMX= maximum tube passes

Rating Mode
MODE= program mode: 1=design 2=rating BAPA= number bays in parallel BASE= number bays in series BUPA= number bundles in parallel BUSE= number bundles in series TRBU= number tube rows per bundle TLNG= straight tube length TNUM= number of tubes TPPB= tube passes per bundle FAOD= fan outside diameter FAPB= number of fans per bay

Tube & Fin
FNMT= fin material FNOD= fin outside diameter FNSP= number of fins per unit length FNSW= fin segment width FNTK= fin thickness FNTY= type of fin: 1 = none 2 = extruded 3 = L-type weld 4 = U-type weld 5 = I-type weld 6 = L-tension wrapped 7 = L-tension overlapped 8 = embedded 9 = extruded sleeve 10= metal coated 11= plate

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TODX= tube outside diameter TWTK= tube wall thickness Mechanical Options DTYP= type of draft: 1=forced 2=induced 3=not applicable PARR= pass arrangement: 1=horizontal or mixed 2= vertical RPIT= tube pitch between tube rows deep TPAT= tube pattern: 1=staggered 2=in-line TPIT= tube pitch in the face row

General
FILE= specify the name of the file that contains the change codes

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Results
The Results Section is divided into four sections: • • • • Design Summary Thermal Summary Mechanical Summary Calculation Details

Design Summary
The Design Summary Section is subdivided into four sections: • • • • Input Summary Optimization Path Recap of Designs Warnings & Messages

Input Summary
This section provides you with a summary of the information specified in the input file. It is recommended that you request the input data as part of your printed output so that it is easy to reconstruct the input that led to the design.

Optimization Path
This part of the output is the window into the logic of the program. It shows some of the heat exchangers the program has evaluated in trying to find one that satisfies your design conditions. These intermediate designs can also point out the constraints that are controlling the design and point out what parameters you could change to further optimize the design. To help you see which constraints are controlling the design, the conditions that do not satisfy your specifications are noted with an asterisk (*) next to the value. The asterisk will appear next to the required tube length if the exchanger is undersurfaced, or next to a pressure drop if it exceeds the maximum allowable. Column headings are described below: In design mode, the Aerotran program will search for a heat exchanger configuration that will satisfy the desired process conditions. It will automatically change a number of the geometric parameters as it searches. However Aerotran will not automatically evaluate all possible configurations, and therefore it may not necessarily find the true optimum by itself. It is up to the user to determine what possible changes to the construction could lead to a better design and then present these changes to the program.

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Aerotran searches to find a design that satisfies the following: 1. enough surface area to do the desired heat transfer 2. pressure drops within the allowable 3. physical size within acceptable limits 4. velocities within an acceptable range 5. mechanically sound and practical to construct In addition to these criteria, Aerotran also determines a budget cost estimate for each design. However the cost does not affect the program's logic for optimization. There are several mechanical parameters which directly or indirectly affect the thermal performance of an air cooled type heat exchanger. It is not practical for the program to evaluate all combinations of these parameters. In addition, the acceptable variations are often dependent upon process and cost considerations that are beyond the scope of the program (for example the cost and importance of cleaning). Therefore the program automatically varies only a number of parameters that are reasonably independent of other process, operating, maintenance, or fabrication considerations. The parameters that are automatically optimized are: tubes in face row bundles in series tube passes number rows deep bundles in parallel bays in series tube length number of tubes bays in parallel

The design engineer should optimize the other parameters, based on good engineering judgment. Some of the important parameters to consider are: fin density fin type nozzle sizes materials tube outside diameter tube pitch tube type fluid allocation fan size tube pattern exchanger orientation tube wall thickenss

Face rows
The number of tubes in the first tube row exposed to the outside bundle flow. In the design mode, the program will minimize the number of tubes in the face row to maximize the air side and tube side velocities. For an air cooler application, face rows will be incremented based upon Bay width limits set in design constraints and pressure drop limits that have been set. For other types of equipment (economizers sections), the face rows optimization will be based upon bundle width limits set.

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Rows deep
The number of tube rows passed by the outside flow from entrance to exit. In the design mode, the program will minimize the number of rows deep to meet minimum surface area required and be within allowable pressure drop limits. For an air cooler application, face rows deep will be incremented based upon Bay rows deep limits set in design constraints and pressure drop limits that have been set. For other types of equipment (economizers sections), the rows deep optimization will be based upon the bundle rows deep limits set.

Tube Length
The straight length of one tube is from inlet header to outlet header or u-bend. Once the smallest bundle/bay size has been found, the program optimizes the tube length to the shortest standard length, within the allowable range, which will satisfy surface area, pressure drop, and velocity requirements. The length is incremented or decremented based on the tube length increment and is limited by the minimum tube length and maximum tube length. Each of these can be specified in the input. The actual tube length will be shown which is the length of the straight tubes or the straight length to the tangent for U-tubes. This includes the portion of the tube, which is in the tubesheet. This length will include the portion of the tube in the tubesheet, which is ineffective for heat transfer.

Tube Pass
The number of tube side passes per bay that the tube side flow makes across the outside flow. The program seeks the maximum reasonable number of tube passes that gives a pressure drop and velocity within the maximums allowed. The program wants to maximize the tube side velocity thereby maximizing the tube side film coefficient and minimizing any velocity dependent fouling.

Bundles in Parallel
The number of tube bundles in parallel per bay or per exchanger. The program will automatically increase the number of bundles in parallel when it reaches the maximum allowable bundle width and minimum allowable tube length and still is unable to satisfy the allowable pressure drop. Note that both the outside streams and tube side streams are considered to be flowing in parallel.

Bundles in Series
The number of tube bundles in series per bay or per exchanger. The program will automatically increase the number of bundles in series when it reaches the maximum allowable bundle width and tube length and still is unable to find a design with enough heat transfer area. It will also go to exchangers in series when the correction factor on the MTD falls below 0.7 (or the minimum allowable correction factor specified in the input). Note that both the outside stream and the tube side stream are considered to be flowing in series.

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Bays in Parallel
The number bays with the tube side flow in parallel for air cooled applications only. The program will automatically increase the number of bays in parallel when it reaches the maximum allowable bay width and minimum allowable tube length and still is unable to satisfy the allowable pressure drop. Note that both the shell side streams and tube side streams are considered to be flowing in parallel.

Bays in Series
The number bays with the tube side flow in series for air cooled applications only. The program will automatically increase the number of bays in series when it reaches the maximum allowable bay width and tube length and still is unable to find a design with enough heat transfer area. It will also go to exchangers in series when the correction factor on the MTD falls below 0.7 (or the minimum allowable correction factor specified in the input). Note that both the outside stream is considered to be in parallel flow and the tube side stream is considered to be flowing in series.

Area Calculated
The calculated required surface area. This area is determined by the calculated heat load, corrected mean temperature difference, and the overall heat transfer coefficient. This area will be denoted with an * if the exchanger is undersurfaced.

Area Actual
The actual total outside surface area that is available for heat transfer. This is based upon the effective tube length that does not include the length of the tubes in the tubesheet(s).

Outside Pressure Drop
The total outside pressure drop calculated for flow outside the tubes. The pressure drop will be denoted with an * if it exceeds the allowable.

Tube Pressure Drop
The total tube side pressure drop calculated for flow through the tubes. The pressure drop will be denoted with an * if it exceeds the allowable.

Total Price
This is the estimated budget price for the total number of heat exchangers in series and in parallel.

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Recap of Designs
The recap of design cases summarizes the basic geometry and performance of all designs reviewed up to that point. This side by side comparison allows you to determine the effects of various design changes and to select the best exchanger for the application. As a default, the recap provides you with the same summary information that is shown in the Optimization Path. You can customize what information is shown in the Recap by selecting the Customize button. You can recall an earlier design case by selecting the design case you want from the Recap list and then select the Select Case button. The program will then regenerate the design results for the selected case.

Warnings & Messages
If the program has detected any potential problems with your design or needs to note special conditions, these notes, limits, warnings, or error messages are shown in this section of the output.

Warning Messages
Conditions which may be problems; however the program will continue

Error Messages
Conditions which do not allow the program to continue

Limit Messages
Conditions which go beyond the scope of the program

Notes
Special conditions which you should be aware of

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Thermal Summary
The Thermal Summary section summarizes the heat transfer calculations, pressure drop calculations, and surface area requirements. Sufficient information is provided to allow you to make thermal design decisions. The Thermal Summary Section is subdivided into four headings: • • • • Performance Coefficients & MTD Pressure Drop API Sheet

Performance
This section provides a concise summary of the thermal process requirements, basic heat transfer values, and heat exchanger configuration.

General Performance
In the general performance section, flow rates, Gases (in/out) and Liquids (in/out), for the outside and tube sides are shown to summarize any phase change that occurred in the exchanger. The Temperature (in/out) for both side of the exchanger are given along with Dew point and bubble point temperatures for phase change applications. Film coefficients for the shell and tube sides are the weighted coefficients for any gas cooling/heating and phase change that occurred in the heat exchanger. Velocities for single phase applications are based on an average density. For condensers, the velocity is based on the inlet conditions. For vaporizers, it is based on the outlet conditions. Outside velocities are the crossflow velocity through the cross-section. Overall performance parameters are given, such as Heat exchanged, MTD with any applied correction factor and the effective total surface area. For single phase applications on both sides of the shell, a MTD correction factor will be applied in accordance with TEMA standards. For multi-component phase change applications, the MTD is weighted based upon a heat release curve. The effective surface area does not include the U-bend area for U-tubes unless it was specified to do so. The exchanger geometry provided in the summary includes: TEMA type, exchanger position, number of shells in parallel and in series, exchanger size, number of tubes and tube outside diameter, baffle type, baffle cut, baffle orientation, and number of tube passes.

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Thermal Resistance Analysis
This portion gives information to help you evaluate the surface area requirements in the clean, specified fouled (as given in the input), and the maximum fouled conditions. The clean condition assumes that there is no fouling in the exchanger, in the new condition. The overall coefficient shown for this case has no fouling resistance included. Using this clean overall coefficient, the excess surface area is then calculated. The specified foul condition summarizes the performance of the exchanger with the overall coefficient based upon the specified fouling. The maximum fouled condition is derived by taking the specified fouling factors and increasing them (if the exchanger is oversurfaced) or decreasing them (if undersurfaced), proportionately to each other, until there is no over or under surface. The distribution of overall resistance allows you to quickly evaluate the controlling resistance(s). You should look in the "Clean" column to determine which film coefficient is controlling, then look in the "Spec. Foul" column to see the effect of the fouling resistances. The difference between the excess surface in the clean condition and the specified fouled condition is the amount of surface added for fouling. You should evaluate the applicability of the specified fouling resistances when they dictate a large part of the area, say more than 50%. Such fouling resistances often increase the diameter of the heat exchanger and decrease the velocities to the point where the level of fouling is self-fulfilling.

Coefficients & MTD
This output section shows the various components of each film coefficient. Depending on the application, one or more of the following coefficients will be shown: desuperheating, condensing, vapor sensible, liquid sensible, boiling and liquid cooling coefficients. The Reynolds number is included so that you can readily evaluate if the flow is laminar (under 2000), transition (2000-10000), or turbulent (over 10000). The fin efficiency factor is used in correcting the tube side film thermal resistance and the tube side fouling factor resistance. The mean metal temperature of the shell is the average of the inlet and outlet temperatures on the shell side. The mean metal temperature of the tube wall is a function of the film coefficients on both sides as well as the temperatures on both sides. These two temperatures are intended for use in the mechanical design in order to determine the expansion joint requirements in a fixed tubesheet heat exchanger.

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The calculated corrected MTD (Mean Temperature Difference) for no phase change applications is the product of the LMTD (Log Mean Temperature Difference), and the correction factor (F). For phase change applications, the process is divided into a number of intervals and a MTD is determined for each interval. The overall MTD for the exchanger is then determined by weighting the interval MTD’s based on heat load. If you have specified a value for the Corrected Mean Temperature Difference in the input, it is this value which the program uses in the design instead of the calculated Corrected MTD. The flow direction is displayed when there is a single tube pass, in which case it is either counter-current or co-current. The heat flux is the heat transferred per unit of surface area. This is of importance for boiling applications where a high flux can lead to vapor blanketing. In this condition, the rapid boiling at the tube wall covers the tube surface with a film of vapor, which causes the film coefficient to collapse. The program calculates a maximum flux for nucleate boiling on a single tube and a maximum flux for bundle boiling (nucleate and flow boiling), which can be controlled by other limits (e.g., dryout). If you specify a maximum flux in the input, this overrides the program calculated maximum flux. To analyze this data, you should check to see if the maximum flux is controlling. If it is, consider reducing the temperature of the heating medium.

Pressure Drop
Pressure drop distribution
The pressure drop distribution is one of the most important parts of the output for analysis. You should observe if significant portions or the pressure drop are expended where there is little or no heat transfer (inlet nozzle, entering bundle, through bundle, exiting bundle, and outlet nozzle). If too much pressure drop occurs in a nozzle, consider increasing the nozzle size. If too much is consumed entering or exiting the bundle, consider increase the face area of the bundle. The program determines the dirty pressure drop in the tubes by estimating a thickness for the fouling, based on the specified tube side fouling resistance, which decreases the crosssectional area for flow.

User specified bundle multiplier
The user specified bundle multiplier, which you can specify in the input, is included in the bundle portion of the calculated pressure drop, clean and dirty.

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Velocity distribution
The velocity distribution, between the inlet and outlet nozzle, is shown for reference. In other parts of the output, the velocity which is shown for the shell side is the diametric crossflow velocity. For the tube side it is the velocity through the tubes. For two phase applications, the velocities for crossflow, through baffle windows, and through tubes are the highest velocities based on the maximum vapor flow.

Distribution of Overall Resistance
The distribution of overall resistance allows you to quickly evaluate the controlling resistance(s). You should look in the "Clean" column to determine which film coefficient is controlling, then look in the "Spec. Foul" column to see the effect of the fouling resistances. The difference between the excess surface in the clean condition and the specified fouled condition is the amount of surface added for fouling. You should reevaluate the applicability of the specified fouling resistances when they dictate a large part of the area, say more than 50%. Such fouling resistances often increase the diameter of the heat exchanger and decrease the velocities to the point where the level of fouling is self-fulfilling.

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API Sheet
AIR-COOLED HEAT EXCHANGER SPECIFICATION SHEET
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 50 51 52 53 54 55 56 57 58 59 Company: ACME Chemical Co. Location: Houston, Texas Service of Unit: Product Cooler Our Reference: Item No.: x-123 Your Reference: Date: 23 January 1996 Rev No.: 1 Job No.: S582 Size & Type 5110/3681 Type Forced draft Number of Bays 1 Surface/Unit-Finned Tube 1866 m2 Bare Tube 173 m2 Heat Exchanged 626833 W MTD,Eff. 32 C Transfer Rate-Finned 11 ;Bare ,Service 115 Clean 146 W/(m2*K) PERFORMANCE DATA - TUBE SIDE Fluid Circulated Hydrocarbons In/Out Total Fluid Entering 8.74 kg/s Density,Liq kg/m3 / In/Out Density,Vap 2.9/3.5 Temperature C 114/34 Specific Heat,Liq / Liquid kg/s / Vap kJ/(kg*K) 0.936/0.857 Vapor kg/s 8.74/ Therm Cond,Liq / Noncond kg/s / Vap W/(m*K) 0.024/0.017 Steam kg/s / Freeze Point C Water kg/s / Bubble Point Dew Point Molecular Wt, Vap / Latent Heat kJ/kg Molecular Wt,NC Inlet Pressure 2.1 bar Viscosity,Liq mPa*s / Pres Drop,Allow/Calc 0.1/0.1 Viscosity,Vap 0.019/0.015 Fouling Resist. 0.00018 m2*K/W PERFORMANCE DATA - AIR SIDE Air Quantity,Total 35.874 kg/s Altitude 20 m Air Quantity/Fan 31 m3/s Temperature In 23 C Static Pressure 8.302 mm H2O Temperature Out 40.4 C Face Vel. 2 m/s Bundle Vel. 4.51 kg/s/m2 Design Ambient -15 C DESIGN - MATERIALS - CONSTRUCTION Design Pressure 3 bar Test Pressure Code Design Temperature 140 C TUBE BUNDLE HEADER TUBE Size 5110 Type Plug Material CS Number/Bay 2 Material Welded Tube Rows 8 Passes 2 OD 30 Min Tks 2 mm Arrangement Plug Mat. No./Bun 204 Lng 4500 mm Bundles 2 Par 1 Ser Gasket Mat. Pitch 68.35/59.19 Stgrd Bays 1 Par 1 Ser Corr Allow 3.2 mm FIN Bundle Frame Galv Stl Inlet Nozzl(2) 203 mm Type L-Type tension MISCELLANEOUS Outlet Nozz(2) 203 mm Material Aluminum Struct.Mount. Special Nozzles OD 62 Tks 0.6 mm Surf Prep. Rating/Facing No. 197/m Des Temp C Louvers TI PI CodeVibration Switches Chem Cleaning StampSpecs API661 MECHANICAL EQUIPMENT Fan, Mfr. & Model Driver, Type Speed Reducer, Type No./Bay 1 RPM 96 Mfr. Mfr.& Model Dia. 3353 Blades 15 No./Bay kW/Dr No./Bay Pitch 1.68 Angle RPM Rating kW Blade Hub Enclosure Ratio kW/Fan 3.5 Min Amb V/Phase/Hz / / Support Control Action on Air Failure; Louvers Degree Control of Outlet Process Temperature C Recirculation Steam Coil Plot Area m2 Drawing No. Wt.Bundle 4250 Wt.Bay 9351 kg Notes:

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Mechanical Summary
The Mechanical Summary Section is subdivided into two sections: • • Exchanger Dimensions Setting Plan & Tubesheet Layout

Exchanger Dimensions
Unit length
The total length of the exchanger would include the tube length and the depth of the inlet and outlet headers (if any).

Unit width
The unit width is the total width of the entire unit, which includes side frames and/or ducting.

Bays in parallel
The total number of bays in parallel with the tube side flow in parallel.

Bays in series
The total number of bays in series with the tube side flow in series.

Number of tubes per bundle or tubes per bay
The total number of tubes per bundle or bay.

Fan Specifications
Fan blade and motor information will be provided if unit was specified as a forced or induced air source. Fan selection is based upon the Moore Fan correlations.

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Tube Summary
A summary of the tubing is provided: tube material, tube length, tube O.D., tube wall thickness, tube pitch first row, tube pitch first row, tube pattern, pass type, and area ratio. Reference the Geometry Input section for additional information on these items.

Fin Specifications
A summary of the tubing is provided: Fin Material, Fin Type, Fin OD, Fin thickness, Fin density, Fin segment width. Reference the Geometry Input section for additional information on these items.

Setting Plan & Tubesheet Layout
Setting Plan

A scaled setting plan is provided. Setting plan shows overall dimensions, inlet / outlet nozzle arrangement and fans (if applicable).

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Tubesheet Layout

The tubesheet layout drawing is displayed directly after the tube details. The complete tube layout shows all tubes and their arrangement in the tube bank. Each tube row is listed with the number of tubes per row. Three additional graphics show the number of tubes per pass and tube pass arrangement, the tube pattern with tube pitch dimensions, and the finned tube geometry with dimensions.

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Calculation Details
The Calculation Details Section is subdivided into two headings: • • Interval Analysis – Tube Side VLE – Tube Side

Interval Analysis – Tube Side
The Interval analysis section provides you with table of values for liquid properties, vapor properties, performance, heat transfer coefficients and heat load over the tube side temperature range.

Liquid Properties
Summary of liquid properties is given over the temperature in the heat exchanger.

Vapor Properties
Summary of liquid properties is given over the temperature in the heat exchanger.

Performance
This section gives an incremental summary of the performance. Overall coefficient, surface area, temperature difference, and pressure drop are given for each heat load/temperature increment.

Heat Transfer Coefficient – Single Phase
Flow regimes are mapped in this section with the corresponding overall calculated film coefficients. The overall film coefficients are base upon the following: The liquid coefficient is the calculated heat transfer coefficient assuming the total flow is all liquid. The gas coefficient is the calculated heat transfer coefficient assuming the total flow is all vapor.

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Heat Transfer Coefficient - Condensation
Flow regimes are mapped in this section with the corresponding overall calculated film coefficients. The overall film coefficients are base upon the following: "Desuperheating Dry Wall" is for the part of the desuperheating load which is removed where no condensing is occurring. This only happens when the tube wall temperature is above the dew point temperature. In such a case, the film coefficient is based on a dry gas rate and the temperature difference is based on the inlet temperature. "Desuperheating Wet Wall" which shows the part of the desuperheating load which is removed coincident with condensation occurring at the tube wall. This case is more common. The film coefficient and temperature difference are the same as the first condensing zone. Liquid Cooling coefficient is for the cooling of any liquid entering and the condensate after it has formed and flows further through the heat exchanger. The program assumes that all liquid will be cooled down to the same outlet temperature as the vapor. The dry gas coefficient is the heat transfer coefficient when only gas is flowing with no condensation occurring. It is used as the lower limit for the condensing coefficient for pure component condensation and in the mass transfer and proration model for complex condensation applications. The pure condensing coefficients (shear and gravity) are the calculated condensing coefficients for the stream for that regime. The resulting pure condensing coefficient is a pure shear coefficient, pure gravity coefficient or a proration between the two, depending on the condensing regime. The condensing film coefficient is the heat transfer coefficient resulting from the combined effects of the resulting pure condensing coefficient and the dry gas coefficient.

Heat Transfer Coefficient - Vaporization
The two phase factor is the correction factor applied to the liquid coefficient to calculate the two phase heat transfer coefficient. The two phase coefficient is the heat transfer coefficient calculated based on the combined liquid and vapor flow. The nucleate coefficient is the heat transfer coefficient due to the nucleation of bubbles on the surface of the heat transfer surface. The vaporization film coefficient is the heat transfer coefficient for the specified side resulting from the vectorial addition of the two-phase and nucleate boiling coefficient. Observe the change in the film coefficient to see if it decreases severely at the end of the vaporizing range. This usually indicates that the tube wall is drying out and the film coefficient is approaching a dry gas rate. If a significant percentage of the area required is at this low coefficient, consider a higher circulation rate (less vaporized each time through) if it is a reboiler.

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Heat Load
The cumulative heat load is shown as function of temperature increment.

VLE – Tube Side
If the Aspen Aerotran program generated the heat release curve, the following VLE information will be provided:

Vapor-Liquid Equilibrium
The condensation or vaporization curve will be provided as a function of equal heat load increments or temperature increments. Cumulative heat load and vapor/liquid flow rates as a function of temperature will be shown.

Condensation/Vaporization Details
Component flow rates as function of temperature increments will be provided.

Vapor Properties
Vapor properties will be provided as a function of temperature increments.

Liquid Properties
Liquid properties will be provided as a function of temperature increments.

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Aerotran Design Methods
Optimization Logic
In design mode, the Aspen Aerotran program will search for a heat exchanger configuration which will satisfy the desired process conditions. It will automatically change a number of the geometric parameters as it searches. However, Aspen Aerotran will not automatically evaluate all possible configurations, and therefore it may not necessarily find the true optimum by itself. It is up to the user to determine what possible changes to the construction could lead to a better design and then present these changes to the program. Aspen Aerotran searches to find a design, which satisfies the following: • • • • • enough surface area to do the desired heat transfer pressure drops within the allowable physical size within acceptable limits velocities within an acceptable range mechanically sound and practical to construct

In addition to these criteria, Aspen Aerotran also determines a budget cost estimate for each design. However cost does not affect the program's logic for optimization. There are over thirty mechanical parameters that directly or indirectly affect the thermal performance of a heat exchanger. It is not practical for the program to evaluate all combinations of these parameters. In addition, the acceptable variations are often dependent upon process and cost considerations, which are beyond the scope of the program (for example the cost and importance of cleaning). Therefore the program automatically varies only a number of parameters which are reasonably independent of other process, operating, maintenance, or fabrication considerations. The parameters which are automatically optimized are: bundle/bay width, tube rows, bundles/bays in series, tube length, tube passes, bundles/bays in parallel, number of tubes, and fan number. The design engineer should optimize the other parameters, based on good engineering judgment. Some of the important parameters to consider are: tube outside diameter, fin type, materials, tube pitch, fin dimensions, nozzle sizes, tube type, fin density, fan requirements, tube wall thickness, exchanger orientation, materials, tube pattern, and tubesheet type.

Optimization of Heat Transfer Area
The program attempts to optimize on the most effective exchanger geometry that meets all the specified design criteria while requiring the least amount of heat transfer area. The optimization logic changes the bundle/bay length, width, and tube rows as well as the tube number and number of tube passes. Minimum and maximum limits for each of these items can be specified in the input.

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Heat Transfer Coefficients
The program attempts to maximize the heat transfer coefficients by maximizing velocities within the following limitations: maximum allowable velocity, allowable pressure drop, and physical construction limitations.

Pressure Drop, Outside Tubes
The pressure drop inside the tubes includes pressure losses through the bundle and accessory losses due to louvers, fan guards, and steam coils.

Pressure Drop, Inside Tubes
The pressure drop inside the tubes includes pressure losses: through the inlet and outlet nozzles, entering and exiting the tubes, and through the tubes.

Pricing
The price is based on the cost of materials and labor involved in fabricating a bay. Price includes the following components: Tubes, Bundle Frame, Header, Tube Supports, Fan, Plenum, Nozzles, and Flanges.

MTD Calculation
The calculation of the MTD is based on a rigorous iterative procedure in which each tube row is broken into intervals. MTD’s are calculated for each interval, weighted and summed for an overall MTD. This allows the program to calculate an accurate MTD for virtually any number of rows deep and any pass arrangement.

Maximum Velocities
Aerotran has the following maximum velocity restrictions built into it: Tube Side Outside Tubes Vmax = 64.0 /

density density

Vmax = 50.0 /

Fans
Fans are sized based on logic provided by the Moore Fan Company. Fan size should be used for approximation purposes only. The availability of an acceptable fan to perform the required duty does not control the design of the unit.

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Nozzles
The Aerotran program provides at least one nozzle for every five feet or 1.5 meter of header length. This insures that all tubes are supplied adequately. The nozzle size is based on a maximum velocity through the nozzle. Vmax = 38.7 / Vmax = 50.0 /

density density (for Phase Change)

Heat Transfer Area
The Aspen Aerotran program assumes that the total tube length is available for heat transfer.

Tube Pass Configuration
In rating mode, Aspen Aerotran accepts any tube pass configuration. In design mode, Aspen Aerotran tries a maximum of two passes per row and maintains an equal number of tubes per pass. It generates all the valid pass arrangements for a given number of tubes and tube rows. It tries each of these arrangements to arrive at an acceptable geometry.

No Phase Change
No Phase Change - Film Coefficient
The outside tube film coefficient is based on correlations developed from research conducted by Briggs & Young, Robinson & Briggs, and Weierman, Taborek, & Marner. The tube side film coefficient is based on the Dittus-Boelter correlation.

No Phase Change - MTD
The program uses a corrected log mean temperature difference for all geometries.

No Phase Change - Pressure Drop
The pressure drop is determined by using a Fanning-type equation on the tube side. The pressure drop correlations used for finned tubes were developed from research conducted by Briggs & Young, Robinson & Briggs, and Weierman, Taborek, & Marner. The Zukauskas and Ulinskas correlations are used for bare tubes. Velocity heads are used to determine pressure losses through the nozzles.

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Simple Condensation
The program divides the condensing range up into four equal zones based on temperature from the dew point to the bubble point or outlet temperature. For each zone it calculates a film coefficient (made up of a condensing coefficient, gas cooling coefficient, liquid cooling coefficient, and two phase coefficient), MTD, and two phase pressure drop, based on the vapor liquid equilibrium and physical properties for each zone.

Condensing - Film Coefficient - Horizontal Inside Tube
The program determines the dominant flow regime in each of the zones. The flow regimes are divided into annular, annular with stratification, wavy/stratified, intermediate wavy, high wavy/slug/plug, and bubble. For each flow regime there is a separate equation which reflects the contribution of shear controlled or gravity controlled flow. The shear controlled equations are derived from a single phase Dittus-Boelter equation with a two phase multiplier as a function of the Martinelli parameter. The gravity controlled equations are modified Nusselt and Dukler equations.

Liquid Cooling and Subcooling - Film Coefficient
The cooling of the condensate (and any liquid entering) down to the outlet temperature and any subcooling below the bubble point are calculated using the greater of a forced convection or free convection equation for the full temperature range.

MTD
The program assumes that the MTD is linear over the condensing range. Subcooling is also assumed to be linear.

Pressure Drop
The program uses a two phase Martinelli equation to calculate pressure drop.

Complex Condensation
The program divides the condensing range up into a number of equal zones based on temperature from the dew point to the bubble point or outlet temperature. For each zone it calculates a film coefficient (made up of a condensing coefficient, gas cooling coefficient, liquid cooling coefficient, and two phase coefficient), MTD, and two phase pressure drop, based on the vapor liquid equilibrium and physical properties for each zone.

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Desuperheating - Film Coefficient
The program determines at what temperature point the tube wall will be wet by using a dry gas coefficient on the hot side and the coolant coefficient on the cold side. If the program determines that any part of the desuperheating range will result in a dry wall, it will calculate a separate desuperheating zone using a dry gas coefficient. Once the tube is wet, any remaining superheat is removed coincident with the condensation in the first condensing zone and the first zone film coefficient is used.

Condensing - Film Coefficient
A separate condensing coefficient is determined for each zone, based on the flow regime and whether it is shear or gravity controlled.

Gas Cooling - Film Coefficient
The cooling of the vapor once condensation has begun (after any desuperheating) and the cooling of any noncondensables is based on a single phase coefficient for each zone using a modified Dittus-Boelter equation.

Liquid Cooling and Subcooling - Film Coefficient
The cooling of the condensate and any liquid entering down to the outlet temperature and any subcooling below the bubble point is calculated using a two phase coefficient based on the Martinelli equation. It is calculated for each of the zones, based on the liquid carried over from previous zones.

Overall Heat Transfer Coefficient
The overall heat transfer coefficient calculated for each zone is dependent on the condensing correlation chosen. The program defaults to the mass transfer method which is a film model based on a Colburn-Hougen correlation for condensable(s) with noncondensable(s) and a Colburn-Drew correlation for multiple condensables. Our experience and research indicate that if the composition of the vapor is known, the mass transfer method is the most accurate method.

Desuperheating - MTD
The program determines at what temperature point the tube wall will be wet by using a dry gas coefficient on the hot side and the coolant coefficient on the cold side. If the program determines that any part of the desuperheating range will result in a dry wall, it will use the inlet temperature and the vapor temperature point which yields the wet tube wall to determine the MTD for the desuperheating zone.

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Once the tube wall is wet, the rest of the desuperheating occurs using the dew point temperature to calculate the MTD.

Condensing - MTD
The program calculates an MTD for each of the zones using the starting and ending temperature for each zone.

Liquid Cooling - MTD
The liquid cooling load is divided evenly among the zones. This avoids the common mistake of assuming that the vapor and liquid are kept in equilibrium and are at the same temperature. In fact much of the liquid cooling may actually occur early in the heat exchanger. An MTD for the liquid cooling is calculated for each zone and then weighted.

Desuperheating - Pressure Drop
If the program determines that there is a dry wall zone, as described above, then the tube side pressure drop for this zone is calculated using a modified Fanning equation.

Condensing - Pressure Drop
The pressure drop for the vapor cooling, condensing, and condensate formed is determined using a two phase Martinelli equation.

Simple Vaporization
Liquid Preheating - Film Coefficient
The film coefficient for the heating of the liquid from its inlet temperature to the bubble point is the greater of the forced convection coefficient and the free convection coefficient.

Forced Circulation - Film Coefficient
The boiling coefficient for forced circulation is also determined by using a vectorial addition of the nucleate boiling coefficient and the flow boiling coefficient.

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Natural Circulation Vaporizer (Thermosiphon) - Tube Side - Film Coefficient
The tube side is divided into a liquid preheating zone and a number of vaporizing zones divided equally by temperature. The boiling coefficient is determined by using a vectorial addition of the nucleate boiling coefficient and the flow boiling coefficient and corrected as described above for pool boiling. The flow regime is determined using a modified Baker flow regime map.

Liquid Preheating - MTD
The liquid preheat MTD is calculated as a linear LMTD.

Forced Circulation - MTD
The LMTD is assumed to be linear and an F factor is applied to correct for the effect of multiple tube passes.

Forced Circulation - Pressure Drop
The liquid pressure drop, determined using a Fanning equation, is multiplied by a two phase Martinelli multiplier. If the exchanger is in a vertical position, a vapor acceleration pressure drop and static head pressure drop are also added.

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5

Aspen Teams

Introduction
Aspen Teams is a comprehensive set of computer programs for the complete mechanical design and rating of shell and tube heat exchangers and basic pressure vessels. In the design mode, the program determines optimum dimensions for all components based on design specifications. In the rating mode, the program checks specified dimensions of each component for compliance with applicable codes and standards under the design conditions. In addition to calculating the mechanical design, Aspen Teams produces a detailed cost estimate, generates a complete bill of materials, and makes detailed drawings on a variety of graphics devices. Aspen Teams covers a wide range of construction alternatives, including all common types for heads, flanges, nozzles, and expansion joints. The program conforms with all provisions of the Standards of the Tubular Exchanger Manufacturers Association (TEMA), and several mechanical design codes. Versions are available which cover ASME (American code), CODAP (French code), and AD Merkblätter (German code). These programs are regularly updated as revisions and addenda are issued by TEMA and code authorities. You can either design all of the components in one program run, in which case the program will respect the interaction of the various elements, or, if desired, you can design each component separately. Each component can be designed with its own material specification. The program optimizes the design of flanges, nozzle reinforcements, and expansion joints. It automatically tries a number of possibilities and chooses the best design, based on userspecified priorities of labor and/or material costs. Teams provides a high degree of flexibility for placement of nozzles, couplings, shell supports, expansion joints, lifting lugs, and provides extensive checking for conflicts between fittings. Teams performs both internal and external pressure calculations and provides a summary of minimum thicknesses for a given external pressure, maximum external pressure for actual thickness, or the maximum length for the specified external pressure and actual thickness.

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Teams automatically accesses a built-in databank of material properties, including density, allowable stress, yield strength, modulus of elasticity, thermal expansion coefficient, thermal conductivity, and maximum thickness for several hundred different materials of construction. Databanks are available for ASTM (American), AFNOR (French), and DIN (German) materials. You can also build your own private databank of materials, which you can use in conjunction with the standard databanks. You can do this by using the Primetals databank program. Many important material and design standards are also built-in, such as standard pipe schedules to ANSI, ISO, and DIN standards and standard flange designs to ANSI, API, and DIN standards. Teams also uses a number of databases, which are automatically accessed during program execution. These include: material prices; material standards (e.g. purchasing practices, rounding factors); fabrication standards (e.g. maximum rolling dimensions, nozzle reinforcement procedures, labor costs); welding methods for each component by material class; labor efficiency factors for each type of operation. You can modify these databases to reflect your company's design and fabrication standards and material prices. You can use the Newcost program to make these changes. Two levels of drawings are available from the Teams program. Design drawings, which include a setting plan, a sectional drawing, a bundle layout, and a tubesheet layout and the fabrication drawings, which include detail drawings for all components. Teams offers many options for producing the drawings. Using the Draw program, it supports a wide variety of displays, plotters, and laser printers and can also interface with many other CAD programs using DXF or IGES interface files.

Organization of Input Information
The input information for the Aspen Teams programs is organized into two groups, the design information and the rating information. The required design information, to mechanically design a new exchanger, is generally provided on the first Tab for each input Form. This would include code design specifications, TEMA exchanger type and class, flange and nozzle types, and nozzle locations information. If you are having Teams perform a rating of an existing exchanger, you will need to specify the existing dimensions for the components. This input information is generally located on subsequent Tabs on the applicable component Form.

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Teams Run Options
Teams provides you with different program calculation Run options. By selecting the Run command in the Menu Bar and then selecting Run Teams, the following Run Teams options will appear: calculations only, calculations plus cost estimate, calculations plus drawings, or calculations plus cost plus drawings. By selecting the appropriate option, you can limit the Teams run calculations only to the sections that you need. As an alternate, the Run icon can be selected in the Tools Bar that will run all the calculations, code calculations plus cost estimate plus drawings.

Navigator Contents
The following is a list of input information found under the navigator form title: Problem Description Description Headings Equipment type (heat exchanger or pressure vessel) Application Options Design code TEMA class Service class Material / Dimensional standards Design Specifications Design conditions Corrosion allowance Radiography / Post weld heat treatment Exchanger Geometry Front Head Head & Cover type Cylinder details Cover details Shell Shell type Exchanger position Shell diameter Cylinder & Kettle details

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Rear Head Head & Cover type Cylinder details Cover details Shell Cover Cover type Cylinder details Cover details Body Flanges Flange type Individual standards Flange details Flange design options Tubesheet Tube to Tubesheet joint type Types Design method Details Corrosion allowance Expansion Joints Type Mean metal temperatures Details Corrosion allowance Tubes/Baffles Tube specifications Fin specifications Baffle type Baffle details Baffle cuts Tubesheet Layout Tube pattern, pitch, passes, layout type, imp. Plate, OTL Layout details Pass partition Layout open space Tie rods Nozzles-General Nozzle specifications Nozzle & coupling locations Domes distribution specifications Nozzles-Details Nozzle cylinder, re-pad, flange details Nozzle clearances

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Horizontal Supports Locations Details Vertical Supports Locations Details Lift Lugs Lug type Location / Details Materials Main Materials Material selection for major components Nozzle Materials Material selection for nozzles, couplings, and domes/distr. Program Options Loads-Ext./Wind/Seismic Calculation methods Loads Details Change Codes Change code input fields Drawings Drawing selection menu

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Teams Scope
Mechanical
Front Head Types: TEMA types: A, B, C, N, D Shell Types: TEMA types: E, F, G, H, J, K, X, V Rear Head Types: TEMA types: L, M, N, P, S, T, U, W Special Types: vapor belts, hemispherical heads, annular distributor belts Head Cover Types: ellipsoidal, torispherical, dished, conical, flat, hemispherical, elbows Shell Diameter: no limit - pipe sizes per ANSI, DIN or ISO Baffle Types: segmental baffles - single, double, triple, grid, baffles - rod, strip, no tubes in window including intermediate supports Tube Diameter & Length: no limit Tube Passes: 1 to 16 Pass Layout Types: quadrant, mixed, ribbon Tube Patterns: triangular, rotated triangular, square, rotated square Number of Tubes: maximum of 200 tube rows Tube Types: plain and externally finned Body Flange Types: ring, lap joint, hub integral, loose, optional Tubesheet Types: fixed, floating, gasketed, welded Expansion Joints: flanged & flued, flanged-only, bellows Nozzle Types: slip-on, lap joint, weld neck, long weld neck, self-reinforced 'H' and 'S' type necks, nozzle domes, distributor belts

Codes and Standards
Design Codes: ASME Section VIII Division 1, CODAP, AD Merkblätter Standards: TEMA, ANSI, DIN Support Analyses: methods per L.P.ZICK and vertical lug shear External Loads: methods per HEI and WRC 107 Wind and Seismic Loads: ANSI Standards Systems of Measure: U.S., SI, metric

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Output
Design Summary
Design conditions Cylinders and covers Nozzles and reinforcement Flanges Tubesheets Expansion joints Supports Wind and seismic loads Maximum allowable working pressure Minimum design metal temperature Fitting locations Overall dimensions Hydrostatic test pressures

Calculation Documentation
Cylinders and covers Flanges Tubesheets and expansion joints Nozzles and reinforcement External loadings on nozzles Supports Wind and seismic loads Lift lugs

Cost Estimate
Price Bill of materials Fabrication hours

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Drawings
Design Drawings
Setting plan Bill of materials Sectional plan Bundle layout Tube layout

Fabrication Drawings
Shell Shell cover Front head Rear head Floating head Bundle Baffles Flat covers Front tubesheet Rear tubesheet Expansion joint Gaskets Body flanges Supports Weld details

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Input
The Input Section is divided into four sections: • • • • Problem Definition Exchanger Geometry Materials Program Options

Problem Definition
The Problem Definition Section is subdivided into three sections: • • • Description Application Options Design Specifications

Description
Headings
Headings are comprised of 1-5 lines. They will appear on the summary of input for the file and in the title block of the drawings. Note that only the first 40 characters of each line will appear on the drawings.

Teams exchanger or vessel
A selection is made for a complete exchanger design of a shell-and-tube heat exchanger or a pressure vessel.

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Application Options
Design code
Select one of the following design codes: ASME (American), CODAP (French), or ADMerkblatter (German). The Teams program will select applicable mechanical design methods based upon the code selected. Default: as defined in the program settings

Material standard
Select ASTM, AFNOR, or DIN for the material standards to be used. Choice of standard determines the materials of construction to be used. Default: material standard per applicable code specified

TEMA class
Select the appropriate TEMA class for the service. Class B: chemical service exchanger Class C: general service exchanger Class R: refinery service exchanger Code only: Program will not use TEMA defaults for corrosion allowances, minimum thicknesses, etc. Default: TEMA B

Dimensional standard
Set the dimensional standards to ANSI (American), ISO (International), or DIN (German). The dimensional standards apply to such things as pipe cylinder dimensions, nozzle flange ratings, and bolt sizes. DIN also encompasses other construction standards such as standard tube pitches. Default: as defined in the program settings

Service class
If you select low temperature (design temperature less than -50°F) or lethal service (exchanger contains a lethal substance), the program will select the corresponding Code requirements for that class such as full radiography for butt welds and PWHT for carbon steel construction. Default: normal service class

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Design Specifications
Design pressure
Design pressure should be set higher than the highest normal operating pressure. If static pressure is to be considered, add the static to the normal design pressure. For components subject to two pressures, the program follows standard methods to investigate the effect of simultaneous design pressures (for example, TEMA).

Vacuum design pressure
The program will design simultaneously for internal as well as external pressure. The program expects an entry of 15 psia (1 bar) for full vacuum condition.

Test pressure
The program will calculate the required hydrotest pressure in accordance with the specified design code. Default: program calculated per applicable code

Design temperature
Design temperature at which material properties will be obtained. Reference TEMA recommendations for design temperatures based upon the maximum operating temperature.

Corrosion allowances
Corrosion Allowance is obtained from the TEMA standards as follows: For carbon steel TEMA C and B: 0.0625" (1.6 mm). For carbon steel TEMA R: 0.125" (3.2 mm). Enter zero for no corrosion allowance. There is no default corrosion allowance for materials other than carbon steel. The user can specify any reasonable value for corrosion allowance. Default: per TEMA standard

Radiographing
The program follows the applicable construction code in the calculation of weld joint efficiencies based on the degree of radiography performed on the subject welds. Typically the joint efficiencies used in the thickness formulas follow these values: Degree of Radiography: None Joint Efficiency: 0.7 Spot 0.85 Full 1

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Non-destructive testing performed on welds (i.e. radiography) can directly affect the joint efficiency used in the thickness calculations. Generally, the higher the efficiency, the thinner the component. Default: per applicable code

Post weld heat treatment
The post weld heat treatment requirement is dependent upon the applicable Code requirements. If specified the cost estimate will be adjusted to include the cost of post weld heat treatment of the unit. Default: per applicable code

Exchanger Geometry
The Exchanger Geometry Section is subdivided into fourteen sections: • • • • • • • • • • • • • • Front Head Shell Rear Head Shell Cover Flanges Tubesheet Expansion Joints Tubes/Baffles Tube Layout Nozzles – General Nozzles – Details Horizontal Supports Vertical Supports Lift Lugs

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Front Head
Front head type
Specify the TEMA type front head closure. Program default is B type bonnet. The high pressure D type is a shear key ring type. Default: B type head

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D type front head design
The Teams program utilizes one specific design approach for the D type, high pressure closure. The pressure vessel design methods used in the program are not specifically defined in the design codes, ASME or TEMA. Therefore, it is recommended that you carefully review the Teams results for the high pressure closure and modify as necessary to meet you specific design construction needs. The construction details for the Teams D type head are shown in the following figure:.

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Front head cover type
Select the cover type for the B type front head. Default: ellipsoidal cover (Korbbogen for ADM)

Flat

E llip so idal
`

T orisp herical

H emi

Co ne

E lbo w

K lo pper

Ko rbbo gen

Front head cover welded to a cylinder
A cylinder is required if a nozzle has been indicated at Zone 2 in the Nozzle-General input section. Default: front head cylinder provided for all types

Front channel/cover bolted to tubesheet
Select to have the channel assembly bolted to the tubesheet. Default: channel bolted to tubesheet for A & B type front heads

Front head cylinder outside diameter
If you specify an outside diameter, the program will hold the outside diameter and calculate and inside diameter based upon the calculated required cylinder thickness. If a pipe material is specified, cylinders 24 inches and smaller, it is recommended to input the outside diameter so that a standard pipe wall thickness can be determined.

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Front head cylinder inside diameter
If you specify and inside diameter, the program will hold the inside diameter and calculate and an outside diameter based upon the calculated required cylinder thickness. If a pipe material is specified, cylinders 24 inches and smaller, it is recommended to input the outside diameter so that a standard pipe wall thickness can be determined.

Front head cylinder/details
If check rating an existing design the following information should be provided: cylinder outside diameter or cylinder inside diameter, cylinder thickness, cylinder length, cylinder length for external pressure, and cylinder joint efficiency.

Front head cover details
If check rating an existing design the following information should be provided: cover outside diameter, inside diameter, cover thickness, and cover joint efficiency.

Front head flat bolted cover
If check rating an existing design the following information should be provided: cover clad thickness, cover clad OD (if cladded), cover 1st recess depth (from center), cover 1st recess diameter, cover 2nd recess depth (from center), cover 2nd recess diameter.

Front head flat bolted cover
If check rating an existing design the following information should be provided: cover clad thickness (if cladded), cover flat head weld attachment type, cover “C” factor in calculation of flat cover.

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Shell
Shell type

Shell type
The V type shell, which is not currently part of the TEMA standards, is used for very low shell side pressure drops. It is especially well suited for vacuum condensers and has an advantage over the X shell, in that it can readily have vents at the top of the bundle. The vapor belt is an enlarged shell over part of the bundle length. It is essentially a cross flow exchanger in this section. The remaining portions of the bundle on each side are then baffled and fitted with vents and drains. Default: E type (except pool boilers), K type for pool boilers

Exchanger (vessel) position
Specify horizontal or vertical exchanger/vessel. Default: horizontal

Shell outside diameter
If you specify an outside diameter, the program will hold the outside diameter and calculate and inside diameter based upon the calculated required cylinder thickness. If a pipe material is specified, shells 24 inches and smaller, it is recommended to input the outside diameter so that a standard pipe wall thickness can be determined.

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Shell inside diameter
If you specify and inside diameter, the program will hold the inside diameter and calculate and an outside diameter based upon the calculated required cylinder thickness. If a pipe material is specified, shells 24 inches and smaller, it is recommended to input the outside diameter so that a standard pipe wall thickness can be determined.

Shell cylinder details
If check rating an existing design the following information should be provided: cylinder thickness, cylinder length, length for external pressure, and cylinder joint efficiency.

Shell stiffening rings
If external pressure is controlling the shell cylinder design, you can specify stiffening rings to reinforce the shell. Program will select a ring size if details are not provided.

Kettle cylinder
If the exchanger has a kettle type shell specify the kettle outside or inside diameter. If check rating an existing design, the following information should be provided: cylinder length, length for external pressure, and cylinder joint efficiency.

Kettle reducer details
If the exchanger has a kettle type shell and you are check rating an existing design the following information should be provided: reducer thickness, reducer cover joint efficiency, and the reducer conical angle.

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Rear Head
Rear head type
The rear head type selection should be based upon service requirements. A removable tube bundle type (P, S, T, U, or W) provide access to the bundle for cleaning and do not required an expansion joint. The fixed tubesheet types (L, M, or N) do no allow access to the bundle but are lower cost construction. Default: U type for kettle shells, M type for all others

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Rear head cover type
Specify cover type for rear head. Default: flat bolted for L, N, P, or W; ellipsoidal for M type; dished for S or T type

Flat Bolted

Flat Welded

Ellipsoidal

Torispherical

Hemi

Cone

Elbow

Dished

Klopper

Korbbogen

Rear head cover connected to a cylinder
A cylinder is required if a nozzle has been indicated at Zone 8 in the Nozzle-General input section. Default: rear head cylinder provided for one-pass exchangers

Rear channel/cover bolted to tubesheet
Select to have the channel assembly bolted to the tubesheet. Default: channel bolted to tubesheet for L & M type rear heads

Rear head cylinder outside diameter
If you specify an outside diameter, the program will hold the outside diameter and calculate and inside diameter based upon the calculated required cylinder thickness. If a pipe material is specified, cylinder 24 inches and smaller, it is recommended to input the outside diameter so that a standard pipe wall thickness can be determined.

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Rear head cylinder inside diameter
If you specify and inside diameter, the program will hold the inside diameter and calculate and an outside diameter based upon the calculated required cylinder thickness. If a pipe material is specified, cylinders 24 inches and smaller, it is recommended to input the outside diameter so that a standard pipe wall thickness can be determined.

Rear head cylinder details
If check rating an existing design the following information should be provided: cylinder outside diameter or cylinder inside diameter, cylinder thickness, cylinder length, cylinder length for external pressure, and cylinder joint efficiency.

Rear head cover details
If check rating an existing design the following information should be provided: cover outside diameter or cover inside diameter, cover thickness, and cover joint efficiency. Also other parameters may be required depending upon the type of cover.

Rear head flat bolted cover
If check rating an existing design the following information should be provided: cover clad thickness (if cladded), cover clad OD, cover 1st recess depth (from center), cover 1st recess diameter, cover 2nd recess depth (from center), cover 2nd recess diameter.

Rear head flat welded cover
If check rating an existing design the following information should be provided: cover clad thickness (if cladded), cover flat head weld attachment type, cover “C” Factor in calculation of flat cover.

S type rear head
For S type rear heads, specify the backing ring type and backing ring recess type.

W type rear heads
If rear head type is a W type, specify the type lantern ring to be used. To check rate an existing design, provide the lantern ring details.

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Shell Cover
Shell cover types
The shell covers shown below are available for a U-tube or floating head type exchangers. The cover may be welded directly to the shell or to a separate cylinder which can be welded or bolted to the shell. Default: ellipsoidal welded cover for applicable type exchanger

Flat

E llip so idal
`

T orisp herical

H em i

Co ne

E lbo w

K lo pper

K o rbbo gen

Shell cover cylinder details
If you are check rating an existing design and have specified that a shell cover cylinder is present, provide the detail dimensions for the cylinder.

Shell cover details
If you are check rating an existing design, provide the detail dimensions for the cover and any applicable information if the cover is a flat head type.

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Flanges
Tube side flange type
Select the general form of the flange, which may be a ring flange, lap joint flange, or hub flange. These categories refer to the shape of the flange as found in ASME Section VIII Division 1, Appendix 2 and other applicable construction codes. Default: ring flange according to figure 2-4(8) of ASME, if attached to a carbon steel cylinder or head; lap joint flange when attached to an alloy cylinder or head.

Ring

Ring with Overlay

Lap Joint

Hub

Tube side flange design standard
For exchanger applications with shell sizes greater that 24” (610mm) diameter, the body flanges are normally custom designed flanges and the program will optimize to find the best and lowest cost solution for the flange. If you want a pre-designed, standard flange (quite often used for shells 24” and smaller), select the appropriate standard. Note that with a predesigned flange, flange design calculations will not be provided because they are not required per the code. Default: program optimized design according to applicable code

Tube side confined Joints
A flange can have different types of faces in relation to the adjoining surface. The simplest form is a flat face on which the gasket seats without being restricted radially. On the other hand, a confined joint forms a containment around the gasket. Default: unconfined (except TEMA R)

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Shell side flange type
Specify the general form of the flange, which may be a ring flange, lap joint flange, or hub flange. These categories refer to the shape of the flange as found in ASME Section VIII Division 1, Appendix 2 or other applicable construction codes. Default: ring flange according to figure 2-4(8) of ASME, if attached to a carbon steel cylinder or head; lap joint flange when attached to an alloy cylinder or head.

Ring

Ring with Overlay

Lap Joint

Hub

Shell side flange design standard
For exchanger applications with shell sizes greater that 24” (610mm) diameter, the body flanges are normally custom designed flanges and the program will optimize to find the best and lowest cost solution for the flange. If you want a pre-designed, standard flange (quite often used for shells 24” and smaller), select the appropriate standard. Note that with a predesigned flange, flange design calculations will not be provided because they are not required per the code. Default: program optimized design according to applicable code

Shell side confined joints
A flange can have different types of faces in relation to the adjoining surface. The simplest form is a flat face on which the gasket seats without being restricted radially. On the other hand, a confined joint forms a containment around the gasket. Default: unconfined (except TEMA R)

Individual standards
To modify a specific flange provide the following as applicable: design standard, code type, standard type, standard rating, code facing, standard facing, and confined joint.

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Special flange types per ASME Fig. 2.4

These selections are available under the code type pull-down menu.

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Special flange facing types per ASME Table 2.5.2
These selections are available under the code facing pull-down menu.

Flange dimensions
This section provides you with access to all the major flange dimensions for all the flanges on the exchanger (outside diameter, bolt circle, bolt diameter and number, etc.). Body flanges can be designed per code rules or selected from standards. You can also enter flange dimensions when executing a rating program run. Designed flanges follow the rules dictated by the specified code. As in the case of nozzle flanges, typical flange types available are ring, lap joint and hub type. The program also automatically investigates the feasibility of optional type flanges calculated as loose or integral.

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If check rating an existing flange provide the following information: outside diameter, inside diameter, bolt circle, thickness, gasket O.D., gasket width, gasket thickness, bolt diameter, number of bolts, hub length, hub slope, and weld height (if applicable).

Flange nubbin/recess/gasket

If check rating an existing flange provide the following information: nubbin width, nubbin height, nubbin diameter, recess depth, recess diameter, overlay thickness, gasket m factor, and gasket seating stress when applicable.

Design temperature for flanges
You can set specific design temperatures for the body flanges in lieu of the global design temperatures.

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Included gasket rib area for gasket seating
The program will adjust the flange design to include the rib seating area of the gasket. This assures that the flange will be able to keep the gasket sealed for operating conditions. You may omit the gasket seating area for the pass partition ribs for the flange calculations. Default: include the pass partitions rib area

Type of bolt
You can set the bolt type, US or Metric or Din. Default: type applicable to the code and standards specified

Body flange full bolt load
Per Note 2 of ASME Section VIII, paragraph 2-5(e), if additional safety is needed against abuse or where is it is necessary to withstand the full available bolt load, AbSa, specify, Yes, for this full bolt load to be considered. Default: Standard bolt load, (Am+Ab) * Sa / 2

Design to satisfy flange rigidity rules
Specify, Yes, to have the program adjust the flange design as required to flange rigidity rules. Default: No – flange will not be adjusted for rigidity rules.

Pressure vessel flange locations
Indicate the locations where you want to locate body flanges on a pressure vessel tank.

Backing ring details for a S type rear head
I you are check rating an existing S type rear head, specify the dimensions for the backing ring. Default: Design a new backing ring if no dimensions are given.

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Tubesheet
Tube-to-tubesheet joint type – Appendix A

The type of joint used to attach the tubes into the tubesheet holes. The simplest form is by expanding the tube wall into the holes with an expanding tool. One or two grooves inside the tubesheet holes are sometimes used to strengthen the attachment. Depending on the process, users may desire to weld the tubes into the tubesheets with a seal or strength weld in addition to expanding the tube. Reference the applicable construction code for detail requirements for strength joints (such as UW-20 of ASME Section Div.1) A seal or strength weld can also be used without any expansion of the tubes. Default: expanded only (2 grooves)

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Tubesheet extension type
When applicable, the program will evaluate the tubesheet extension against the adjoining flange moments.

Default: extended edge for bolting depending on the type of geometry

Tubesheet type
Double tubesheets are used when it is extremely important to avoid any leakage between the shell and tube side fluids. Double tubesheets are most often used with fixed tubesheet exchangers, although they can also be used with U-tubes and outside packed floating heads. The gap type double tubesheet has a space, usually about 150 mm (6 in.), between the inner (shell side) and outer (tube side) tubesheets. TEAMS will provide a recommended gap. The integral type double tubesheet is made by machining out a honeycomb pattern inside a single thick piece of plate so that any leaking fluid can flow down through the inside of the tubesheet to a drain. This type is rare, since it requires special fabrication tools and experience. Default: normal single tubesheet(s)

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Tubesheet attachment type

The tubesheet attachment defaults to land. This is a recess behind the tubesheet on which the shell rests (typically 3/16" - 5 mm). Stub end is an extension parallel to the shell axis to which the shell is attached. This method normally requires machining of the stub end with inner and outer radii. See ASME VIII-1 Fig. UW-13.3(c) for example of stub end. Default: land recess

Tube-to-TubeSheet weld type per UW-20
Specify if the tube to tubesheet welds are to be considered as strength welds per ASME. Also specify the af and ag dimensions.

Fillet weld length, af
Fillet weld leg size for the tube to tubesheet welds. Specify if the tube to tubesheet welds are to be considered as strength welds per ASME.

Groove weld length, ag
Groove weld leg for the tube to tubesheet welds. Specify if the tube to tubesheet welds are to be considered as strength welds per ASME.

Tubesheet design method
You can select TEMA (Eight Edition), Code (Appendix AA - latest addenda), or the thicker/thinner of the two methods for the tube sheet design. The ASME Code accepts both methods for the tubesheet design. If no method is selected, the program will use the thicker tubesheet of the two methods. Depending on the design conditions and materials of construction, either method may result in a thicker tubesheet. Generally the ASME method will result in thicker tubesheets, especially, if the tubesheet is welded to the shell or head cylinder. Note that there is currently no ASME method to calculate a floating head tubesheet. Most users select the thinner tubesheet of the two methods to save cost.

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Tubesheet/Cylinder Optimization
0 = program – program will calculate the minimum required tubesheet thickness for bending and shear. Then it will check the stresses on the tubes and cylinders (shell or channel) welded to the tubesheet(s). If the stresses on the tubes are exceeded, the program automatically puts an expansion joint in. If the welded shell (i.e. BEM) or welded channel (i.e. NEN) is overstressed at the junction with the tubesheet, the program will issue a warning. 1 = Increase tubesheet thickness – program will increase the tubesheet thickness until all stresses are satisfied, including adjacent components – tubes, shell, channel. This selection results in the thickest tubesheet(s) and thinnest cylinder thickness at the junction. 2 = Increase adjacent cylinder thickness – the program will increase the shell thickness (only a small portion adjacent to the tubesheet) and/or the channel thickness (depending of which one is controlling) until the cylinder stresses at the junction with the tubesheet(s) are satisfied. This selection results in the thinnest tubesheet(s) and thickest cylinder thickness at the junction. As the cylinder thickness is increased, the tubesheet is reinforced by the thicker cylinder welded to it and consequently the tubesheet thickness is automatically reduced. If the User receives a warning that either the shell cylinder or channel cylinder at the tubesheet junction is overstressed, re-run the program with optimization method 2 (increase adjacent cylinder thickness). This may take a while in some designs. If the resulting cylinder thickness adjacent to the tubesheet is acceptable, the optimization run is finished. If this thickness is not acceptable (too thick), fix this thickness in input (tab Miscellaneous in the tubesheet section) and then run selection 1 = increase tubesheet thickness. This methodology usually results in a tubesheet thickness less than TEMA with a somewhat thicker cylinder welded to the tubesheet. NOTE: The program automatically adjusts all the affected components during these optimizations, i.e adjacent flange geometry.

Tubesheet design temperature
If provided here, the program will use these temperatures as the design temperatures for the tube sheets in lieu of the general shell/tube side design temperatures specified in the Design Specification section.

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Tubesheet dimensions

If check rating an existing exchanger, enter the following dimensional information, tubesheet OD, tubesheet thickness, width-partition groove, depth-partition groove, and if cladded; the clad diameter, clad thickness, front tubesheet clad material tube side, and rear tubesheet clad material tube side.

Tubesheet cladding material
Tubesheet cladding is typically a layer of alloy material applied to a carbon steel base on the tube-side face of the tubesheet.

Tubesheet clad type
Specify how the cladding is bonded to the tubesheet base material, explosively bonded or a loose type. Note that the type of bonding does not affect Code calculations.

Corrosion allowance – shell side & tube side
You can enter specific corrosion allowance requirements for the shell side and tube side of the tubesheets. The values entered here will override the global corrosion allowance entered for the shell and tube sides in the Design Specification section. Corrosion Allowance is obtained from the TEMA standards as follows: For carbon steel TEMA C and B: 0.0625" (1.6 mm). For carbon steel TEMA R: 0.125" (3.2 mm). Enter zero for no corrosion allowance. There is no default corrosion allowance for materials other than carbon steel. The user can specify any reasonable value for corrosion allowance. Default: TEMA requirements.

Recess dimensions
If check rating an existing exchanger, enter the following dimensional information: recess depth at ID gasket surface, recess diameter at ID gasket surface, recess depth at OD gasket surface, and recess diameter at OD gasket surface.

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Backing flange behind tubesheet
A backing flange behind the tubesheet is used to avoid transferring the flange moment caused by the adjoining flange to the tubesheet. The backing ring flange can also be made of inexpensive steel material when the tubesheet is made of alloy.

Tubesheet tapped – rear ‘T’ type
Select here to have bolt holes tapped in rear tubesheet in lieu of bolted through the tubesheet.

Adjacent Tubesheet Data
If cylinders attached to the tubesheet are of different materials and design specifications from that of the general cylinders specifications, you can specify this data in this section.

Differential design pressure
If specified, the tubesheets will be designed to a differential design pressure condition between the tube side and shell side of the exchanger. The normal default is to design the tubesheet applying the full tube side pressure for the first case and then the full shell side pressure for the second case and use the greater tubesheet thickness for those two conditions. Default: Checks both the tube side and shell side – uses greater thickness of the two conditions.

Tube expansion depth ratio
You can specify the ratio of the tube expansion length in the tubesheet to the total length of the tubesheet. This will be used for the tube pull out load analysis. Default: TEMA requirements

Load transferred form flange to tubesheet
The program will automatically transfer the calculated load from the body flange to the tubesheet for the flange extension calculations. For special design considerations, you can specify the load to be used in these calculations. Default: The calculated load from the body flange design per the applicable code.

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Tubesheet allowable stress at design temperature
If you wish to specify a special allowable design stress for the tubesheet calculations, enter that value. If not specified, the program will use an allowable design stress per the applicable code. Default: Allowable design stress per the applicable design code.

Double tubesheet specifications
If double tubesheets have been selected, specify any special design requirements. If not provided, the program will select optimum values for design.

Expansion Joints
Expansion joint for fixed tubesheet design
Specify if you want an expansion joint. The program will always check the design for expansion joint requirements and notify you if an expansion joint is required. Program = program will check and add expansion joint if required. Yes = program will add an expansion even if one is not required. No = unit will be designed without an expansion joint and program will notify you if the unit is overstressed. Default: program will add expansion joint if required per applicable code

Expansion joint type
You can select a flanged and flued type, flanged only type, bellows type, or a self reinforcing bellows type. The flanged type is generally the lowest cost expansion joint but is not as flexible as the bellows type. Aspen Teams will default to the flanged and flued type for TEMA exchangers. If a suitable joint cannot be determined, specify the bellows type. The design method for the flanged type is TEMA and for the bellows type is per the specified Code. Aspen Teams will design thick-wall expansion joints per TEMA Section 5. Aspen Teams will design thin -wall expansion joints per ASME-VIII-1 App. 26. The flanged-and-flued type refers to an expansion joint with two radii. The flanged-only type only has a radius at the outer edge. The joint with the shell is a straight angle. The thin-wall expansion joint is also known as a "bellows" type. It also has an "S" shape. Typical thicknesses are less than 1/8" (3.2 mm) and made of alloy materials. Reinforced bellows requires extra material to be placed on the outside of the joint to provide additional rigidity.

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Default: flanged and flued type

Flanged and Flued

Flanged only

Bellows

Renforced bellows

Shell mean metal temperature
Program will use this temperature to design a fixed tubesheet and expansion joint. If not specified, the program will use the design temperatures. The mean metal temperatures are very important in the correct calculation of the relative expansion of tubes and shell. It is especially important when the program defaults to the design temperatures because these may not be realistic.

Tubes mean metal temperature
Program will use this temperature to design a fixed tubesheet and expansion joint. If not specified, the program will use the design temperatures. The mean metal temperatures are very important in the correct calculation of the relative expansion of tubes and shell. It is especially important when the program defaults to the design temperatures because these may not be realistic.

Tubesheets mean metal temperature
Provide mean metal temperature to be used in the tubesheet design calculations. Normally the tubesheet metal temperature is very close to the tube metal temperature.

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Expansion Joint Geometry
If an expansion joint is required specify the material. If you are check rating an existing joint provide the following: outside diameter, outer cylinder thickness, annular plate thickness, cylinder length, straight flange length, knuckle radius, spring rate, corrosion allowance, number of joints, location of first joint, location of second joint (if required), spring rate (corroded), spring rate (new), and cycle life as applicable. Reference TEMA 1988 section 5 for additional information.

Expansion joint corrosion allowance
Specify a specific corrosion allowance, which will override the global corrosion allowance.

Number of expansion joints
Specify up to two expansion joints.

Location of expansion joint one
Specify the Zone location for the first expansion joint.

Location of expansion joint two
Specify the Zone location for the second expansion joint.

Expansion joint spring rate
Specify the bellows type expansion joint spring rate for the corroded and new conditions. Program will calculate the spring rate if not specified.

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Expansion joint cycle life
Program will calculate the estimated cycle life or you can input a required cycle life.

Bellows type expansion joint details
If check rating an existing bellows type expansion joint, specify the details for the joint.

TEMA stress multipliers
User may specify stress multipliers to adjust the allowable design stresses used in the TEMA expansion joint calculations. If left blank, the program will use allowable stresses recommended by TEMA.

Tubes/Baffles
Number of tubes
If the number of tubes is not entered, the program will calculate the maximum number of tubes that will fit in a given exchanger geometry. This number will vary not only with the tube diameter, pitch and layout, but also with the type of exchanger (floating head, etc.). Default: program calculated

Tube length
Specify the overall tube length for straight tubes. For U-tubes specify the tangent straight length.

Tube OD
Specify the actual dimensional outside diameter.

Tube wall thickness
The program will check if the tube wall thickness is adequate to withstand the design pressure, both internal and external. If you enter the average tube wall thickness, determine the minimum tube wall based upon the manufacturing tolerance (generally in the range of 10 to 12%) and verify it is not less that the calculated required thickness for the tubes.

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Tube type
Plain tubes do not have any enhancing type of surface on them. Fin tubes are classified as integral low-fin types with densities of 16 to 30 fins per inch (630 to 1181 fins per meter). Typical fin heights are 0.015 to 0.040 inches (0.4 to 1 mm). The program requires only the fin density.

Tube wall specification
Specify the tube wall specification. This wall specification will appear on the TEMA data sheet. If you have specified average wall thickness, see note above for tube wall thickness. Default: minimum wall.

Tube projection from tubesheet
Tube projection from the tubesheet face should be based upon the type of attachment and any customer specification requirements. Default: 1.5 mm or 0.625 in.

Tubes design temperature
Specify the tube design temperature, which will determine the physical properties used in the code calculations. Default: higher of shell and tube side design temperatures

Tubes corrosion allowance
For most design applications, no corrosion allowance is applied to the tubes even if you have specified a general corrosion allowance for the shell and tube sides of the exchanger. Specify the total corrosion (shell side and tube side) allowance required. Default: zero corrosion allowance

Tubes allowable design stress at design temperature
If not provided, program will determine the design stress based upon tube material specified at the design temperature. You may override this calculated design stress by entering it here. Default: allowable design stress at design temperature based upon material specified

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Fin Tube Data
Fin density
If you specify fin tubes as the tube type, then you must specify the desired fin density (i.e., the number of fins per inch or per meter depending on the system of measure). Since the possible fin densities are very dependent on the tube material, you should be sure that the desired fin density is commercially available. The dimensional standards for finned tubes made by Wolverine, High Performance Tube, and Wieland are built into the program. If you choose one of these, the program will automatically supply the corresponding fin height, fin thickness, and ratio of tube outside to inside surface area. If you do not choose one of the standard fin densities, then you must also supply the other fin data which follows in the input. The standard fin densities, fins/inch, for various materials are: Carbon Steel -19 Stainless Steel-16, 28 Copper-19, 26 Copper-Nickel 90/10-16, 19, 26 Copper-Nickel 70/30-19, 26 Nickel Low Carbon Alloy 201-19 Nickel Alloy 400 (Monel)-28 Nickel Alloy 600 (Inconel)-28 Nickel Alloy 800-28 Hastelloy-30 Titanium-30 Admiralty-19, 26 Aluminum-Brass Alloy 687-19

Fin height
The fin height is the height above the root diameter of the tube.

Fin thickness
The fin thickness is the average fin thickness.

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Baffle type

Single Segmental

Double Segmental

Triple Segmental

Full Support

No Tubes in Window

Rod

Strip

Baffle types can be divided up into two general categories: segmental baffles and grid baffles. Segmental baffles are pieces of plate with holes for the tubes and a segment that has been cut away for a baffle window. Single, double, triple, no tubes in window, and disk & donut are examples of segmental baffles. Grid baffles are made from rods or strips of metal which are assembled to provide a grid of openings through which the tubes can pass. The program covers two types of grid baffles - rod baffles and strip baffles. Segmental baffles are the most common type of baffle, with the single segmental baffle being the type used in a majority of shell and tube heat exchangers. The baffles should have at least one row of overlap and therefore become practical for a 20 mm or 0.75 in. tube in shell diameters of 305 mm (12 in.) or greater for double segmental and 610 (24 in.) or greater for triple segmental baffles. (Note: the B-JAC triple segmental baffle is different than the TEMA triple segmental baffle.) Full supports are used in K and X type shells where baffling is not necessary to direct the shell side flow. No tubes in window is a layout using a single segmental baffle with tubes removed in the baffle windows. This type is used to avoid tube vibration and may be further enhanced with intermediate supports to shorten the unsupported tube span. The standard abbreviation for no tubes in the window is NTIW. Rod baffle design is based on the construction and correlations developed by Phillips Petroleum. Rod baffles are limited to a square tube pattern. The rods are usually about 6 mm (0.25 in.) in diameter. The rods are placed between every other tube row and welded to a circular ring. There are four repeating sets where each baffle is rotated 90 degrees from the previous baffle. Strip baffles are normally used with a triangular tube pattern. The strips are usually about 25 mm (1 in.) wide and 3 mm (0.125 in.) thick. The strips are placed between every tube row. Intersecting strips can be notched to fit together or stacked and tack welded. The strips are welded to a circular ring. Strip baffles are also sometimes referred to as nest baffles. Default: single segmental except X shells; full support for X shell

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Baffle orientation

The baffle orientation is with respect to a horizontal exchanger. On vertical units the baffle cut will be typically perpendicular to the shell nozzles axes.

Baffle cut in percent of vessel diameter
The baffle cut is based on the percent of shell diameter. Typically 15% to 45%, depending on flow parameters and type of baffle (single vs double vs triple segmental or no-tubes-inwindow). For double-segmental baffles, the baffle cut is the size of the inner window divided by the shell diameter X 100. For triple-segmental baffles, the baffle cut is the size of the innermost window divided by the shell diameter X 100. For nests or rod baffles, there is no baffle cut (leave blank or zero).

Baffle number
Number of transverse baffles including full supports when applicable. The number of baffles applies to all transverse baffles and full supports. It should include the full support(s) under the nozzle(s) on a G, H, or J type shell. It should not include the full support at the beginning of the u-bend of a u-tube bundle.

Baffle spacing
Specify the center-to-center baffle spacing. This number and the number of baffles are complementary. If not entered, the program will determine the inlet and outlet baffle spacing.

Baffle inlet spacing
Specify the baffle spacing at the inlet nozzle. If not entered, the program will set based upon the center to center spacing and outlet spacing if specified. If the outlet spacing is not specified, the program will set the inlet and outlet spacing the same based upon available tube length.

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Baffle outlet spacing
Specify the baffle spacing at the outlet nozzle. If not entered, the program will set based upon the center to center spacing and the inlet spacing if specified. If the inlet spacing is not specified, the program will set the inlet and outlet the spacing the same based upon available remaining tube length.

Baffle thickness
Provide the actual thickness of the baffles. Default: TEMA standards

Baffle diameter
Provide the actual baffle outside diameter. Default: TEMA standards

Double/Triple baffle cuts
Refer to the Appendix section of this guide for information on double and triple segmental baffle cuts.

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Tubesheet Layout
Tube pattern

The tube pattern is the layout of the tubes in relation to the shell side crossflow direction, which is normal to the baffle cut edge. Default: 30 degree

Tube pitch
This is the center-to-center distance between adjacent tubes within the tube pattern. Default: minimum recommended by TEMA.

Tube passes
Specify the number of tube passes.

Tube pass layout type

Quadrant

Mixed

Ribbon

There are several possible ways to layout tubes for four or more passes.

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Quadrant:
Quadrant layout has the advantage of usually (but certainly not always) giving the highest tube count. It is the required layout for all U-tube designs of four or more passes. The tube side nozzles must be offset from the centerline when using quadrant layout. The program will automatically avoid quadrant layout for shells with longitudinal baffles and 6, 10, or 14 passes, in order to avoid having the longitudinal baffle bisect a pass.

Mixed:
Mixed layout has the advantage of keeping the tube side nozzles on the centerline. It often gives a tube count close to quadrant and sometimes exceeds it. The program will automatically avoid mixed layout for shells with longitudinal baffles and 4, 8, 12, or 16 passes.

Ribbon:
Ribbon layout nearly always gives a layout with fewer tubes than quadrant or mixed layout. It is the layout the program always uses for an odd number of tube passes. The primary advantage of ribbon layout is the more gradual change in operating temperature of adjacent tubes from top to bottom of the tubesheet. This can be especially important when there is a large change in temperature on the tube side that might cause significant thermal stresses in mixed and especially quadrant layouts. Default: program will optimize

Impingement protection

O n B u n dle

In D om e

The purpose of impingement protection is to protect the tubes directly under the inlet nozzle by deflecting the bullet shaped flow of high velocity fluids or the force of entrained droplets. TEMA recommends that inlet impingement protection be installed under the following conditions: • • • when the rho*V² through the inlet nozzle exceeds 2232 kg/(m*s²) or 1500 lb/(ft*s²) for non-corrosive, non-abrasive, single phase fluids when the rho*V² through the inlet nozzle exceeds 744 kg/(m*s²) or 500 lb/(ft*s²) for corrosive or abrasive liquids

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• • •

when there is a nominally saturated vapor when there is a corrosive gas when there is two phase flow at the inlet

If you choose a plate on the bundle the program will automatically remove tubes under the inlet nozzle so that the shell entrance area equals the cross-sectional area of the nozzle. This is approximately equal to removing any tubes within a distance of 1/4 the nozzle diameter under the center of the nozzle. The program uses a circular impingement plate equal in diameter to the inside diameter of the nozzle, and approximately 3mm or 1/8in. thick. An alternative is to put a plate in a nozzle dome, which means suspending the impingement plate in an enlarged nozzle neck, which may be a dome or a cone.

Outer tube limit diameter (OTL)
The outer tube limit (OTL) is the diameter of the circle beyond which no portion of a tube will be placed. You can input an OTL and the program will determine the maximum number of tubes, which will fit. If no OTL is specified, the program will calculate the OTL based upon the inputted shell diameter and TEMA standard bundle clearances. Default: program will calculate

Tube Layout Option
You can select to have the Teams program generate a new tube layout every time the program runs or you can select to use an existing layout. For the second option, you must first run Teams to establish a layout and then select the option to use the existing layout for all subsequent runs. Default: create a new layout

Max deviation per pass in percent
The program defaults to 5% maximum deviation per pass when calculating how many tubes can fit in a given pass.

Degree of symmetry
If specified, the program will attempt to put the same number of tubes per pass. If not specified, the program will optimize as many tubes as possible in a given configuration.

Min U-bend Diameter
The program default is 3 times the tube OD.

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Aspen B-JAC 11.1 User Guide

Pass Partitions
You can specify the following detailed information about the pass partitions: pass partition lane clearance, allowable pressure drop across partition plate, front (top) pass partition plate thickness, front Head Pass Partition rib length, front head pass partition rib width, pass partition dimension ‘a’, and pass partition dimension ‘b’ (Reference TEMA standards).

Open Distance
You can specify the amount of open space in the tube pattern by the percent of the shell diameter open down from top, percent open up from bottom, and percent open in from sides or you can specify the dimensional distance down from top, distance up from bottom or distance in from sides.

Impingement plate diameter
The program will use this input to determine the position and the dimension of the impingement plate This input is not required if you have already specified the shell inlet nozzle OD. The default is the shell inlet nozzle O.D.

Impingement plate length and width
You can specify a rectangular impingement plate size. The default is the shell inlet nozzle O.D. for length and width (square plate).

Impingement plate thickness
This input is required if you specify there is an impingement field. You can specify any thickness for the impingement plate. The default is 3 mm or 0.125 inch.

Impingement distance from shell ID
You can specify the distance from the shell inside diameter to the impingement plate. The default is the top row of tubes.

Impingement clearance to tube edge
You can specify the distance from the impingement plate to the first row of tubes.

Impingement plate perforation area %
If you are using a perforated type impingement plate, you can specify the percent of area that the plate is perforated.

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Tie Rods
You can specify the following tie rod information: tie rod number, tie rod diameter, length of tie rod, and tie rod material.

Spacers
You can specify the following for the tie rod spacers: number of spacers, diameter, spacer thickness, and spacer material.

Tube Layout Drawing
Once you have run the Teams program and have mechanical design results, you can interactively make modifications to the tube layout. Tubes: Tubes can be removed from the layout by clicking on the tube to be removed (tube will be highlighted in red) and then selecting the red X in the menu. If you want to designate a tube as a plugged tube or as a dummy tube, click on the tube (tube will be highlighted in red) and then select the plugged tube icon or dummy tube icon from the menu. Tie Rods: To remove a tie rod, click on the tie rod (tie rod will be highlighted in red) and then select the red X in the menu. To add a tie rod, select the add a tie rod icon in the menu and then specify the location for the tie rod. Sealing Strips: To remove a sealing strip, click on the sealing strip (sealing strip will be highlighted in red) and then select the red X in the menu. To add a sealing strip, select the add a sealing strip icon in the menu and then specify the location for the sealing strip. Once you have completed your changes to the tube layout, you may want to elect to fix the layout for subsequent Teams runs by selecting the "Use existing layout" option located on the Tubsheet Layout tab.

Nozzles General
Shell side/Tube side nozzles global settings
Flange design standard – ANSI, ISO or DIN standards can be referenced. Also an optimized, program calculated, may be selected. Elevation – Provide nozzle elevation from vessel centerline to face of nozzle. Couplings – Select number of couplings to be provide in each nozzle. Program default is TEMA standards. Flange rating – Select flange rating. Program default is to select a flange rating in accordance with the applicable specified code.

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Flange type – Select nozzle flange type from list. Default is slip on type. Flange type for code calculated flange – Select a flange type for the optimized nozzle flange. Nozzle flange facing – Select raised or flat face type. Default is flat face. Nozzle flange facing for code calculated flange – select facing type for a calculated nozzle flange. Default is a flat facing.

Nozzles/Couplings
Name – Provide identification for each nozzle for the drawings and text output. Program default starts with the letter A through J. Description- You can provide a description for each nozzle that will appear in the text output. Function – Specify function of nozzle, such as inlet, outlet, vent, drain . . . . Note that by identifying the inlet nozzles the program locates impingement plates if one has been specified. Type – For couplings only, provide coupling design rating. Diameter – Provide nominal diameter of nozzle. If actual diameters are specified, the program will select the closest standard nozzle diameter per the applicable code. Program will determine actual diameter from the application pipe standards. Location – Provide a zone location for the nozzle or coupling. This is an approximate location from which the program will calculate the actual dimensional location. Specify a general zone location for the nozzle, zones 1 and 2 for front head nozzles, zones 3 through 7 for shell nozzles, and zones 8 and 9 for rear head nozzles. Nozzles should be located in accordance with the TEMA type of shell that you have selected. Note that the zone locations specified will override standard TEMA locations. Angle – Specify the angle location. Nozzle located at the 45 degree points, i.e. 0, 45, 90, 135 …., will be oriented radially to the cylinder. All other angles will result in the nozzle be located hill side on the cylinder.

Domes/Distributor Belts
For the Teams design mode, the program will calculate (or use defaults) for the following dome/distributor information if the input field indicates "program" or a default is shown. If you are running in the check rating mode, specify as applicable the information required. Dome type - Type of dome: ellipsoidal, torispherical, conical, or distributor belt. Default: ellipsoidal Dome diameter - Specify the outside diameter of the dome cylinder. Dome location - Specify the zone location for the dome at the same location as the location for the attaching nozzle.

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Dome angle - Specify the angle for the dome as the same for the attaching nozzle. Dome thickness - The thickness for the dome. Default: program calculated Dome cylinder thickness - Specify the thickness for the cylinder attached to the dome. Default: program calculated Dome attachment type – Specify the weld attachment type to vessel. Default: program selected Reinforcing pad – If pad is to be provided, specify the OD and thickness. Default: added by program if required Weld leg – Weld size for the dome to vessel attachment weld. Default: program calculated Distributor belt type – Select type from ASME appendix 9. Knuckle radius – Knuckle radius for flanged and flued type distributor belt. Default: program selected

Nozzle Details
For the Teams design mode, the program will calculate (or use defaults) for the following nozzle detail information. If you are running in the check rating mode, specify as applicable the following information. Nozzle cylinders and reinforcing pad details - You can specify the following rating information about the nozzles: nozzle cylinder thickness, nozzle reinforcing pad OD, nozzle reinforcing pad thickness, and nozzle reinforcing pad parallel limit. Nozzle type attachment - Specify the type of nozzle attachment to the vessel. Nozzle weld leg height, external projection - Specify the weld leg height at the nozzle attachment to the cylinder at the outside surface. Nozzle weld leg height, internal projection- Specify the weld leg height of the nozzle attachment to the vessel cylinder at the nozzle projection into the vessel. Nozzle weld leg height re-pad - Specify the weld leg height at the reinforcement pad. Nozzle projection - Specify the projection of the nozzle into the vessel from the inside surface. The program default is having the nozzles flush with the inside vessel surface. Nozzle elevation - Specify the distance the nozzle extends beyond the vessel OD. The elevation above the vessel wall defaults to a minimum of 6" (152 mm). The user can enter values to clear the thickness of insulation, if present. Nozzle distance from nozzle centerline gasket - Specify the distance from nozzle center line to from tubesheet gasket face.

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Nozzle distance from nozzle centerline head - Specify the distance from nozzle center line to centerline of front head nozzles. Nozzle flange standard - The nozzle flanges can be designed or selected from standards.

Nozzle flange type - The nozzle flange types in ASME follow the ANSI B16.5 standard including long weld neck types (thicker necks). If you do not want separate reinforcing plates, self-reinforced nozzle styles 'H' and 'S' are also available. Style 'S' provides a thicker neck at the junction to the vessel than style 'H' which also provides a thicker neck than a long weld neck. Nozzle flange rating – You may input a flange rating or allow the program will determine the appropriate rating based on materials of construction and the design pressure and temperature of the flanges per applicable standards (ANSI, DIN, or AFNOR). Default: program determines per applicable standards Nozzle face – Select nozzle facing type. Default: flat face Nozzle clearances - Specify minimum clearances for nozzles to flanges and tubesheets. Default: one nozzle diameter

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Horizontal Supports
Support type

Saddles

Stacked units on saddles

The program analyzes the shell stresses caused by supports in both the horizontal (saddles). For saddles the program uses the method developed by L.P.Zick. When this method indicates an over-stressed condition, the program will warn the user. Typical locations and angle for saddles are 4 and 6 and 180 degrees. Other angles are only used for stacked exchangers (zero degrees). Calculation methods for supports for stacked exchangers are not yet available. Saddle support A location - Specify general zone (zones 3 or 4) location for the front saddle support. Saddle support B location - Specify general zone (zones 6 or 7) location for the rear saddle support. Saddle support location angle - Specify angle location for the saddle supports (180 degrees for bottom supports or 0 degrees for top support with stacked units). Distance from face of front tubesheet to bolt hole in support A - You can specify the actual dimensional location of the front support from the front tubesheet. Distance from face of front tubesheet to bolt hole in support B - You can specify the actual dimensional location of the rear support from the front tubesheet Load on Saddles - You can specify dead weight loads for the Saddle ‘A’ and Saddle ‘B’ supports. Program will use these values in lieu of the calculated loads based upon the full weight of the vessel.

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Saddle Details
You can input your own design for the saddle supports by inputting the following information:

t

d w
dh ce lh cc
Saddle to shell angle of contact: Normally set at 120 degrees

Support elevation: Projection of the saddle support from the vessel centerline Wear plate thickness: Program defaults to no wear plate. Plate thickness varies from 0.25 inches up to the thickness of the shell cylinder Base plate thickness: Normal thickness ranges from 0.5 inches to 2 inches thick. Base plate width: Any width is accepted up to the diameter of the shell. Base plate depth: Normal depth is from 4 inches up to 12 inches. Gusset thickness: Gusset thickness ranges from 0.375 inch to 1 inch. Gusset number per support: Ranges from one to four gussets Gusset direction: Supports opened towards the center of the vessel or outward towards the ends of the vessel. Bolt holes diameter: Size ranges from 0.625 inch to 3 inch allowing for 1/8 inch clearance to bolt diameter. Bolt distance edge to x axis: Allow a minimum of 2 times the bolt hole size. Bolt center to center distance: Any dimension less than the diameter of the vessel. Bolt slot length: Generally the slot is 2 times the bolt hole diameter Bolt quantity: Normal ranges from 2 to 8 bolts

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Stacked Units
You can specify the number of stacked exchangers, up to four units. A sketch showing the stacking arrangement for the exchangers will be provided. User will need to evaluate the vessel support design for base and intermediate supports. Note that it is possible to input a total weight for the stacked exchangers and the program will design the base support using this total weight. The program will use the base support design also for the intermediate supports.

Vertical Supports
Currently the program provides a design for vertical lug type supports. The program analyzes the shell stresses caused by vertical (lugs) positions. For vertical lug supports the program will calculate the required lug weld height to avoid over-stressing the shell. Calculations methods for (3) vertical ring supports are not yet available.

Lug Type

Ring Type

Vertical Support type - Specify type of vertical vessel support type. From two to four lug type supports can be specified. The vertical ring type is a single continuous ring around the shell. Calculations for the ring type are not yet available. Vertical Support location - Specify general zone location (zones 3 through 7) for the support. Vertical Support angle - Specify angle location for the lug type supports (180 degrees apart for two lugs and ever 45 degrees for 4 lugs).

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Vertical Support Details

You can input your own design for the saddle supports by inputting the following information: Wear plate thickness: Program defaults to no wear plate. Plate thickness varies from 0.25 inches up to the thickness of the shell cylinder Base plate thickness: Normal thickness ranges from 0.5 inches to 2 inches thick. Base plate width: Any width is accepted up to the diameter of the shell. Base plate depth: Normal depth is from 4 inches up to 12 inches. Gusset thickness: Gusset thickness ranges from 0.375 inch to 1 inch. Gusset number per support: Ranges from one to four gussets Bolt holes diameter: Size ranges from 0.625 inch to 3 inch allowing for 1/8 inch clearance to bolt diameter. Bolt distance edge to x axis: Allow a minimum of 2 times the bolt hole size. Bolt center to center distance: Any dimension less than the diameter of the vessel. Bolt quantity: Normal ranges from 2 to 8 bolts

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Lift Lugs
Lifting Lugs type - Lug type is plate type. Number to lift the whole unit - Specify number of unit lifting lugs required. Location and Angle of each Lug - Specify the zone location and angle for each lug. Lifting Lugs Material - Specify material for lug. Lifting Lugs Re-pad material - Specify the reinforcement pad material.

Lug Geometry
‘t’ thickness: The thickness of the lug ‘I’ Weld length: The length of the attachment weld to the vessel ‘h’ Weld size: Weld height of the attachment weld ‘H’ Distance: Height from vessel wall to centerline of hole ‘R’ Radius: Radius of lug at top ‘r’ Radius of hole: Radius of lug hole ‘p’ Re-pad thickness: Thickness of reinforcement pad ‘L’ Re-pad length: Length of reinforcement pad ‘W’ Re-pad length: Width of reinforcement pad

R h r H p t l L W

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Materials
The Design Data Section is subdivided into two sections: • • Main Materials Nozzle Materials

Main Materials
Material Specifications
Specify materials for required components. You can use the generic material types such as "carbon steel" which the program will assign actual default material specifications depending on the product form. For carbon steel plate, a material specification of SA-516-70 will be used for an ASME design. Appropriate specifications will be selected for other design construction codes. The default materials can be changed using the utility DefMats. Reference the Appendix for a complete list of generic materials. Default: carbon steel. To search for a specific material specification, select the Search Databank button. Type the first few characters to search for a material in the databank.

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Normalized Materials
You can specify all carbon steel materials to be normalized per Fig. UCS-66.

Nozzle Materials
Nozzle Materials for global settings
Specify nozzle materials for required components. You can use the generic material types such as "carbon steel" which the program will assign an actual default material specifications depending on the product form. For carbon steel pipe material, a material specification of SA106-B will be used for an ASME design. Appropriate specifications will be selected for other design construction codes. The default materials can be changed using the utility DefMats. Reference the Appendix for a complete list of generic materials. Default: carbon steel

Shell Side & Tube Side
Specify materials for the following shell side and tube side nozzle components: • • • • Nozzle cylinder material Nozzle flange material Nozzle flange bolt material Nozzle flange gasket material

Nozzle Material Individual Nozzles
You can specify materials for specific nozzles. If not specified, TEAMS will set the materials to the default carbon steel. These will override global settings. You can use the generic material types such as "carbon steel" which the program will assign actual default material specifications depending on the product form. For carbon steel pipe, a material specification of SA-106-B will be used for an ASME design. Appropriate specifications will be selected for other design construction codes. The default materials can be changed using the utility DefMats. Reference the Appendix for a complete list of generic materials. Specify information for the following nozzle components for the specific applicable nozzle. Nominal pipe size for the Diameter, and generic or actual material specification for the Cylinder Material, Nozzle Reinforcing Pad Material, Flange, Gasket, and Bolting.

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Program Options
The Program Options Section is subdivided into three sections: • • • Loads External- Wind and Seismic Change Codes Drawings.

Wind/Seismic/External Loads
External Loads
You can specify the external nozzle attachments loads and they will be analyzed per the Welding Research Council Bulletin, WRC-107. If the nozzle loads are not known but you need the allowable loads based upon your final design, select the Heat Exchange Institute, HEI, method for external nozzle loads and the allowable loads will be calculated.

Wind Loads
Wind loads analyzed per ANSI/ASCE 7-95 Default: 160 km/hr (100 mph) wind load

Seismic Loads
Seismic load evaluated per ANSI/ASCE 7-95. Default: zone 1

Change Codes
The last screen of the long form input allows you to specify change codes with the associated values. The format for change code entries is: CODE=value Change codes are processed after all of the other input and override any previously set value. For instance, if you specify the tube outside diameter as 20 mm in the regular input screens, then enter the change code TODX=25, the 25 will override the 20. If you enter the same change code more than once, the last value will prevail. Another good use of the change code screen is to "chain" to another file containing only change codes. This is especially convenient if you have a line of standard designs, which you

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want to use after you have found a similar solution in design mode. This can be done by using the FILE= change code, followed by the name of the file containing the other change codes. The other file must also have a .BJI filetype. You can create this change code file with a standard edit program. For example, the entry FILE=S-610-2 would point to a file named S610-2.BJI, which might contain the following data:
SODX=610,TLNG=5000,TNUM=458,TPAS=2,BSPA=690,TODX=20,TPAT=1

The following pages list the change codes that are available in the Aspen TEAMS program.

Change Codes – General
bttk= baffle thickness cfac= "C" factor in calculation of flat covers coan= conical head angle (must be less than or equal to 30 degrees) code= code requirement: 1=ASME 2=CODAP 3=AD/DIN elra= radius of turn for 90 degree elbow fcgw= front head cylinder girth butt welds present 0=no 1=yes fhct= front head flat removable cover thickness file= specify the name of a file which contains change codes jess= joint efficiency for shell side cylinders for nozzle repad calcs. jets= joint efficiency for tube side cylinders for nozzle repad calcs. lang= language for input and output 1=English 2=French 3=Spanish 4=German 5=Italian meas= system of measure: 1=U.S. 2=SI 3=metric nodr= no drawings in TEAMS summary output 0,1=yes 2=no otlm= outer tube limit rblf/rblr= total length of pass partition ribs in front/rear head srmt/stf1= stiffening ring material / number of stiffening rings rbwf= effective width of pass partition ribs in front head rbwr= effective width of pass partition ribs in rear head rcgw= rear head cylinder girth butt welds present: 0=no 1=yes rhct= rear head flat removable cover thickness scgw= shell cover cylinder girth butt welds present 0=no 1=yes

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scat= CODAP construction category shell side: 1=A 2=B 3=C 4=D shgw= shell girth butt welds present: 0=no 1=yes shje= shell joint efficiency (ASME) sjef= CODAP joint efficiency on shell side (0.85 or 1) sstp= shell side test pressure ssto= shell side tolerance for plate suts= tubesheet considered supported: 0=program 1=yes 2=no tcat= CODAP construction category tube side: 1=A 2=B 3=C 4=D tjef= CODAP joint efficiency on tube side (0.85 or 1) tkmn= determines if input thickness of pipe is: 0=nominal 1=minimum tsto= tube side tolerance for plate tstp= tube side test pressure tupr= distance tubes project from tubesheet weir= option to eliminate weir in kettle (-1=no weir) heat= carbon steel material normalized/tempered 0=no 1=yes

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Change Codes - Cylinders & Covers
Front Head cover thickness outside diameter length (+) ext.press.length ellip head ratio toris head dish r.* toris head k. rad.* over "hub" length fcot= fcod= fcyl= eln2= fcer= fcdr= fckr= fhlg= cyl fcyt= fcyd= Rear Head cover rcot= rcyd= rcyl= eln3= rcer= rcdr= rckr= rhlg= cyl rcyt= rcod=

Shell cyl thickness outside diameter length (+) ext.press.length (&) ellip head ratio toris head dish r.* toris head k. rad.* cover "hub" length shth= scyd= scyl= eln2= scer= scdr= sckr= sclg=

Shell cyl scyt= sccd= sccl= eln4=

Cover cover scot= scod=

(+)=flange/ts face-to-face or weld *=in percent of head diameter. (&)=eln1 and stf1 should be issued together stf1=number of stiff.rings

Eccentric Kettle Redcr thickness outside dia material id/length erth= — ermt= — Cyl keth= keod= kemt= keid/kcyl

Vapor Belt vbth= vbod= — — Cyl — — — —

Distr Belt A Ann. Ring — — — — Cyl — — — —

Distr Belt B Ann. Ring — — — —

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Change Codes - Nozzles
Nozzle Cyl thickness outside dia parallel limit nzta-j — — Reinf Pad zrta-j zrda-j nzpa-j Nozzle Dome Redcr nnta-j — — Cyl ncta-j — — Reinf Pad nrta-j nrda-j —

nzxa thru nzxj= distance nozzle extends beyond inner surface of vessel fnfa thru fnfj= BJAC facing type for nozzle flange (ASME 2-5-2) (value=1 to 9) wnfa thru wnfj= width of nubbin for nozzle flange (ASME table 2-5-2) nwld= increase nozzle to vessel weld leg to eliminate pad: 0=yes 1=no nplm= percent parallel limit for shell nozzle adjacent to tubesheet (0=100%) nfct= clearance between tube nozzle flange and back side of flange (0=0.5") nrtp= provide 100% metal replacement in pad: 0=no 1=uncorroded 2=corroded rpmt= minimum reinforcing pad thickness nrcl= clearance between reinf. pad weld and back of flange/tubesheet (0=2") nccl= clearance between nozzle cyl. weld and back of flange/tubesheet (0=2") nfcs= clearance between shell nozzle flange & front side of tubesheet (0=0.5")

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Change Codes – Body Flanges
---Front Head-Cover thickness min bolt dia facing type nubbin width confined joint(**) gasket width weld height ffct= fcmb= ftmb= fbfa= wbfa= fccj= gawa= gawb= fwla= fwlb= fwlf= fwlg= fbfb= wbfb= ftcj= fbff= wbff= rtcj= gawf= fbfg= wbfg= rccj= gawg= at TbSh fftt= ----Rear Head---at TbSh rftt= rtmb= rfct= rcmb= Cover

Shell Front thickness min bolt dia facing type nubbin width confined joint(**) gasket width weld height
**=(0=no 1=yes) fbft= front backing ring flange thickness rbft= rear backing ring flange thickness bolt= bolt type: 1=u.s. 2=metric shnk= DIN bolt type: 1=waisted-shank 2=rigid

Shell Rear rsft= — fbfd wbfd= —gawd= fwld=

Shell Cover scft= scmb= fbfe= wbfe= sccj= gawe= fwle=

fsft= — fbfc= wbfc= fscj= gawc= fwlc=

sfdt= design temperature for shell side body flanges and bolting tfdt= design temperature for tube side body flanges and bolting

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Change Codes - Floating Head Flange
fhft= floating head - flange thickness (recess not included) fhid= floating head - flange inside diameter fhdi= floating head - dish inside crown radius fhdt= floating head - dish (or head) thickness fhhr= floating head - dish lever arm(+ toward tube side/- toward shell side) fhmb= floating head - minimum bolt outside diameter fhbf= floating head - backing ring flange thickness (recess not included) cifh= floating head - corrosion on the shell side of floating cover fhtd= floating head - design temperature rtcj= confined joint for rear head gasket at tubesheet: 0=no 1=yes fhnu= bjac facing type for inside flt. head flange (ASME 2-5-2) (value=1 to 9) fhwi= width of nubbin for inside float. head flange (ASME table 2-5-2) FHFL or BFLF = floating head - flange rating (FHFL or BFLF=1 for rating) BRRE= IFH "S" type backing ring recess: 0=program 1=none 2=std. 3=angled

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Change Codes - Tubesheets & Expansion Joint
conv= number of convolutions cycl= minimum expansion joint cycle life (TEMA default=2000 cycles) diff= differential design pressure (0=no, 1=yes) difp= actual diff. pressure ejbe= bellows 1=unreinforced 2=reinforced ejca= expansion joint corrosion all. ejfa= expansion joint straight flange - inner cylinder (TEMA fig. rcb-8.21) ** ejfb= expansion joint straight flange - outer cylinder (TEMA fig. rcb-8.21) ** ejod= expansion joint outside diameter ejra= expansion joint knuckle radius at inside junction (TEMA fig. rcb-8.21) ejrb= expansion joint knuckle radius at outside junction (TEMA fig. rcb-8.21) ejrm= bellows reinforcement material ejth= expansion joint thickness (TEMA "te" fig. rcb-8.21) ejtp= expansion joint type: 91=f*f 92=flanged only 93=bellows ejwi= expansion joint width (TEMA 2*"lo" fig. rcb-8.21) ** ftsa= fixed tubesheet attachment: 1=backing strip 2=land 3=stub ftsc= front tubesheet clad thickness ** = if -1 is entered, value will be zero in calculations. ftst= front tubesheet thickness octh= expansion joint outer cylinder thickness (TEMA "to" fig. RCB-8.21) rtsc= rear tubesheet clad thickness rtst= rear tubesheet thickness tsco= fixed tubesheet standard selection: 0=program 1=ASME 2=TEMA xjsr= expansion joint spring rate - new xsrc= expansion joint spring rate - corroded ** = if -1 is entered, value will be zero in calculations.

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Change Codes - Supports
angc= saddle-to-shell angle of contact (100 to 170 deg) increasing angc will reduce all stresses except bending at midspan satw= saddle transverse width - reciprocal of angc above stda= distance from face of front tubesheet to first saddle (a) stdb= distance from face of front tubesheet to second saddle (b) placing saddle closer to respective tubesheet will decrease bending stress at saddle but increase both bending at midspan and shell tangential shear (unstiffened by head or flange/tubesheet) salw= saddle longitudinal width wptk= wear plate thickness (saddles and lugs) -1 = no plate increasing both salw or wptk will reduce both circumferential stress at horn of saddle and ring compression over saddle. if the saddle is located further than a/r=0.5 the vessel thk. Will not include the wear plate in the calculation of the circum.stress. lugt= vertical lug thickness (base plate and gussets) lugh= vertical lug height

Change Codes - Dimensions
nzel= elevation of nozzles from the centerline of the vessel nzla thru nzlj= nozzle elevation from the centerline of the vessel stla thru stld= support elevation from centerline of vessel nzda thru nzdj= distance of nozzle center from front face of front tubesheet xjda thru xjdc= distance of expansion joint from front face of front tubesheet stda thru stdd= distance of support from front face of front tubesheet cpda thru cpdj= distance of coupling from front face of front tubesheet rfpt = drawing reference point. 0,1=face of front TS 2=centerline front head nozzle.

Drawings
User can select which drawing to be generated when the program runs. Drawing numbers can also be specified.

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Results
The Results Section is divided into six sections: • • • • • • Input Summary Design Summary Vessel Dimensions Price Drawings Code Calculations

Input Summary
The Input Summary Section is subdivided into three sections: • • • Basic Data/ Fittings/Flanges Cylinders/Covers/TubeSheets Materials/Lift Lugs/Partitions

Basic Data/Fittings/Flanges
This part of the input file summary includes information on: • • • • • • • • • • Description/Codes and Standards Design Specifications Geometry Tubesheet/Tubes Baffles/Tube Layout Supports -Horizontal/Vertical Nozzles Nozzle Cyl/Re-pads Flanges Flange Misc.

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Cylinders/Covers/Tubesheets Details
This part of the input file summary provides the detailed input information on: • • • • • • • • • • • Cylinders Front Head Details Rear Head Details Front Head Cover Front Head Cover Details Rear Head Cover Rear Head Cover Details Shell Cylinder Tubesheets Details Expansion Joint Details Shell Cover

Materials/Lift Lugs/Partitions
This part of the input file summary includes information on: • • • • • • • • Main Materials Nozzle Global Materials Nozzle Specific Materials Domes/Coupling Materials Lift Lug Details Pass Partitions Tie Rods and Spacers Nozzle Clearances

Design Summary
The Design Summary Section is subdivided into five sections: • • • • • Warnings & Messages Design Specifications/Materials MDMT/MAWP/Test Pressure Overall Dimensions/Fitting Locations Wind and Seismic Loads

Warnings & Messages
Teams provides an extensive system of warnings and messages to help the designer of heat exchanger design. Messages are divided into five types. There are several hundred messages built into the Aspen Hetran program. Those messages requiring further explanation are described here.

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Warning Messages
These are conditions which may be problems, however the program will continue.

Error Messages
Conditions which do not allow the program to continue.

Limit Messages
Conditions which go beyond the scope of the program.

Notes
Special conditions which you should be aware of.

Suggestions
Recommendations on how to improve the design.

Design Specifications/Materials
Design Specifications
This is intended to be a concise summary of the design requirements, including calculated design information such as weights and nozzle flange ratings. The codes in effect are clearly shown indicating applicable date of issue.

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Materials of Construction
Provides a summary of materials used in the design for all major components. For example:
Component Shell Cylinder Front Head Cylinder Rear Head Cylinder Front Head Cover Rear Head Cover Front Tubesheet Rear Tubesheet Front Head Flange At TS Rear Head Flange At TS Front Head Flange At Cov Front Head Gasket At TS Rear Head Gasket At TS Front Head Gasket At Cov Tubes Baffles Tie Rods Spacers Shell Support A Shell Support B Nozzle A Nozzle B Nozzle C Nozzle D Nozzle Flange A Nozzle Flange B Nozzle Flange C Nozzle Flange D Nozzle Reinforcement A Nozzle Reinforcement B Nozzle Reinforcement C Nozzle Reinforcement D Front Hd Bolting At TS Rear Hd Bolting At TS Front Hd Bolting At Cov Expansion Joint Material Name SA-516 Gr 70 Steel Plt SA-516 Gr 70 Steel Plt SA-516 Gr 70 Steel Plt SA-516 Gr 70 Steel Plt SA-516 Gr 70 Steel Plt SA-516 Gr 70 Steel Plt SA-516 Gr 70 Steel Plt SA-516 Gr 70 Steel Plt SA-516 Gr 70 Steel Plt SA-516 Gr 70 Steel Plt Flt Metal Jkt Asbestos Soft Steel Flt Metal Jkt Asbestos Soft Steel Flt Metal Jkt Asbestos Soft Steel SA-214 Wld C Steel Tube SA-285 Gr C Steel Plt SA-36 Bar SA-214 Wld C Steel Tube SA-285 Gr C Steel Plt SA-285 Gr C Steel Plt SA-106 Gr B Sml Steel Pipe SA-106 Gr B Sml Steel Pipe SA-106 Gr B Sml Steel Pipe SA-106 Gr B Sml Steel Pipe SA-105 Carbon Steel Forg SA-105 Carbon Steel Forg SA-105 Carbon Steel Forg SA-105 Carbon Steel Forg SA-516 Gr 70 Steel Plt SA-516 Gr 70 Steel Plt SA-516 Gr 70 Steel Plt SA-516 Gr 70 Steel Plt SA-193 B7 Steel Blt SA-193 B7 Steel Blt SA-193 B7 Steel Blt SA-516 Gr 70 Steel Plt

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Nozzle Flange Bolting A Nozzle Flange Bolting B Nozzle Flange Bolting C Nozzle Flange Bolting D Nozzle Flg Gasket A Nozzle Flg Gasket B Nozzle Flg Gasket C Nozzle Flg Gasket D Shell Side Nozzle Cplgs Tube Side Nozzle Cplgs

SA-193 B7 Steel Blt SA-193 B7 Steel Blt SA-193 B7 Steel Blt SA-193 B7 Steel Blt Flt Metal Jkt Asbestos Soft Steel Flt Metal Jkt Asbestos Soft Steel Flt Metal Jkt Asbestos Soft Steel Flt Metal Jkt Asbestos Soft Steel SA-105 C Steel Coupl SA-105 C Steel Coupl

Overall Dimensions/Fitting Locations
Overall Dimensions
Overall dimensions are calculated as well as intermediate component lengths. These dimensions will also be shown on some of the TEAMS drawings, such as the setting plan and sectional drawing. The dimensions shown are: • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • Overall front head assembly Front Tubesheet Tubesheet thickness Tube side recess Shell side recess Welding stub end(s) Cladding Thickness Shell Rear Tubesheet Tubesheet thickness Tube side recess Shell side recess Welding stub end(s) Cladding Thickness Overall rear head assembly Overall shell cover assembly Unit overall length

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Fitting Locations
All fittings are located from two reference points: distance from the front tubesheet and distance from the front head nozzle. These dimensions will also appear on Aspen TEAMS setting plan drawings. If any nozzles are offset from the vessel centerline, the amount of the offset will also be indicated.

Center of Gravity
A general center of gravity is calculated based on each component weight. This reference point can be used when preparing for vessel installation and for proper anchoring during movement.

MDMT/MAWP/Test Pressure
MDMT
Minimum Design Metal Temperatures are set based upon the lowest operating temperature the pressure vessel will encounter. Material specifications, impacting testing, and PWHT should be selected that will meet the MDMT requirements per the applicable design construction code.

Controlling Component
The program will examine each component separately and calculate its minimum design metal temperature without having to impact test the material. An "*" indicates the controlling component (the one with the highest temperature). By changing material specifications or testing the component the user can lower the minimum design metal temperature to a desired value. The ASME Code has many rules on this subject (such as those presented in UG-20(f)) so it is recommended to use additional judgement and experience when deciding on the minimum design metal temperature for a vessel.

MAWP
The Maximum Allowable Working Pressure is the maximum pressure that the vessel may encounter and not have any component's pressure stress exceed the allowable design stress value per applicable design code.

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Controlling Component
The program will calculate the maximum allowable working pressure (MAWP) for each component of the vessel. The one with the lowest pressure will be selected as the controlling component and marked with a "*" for the shell side and a "+" for the tube side. Two sets of pressures are selected: • • One for design conditions (corroded at design temperature) One for "new and cold" conditions (uncorroded at ambient temperature)

If you want to redesign the equipment using the MAWP, you should change the input data to rating mode. In some cases when the tubesheet controls the MAWP, it will not be possible to design the equipment using the MAWP, because the tubesheet calculation may yield a new MAWP. This occurs because the program uses the ASME design method, which is dependent not only on the tubesheet geometry but also on the shell and channel geometries as well as different operating cases, such as thermal stresses only, pressure and thermal stresses concurrently, etc. As the design pressure changes, other parameters may control the overall MAWP resulting in a different number.

Test Pressure
Test pressures for the unit will be calculated by the program per the applicable design construction code.

Vessel Dimensions
The Vessel Dimensions Section is subdivided into six sections: • • • • • • Cylinders & Covers Nozzles/Nozzle Flanges Flanges Tubesheets/Tube Details Expansion Joint Supports & Lift Lugs

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Cylinders & Covers
Thickness
Cylinders and covers are shown with actual thicknesses selected as well as calculated minimum required thicknesses for both internal as well as external pressure. If a TEMA standard was selected, the program also displays the minimum TEMA thickness based on materials of construction, the TEMA class and the vessel diameter.

Radiography
Code rules are followed for the three typical radiography options: no radiography, spot and full. The program displays the value for the joint efficiency used in the design formulas. In many cases, the program automatically increases the radiography required based on the component calculated thickness per applicable code rules.

External Pressure
The external pressure summary provides limits of design for pressure, thickness and length. You can clearly identify which standard controls the actual thickness selected. If reinforcement rings are required for the shell cylinder, the maximum length is shown for ring placement.

Kettle Cylinder/Distributor Belt Thickness
Cylinders and covers are shown with actual thicknesses selected as well as calculated minimum required thicknesses for both internal as well as external pressure. If a TEMA standard was selected, the program also displays the minimum TEMA thickness based on materials of construction, the TEMA class and the vessel diameter.

Kettle Cylinder/Distributor Belt Radiography
Code rules are followed for the three typical radiography options: no radiography, spot and full. The program displays the value for the joint efficiency used in the design formulas. In many cases, the program automatically increases the radiography required based on the component calculated thickness per applicable code rules.

Kettle Cylinder/Distributor Belt External Pressure
The external pressure summary provides limits of design for pressure, thickness and length. You can clearly identify which standard controls the actual thickness selected. If reinforcement rings are required for the shell cylinder, the maximum length is shown for ring placement.

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Nozzles/Nozzle Flanges
Nozzles
Cylinder and nozzle reinforcement calculation results are summarized. Nozzles are shown one per column identifying the side where the opening is located (shell or tube side) as well as the outside diameter and corresponding thicknesses.

Reinforcement
The neck cylinder wall thickness is determined following the code rules. The reinforcement requirements follow, depending on the availability of metal around the opening including excess vessel and nozzle neck wall thickness and welds. If a reinforcing pad is necessary, the program will select one. The program optimizes the reinforcement calculation by first trying to avoid the use of a pad by increasing the nozzle weld size and then by selecting the thinnest possible pad that complies with the code. You can change all nozzle and reinforcement dimensions. For example, you can eliminate a pad by increasing the nozzle neck thickness.

Nozzle Flanges
Nozzle flanges can be calculated or selected from standards (for example ANSI B16.5). The program determines which flange is acceptable based on materials of construction and design pressure and temperature. Typical ANSI classes are 150, 300, 600, 900 and 1500 in a variety of shapes (slip-on, lap joint, weld necks). The program defaults to an ANSI slip-on (SO) flange type.

Domes
Cylinder and nozzle reinforcement calculation results are summarized. Nozzle domes are shown one per column identifying the side where the opening is located (shell or tube side) as well as the outside diameter and corresponding thicknesses.

Reinforcement
The dome cylinder wall thickness is determined following the code rules. The reinforcement requirements follow, depending on the availability of metal around the opening including excess vessel and dome cylinder wall thickness and welds. If a reinforcing pad is necessary, the program will select one. The program optimizes the reinforcement calculation by first trying to avoid the use of a pad by increasing the dome weld size and then by selecting the thinnest possible pad that complies with the code. You can change all nozzle and reinforcement dimensions. For example, you can eliminate a pad by increasing the dome cylinder thickness.

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Flanges
Body flange design
You can easily review all the major flange dimensions for all flanges (outside diameter, bolt circle, bolt diameter and number, etc.). The results will show optimized body flanges designs per the applicable code rules. Designed flanges follow the rules dictated by the specified code. As in the case of nozzle flanges, typical flange types available are ring, lap joint and hub type. Optional type flange calculation method: The program results will identify which optional type flange calculation method was used, loose or integral. Method of calculation will be as follows. Case 1) Flange thickness entered and general ring type flange specified (loose or integral type have not been specified under individual flange details). Integral calculations only will be performed. Case 2) No flange thickness entered and general ring type flange specified (loose or integral type have not been specified under the individual flange details). Integral and loose calculations performed and the thinner thickness of the two methods will be selected. Case 3) Loose ring type or integral ring type is specified in the body flanges individual flange detail section. Only the loose or only the integral calculations are performed depending on which type is selected. If a thickness is entered, the program will compare to calculated method thickness and issue a warning if thickness is not sufficient.

Backing flange design
Results for any applicable backing flanges will be provided, such as for S type rear heads and for fixed tubesheets designs with removable heads were tubesheets where not extended for bolting.

Tubesheets/Tube Details
Tubesheet Calculation Methods
Tubesheets are designed to the applicable design construction code requirements. For example the program uses two major methods to design tubesheets to USA standards: TEMA and ASME Section VIII Division 1 Appendix AA. The program defaults to the thicker tubesheet result from each method. However, you can select to a specific design method. Depending on many factors, such as diameter, materials, pressures, temperatures, geometry, etc., either method could result in the thinner tubesheet.

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In the case of fixed tubesheet units, the program will calculate an expansion joint if required or requested in the input.

Tube Details
A summary of tube details is provided. The number of tubes and the outer tube limit are either those specified in the input, in which case the program checks their validity, or those calculated by the program if left zero in the input.

Expansion Joint
A summary of the results of the TEMA calculations for a flanged and flued type expansion joint or the results of the ASME bellows type joint or other applicable design code will be provided.

Supports / Lift Lugs / Wind & Seismic Loads
Horizontal Supports
The method used was originally developed by L.P. Zick. The program will alert the user if any of the allowable stresses are exceeded. If that occurs several methods are available to alleviate the overstressed condition. To alleviate an overstressed condition in horizontal units, the user can place the saddles closer to respective tubesheets/flanges (to decrease the bending at the saddle but increase both bending at midspan and shell tangential shear). Increasing the width of the saddle or adding a wear plate will reduce both circumferential stress at the horn of the saddle and ring compression over the saddle. Increasing the saddle-to-shell angle of contact will also reduce all stresses except bending at midspan.

Lift lugs
A summary of results for the design of the vessel lifting lugs showing the lift lug calculated dimensions.

Wind & Seismic loads
A summary of the wind and seismic overturning moments are given.

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Price
The Price Section is subdivided into three sections: • • • Cost Estimate Bill of Materials Labor Details

Cost Estimate
A summary of the detailed costing showing material cost, total labor, and mark ups on material and labor are provided.

Cost summaries
Material, labor, mark up, and total selling cost are provided for the exchanger.

Material and Labor Details
Material and labor will be provided for each major component of the heat exchanger.

Final Assembly
Final assembly labor and material are summarized.

Bill of Materials
A complete bill of materials is provided listing all components. A rough dimensions listing for material purchase is provided as well as a finished dimensions bill of material for manufacturing.

Labor Details
A complete labor per component and operation are provided for section and assemblies.

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Drawings
The Drawings Section is subdivided into three sections: • • • Setting Plan Tubesheet Layout All Drawings

Setting Plan Drawing
A setting plan drawing is provided showing location of nozzle, supports, and overall dimensions.

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Tubesheet Layout : Tube Layout Drawing
A scale tube layout is provided showing tube, tie rod, and baffle cut locations.

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All Drawings: Fabrication Drawings

Teams provides a complete set of fabrication drawings showing all components for construction. Drawings are to scale. A typical set is shown below.

Code Calculations
Detailed Calculations
Teams provides a complete calculation details section showing all Code methods and variables to verify the design to the applicable Code. Calculations are provided for Cylinders/Cover, Body Flanges, Tubesheets/Expansion Joints, Nozzles, Supports, Wind/Seismic Loads, Lifting Lugs, and MAWP/MDMT/Test Pressures.

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6

Props

Introduction
Props is a program which retrieves chemical physical properties from three possible sources: • • • Aspen B-JAC's databank a user's private databank, built by using the Priprops program Aspen Properties Plus (can only be accessed when a vapor-liquid equilibrium curve is being generated)

You can use the program as a stand-alone program to display or print the properties of a single component or a multi-component mixture. You can request temperature dependent properties at a single temperature point or over a range of temperatures using a specified temperature interval. You may also request that a vapor-liquid equilibrium curve be generated. You can also directly access the same databanks from other Aspen B-JAC programs, including Aspen Hetran and Aspen Aerotran. The same routines used in Props are incorporated into each of these programs. The Aspen B-JAC standard databank contains over 1500 pure chemicals and mixtures used in the chemical process, petroleum, and other industries. You can retrieve each component by using either its full name or its chemical formula. Most components are stored with liquid and gas properties, however some are stored with liquid properties only and others with gas properties only. Each temperature dependent property for each component has a temperature range associated with it. You will see a warning whenever you try to access a property outside the stored temperature range. As an option, you can build a private databank using the Aspen B-JAC program called Priprops. This program allows you to store your own data in the databank under a name specified by you. You can combine any components in your private databank with those in the Aspen B-JAC databank.

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Props Scope
Physical Properties
Components Stored as Liquid & Gas
Saturation Temperature Critical Temperature Normal Melting Point Normal Boiling Point Flash Point Autoignition Temperature Latent Heat Surface Tension Specific Heat - Liquid & Gas Viscosity - Liquid & Gas Vapor Pressure Critical Pressure Molecular Weight Molecular Volume Critical Molar-volume Acentric Factor Solubility Parameter Compressibility Factor Thermal Conductivity - Liquid & Gas Density - Liquid & Gas

Components Stored as Liquid Only
Density Specific Heat Thermal Conductivity Viscosity Liquid Liquid Liquid Liquid

Components Stored as Gas Only
Molecular Weight Molecular Volume Critical Temperature Critical Pressure Critical Molar-volume Density - Gas Specific Heat - Gas Thermal Conductivity - Gas Viscosity - Gas

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For Mixtures (up to 50 components)
Latent Heat Molecular Weight Specific Heat Viscosity Surface Tension Molecular Volume Thermal Conductivity Density

VLE Two Phase Systems:
Condensation Vaporization Calculation Methods: ideal Soave-Redlich-Kwong Peng-Robinson Chao-Seader Uniquac Van Laar Wilson
NRTL

Components: immiscible immiscible noncondensable Types of Condensation: integral differential

Systems of Measure
U.S., SI, or Metric

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Input
Application Options
Retrieve Properties
You may select if you want to retrieve physical properties at a single temperature point, over a range of temperatures, or to produce a vapor liquid equilibrium curve with liquid and vapor properties and a heat release curve. At one temperature point: If you select the mode that gives the properties at a single temperature, you need to specify only the starting temperature and the pressure. Optionally, you can determine the saturation temperature or saturation pressure for a single component that has properties stored for both liquid and gas phases. To request the saturation temperature, leave the temperature input blank and specify the desired pressure in the field for pressure. The program will return the properties at the saturation temperature for the specified pressure. To request the saturation pressure, specify the desired temperature, and leave the pressure input field blank. The program will return the properties at the specified temperature and the pressure that is equal to the vapor pressure at that temperature. Over a temperature range: If you select this mode, Props will give you the properties over a range of temperatures. You will provide the starting and ending temperatures, the temperature increment, and the pressure. The maximum number of intervals is 100. Therefore, if you specify a temperature interval that is smaller than 0.01 times the difference between the starting and ending temperatures, the program will adjust the temperature increment to accommodate the full temperature range specified. Over a temperature range with VLE calculation: If you select this mode, Props will give you the properties over a range of temperatures. You will provide the starting and ending temperatures, and the pressure. The program will divide the condensing range into 20 equal temperature intervals. A vapor-liquid equilibrium curve will also be provided over the specified range.

Temperature starting
Enter the starting reference temperature. This temperature is required if you are referencing the databank at a single temperature or at a range of temperatures.

Temperature ending
Enter the ending temperature if you are referencing the databank over a range of temperatures or requesting a vapor-liquid equilibrium curve.

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Temperature increment
Enter the temperature increment that you want the properties to be provided if you are referencing the databank over a range of temperatures.

Pressure (absolute)
The pressure should be specified as absolute pressure, not gauge pressure. The program uses the pressure value in order to adjust the gaseous properties for the effect of pressure.

Flowrate total
Specify the total flow rate of the mixture if you have requested vapor-liquid equilibrium information. The flowrate is used in determining a heat release curve.

Property Options
This section is only applicable if a vapor-liquid equilibrium curve has been requested.

Condensation Curve Calculation Method
The calculation method determines which correlations the program will use to determine the vapor-liquid equilibrium. The choice of method is dependent on the degree of nonideality of the vapor and liquid phases and the amount of data available. The methods can be divided into three general groups: Ideal - correlations for ideal mixtures. The ideal method uses ideal gas laws for the vapor phase and ideal solution laws for the liquid phase. You should use this method when you do not have information on the degree of nonideality. This method allows for up to 50 components. Uniquac, Van Laar, Wilson, and NRTL - correlations for nonideal mixtures which require interaction parameters. These methods are limited to ten components. The Uniquac, Van Laar, Wilson, and NRTL methods need binary interaction parameters for each pair of components. The Uniquac method also needs a surface parameter and volume parameter and the NRTL method requires an additional Alpha parameter. The Wilson method is particularly suitable for strongly nonideal binary mixtures, e.g., solutions of alcohols with hydrocarbons. The Uniquac method is applicable for both vapor-liquid equilibrium and liquid-liquid equilibrium (immiscibles). It can be used for solutions containing small or large molecules, including polymers. In addition, Uniquac's interaction parameters are less temperature dependent than those for Van Laar and Wilson.

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Soave-Redlich-Kwong, Peng-Robinson, and Chao-Seader - correlations for nonideal mixtures which do not require interaction parameters. The Soave-Redlich-Kwong and PengRobinson methods can be used on a number of systems containing hydrocarbons, nitrogen, carbon dioxide, carbon monoxide, and other weakly polar components. They can also be applied with success to systems which form an azeotrope, and which involve associating substances such as water and alcohols. They can predict vapor phase properties at any given pressure. The Chao-Seader method uses Redlich-Kwong equations for vapor phase nonideality and an empirical correlation for liquid phase nonideality. It is used with success in the petroleum industry. It is recommended for use at pressures less than 68 bar (1000 psia) and temperatures greater than -18°C (0°F). The program uses the original Chao-Seader correlation with the Grayson-Streed modification. There is no strict demarcation between these two methods since they are closely related. These methods allow for up to 50 components.

Condensation Curve Calculation Type
For a condensing stream, you should determine if your case is closer to integral or differential condensation. Integral condensation assumes that the vapor and liquid condensate are kept close enough together to maintain equilibrium, and that the condensate formed at the beginning of the condensing range is carried through with the vapor to the outlet. Vertical tube side condensation is the best case of integral condensation. Other cases which closely approach integral condensation are: horizontal tube side condensation, vertical shell side condensation, and horizontal shell side crossflow condensation (X-shell). In differential condensation the liquid condensate is removed from the vapor, thus changing the equilibrium and lowering the dew point of the remaining vapor. The clearest case of differential condensation is seen in the knockback reflux condenser, where the liquid condensate runs back toward the inlet while the vapor continues toward the outlet. Shell side condensation in a horizontal E or J shell is somewhere between true integral condensation and differential condensation. If you want to be conservative, treat these cases as differential condensation. However, the industry has traditionally designed them as integral condensation. More condensate will be present at any given temperature with integral condensation versus differential condensation. In the heat exchanger design, this results in a higher mean temperature difference for integral condensation compared to differential condensation.

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Effect of pressure drop on condensation
The program will default to calculating the condensing curve in isobaric conditions (constant operating pressure). You may specify nonisobaric conditions and the program will allocate the specified pressure drop based on temperature increments along the condensing curve. The vapor/liquid equilibrium at various temperature points will be calculated using an adjusted operating pressure.

Estimated pressure drop for hot side
Provide the estimated hot side pressure drop through the exchanger. The program will use this pressure drop to adjust the VLE curve. If actual pressure varies more than 20% from this estimated pressure drop, adjust this value to the actual and rerun Aspen Hetran. The VLE calculation program will not permit the condensate to re-flash. If calculations indicate that this is happening, the program will suggest using a lower estimated pressure drop.

Vaporization Curve Calculation Method
The calculation method determines which correlations the program will use to determine the vapor-liquid equilibrium. The choice of method is dependent on the degree of nonideality of the vapor and liquid phases and the amount of data available. The methods can be divided into three general groups: Ideal - correlations for ideal mixtures. The ideal method uses ideal gas laws for the vapor phase and ideal solution laws for the liquid phase. You should use this method when you do not have information on the degree of nonideality. This method allows for up to 50 components. Uniquac, Van Laar, Wilson, and NRTL - correlations for nonideal mixtures which require interaction parameters. These methods are limited to ten components. The Uniquac, Van Laar, Wilson, and NRTL methods need binary interaction parameters for each pair of components. The Uniquac method also needs a surface parameter and volume parameter and the NRTL method requires an additional Alpha parameter. The Wilson method is particularly suitable for strongly nonideal binary mixtures, e.g. solutions of alcohols with hydrocarbons. The Uniquac method is applicable for both vapor-liquid equilibrium and liquid-liquid equilibrium (immiscibles). It can be used for solutions containing small or large molecules, including polymers. In addition, Uniquac's interaction parameters are less temperature dependent than those for Van Laar and Wilson.

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Soave-Redlich-Kwong, Peng-Robinson, and Chao-Seader - correlations for nonideal mixtures which do not require interaction parameters. The Soave-Redlich-Kwong and PengRobinson methods can be used on a number of systems containing hydrocarbons, nitrogen, carbon dioxide, carbon monoxide, and other weakly polar components. They can also be applied with success to systems which form an azeotrope, and which involve associating substances such as water and alcohols. They can predict vapor phase properties at any given pressure. The Chao-Seader method uses Redlich-Kwong equations for vapor phase nonideality and an empirical correlation for liquid phase nonideality. It is used with success in the petroleum industry. It is recommended for use at pressures less than 68 bar (1000 psia) and temperatures greater than -18°C (0°F). The program uses the original Chao-Seader correlation with the Grayson-Streed modification. There is no strict demarcation between these two methods since they are closely related. These methods allow for up to 50 components.

Effect of pressure drop on vaporization
The program will default to calculating the vaporization curve in isobaric conditions (constant operating pressure). You may specify nonisobaric conditions and the program will allocate the specified pressure drop based on temperature increments along the vaporization curve. The vapor/liquid equilibrium at various temperature points will be calculated using an adjusted operating pressure.

Estimated pressure drop for cold side
Provide the estimated hot side pressure drop through the exchanger. The program will use this pressure drop to adjust the VLE curve. If actual pressure varies more than 20% from this estimated pressure drop, adjust this value to the actual and rerun Aspen Hetran.

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Composition
Composition

Enter the composition by weight flow rate or percent (default), mole flow rate or percent, or volume flow rate or percent. For a single component you can leave Composition blank. For a multicomponent mixture you should specify the composition in accordance with the earlier input entry for "Composition Specification". Note that percentages do not have to add up to 100, since the program proportions each to the total.

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Component
The Aspen B-JAC Property Databank consists of over 1500 compounds and mixtures used in the chemical process, petroleum, and other industries. You can reference the database by entering the components for the stream. For the databank component name, you can specify either the component name or its chemical formula. To search the databank directory, select the search button. You should be careful when using the chemical formula, since several chemicals may have the same chemical formula but due to different bonding, have different properties. You can specify up to 50 components. To enter your own properties for a component, select “user” for the property Source and then provide the properties in the Component Properties section.

Component Type
Component type field is available for all VLE applications. This field allows you to specify if the component is a noncondensables or immiscible components for condensing streams or if the component is an inert for vaporizing streams. If you are not sure of the component type, the program will attempt to determine the component type but in general it is better to identify the type if known. If a component does not condense any liquid over the temperature range in the exchanger, it is best to identify it as a noncondensable.

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Source
The Source field is currently only available for components when the program is calculating vapor/liquid equilibrium curves. The Source of the component may be "Databank" or "User". "Databank" indicates that all component properties will be retrieved from one of the Aspen BJAC databanks. "User" indicates that this component's physical properties are to be specified by the user.

Component Type
Component type field is available for all VLE applications. This field allows you to specify if the component is a noncondensables or immiscible components for condensing streams or if the component is an inert for vaporizing streams. If you are not sure of the component type, the program will attempt to determine the component type but in general it is better to identify the type if known. If a component does not condense any liquid over the temperature range in the exchanger, it is best to identify it as a noncondensable.

Source
The Source field is currently only available for components when the program is calculating vapor/liquid equilibrium curves. The Source of the component may be "Databank" or "User". "Databank" indicates that all component properties will be retrieved from one of the Aspen BJAC databanks. "User" indicates that this component's physical properties are to be specified by the user.

Component Properties
Allows the user to override databank properties or input properties not in the databank. This section is only applicable if a vapor-liquid equilibrium curve has been requested. The physical properties required for various applications are listed below: Temperature: It is recommended that you specify property data for multiple temperature points. The dew and bubble points of the stream are recommended. The temperatures entered for no phase change fluids should at least include both the inlet and outlet temperatures. The inlet temperature of the opposite side fluid should also be included as a 3rd temperature point for viscous fluids. Multiple temperature points, including the inlet and outlet, should be entered when a change of phase is present. Liquid and Vapor Properties: The necessary physical properties are dependent on the type of application. If you are referencing the databank for a fluid, you do not need to enter any data on the corresponding physical properties input screens. However, it is also possible to specify any property, even if you are referencing the databank. Any specified property will then override the value from the databank.

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The properties should be self-explanatory. A few clarifications follow. Specific Heat: Provide the specific heat for the component at the referenced temperature. Thermal Conductivity: Provide the thermal conductivity for the component at the referenced temperature. Viscosity: The viscosity requested is the dynamic (absolute) viscosity in centipoise or mPa*s (note that centipoise and mPa*s are equal). To convert kinematic viscosity in centistokes to dynamic viscosity in centipoise or mPa*s, multiply centistokes by the specific gravity. The Aspen Hetran program uses a special logarithmic formula to interpolate or extrapolate the viscosity to the calculated tube wall temperature. However when a liquid is relatively viscous, say greater than 5 mPa*s (5 cp), and especially when it is being cooled, the accuracy of the viscosity at the tube wall can be very important to calculating an accurate film coefficient. In these cases, you should specify the viscosity at a third point, which extends the viscosity points to encompass the tube wall temperature. This third temperature point may extend to as low (if being cooled) or as high (if being heated) as the inlet temperature on the other side. Density: Be sure to specify density and not specific gravity. Convert specific gravity to density by using the appropriate formula: density, lb/ft3 = 62.4 * specific gravity; density, kg/m3 = 1000 * specific gravity. The density can also be derived from the API gravity, using this formula: density, lb/ft3 = 8829.6 / ( API + 131.5 ). Latent Heat: Provide latent heat for change of phase applications. Vapor Pressure: Provide the vapor pressure for the component. If you do not enter a value for the vapor pressure, the program will estimate a value. Surface Tension: Surface tension is needed for vaporizing fluids. If you do not have surface tension information available, the program will estimate a value. Molecular /Volume: Provide the molecular volume of the vapor for change of phase applications. Note, the molecular volume can be approximated by molecular weight / specific gravity at the normal boiling point. Molecular Weight: Provide the molecular weight of the vapor for change of phase applications. Critical Pressure: The critical pressure is the pressure above which a liquid cannot be vaporized no matter how high the temperature. For mixtures, the critical pressure should be the sum of the critical pressures of each component weighted by their mole fractions. This input is required to calculate the nucleate boiling coefficient. If you do not enter a value for the critical pressure, the program will estimate a value.

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Aspen B-JAC 11.1 User Guide

Interaction Parameters
The Uniquac, Van Laar, Wilson, and NRTL methods need binary interaction parameters for each pair of components. This data is not available from the databank and must be provided by the user. An example for the NRTL parameters is shown below. NRTL Method --Example with 3 components (Reference Dechema) NRTL “A” Interactive Parameters –Hetran inputted parameters 1 1 -2 3

A21 A31 A32

2 A12 --

3 A13 A23 --

NRTL “Alpha” Parameters –Hetran inputted parameters 1 1 -------2 Alpha12 3 Alpha13 2 Alpha21 -------Alpha23 3 Alpha31 Alpha32 --------

NRTL – Conversion from Aspen Properties parameters to Hetran parameters: Aspen Properties NRTL Parameters – The parameters AIJ, AJI, DJI, DIJ, EIJ, EJI, FIJ, FJI, TLOWER, & TUPPER in Aspen Properties, which are not shown below, are not required for the Hetran NRTL method. Aspen Properties NRTL Interactive Parameters Component I Component J BIJ BJI CIJ Component 1 Component 1 Component 2 Component 3 BIJ12 BJI12 CIJ12 BIJ13 BJI13 CIJ13 Component 2 Component 3 BIJ23 BJI23 CIJ23

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“A” Interactive Parameters – Conversion from Aspen Properties to Hetran 1 1 -2 A12=BIJ12*1.98721 3 A13=BIJ13*1.98721 2 A21=BJI12*1.98721 -A23=BIJ23*1.98721 3 A31=BJI13*1.98721 A32-BJI23*1.98721 --

“Alpha” Parameters – Conversion from Aspen Properties to Hetran 1 1 -2 Alpha12= CIJ12 3 Alpha13=CIJ13 2 Alpha21=CIJ12 -Alpha23=CIJ23 3 Alpha31=CIJ13 Alpha32=CIJ23 --

NRTL – Alpha parameters
The NRTL method requires binary interaction parameters for each pair of components and an additional Alpha parameter. This data is not available from the databank.

Uniquac – Surface & Volume parameters
The Uniquac method requires binary interaction parameters for each pair of components and also needs a surface parameter and volume parameter. This data is not available from the databank.

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Aspen B-JAC 11.1 User Guide

Results
The Props program gives you the option of requesting properties at a single temperature or at up to 100 temperatures. If you request properties at a single temperature you will also retrieve the properties which are not temperature dependent (e.g. molecular weight).

Warnings & Messages
Props provides an extensive system of warnings and messages to help the designer of heat exchanger design. Messages are divided into five types. There are several messages built into the Props program.

Warning Messages
These are conditions, which may be problems, however the program will continue.

Error Messages
Conditions which do not allow the program to continue.

Limit Messages
Conditions which go beyond the scope of the program.

Notes
Special conditions which you should be aware of.

Suggestions
Recommendations on how to improve the design.

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All Properties at One Temperature
If you select this option, PROPS will display the following properties:

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Aspen B-JAC 11.1 User Guide

Properties Over a Range of Temperatures
If you select this option, PROPS will display the following properties: Specific Heat of a Liquid & Gas Viscosity of Liquid & Gas Thermal Conductivity of Liquid & Gas Density of Liquid & Gas Latent Heat Vapor Pressure Surface Tension

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VLE
If the VLE calculation was selected, Props will generate a vapor-liquid equilibrium curve. Heat load, composition, and physical properties per temperature increment will be provided.

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Aspen B-JAC 11.1 User Guide

Props Logic
Structure of Databank
The data in the databank is derived from a wide variety of published sources. For constant properties (e.g. molecular weight), the actual value has been stored in the databank. For temperature dependent properties, various property specific equations are used to determine the property at the desired temperature. In these cases, the coefficients for the equation are stored in the databank. Vapor pressures are stored using two equations - one for temperatures below the normal boiling point and one for temperatures above the normal boiling point.

Temperature Ranges
There is a separate temperature range of validity stored in the databank for each property. The temperature range shown in the Databank Directory is the minimum range for all properties of the respective phase. Therefore some properties may have a wider range than shown in the directory.

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If you request a property at a temperature outside its valid temperature range, the program will display a warning and then determine that property at the appropriate temperature limit (i.e., it will not extrapolate), except for liquid viscosity and vapor pressure. The program extrapolates above and below the valid temperature range for vapor pressure. It extrapolates above for the liquid viscosity.

Effect of Pressure
The program attempts to correct the gaseous properties as a function of pressure (liquid properties are assumed to be independent of pressure). To do this, the program uses a generalized correlation for all components except water/steam. The generalized correlation is reasonably accurate for most cases. However, it tends to deviate from actual measured values when the temperature or pressure approach the critical region. For water (stored under the names WATER and STEAM), the program uses a series of specialized equations which predict the corrected steam properties to within 1% of the values in the ASME Steam Tables.

Mixtures
The Props program can calculate the composite properties for multicomponent mixtures for up to 50 components. Some care should be taken in using the databank for mixtures. Some mixtures, such as immiscibles or binary mixtures where water is one of the components, do not conform to the equations. For this reason, some of the more common water solutions have been included in the databank as single components. Mixtures are calculated according to the following techniques: Density of Liquid

ρm =

1 Σ( wi / ρ i )
averaged in proportion to the weight percent averaged in proportion to the mole percent averaged in proportion to the weight percent averaged in proportion to the weight percent averaged in proportion to the mole percent

Latent Heat Molecular Volume Specific Heat of Gas Specific Heat Liquid Surface Tension

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Thermal Conductivity of Gas - Friend & Adler Equation

Σ yi ⋅ k i ⋅ ( M i ) 0.33 km = Σ yi ⋅ ( M i ) 0.33

Thermal Conductivity of Liquid - averaged in proportion to the weight percent Viscosity of Gas - Herning & Zipperer Equation

Σ yi ⋅ µ i ⋅ ( M i ) 0.5 µm = Σ yi ⋅ ( M i ) 0.5
Viscosity of Liquid - Arrhenius Equation

ln µ m = Σ xi ⋅ ln µ i
Nomenclature: µ =viscosity k=thermal cond. ρ=density w=weight fraction X=mole fraction M=molecular weight I=i-th component

y=gas phase mole fraction m=mixture

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References
For a further understanding of subjects relating to PROPS, you can refer to the following publications:

Sources
The properties in the databank have come from a wide range of published sources. Some have come from product bulletins published by chemical manufacturers. Many others have come from the following references: Physical and Thermodynamic Properties of Pure Chemicals, T. E. Daubert and R. P. Danner, Hemisphere Publishing Corporation, New York, 1989. ASME Steam Tables, Meyer et al., Third Edition, The American Society of Mechanical Engineers, New York, 1977. Perry's Chemical Engineering Handbook, Robert H. Perry and Don Green, Sixth Edition, McGraw-Hill, New York, 1984. Physical Properties of Hydrocarbons, R. W. Gallant, Gulf Publishing Company, Houston, 1968. Physical Properties, Carl L. Yaws, McGraw-Hill, New York, 1977. Technical Data Book - Petroleum Refining, Second Edition, American Petroleum Institute, Washington D.C., 1970. Engineering Data Book, Tenth Edition, Gas Processors Suppliers Association, Tulsa, 1987. Lange's Handbook of Chemistry, John A. Dean, Thirteenth Edition, McGraw-Hill, New York, 1985. Handbook of Vapor Pressures and Heats of Vaporization of Hydrocarbons and Related Compounds, B. J. Zwolinski and R. C. Wilhoit, Thermodynamics Research Center, College Station, Texas, 1971.

Mixture Correlations
The Properties of Gases and Liquids, Robert C. Reid, John M. Prausnitz, and Bruce E. Poling, Fourth Edition, McGraw-Hill, New York, 1987.

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Databank Symbols
Component Name Abietic acid Acenaphthene Acetal Acetaldehyde Acetamide Acetanilide Acetic acid Acetic anhydride Acetoacetanilide Acetone Acetone cyanohydrin Acetonitrile Acetophenone Acetovanillone Acetylacetone Acetyl chloride Acetylene Acrolein Acrylamide Acrylic acid Acrylonitrile Adipic acid Synonym ABIETIC ACID ACENAPHTHENE ACETAL AALDEHYD ACETAMIDE ACETANILIDE ACETACID ACETANHY ACETOACETANILIDE ACETONE ACETONE CYANOHYD ACETONIT ACETOPHENONE ACETOVANILLONE ACETYLACETONE ACHLORID ACETYLEN ACROLEIN ACRYLAMIDE ACRYACID VCYANIDE ADIPIC ACID Molec. Weight 302.5 154.2 118.2 44.05 59.07 135.2 60.50 102.1 177.2 58.08 85.11 41.05 120.2 166.2 100.1 78.50 26.04 56.06 71.08 72.03 53.06 146.1 ID No. D2256 D808 D1432 B74 D1002 D2853 D5870 B51 D1252 B77 D1291 D5868 B58 D1051 D1882 B127 D1772 D1090 D4849 D1076 B191 D1851 B85 D401 B315 D1034 D1879 B70 D1277 B317 D1774 D1285 -40 > 199 1 > 81 19 > 126 114 > 297 0 > 84 -80 > 199 -19 > 50 -73 > 23 -79 > -23 -80 > 119 -20 > 52 84 > 192 19 > 199 12 > 101 -17 > 93 -53 > 77 159 > 192 Temperature Range ºC Liquid Phase Gas Phase 173 > 342 93 > 277 28 > 103 -80 > 159 -123 > 20 80 > 221 139 > 303 19 > 239 16 > 117 -40 > 239 -23 > 76 128 > 318 -80 > 199 -83 > 56 376 > 726 277 > 726 103 > 726 -80 > 174 0 > 726 221 > 726 303 > 726 19 > 239 21 > 413 -40 > 499 139 > 726 318 > 726 -80 > 269 56 > 726 189 > 726 -40 > 499 81 > 726 201 > 726 297 > 726 140 > 726 -80 > 499 50 > 726 -73 > 371 -73 > 326 -80 > 499 52 > 726 192 > 726 19 > 214 140 > 726 -17 > 259 24 > 726 337 > 726

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Component Name Adiponitrile Air Allyl acetate Allyl alcohol Allylamine Allyl methacrylate Aluminum Aluminum chloride Aluminum hydroxide Aluminum oxide Aluminum phosphate (ortho) Aluminum sulfate pAminoazobenzene p-Aminodiphenyl
pAminodiphenylamine

Synonym ADIPONITRILE AIR ALLYL ACETATE ALLYLALC ALLYLAMINE ALLYL METHACRYLA ALUMINUM ALUMINUM CHLORID ALUMINUM HYDROXI ALUMINUM OXIDE ALUMINUM PHOSPHA ALUMINUM SULFATE

Molec. Weight 108.1 28.96 100.1 58.08 57.10 126.2 26.98 133.3 78.00 102.0 122.0 342.2

ID No. D1777 B3 D915 D1318 B63 D1167 D1740 D2354 D2925 D2926 D1915 D2927 D1933 D2968 D2786 D2787 D1747 B326

Temperature Range ºC Liquid Phase Gas Phase 117 > 76 -191 > -148 -198 > -158 16 > 103 -40 > 199 7 > 95 26 > 53 26 > 139 294 > 726 -191 >1099 -193 >1226 103 > 726 -40 > 219 97 > 726 53 > 726 139 > 726

P-AMINOAZOBENZEN 197.2 P-AMINODIPHENYL P-AMINODIPHENYLA 169.2 184.2 105.1

359 > 726 135 > 301 67 > 353 0 > 315 301 > 726 353 > 726

DGAMINE 2Aminoethoxyethano l n-Aminoethyl ethanolamine n-Aminoethyl piperazine 6-Aminohexanol N-AMINOETHYL ETH N-AMINOETHYL PIP 6-AMINOHEXANOL

D2865 104.2 129.2 117.2 75.11 75.11 17.03 18.00 77.08 D2732 D1750 D1871 D5860 D5859 B64 D1911 Ammonia 26 wt % Ammonium acetate AMMON-26 AMMONIUM ACETATE B199 D2929

76 > 240 75 > 243 80 > 220 67 > 234 29 > 159 51 > 187 -80 > 64 -77 > 111 0 > 121

240 > 726 243 > 726 220 > 726 234 > 726 159 > 726 187 > 726 -80 > 426 -33 > 726

1-Amino-2-propanol 1-AMINO-2-PROPAN 3-Amino-1-propanol 3-AMINO-1-PROPAN Ammonia NH3

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Component Name Ammonium bisulfate Ammonium bisulfite Ammonium hydroxide Ammonium nitrate Ammonium oxalate Ammonium perchlorate Ammonium phosphate Ammonium sulfate Ammonium sulfite Amyl alcohol p-tert-Amylphenol Anethole Aniline Anisole Anthracene Anthraquinone 35 API distillate 28 API gas oil 56 API gasoline 42 API kerosene 34 API midcontinental crude 76 API natural gasoline 10 API petroleum oil (k=11) 30 API petoleum oil 40 API petroleum oil

Synonym AMMONIUM BISULFA AMMONIUM BISULFI

Molec. Weight 115.1 99.11

ID No. D2949 D2947 D2928 D1916 D1990 D2948 D2944 D2943 D2967 D2946 B89 D2196 D1420 B48 D1792 D1461 D804 D1075 D1934 B140 B145 B143 B112 B153 B142 B319 B292 B291

Temperature Range ºC Liquid Phase Gas Phase

Ammonium chloride AMMONIUM CHLORID 53.49 AMMONIUM HYDROXI 35.05 AMMONIUM NITRATE AMMONIUM OXALATE AMMONIUM PERCHLO AMMONIUM PHOSPHA AMMONIUM SULFITE AMYLALC P-TERT-AMYLPHENO ANETHOLE ANILINE ANISOLE ANTHRACENE ANTHRAQUINONE API35 API28 API56 KEROSENE API34 API76 API10K11 API30 API40 80.04 124.1 117.5 115.0

AMMONIUM SULFATE 132.1 116.1 88.10 164.2 148.2 93.06 108.1 178.2 208.2 228.1 114.2 114.2 114.2 72.15 114.2 114.2 18.00 114.2 114.2

-40 > 199 102 > 261 0 > 199 -6 > 183 13 > 153 215 > 321

-40 > 499 261 > 726 235 > 726 0 > 274 183 > 726 153 > 723 342 > 726 379 > 626

Antimony trichloride ANTIMONY TRICHLO

-17 > 198 -17 > 198 -17 > 198 -62 > 201 -17 > 198 -17 > 198 65 > 482 -17 > 198 -17 > 198

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Component Name 45 API petroleum oil 50 API petroleum oil 60 API petroleum oil 65 API petroleum oil 70 API petroleum oil Argon Arsenic Arsine Ascorbic acid Azelaic acid Barium carbonate Benzaldehyde Benzene 1,2-Benzenediol 1,3-Benzenediol 1,2,3-Benzenetriol Benzoic acid Benzonitrile Benzophenone Benzothiophene Benzotrichloride Benzotrifluoride Benzoyl chloride Benzyl acetate Benzyl alcohol Benzylamine

Synonym API45 API50 API60 API65 API70 ARGON ARSENIC ARSINE ASCORBIC ACID AZELAIC ACID BARIUM CARBONATE BENZALDEHYDE BENZENE 1,2-BENZENEDIOL 1,3-BENZENEDIOL 1,2,3-BENZENETRI BENZOICA BENZONITRILE BENZOPHENONE BENZOTHIOPHENE BTF BENZOYL CHLORIDE BENZYL ACETATE BENZYL ALCOHOL BENZYLAMINE

Molec. Weight 114.2 114.2 114.2 114.2 114.2 39.95 74.92 77.95 176.1 188.2 197.3 106.1 78.10 110.1 110.1 126.1 122.1 103.1 182.2 134.2 146.1 140.6 150.2 108.1 107.2

ID No. B290 B289 B288 B287 B286 B185 D914 D1992 D926 D5877 D2257 D2985 D1041 B7 D501 D1244 D1245 D1248 B424 D1281 D1790 D1085 D1822 D1576 B314 D2634 D1856 D1359 B381 D1180 D1733

Temperature Range ºC Liquid Phase Gas Phase -17 > 198 -17 > 198 -17 > 198 -17 > 198 -17 > 198 -149 >1093 -189 > -138 -149 >1093 821 >1226 -62 > 726 363 > 726 129 > 329 360 > 726

6 > 126 9 > 199 5 > 80 108 > 245 131 > 276 141 > 308 121 > 259 122 > 176 51 > 176 31 > 219 0 > 220 0 > 151 -29 > 102 75 > 189 -25 > 213 -17 > 204 19 > 86 24 > 184

178 > 726 9 > 284 65 > 726 245 > 726 276 > 726 308 > 726 121 > 499 249 > 726 190 > 720 306 > 726 219 > 726 220 > 726 103 > 723 196 > 716 213 > 726 -17 > 499 205 > 726 184 > 726

BENZOTRICHLORIDE 195.5

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Component Name Benzyl benzoate Benzyl chloride Benzyl chloride Benzyl dichloride Benzyl ethyl ether Bicyclohexyl Biphenyl Bis(chloromethyl)et her

Synonym BENZYL BENZOATE BENZYL CHLORIDE BENZYLCL BENZYL DICHLORID BENZYL ETHYL ETH BICYCLOHEXYL BIPHENYL

Molec. Weight 212.2 126.6 126.6 161.0 136.2 166.3 154.2

ID No. D1364 D1562 B69 D1599 D1460 D155 D558 D5857 D5858 D1198 B373 B372 B371 B370

Temperature Range ºC Liquid Phase Gas Phase 19 > 323 -38 > 179 -17 > 199 92 > 272 2 > 184 3 > 86 69 > 254 16 > 104 118 > 305 182 > 360 19 > 159 19 > 159 37 > 148 79 > 148 323 > 726 179 > 726 -17 > 234 213 > 726 184 > 724 239 > 719 99 > 726 104 > 726 305 > 726 360 > 726

BIS(CHLOROMETHYL 115.0 124.1 228.3

Bis(cyanoethyl)ethe BIS(CYANOETHYL)E r Bisphenol a Black liquor 10 % solids Black liquor 30% solids Black liquor 50% solids Black liquor 65% solids Borax Boric acid Boron trichloride Boron trifluoride Bromine Bromobenzene 1-Bromobutane 2-Bromobutane Bromochlorodifluor omethane Bromochlorometha ne Bromoethane 1-Bromoheptane BISPHENOL A BLACK10 BLACK30 BLACK50 BLACK65 BORAX BORIC ACID BORON TRICHLORID BORON TRIFLUORID BROMINE BROMOBEN 1-BROMOBUTANE 2-BROMOBUTANE BROMOCHLORODIFL U BROMOCHLOROMET HA EBROMIDE 1-BROMOHEPTANE

381.4 61.83 117.2 67.81 159.8 157.0 137.0 137.0 165.4 129.4 109.0 179.1

D2976 D2901 D1961 D1942 B222 D922 B124 D1680 D1655 D2638 D2686 D2639 B104 D1645 D1667 0 > 299 -7 > 32 0 > 199 19 > 156 -33 > 101 10 > 91 -39 > 79 -87 > 68 -40 > 199 -73 > 38 -33 > 178 -107 > 2 12 > 326 -12 > 426 0 > 799 26 > 226 0 > 269 156 > 726 101 > 726 91 > 726 -40 > 726 68 > 726 -40 > 499 38 > 726 178 > 726

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Component Name 1Bromonaphthalene 1-Bromopropane 2-Bromopropane p-Bromotoluene

Synonym 1BROMONAPHTHALE 1-BROMOPROPANE 2-BROMOPROPANE P-BROMOTOLUENE

Molec. Weight 207.1 123.0 123.0 171.0 198.3 160.9 148.9

ID No. D1697 D1650 D1651 D2661 D2641 D2690 B193 D2687

Temperature Range ºC Liquid Phase Gas Phase 281 > 726 -33 > 70 -23 > 59 26 > 184 20 > 104 -57 > -2 -80 > 39 -39 > 24 -120 > 159 -136 > 10 -62 > 119 -23 > -4 -101 > 148 -113 > 126 70 > 726 59 > 726 184 > 726 104 > 726 26 > 726 -80 > 499 -43 > 226 -120 > 299 10 > 726 -62 > 499 -4 > 726 -101 > 593 0 > 726 193 > 726 206 > 726 19 > 99 -40 > 199 -83 > 117 -30 > 134 14 > 99 -50 > 149 25 > 178 -100 > 139 -138 > 3 -100 > 139 -105 > 0 -153 > -6 10 > 234 226 > 726 180 > 726 -40 > 269 96 > 526 -30 > 499 99 > 726 -50 > 499 82 > 326 -100 > 499 0 > 726 -100 > 499 0 > 726 -48 > 526 234 > 726

Bromotrichlorometh BROMOTRICHLORO an ME Bromotrifluoroethyl en Bromotrifluorometh an 1,2-Butadiene 1,3-Butadiene n-Butane 1,2-Butanediol 1,3-Butanediol 1,4-Butanediol 2,3-Butanediol n-Butanol sec-Butanol tert-Butanol cis-2-Butene trans-2-Butene 1-Butene cis-2-Butene-1,4diol BROMOTRIFLUOROE T BTFM

METHYL ALLENE BUTADIEN BUTANE 1,2-BUTANEDIOL 1,3-BUTANEDIOL 1,4-BUTANEDIOL 2,3-BUTANEDIOL BUTANOL BUTANOLS BUTANOLT BUTENEC BUTENET2 BUTENE CIS-2-BUTENE-1,4

54.09 54.09 58.12 90.12 90.12 90.12 90.12 74.12 74.12 74.12 56.10 56.10 56.11 88.11

B220 D302 B97 D303 B12 D5 D1220 D1221 D1241 D1238 B88 D1105 B162 D1107 B186 D1108 B147 D205 B159 D206 D204 D1239

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Component Name trans-2-Butene-1,4diol 2-Butoxyethanol n-Butyl acetate sec-Butyl acetate tert-Butyl acetate n-Butyl acrylate n-Butylamine sec-Butylamine tert-Butylamine n-Butylbenzene sec-Butylbenzene tert-Butylbenzene n-Butyl benzoate n-Butyl n-butyrate p-tert-butylcatechol n-Butyl chloride sec-Butyl chloride tert-Butyl chloride n-Butylcyclohexane alpha-Butylene 1,2-Butylene oxide n-Butyl ethyl ether tert-Butyl ethyl ether

Synonym TRANS-2-BUTENE-1 2-BUTOXYETHANOL BACETATE SEC-BUTYL ACETAT TERT-BUTYL ACETA N-BUTYL ACRYLATE BAMINE SEC-BUTYLAMINE TERT-BUTYLAMINE BBENZENE

Molec. Weight 88.11 118.2 116.2 116.2 116.2 128.2 73.14 73.14 73.14 134.2

ID No. D1240 D2862 B179 D1315 D1320 D2321 D1344 B105 D1712 D1726 D1727 B294 D518 D520 D521 D1365 D1385 D1235 D1586 D1587 D1535 D152 B139 B254 D1448 D1428 D6852 D1304 D1473 D2722

Temperature Range ºC Liquid Phase Gas Phase 236 > 726 1 > 126 -40 > 279 16 > 125 0 > 111 12 > 95 24 > 51 -40 > 159 -7 > 77 -23 > 62 -13 > 44 -51 > 168 0 > 183 15 > 86 16 > 51 88 > 249 24 > 164 114 > 284 -23 > 78 -23 > 68 6 > 50 -19 > 180 -80 > 119 -40 > 124 -13 > 92 -16 > 72 72 > 201 16 > 106 171 > 726 -40 > 499 26 > 526 111 > 726 95 > 726 147 > 726 -40 > 499 0 > 726 62 > 726 44 > 726 -128 > 537 183 > 723 173 > 723 169 > 719 249 > 726 164 > 726 284 > 726 78 > 726 68 > 726 50 > 726 180 > 726 -80 > 499 -40 > 499 92 > 726 72 > 726 201 > 726 106 > 726 132 > 726 114 > 726

SEC-BUTYLBENZENE 134.2 TERT-BUTYLBENZEN N-BUTYL BENZOATE N-BUTYL N-BUTYRA P-TERT-BUTYLCATE N-BUTYL CHLORIDE SEC-BUTYL CHLORI TERT-BUTYL CHLOR NBUTYLCYCLOHEXA BUTENE1 BUTYLOX N-BUTYL ETHYL ET TERT-BUTYL ETHYL 134.2 178.2 144.2 166.2 92.57 92.57 92.57 140.3 56.10 72.10 102.2 102.2 101.1 102.1 90.12 99.13

tert-Butylformamide TERTBUTYLFORMAM n-Butyl formate T-Butyl hydroperoxide n-Butyl isocyanate N-BUTYL FORMATE T-BUTYL HYDROPER N-BUTYL ISOCYANA

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Component Name n-Butyl mercaptan sec-Butyl mercaptan tert-Butyl mercaptan n-Butyl methacrylate 1-nButylnaphthalene n-Butyl nonanoate p-tert-Butylphenol n-Butyl propionate n-Butyl stearate n-Butyl valerate Butyl vinyl ether 2-Butyne 2-Butyne-1,4-diol n-Butyraldehyde n-Butyric acid Butyric anhydride gammaButyrolactone n-Butyronitrile Caffeine Calcium carbonate Calcium chloride
Calcium chloride 15 wt %

Synonym N-BUTYL MERCAPTA SEC-BUTYL MERCAP BMCAPTAN

Molec. Weight 90.19 90.19 90.19

ID No. D1841 D1806 B368 D1804

Temperature Range ºC Liquid Phase Gas Phase -112 > 41 -140 > 84 1 > 121 1 > 64 -50 > 160 1 > 126 24 > 229 111 > 239 -89 > 146 26 > 89 19 > 186 -48 > 93 -80 > 199 -80 > 159 -96 > 74 0 > 279 -5 > 163 19 > 197 -1 > 204 98 > 726 84 > 726 1 > 226 64 > 726 160 > 720 289 > 726 229 > 726 239 > 726 146 > 726 349 > 726 186 > 726 93 > 726 -80 > 499 237 > 726 -80 > 499 74 > 326 0 > 499 163 > 433 197 > 726 -1 > 232 203 > 726 -40 > 199 -111 > 117 -40 > 499 0 > 726

N-BUTYL METHACRY 1-N-BUTYLNAPHTHA N-BUTYL NONANOAT P-TERT-BUTYLPHEN N-BUTYL PROPIONA N-BUTYL STEARATE N-BUTYL VALERATE BUTYL VINYL ETHE BUTYNE2 2-BUTYNE-1,4-DIO BALDEHYD BUTYRICA BUTYRIC ANHYDRID BLO

142.2 184.3 214.3 150.2 130.2 340.6 158.2 100.2 54.09 86.09 72.11 88.11 158.2 86.09

D1389 D713 D1345 D1197 D1326 D1383 D1346 D1447 B190 D1215 B192 D1005 B11 D1256 D1293 B452 D1092

BONITRIL CAFFEINE CALCIUM CHLORIDE CACL2-15

69.10 194.2 111.0 18.02 18.02 78.07

B187 D1782 D6853 D2970 D1946 B20 B28 D2971

CALCIUM CARBONAT 100.1

-6 > 93 -17 > 93

Calcium chloride 25 CACL2-25 wt% Calcium fluoride CALCIUM FLUORIDE

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Component Name Calcium hydroxide Calcium oxide Calcium sulfate Calflo AF Calflo HTF Camphene Camphor epsilonCaprolactam epsilonCaprolactone Carbon Carbon dioxide Carbon disulfide Carbon monoxide Carbon tetrachloride Carbon tetrafluoride Carbonyl fluoride Carbonyl sulfide Cetyl methacrylate Chemtherm 550 1-Chloro-1,1difluoroethane 2-Chloro-1,1difluoroethylene 1-Chloro-2,4dinitrobenzene Chlorine

Synonym CALCIUM HYDROXID CALCIUM OXIDE CALCIUM SULFATE CALFLO AF CALFLO HTF CAMPHENE CAMPHOR EPSILON-CAPTAM EPSILON-CAPTONE CARBON CO2 CS2 CO CARBOTET

Molec. Weight 74.09 56.08 136.1 380.0 380.0 136.2 152.2 113.2 114.1 12.01 44.01 76.13 28.01 153.8

ID No. D1914 D1995 D1941 B466 B465 D839 D2850 D1880 D1093 D1991 B55 D909 B106 D1938 B111 D908 B37 D1501

Temperature Range ºC Liquid Phase Gas Phase

37 > 315 37 > 315 46 > 160 69 > 176 112 > 240 160 > 726 207 > 726 269 > 726 214 > 726

-51 > 29 -53 > 16 -80 > 159 -73 > 46 -199 > -149 -204 > -148 -10 > 199 -22 > 76 -169 > -43 -183 > -128 -107 > -85 -138 > -50 14 > 354 65 > 259 -73 > 86 -53 > -18

-18 > 749 -78 > 1226 -80 > 499 0 > 526 -199 > 815 -203 > 976 -10 > 209 -22 > 526 -169 > 399 -128 > 476 -84 > 726 -50 > 726 367 > 726 -10 > 726 26 > 726

R14

88.00

B225 D1616

CARBONYL FLUORID CARBONYL SULFIDE CHEM550 1-CHLORO-1,1-DIF 2-CHLORO-1,1-DIF 1-CHLORO-2,4-DIN CHLORINE

66.01 60.08

D1850 D1893 D2353 B461 D2695 D1612 D4870 B6 D918

CETYL METHACRYLA 310.5 100.5 98.48 202.6 70.91

-73 > 115 -83 > -34

-73 > 598 -73 > 726

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Component Name Chlorine dioxide

Synonym CHLORINE DIOXIDE

Molec. Weight 67.45 225.6

ID No. D2977 D4859 D4867 D1852 D1853 D4858 D1859 D3860 D1874 D1857 D1596 D1604 D2898 B60 D1521 D1589 D2882 D4882 D4883 D2692 D1588 D2893 D2892 D2894 B296 D1583

Temperature Range ºC Liquid Phase Gas Phase 10 > 726

4-Chloro-34-CHLORO-3-NITRO nitrobenzotrifluoride Chloroacetaldehyd e Chloroacetic acid Chloroacetyl chloride m-Chloroaniline o-Chloroaniline p-Chloroaniline o-Chlorobenzoic acid
pChlorobenzotrifluoride

CHLOROACETALDEH 78.50 Y CHLOROACETIC ACI CHLOROACETYL CHL M-CHLOROANILINE O-CHLOROANILINE P-CHLOROANILINE O-CHLOROBENZOIC 94.50 112.9 127.6 127.6 127.6 156.6

19 > 84 69 > 126 17 > 105 21 > 228 -2 > 208 103 > 126 141 > 286 -19 > 138 88 > 224 -103 > 46 19 > 128 -40 > 199 -63 > 80 0 > 176 97 > 235 105 > 245 102 > 241 -83 > -39 -98 > 108 91 > 213 9 > 174 95 > 219 -17 > 259 -62 > 59

84 > 726 189 > 726 105 > 726 228 > 726 208 > 726 230 > 726 286 > 726 138 > 726 224 > 724 -40 > 226 128 > 726 -40 > 259 0 > 526 259 > 726 235 > 726 245 > 726 241 > 726 -23 > 226 108 > 726 213 > 726 174 > 726 219 > 726 -17 > 537 59 > 726

P-CHLOROBENZOTRI 180.6 M-CHLOROBENZOYL 175.0

m-Chlorobenzoyl chloride
Chlorodifluoromethan e

CHLORODIFLUOROM 86.47 E 2-CHLOROETHANOL CHLOROFO 1CHLORONAPHTHAL 80.51 119.4 162.6 157.6 157.6 157.6

2-Chloroethanol Chloroform 1Chloronaphthalene

mMChloronitrobenzene CHLORONITROBEN oOChloronitrobenzene CHLORONITROBEN pPChloronitrobenzene CHLORONITROBEN
Chloropentafluoroetha ne

CHLOROPENTAFLUO 154.5 R 1-CHLOROPENTANE M-CHLOROPHENOL O-CHLOROPHENOL P-CHLOROPHENOL CHLORPRE 106.6 128.6 128.6 128.6 88.54

1-Chloropentane m-Chlorophenol o-Chlorophenol p-Chlorophenol Chloroprene

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Aspen B-JAC 11.1 User Guide

Component Name 2-Chloropropene 3-Chloropropene Chlorosulfonic acid o-Chlorotoluene p-Chlorotoluene Chlorotrifluoroethyl ene Chlorotrifluorometh ane Chromium trioxide Chrysene Cinnamic acid Citraconic acid Citric acid Coal flue gas m-Cresol o-Cresol p-Cresol transCrotonaldehyde cis-Crotonic acid trans-Crotonic acid cis-Crotonitrile trans-Crotonitrile Cumene Cumene hydroperoxide p-cumylphenol Cupric chloride Cupric sulfate Cuprous chloride

Synonym 2-CHLOROPROPENE ALLYLCL

Molec. Weight 76.53 76.53

ID No. D1595 B382 D1544 D2906 D1577 D1578 D2691 B13 D1606

Temperature Range ºC Liquid Phase Gas Phase -34 > 22 0 > 148 -16 > 44 54 > 159 56 > 162 -158 > -27 -62 > 219 -103 > -29 315 > 440 132 > 299 141 > 333 26 > 722 0 > 499 44 > 726 153 > 726 159 > 726 162 > 726 26 > 726 -62 > 332 -43 > 226 440 > 726 299 > 726 333 > 726 385 > 726 99 > 899 19 > 199 24 > 202 31 > 126 34 > 201 12 > 104 15 > 166 71 > 184 26 > 107 19 > 121 -17 > 199 -96 > 152 0 > 499 202 > 726 190 > 726 201 > 726 104 > 726 171 > 726 184 > 726 107 > 726 121 > 726 -17 > 262 152 > 726 169 > 726 144 > 334 334 > 726

CHLOROSULFONIC A 116.5 O-CHLOROTOLUENE P-CHLOROTOLUENE CHLOROTRIFLUORO E R13 126.6 126.6 116.5 104.5

CHROMIUM TRIOXID CHRYSENE CINNAMIC ACID CITRACONIC ACID CITRIC ACID CFG M-CRESOL O-CRESOL P-CRESOL TRANSCROTONALDE CIS-CROTONIC ACI TRANS-CROTONIC A CIS-CROTONITRILE TRANS-CROTONITRI CUMENE CUMENE HYDROPERO P-CUMYLPHENOL CUPRIC CHLORIDE CUPRIC SULFATE CUPROUS CHLORIDE

99.99 228.3 148.2 130.1 192.1 30.00 108.1 108.1 108.1 70.09 86.09 86.09 67.09 67.09 120.2 152.2 212.3 134.5 159.6 99.00

D2905 D806 D2271 D2277 D5879 B204 B356 D1183 D1182 D1184 D1036 D1273 D1274 D1798 D1789 B50 D510 D1472 D2197 D2980 D2978 D2979

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Component Name Cyanogen Cyanogen chloride Cyclobutane Cycloheptane 1,3Cyclohexadiene Cyclohexane
1,4Cyclohexanedicarbox ylic acid

Synonym CYANOGEN CYANOGEN CHLORID CBUTANE CYCLOHEPTANE 1,3-CYCLOHEXADIE CYCLOHEX 1,4-CYCLOHEXANED

Molec. Weight 52.04 61.47 56.10 98.19 80.13 84.16 172.2

ID No. D1799 D1594 B241 D102 D159 D331 B57 D137 D1264

Temperature Range ºC Liquid Phase Gas Phase -27 > -21 -4 > 12 -80 > 119 -83 > 12 -8 > 118 -93 > 80 9 > 204 11 > 80 312 > 395 -21 > 326 12 > 726 -80 > 499 12 > 726 118 > 726 80 > 726 9 > 294 51 > 626 395 > 726

Cyclohexanol Cyclohexanone Cyclohexanone oxime Cyclohexene Cyclohexylamine Cyclohexylbenzene 2-Cyclohexyl cyclohexanone Cyclohexyl isocyanate Cyclohexyl peroxide Cyclooctadiene 1,5-Cyclooctadiene Cyclopentadiene Cyclopentane Cyclopentanone Cyclopentene

CYCLOHEXANOL CHEXANON CYCLOHEXANONE OX CHEXENE CYCLOHEXYLAMINE CYCLOHEXYLBENZE N 2-CYCLOHEXYL CYC CYCLOHEXYL ISOCY CYCLOHEXYL PEROX COCTDIEN 1,5-CYCLOOCTADIE CYCLOPENTADIENE CPENTANE CYCLOPENTANONE CPENTENE

100.2 98.15 113.2 82.14 99.18 160.3 180.3 125.2 116.2 108.2 108.2 66.10 70.13 84.12 68.11

D1151 B338 D1080 D4887 B246 D270 D1729 D557 D1097 D2723 D1474 B236 D333 D315 B242 D104 D1079 B256 D269

23 > 160 -17 > 148 16 > 155

160 > 726 -17 > 499 155 > 726 207 > 726

-40 > 239 0 > 82 34 > 132 6 > 240 24 > 263

-40 > 499 82 > 722 134 > 726 240 > 726 263 > 726 168 > 726 216 > 726

-40 > 214 -69 > 150 -73 > 41 -80 > 139 -48 > 49 44 > 86 -40 > 199 -135 > 44

-40 > 499 150 > 726 41 > 726 -80 > 499 0 > 326 130 > 726 -40 > 499 44 > 726

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Aspen B-JAC 11.1 User Guide

Component Name Cyclopropane m-Cymene o-Cymene p-Cymene Decafluorobutane
cisDecahydronaphthalen e transDecahydronaphthalen e

Synonym CPROPANE M-CYMENE O-CYMENE CYMENE

Molec. Weight 42.08 134.2 134.2 134.2

ID No. B255 D101 D523 D522 B47 D524 D1622 D153

Temperature Range ºC Liquid Phase Gas Phase -80 > 69 -123 > -33 -63 > 175 -23 > 178 19 > 315 -67 > 177 -56 > -2 19 > 195 -80 > 499 -32 > 172 175 > 725 178 > 718 19 > 315 177 > 726 26 > 726 195 > 726

DECAFLUOROBUTAN 238.0 E CISDECAHYDRONAP TRANSDECAHYDRON 1-DECANAL DECANE N-DECANOIC ACID 1-DECANOL 1-DECENE N-DECYLAMINE N-DECYLBENZENE NDECYLCYCLOHEXA N-DECYL MERCAPTA 1-N-DECYLNAPHTHA DEHYDROABIETYLA M DEUTERIUM DEUTERIUM OXIDE DEXTROSE DIALLYL MALEATE DIAMYLAMINE DIBENZOFURAN DIBENZOPYRROLE 138.3

138.3

D154

19 > 187

187 > 726

1-Decanal n-Decane n-Decanoic acid 1-Decanol 1-Decene n-Decylamine n-Decylbenzene nDecylcyclohexane n-Decyl mercaptan 1-nDecylnaphthalene Dehydroabietylami ne Deuterium Deuterium oxide Dextrose Diacetone alcohol Diallyl maleate Diamylamine Dibenzofuran Dibenzopyrrole

156.3 142.3 172.3 158.3 140.3 157.3 218.4 224.4 174.4 268.4 285.5 4.03 20.03 180.2 196.2 157.3 168.2 167.2

D1020 B257 D56 D1254 D1136 D260 D2710 D554 D158 D1826 D712 D1730 D925 D1997 D4881 D2854 D2381 D3722 D1480 D2789

55 > 214 -17 > 162 -29 > 56 31 > 191 27 > 157 0 > 170 58 > 218 -14 > 297 -1 > 126 24 > 239 14 > 226 158 > 368

214 > 726 -17 > 426 174 > 726 269 > 726 230 > 726 170 > 726 220 > 726 297 > 726 297 > 726 239 > 726 378 > 726 386 > 726 -39 > 206

3 > 99 -43 > 96 73 > 243 46 > 196

101 > 726 168 > 718 246 > 726 202 > 726 284 > 726 354 > 726

DIACETONE ALCOHO 116.2

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Component Name Dibenzyl ether Diborane

Synonym DIBENZYL ETHER DIBORANE

Molec. Weight 198.3 27.67 235.9 209.8 187.9 187.9 173.8 259.8

ID No. D1463 D1983 D1678 D2688 D1672 B154 D1673 D2637 D1611

Temperature Range ºC Liquid Phase Gas Phase 3 > 176 35 > 217 -34 > 22 -62 > 107 19 > 259 9 > 131 -33 > 96 -46 > 49 288 > 726 -92 > 726 217 > 726 22 > 726 107 > 726 19 > 499 131 > 726 96 > 726 47 > 726

m-Dibromobenzene MDIBROMOBENZENE
Dibromodifluorometha ne

DIBROMODIFLUORO M 1,1-DIBROMOETHAN EDB DIBROMOMETHANE 1,2-DIBROMOTETRA

1,1-Dibromoethane 1,2-Dibromoethane Dibromomethane
1,2Dibromotetrafluoroeth ane

Di-n-butylamine 2,6-Di-tert-butyl-pcresol Di-n-butyl ether Di-sec-butyl ether Di-tert-butyl ether Dibutyl maleate Di-t-butyl peroxide Dibutyl phthalate Dibutyl sebacate Di-n-butyl sulfone 1,3-Dichloro-trans2-butene 1,4-Dichloro-cis-2butene 1,4-Dichloro-trans2-butene 3,4-Dichloro-1butene 1,2-Dichloro-4nitrobenzene Dichloroacetaldehy de

DBA 2,6-DI-TERT-BUTY BETHER DI-SEC-BUTYL ETH DI-TERT-BUTYL ET DIBUTYL MALEATE DI-T-BUTYL PEROX DIBUTYL PHTHALAT DIBUTYL SEBACATE DI-N-BUTYL SULFO 1,3-DICHLORO-TRA 1,4-DICHLORO-CIS 1,4-DICHLORO-TRA 3,4-DICHLORO-1-B 1,2-DICHLORO-4-N DICHLOROACETALD E

129.2 220.4 130.2 130.2 130.2 228.3 146.2 278.3 314.5 178.3 125.0 125.0 125.0 125.0 192.0 112.9

B144 D1744 D2113 B253 D1404 D1406 D1423 D2382 D1482 D2376 D1384 D1849 D1598 D1593 D1505 D1597 D4880 D4868

-40 > 234 27 > 158 86 > 264 -80 > 249 -95 > 140 26 > 121 1 > 107 84 > 254 20 > 146 0 > 176 110 > 290 35 > 128 46 > 152 0 > 156 21 > 114

-40 > 499 158 > 726 264 > 726 -80 > 499 46 > 726 121 > 726 107 > 726 279 > 726 110 > 726 339 > 526 348 > 726 290 > 726 128 > 726 152 > 726 156 > 726 114 > 726

4 > 88

88 > 726

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Aspen B-JAC 11.1 User Guide

Component Name Dichloroacetic acid Dichloroacetyl chloride 3,4-Dichloroaniline m-Dichlorobenzene o-Dichlorobenzene p-Dichlorobenzene 2,4Dichlorobenzotriflu oride 1,4-Dichlorobutane Dichlorodifluoromet hane 1,1-Dichloroethane 1,2-Dichloroethane cis-1,2Dichloroethylene trans-1,2Dichloroethylene 1,1Dichloroethylene Dichlorofluorometh ane Dichloromethane 1,5Dichloropentane 3,4-Dichlorophenyl isocyanate 1,1Dichloropropane

Synonym DICHLOROACETIC A DICHLOROACETYL C 3,4-DICHLOROANIL DCB ODICHLOROBENZEN 2,4-DICHLOROBENZ

Molec. Weight 128.9 147.4 162.0 147.0 147.0

ID No. D3853 D1854 D4879 B302 D1573 D1572 D1574 D1858

Temperature Range ºC Liquid Phase Gas Phase 13 > 106 19 > 107 126 > 271 -17 > 204 -24 > 126 0 > 78 52 > 174 -6 > 177 193 > 726 107 > 726 271 > 726 -17 > 272 173 > 726 180 > 726 174 > 726 177 > 717

P-DICHLOROBENZEN 147.0 215.0

1,4-DICHLOROBUTA R12

127.0 120.9

D1508 B16 D1601

-37 > 153 -62 > 93 -103 > 86 -48 > 57 -17 > 199 -19 > 83 -20 > 174 -64 > 60 -20 > 174 -49 > 47 -122 > 31 -80 > 159 -63 > 99 -62 > 199 -58 > 46 -72 > 179 93 > 201 6 > 88

153 > 726 -84 > 399 -23 > 301 57 > 326 -17 > 292 83 > 287 -20 > 499 60 > 426 -20 > 499 47 > 426 31 > 399 -100 > 399 6 > 176 -62 > 499 6 > 726 179 > 726 227 > 726 88 > 726

1,1-DICHLOROETHA EDC DCEC

98.96 98.97 96.95

D1522 B78 D1523 B163 D1580

DCET

96.95

B155 D1581

1,1-DICHLOROETHY R21

96.94 102.9

D1591 B227 D1696

MECHLOR 1,5-DICHLOROPENT 3,4-DICHLOROPHEN 1,1-DICHLOROPROP

84.90 141.0 188.0 113.0

B95 D1511 D1509 D4860 D2526

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Component Name 1,2Dichloropropane 1,3Dichloropropane 2,3Dichloropropene Dichlorosilane
1,2Dichlorotetrafluoroeth ane

Synonym PROPYLDC

Molec. Weight 113.0

ID No. B117 D1526

Temperature Range ºC Liquid Phase Gas Phase -73 > 191 -48 > 89 28 > 120 26 > 92 -122 > 128 -39 > 99 -73 > 499 96 > 726 120 > 726 92 > 726 8 > 326 3 > 226

1,3-DICHLOROPROP 2,3-DICHLOROPROP DICHLOROSILANE 1,2-DICHLOROTETR

113.0 111.0 101.0 170.9

D2527 D2545 D1935 D1609

2,4-Dichlorotoluene Dicumyl peroxide trans-Dicyano-1butene 1,4-Dicyano-2butene cis-Dicyano-1butene Dicyclohexylamine Dicyclopentadiene Diethanolamine Diethlene glycol 20 wt % Diethlene glycol 80 wt % 1,2-diethoxyethane Diethylamine n,n-Diethylaniline 2,6-Diethylaniline m-Diethylbenzene o-Diethylbenzene p-Diethylbenzene Diethyl carbonate Diethyl disulfide

2,4-DICHLOROTOLU DICUMYL PEROXIDE TRANS-DICYANO-11,4-DICYANO-2-BU CIS-DICYANO-1-BU DICYCLOHEXYLAMIN DICYCLOPENTADIEN DEAMINE DEGLY-20 DEGLY-80 1,2-DIETHOXYETHA DEA N,N-DIETHYLANILI 2,6-DIETHYLANILI M-DIETHYLBENZENE O-DIETHYLBENZENE P-DIETHYLBENZENE DIETHYL CARBONAT DIETHYL DISULFID

161.0 270.4 106.1 106.1 106.1 181.3 132.2 105.1 18.00 18.00 118.2 73.14 149.2 149.2 134.2 134.2 134.2 118.1 122.3

D1579 D1475 D2734 D2735 D2733 D2730 D316 B331 D1724 B244 B245 D2456 B92 D1710 D1753 D2791 D526 D525 D527 D1392 D1824

-13 > 201 45 > 225 84 > 273 45 > 227 95 > 255 31 > 169 37 > 148 27 > 176 -1 > 148 -1 > 148 7 > 121 -40 > 199 -24 > 55 28 > 216 65 > 225 -83 > 176 -31 > 183 -42 > 183 -101 > 26

201 > 721 225 > 726 273 > 726 227 > 726 255 > 726 169 > 726 268 > 726

121 > 726 -40 > 249 0 > 726 216 > 726 235 > 726 181 > 721 183 > 726 183 > 726 153 > 726

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Aspen B-JAC 11.1 User Guide

Component Name Diethylene glycol Diethylene glycol di-n-butyl ether Diethylene glycol diethyl ether Diethylene glycol dimethyl ether Diethylene glycol ethyl ether acetate Diethylene glycol monobutyl ether
Diethylene glycol 40 wt % Diethylene glycol 60 wt %

Synonym DEGLY DIETHYLENE GDBE DIETHYLENE GDEE DIETHYLENE GDME DIETHYLENE GEEA DIETHYLENE GME DEGLY-40 DEGLY-60 DIETHYLENE TRIAM EETHER DIETHYL MALEATE DIETHYL MALONATE DIETHYL OXALATE 3,3-DIETHYLPENTA DIETHYL PHTHALAT DIETHYL SUCCINAT DIETHYL SULFATE DIETHYL SULFIDE 1,1-DIFLUOROETHA 1,2-DIFLUOROETHA VIF

Molec. Weight 106.1 218.3 162.2 134.2 176.2 162.2 18.00 18.00 103.2 74.12 172.2 160.2 146.1 128.3 222.2 174.2 154.2 90.19 66.05 66.05 64.00

ID No. B332 D1202 D1459 D1458 D1456 D5885 D4857 B249 B250 D2717 B149 D1402 D2386 D1394 D1393 D50 D2375 D2378 D5875 D1818 D1640 D2642 B217 D1629

Temperature Range ºC Liquid Phase Gas Phase 9 > 154 -3 > 126 19 > 151 9 > 188 -69 > 126 56 > 216 53 > 213 -1 > 148 -1 > 148 64 > 207 -40 > 159 -73 > 99 66 > 224 -33 > 126 -13 > 86 -33 > 146 -4 > 176 19 > 216 -48 > 48 -30 > 24 -35 > 30 -120 > 0 -85 > -85 -72 > -51 156 > 336 110 > 300 -42 > 225 0 > 65 24 > 89 207 > 726 -40 > 499 -73 > 326 224 > 726 198 > 726 185 > 726 146 > 726 293 > 726 216 > 726 92 > 726 -25 > 726 30 > 726 -120 > 399 -85 > 726 -51 > 726 336 > 726 347 > 726 225 > 726 65 > 726 181 > 299 9 > 499 244 > 726 255 > 726 188 > 726 159 > 726 217 > 726 230 > 726

Diethylene triamine Diethyl ether Diethyl maleate Diethyl malonate Diethyl oxalate 3,3-diethylpentane Diethyl phthalate Diethyl succinate Diethyl sulfate Diethyl sulfide 1,1-Difluoroethane 1,2-Difluoroethane 1,1Difluoroethylene Difluoromethane Diglycolic acid Dihexyl adipate Di-n-hexyl ether 2,5-dihydrofuran Diiodomethane

DIFLUOROMETHANE DIGLYCOLIC ACID DIHEXYL ADIPATE DI-N-HEXYL ETHER 2,5-DIHYDROFURAN DIIODOMETHANE

52.02 134.1 314.5 186.3 70.09 267.8

D1614 D4851 D2379 D1412 D1477 D1692

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Component Name Diisobutylamine Diisobutyl ketone Diisodecyl phthalate Diisooctyl phthalate Diisopropanolamin e Diisopropylamine

Synonym DIISOBUTYLAMINE DIISOBUTYL KETON DIISODECYL PHTHA DIISOOCTYL PHTHA DIISOPROPANOLAMI DIPA

Molec. Weight 129.2 142.2 278.3 446.7 390.6 133.2 101.2 162.3 162.3 102.2 114.2 84.07 138.3 90.12 87.12

ID No. D1718 D1068 D1376 D1371 D1355 D6864 B238 D1743 D543 D544 D1403 D1069 D1099 D6857 D1455 B252 D2856

Temperature Range ºC Liquid Phase Gas Phase 16 > 139 34 > 168 107 > 126 1 > 101 24 > 56 62 > 53 -40 > 199 1 > 83 -48 > 203 -17 > 210 -85 > 68 -68 > 124 86 > 216 -23 > 84 -20 > 165 19 > 126 -32 > 26 84 > 726 -40 > 499 166 > 726 26 > 726 125 > 726 -62 > 119 -73 > 24 142 > 314 -62 > 229 6 > 726 314 > 726 139 > 726 168 > 726 319 > 726 449 > 699 420 > 726 248 > 726 -40 > 499 83 > 726 203 > 726 210 > 726 54 > 726 124 > 726 126 > 726

Diisobutyl phthalate DIISOBUTYL PHTHA

mM-DIISOPROPYLBEN Diisopropylbenzene pP-DIISOPROPYLBEN Diisopropylbenzene Diisopropyl ether Diisopropyl ketone Diketene Dimercaptoethyl ether 1,2Dimethoxyethane N,nDimethylacetamide Dimethylacetylene Dimethylaluminum chloride Dimethylamine DIISOPROPYL ETHE DIISOPROPYL KETO DIKETENE DIMERCAPTOETHYL 1,2-DIMETHOXYETH DMAC

DIMETHYLACETYLEN 54.09 DIMETHYLALUMINUM 92.50 DMA 45.09 149.2

D404 D2969 B75 D1702 D4872

P-DIMETHYLAMINOB pDimethylaminobenz aldehyde n,n-Dimethylaniline 2,3-Dimethyl-1,3butadiene 2,2-Dimethylbutane 2,3-Dimethylbutane N,N-DIMETHYLANIL 2,3-DIMETHYL-1,3 2,2-DIMETHYLBUTA DMB

121.2 82.15 86.18 86.18

D1796 D319 D14 B299 D15

70 > 193 26 > 68 -3 > 49 -45 > 57 0 > 57

193 > 726 68 > 726 49 > 585 -45 > 399 57 > 717

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Aspen B-JAC 11.1 User Guide

Component Name 3,3-Dimethyl-2butanone 2,3-Dimethyl-1butene 2,3-Dimethyl-2butene 3,3-Dimethyl-1butene Dimethylchlorosilan e cis-1,2Dimethylcyclohexa ne cis-1,3Dimethylcyclohexa ne cis-1,4Dimethylcyclohexa ne trans-1,2Dimethylcyclohexa ne trans-1,3Dimethylcyclohexa ne trans-1,4Dimethylcyclohexa ne 1,1Dimethylcyclohexa ne Cis 1,3Dimethylcyclopenta ne

Synonym 3,3-DIMETHYL-2-B 2,3-DIMETHYL-1-B 2,3-DIMETHYL-2-B 3,3-DIMETHYL-1-B

Molec. Weight 100.2 84.16 84.16 84.16

ID No. D1066 D230 D232 D231 D3987 B263

Temperature Range ºC Liquid Phase Gas Phase -52 > 106 -157 > 55 -74 > 73 -115 > 41 -29 > 35 -45 > 121 106 > 726 55 > 726 73 > 726 41 > 726 35 > 726 -73 > 426

DIMETHYLCHLOROSI 94.62 DMCHEXC2 112.2

D142 DMCHEXC3 112.2 B270

-23 > 129 -67 > 112

129 > 726 -67 > 426

D144 DMCHEXC4 112.2 B269

-75 > 120 -59 > 121

120 > 726 -73 > 426

D146 DMCHEXT2 112.2 B261

-87 > 124 -45 > 121

124 > 726 -101 > 426

D143 DMCHEXT3 112.2 B260

-88 > 123 -84 > 118

123 > 726 -73 > 426

D145 DMCHEXT4 112.2 B274

-73 > 124 -28 > 109

124 > 726 -73 > 426

D147 DMCHEX 112.3 B258

-23 > 119 -28 > 109

119 > 726 -101 > 426

D141 DMCPENC3 98.19 B273

-33 > 119 -73 > 61

119 > 726 -73 > 426

D111

-62 > 90

90 > 726

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Component Name cis-1,2Dimethylcyclopenta ne Trans 1,3Dimethylcyclopenta ne trans-1,2Dimethylcyclopenta ne 1,1Dimethylcyclopenta ne Dimethyldichlorosil ane 2,3-Dimethyl-2,3diphenylbutane Dimethyl disulfide

Synonym DMCPENC2

Molec. Weight 98.19

ID No. B268

Temperature Range ºC Liquid Phase Gas Phase -31 > 93 -73 > 426

D109 DMCPENT3 98.19 B272

-53 > 99 -66 > 65

99 > 726 -73 > 426

D112 DMCPENT2 98.19 B271

-133 > 91 -73 > 56

91 > 726 -73 > 426

D110 DMCPEN 98.19 B282

-117 > 91 -45 > 65

91 > 726 -73 > 426

D108 DIMETHYLDICHLORO 129.1 2,3-DIMETHYL-2,3 DIMETHYL DISULFI 238.4 94.20 89.14 46.07 128.3 128.3 73.09 D3989 D581 D1828 D6863 B136 D1401 2,2-Dimethyl-3ethylpentane 2,4-Dimethyl-3ethylpentane N,nDimethylformamide 2,2Dimethylheptane 2,6Dimethylheptane 2,6-Dimethyl-4heptanol 2,2Dimethylhexane 2,2-DIMETHYL-3-E 2,4-DIMETHYL-3-E DMF D190 D192 B175 D1876 2,2-DIMETHYLHEPT 2,6-DIMETHYLHEPT 2,6-DIMETHYL-4-H 2,2-DIMETHYLHEXA 128.3 128.3 144.3 114.2 D96 D176 D2117 D32

-59 > 87 -12 > 70 118 > 315 -84 > 86

87 > 726 70 > 376 315 > 726 109 > 726 133 > 726

Dimethylethanolami DIMETHYLETHANOL ne A Dimethyl ether METHER

-80 > 114 -141 > -24 -99 > 133 -122 > 136 0 > 149 0 > 151 -71 > 120 -70 > 113 28 > 126 -80 > 95

-80 > 499 -24 > 726 133 > 726 136 > 726 0 > 499 151 > 726 132 > 726 135 > 726 177 > 726 106 > 726

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Aspen B-JAC 11.1 User Guide

Component Name 2,3Dimethylhexane 2,4Dimethylhexane 2,5Dimethylhexane 3,3Dimethylhexane 3,4Dimethylhexane Dimethyl isophthalate Dimethylmaleate 2,6Dimethylnaphthale ne 2,7Dimethylnaphthale ne 2,2-Dimethyloctane 2,2Dimethylpentane 2,3Dimethylpentane 2,4Dimethylpentane 3,3Dimethylpentane Dimethyl phthalate 2,2-Dimethyl-1propanol 2,6Dimethylpyridine Dimethyl silane Dimethyl sulfate Dimethyl sulfide Dimethyl sulfoxide Dimethyl terephthalate

Synonym 2,3-DIMETHYLHEXA 2,4-DIMETHYLHEXA 2,5-DIMETHYLHEXA 3,3-DIMETHYLHEXA 3,4-DIMETHYLHEXA DIMETHYL ISOPHTH DIMETHYL MALEATE 2,6-DIMETHYLNAPH

Molec. Weight 114.2 114.2 114.2 114.2 114.2 194.2 144.1 156.2

ID No. D33 D34 D35 D36 D37 D1377 D2387 D709

Temperature Range ºC Liquid Phase Gas Phase -1 > 115 -1 > 109 -23 > 109 -33 > 111 -1 > 117 86 > 249 24 > 204 110 > 226 115 > 726 109 > 726 109 > 726 111 > 726 117 > 726 249 > 726 204 > 726 261 > 726

2,7-DIMETHYLNAPH

156.2

D715

95 > 176

262 > 726

2,2-DIMETHYLOCTA 2,2-DIMETHYLPENT 2,3-DIMETHYLPENT DMPENT

142.3 100.2 100.2 100.2

D72 D21 D22 B300 D23

-48 > 151 -123 > 36 -113 > 89 -101 > 93 -103 > 70 -134 > 86 -1 > 126 53 > 113 38 > 144

156 > 726 79 > 726 89 > 719 -101 > 468 80 > 720 86 > 726 283 > 726 113 > 726 144 > 726 -19 > 726

3,3-DIMETHYLPENT DIMETHYL PHTHALA 2,2-DIMETHYL-1-P 2,6-DIMETHYLPYRI DIMETHYL SILANE DIMETHYL SULFATE DMS DIMETHYL SULFOXI DIMETHYL TEREPHT

100.2 194.2 88.15 107.2 60.17 126.1 62.13 78.13 194.2

D24 D2377 D1113 D2796 D3985 D5874 B173 D1820 D1844 D1381

-80 > 159 -48 > 37 18 > 148 150 > 193

-80 > 499 37 > 726 188 > 726 287 > 726

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Component Name m-Dinitrobenzene o-Dinitrobenzene p-Dinitrobenzene 2,4-Dinitrotoluene 2,5-Dinitrotoluene 2,6-Dinitrotoluene 3,4-Dinitrotoluene 3,5-Dinitrotoluene Dinonyl ether Dinonylphenol Di-n-octyl ether Dioctyl phthalate 1,4-dioxane Di-n-pentyl ether Diphenyl Diphenylacetylene Diphenylamine 1,1-Diphenylethane 1,2-Diphenylethane Diphenyl ether Diphenylmethane Diphenylmethane4,4'-diisocyanate 2,4-Diphenyl-4methylpentene-1 n,n'-Diphenyl-pphenylenediamine 1,3diphenyltriazene Di-n-propylamine

Synonym M-DINITROBENZENE O-DINITROBENZENE P-DINITROBENZENE 2,4-DINITROTOLUE 2,5-DINITROTOLUE 2,6-DINITROTOLUE 3,4-DINITROTOLUE 3,5-DINITROTOLUE DINONYL ETHER DINONYLPHENOL DI-N-OCTYL ETHER DOP DIOXANE DI-N-PENTYL ETHE DIPHENYL DIPHENYLAMINE 1,1-DIPHENYLETHA 1,2-DIPHENYLETHA DIPHENYL ETHER DPHENMET DIPHENYLMETHANE2,4-DIPHENYL-4-M N,N'-DIPHENYL-P1,3-DIPHENYLTRIA DI-N-PROPYLAMINE

Molec. Weight 168.1 168.1 168.1 182.1 182.1 182.1 182.1 182.1 270.5 346.6 242.4 390.6 88.10 158.3 158.0 169.2 182.3 182.3 170.2 168.2 250.3 236.4 260.3 197.2 101.2 150.3

ID No. D2740 D2741 D2742 D2743 D2748 D2744 D2745 D2749 D1418 D2198 D1424 B412 D1354 B228 D1421 D1425 B354 D424 D1756 D562 D564 D1465 B355 D563 D2736 D566 D2737 D1735 D1707 D1829

Temperature Range ºC Liquid Phase Gas Phase

116 > 239 173 > 209

317 > 726 169 > 389 24 > 286 0 > 99 24 > 86 0 > 279 11 > 101 24 > 186 79 > 232 62 > 299 101 > 226 -8 > 126 62 > 280 26 > 146 37 > 226 25 > 146 383 > 726 0 > 499 100 > 726 186 > 726 99 > 499 299 > 719 301 > 726 272 > 726 280 > 726 258 > 726 0 > 499 264 > 726 335 > 726 26 > 340 179 > 399 340 > 726 414 > 726 336 > 726 4 > 108 -85 > 195 26 > 726 195 > 726 448 > 726 286 > 726

DIPHENYLACETYLEN 178.2

Di-n-propyl disulfide DI-N-PROPYL DISU

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Component Name Dipropylene glycol Di-n-propyl ether Dipropyl maleate Dipropyl phthalate Di-n-propyl sulfone Disilane m-Divinylbenzene Divinyl ether 1-Dodecanal n-Dodecane n-Dodecanoic acid 1-Dodecanol 1-Dodecene n-Dodecylamine n-Dodecylbenzene n-Dodecyl mercaptan Dowtherm A Dowtherm E Dowtherm G Dowtherm J n-Eicosane n-Eicosanic acid 1-Eicosanol 1-Eicosene alphaEpichlorohydrin 1,2-Epoxybutane Ethane

Synonym DPGLY-L DI-N-PROPYL ETHE DIPROPYL MALEATE DIPROPYL PHTHALA DI-N-PROPYL SULF DISILANE M-DIVINYLBENZENE DIVINYL ETHER 1-DODECANAL DODECANE N-DODECANOIC ACI 1-DODECANOL 1-DODECENE N-DODECYLAMINE NDODECYLBENZENE N-DODECYL MERCAP DOWA DOWE DOWG DOWJ EICOSANE N-EICOSANIC ACID 1-EICOSANOL 1-EICOSENE EPICLHYD

Molec. Weight 134.2 102.2 200.2 250.3 150.2 62.22 130.2 70.09 184.3 170.3 200.3 186.3 168.3 185.4 246.4 202.4 166.0 147.0 215.0 134.0 282.5 312.5 298.6 280.5 92.53

ID No. B201 D1213 D1446 D2388 D1375 D1848 D1980 D614 D1414 D1025 B298 D64 D1269 D1140 D262 D2712 D574 D1837 B42 B265 B180 B325 B264 D73 D2267 D1148 D284 B158 D1881

Temperature Range ºC Liquid Phase Gas Phase 0 > 182 -40 > 231 -123 > 90 72 > 247 -23 > 126 108 > 269 38 > 199 -101 > 28 69 > 239 -3 > 215 -9 > 56 43 > 298 57 > 157 -35 > 32 74 > 244 9 > 149 88 > 268 15 > 398 0 > 244 26 > 371 -45 > 301 37 > 259 36 > 266 75 > 176 122 > 312 28 > 342 -50 > 149 24 > 118 -93 > 63 -128 > 29 -182 > 6 -45 > 301 -73 > 426 343 > 501 396 > 726 355 > 726 342 > 726 -50 > 499 118 > 726 63 > 726 -128 > 648 -88 > 726 0 > 499 231 > 726 90 > 726 247 > 726 317 > 726 269 > 726 -14 > 726 199 > 726 28 > 726 249 > 726 -3 > 509 216 > 526 298 > 726 261 > 726 213 > 726 259 > 726 326 > 726 274 > 726 15 > 398 0 > 259

1,2-EPOXYBUTANE ETHANE

72.11 30.07

D1471 B96 D2

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Component Name 1,2-Ethane diphosphonic acid 1,2-Ethanedithiol Ethanol Ethanol 50 wt % 2-Ethoxyethanol 2-2-Ethoxyethoxy ethanol 2-Ethoxyethyl acetate Ethyl acetate Ethyl acetoacetate Ethylacetylene Ethyl acrylate Ethyl aluminum sesquichloride Ethylamine o-ethylaniline Ethylbenzene Ethyl benzoate 2-Ethyl-1-butanol 2-Ethyl-1-butene Ethyl n-butyrate 2-ethyl butyric acid Ethyl chloride Ethyl chloroformate Ethyl cyanoacetate

Synonym 1,2-ETHANE DIPHO 1,2-ETHANEDITHIO ETHANOL ETOH-50 2-ETHOXYETHANOL 2-2-E ETHANOL 2-ETHOXYETHYL AC EACETATE

Molec. Weight 190.0 94.20 46.07 32.04 90.12 134.2 132.2 88.10

ID No. D3885 D6860 B44 D1102 B374 D2861 D2864 D5884 B132 D1313 D5887 B166 D403 B151 D1342 D5852 B49 D1704 D2724 B90 D504 D1391 D1147 D229 D1333 D2279 B123 D1503 D4873 D5889

Temperature Range ºC Liquid Phase Gas Phase

58 > 146 -40 > 199 -73 > 79 -3 > 82

146 > 726 -40 > 249 19 > 726 134 > 726

24 > 126 25 > 156 -40 > 199 -53 > 77 -100 > 179 -125 > 8 0 > 169 19 > 140

201 > 726 156 > 726 -40 > 499 0 > 726 180 > 726 -100 > 499 8 > 526 0 > 499 99 > 726

ETHYL ACETOACETA 130.1 BUTYNE1 EACRYLAT ETHYL ALUMINUM S EAMINE O-ETHYLANILINE EBENZENE ETHYL BENZOATE 2-ETHYL-1-BUTANO 2-ETHYL-1-BUTENE ETHYL N-BUTYRATE 2-ETHYL BUTYRIC ECHLORID ETHYL CHLOROFORM 54.09 100.1 247.5 45.08 121.2 106.2 150.2 102.2 84.16 116.2 116.2 64.52 108.5

-62 > 159 -45 > 16 -46 > 209 -40 > 199 -25 > 136 -23 > 213 -36 > 146 -131 > 64 -23 > 121 -15 > 193 -62 > 149 -123 > 66 -19 > 92 66 > 205

-62 > 207 16 > 726 209 > 726 -40 > 284 136 > 726 213 > 726 146 > 726 64 > 726 121 > 721 193 > 726 -62 > 499 0 > 726 92 > 726 205 > 726

ETHYL CYANOACETA 113.1

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Aspen B-JAC 11.1 User Guide

Component Name Ethylcyclohexane Ethylcyclopentane Ethylene Ethylene carbonate Ethylenediamine Ethylene glycol Ethylene glycol diacetate Ethylene glycol diacrylate Ethylene glycol monopropyl ether Ethylene glycol 20 wt % Ethylene glycol 40 wt % Ethylene glycol 50 wt % Ethylene glycol 60 wt % Ethyleneimine Ethylene oxide Ethyl-3ethoxypropionate Ethyl fluoride Ethyl formate 3-Ethylheptane 2-Ethylhexanal 3-Ethylhexane

Synonym ECHEX ECPENT ETHYLENE ETHYLENE CARBONA EDA EGLY-F ETHYLENE G-DIACE ETHYLENE G-DIACR ETHYLENE G-MONO EGLY-20 EGLY-40 EGLY-50 EGLY-60 AZIRIDIN EOXIDE ETHYL-3-ETHOXYPR ETHYL FLUORIDE EFORMATE 3-ETHYLHEPTANE 2-ETHYLHEXANAL 3-ETHYLHEXANE

Molec. Weight 112.2 98.19 28.05 88.06 60.10 62.07 146.1 170.2 104.1 18.01 18.02 40.04 18.00 43.07 44.05 146.2 48.06 74.09 128.3 128.2 114.2

ID No. B262 D140 B283 D107 B126 D201 D1366 B233 D1741 B109 D1201 D1387 D1896 D4855 B24 B27 B308 B198 B235 D1742 B157 D1441 D6885 D1617 B131 D1302 D94 D1013 D31

Temperature Range ºC Liquid Phase Gas Phase -51 > 121 -73 > 131 -43 > 81 -19 > 28 -128 > 4 -169 > -23 -73 > 426 131 > 726 -58 > 426 103 > 726 -128 > 537 -103 > 626

19 > 214 29 > 117 0 > 199 -13 > 176 -31 > 190 71 > 229 26 > 151 0 > 199 -17 > 199 -3 > 165 10 > 176 -40 > 219 -23 > 55 -50 > 149 -112 > 10 26 > 164 -143 > -37 -40 > 199 -18 > 71 -114 > 143 30 > 160 -1 > 118

0 > 499 117 > 726 0 > 499 197 > 726 190 > 726 229 > 726 151 > 726

-40 > 499 55 > 726 -50 > 449 0 > 726 164 > 726 -37 > 726 -40 > 499 54 > 726 143 > 726 160 > 726 118 > 726

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Component Name 2-Ethyl-1-hexanol 2-Ethyl-1-hexene 2-Ethylhexyl acetate 2-Ethylhexyl acrylate Ethylidene diacetate Ethyl iodide Ethyl isobutyrate Ethyl isopropyl ketone Ethyl isovalerate Ethyl lactate Ethyl mercaptan Ethyl methacrylate 1-Ethylnaphthalene 3-Ethylpentane 2-Ethyl-1-pentene 3-Ethyl-1-pentene p-Ethylphenol Ethyl propionate Ethyl propyl ether Ethylthioethanol m-Ethyltoluene o-Ethyltoluene p-Ethyltoluene Ethyl vanillin Ethyl vinyl ether 2-Ethyl-m-xylene 2-Ethyl-p-xylene 3-Ethyl-o-xylene 4-Ethyl-m-xylene 4-Ethyl-o-xylene

Synonym 2-ETHYL-1-HEXANO 2-ETHYL-1-HEXENE 2-ETHYLHEXYL ACE 2-ETHYLHEXYL ACR ETHYLIDENE DIACE ETHYL IODIDE ETHYL ISOBUTYRAT ETHYL ISOPROPYL ETHYL ISOVALERAT ETHYL LACTATE EMERCAPT

Molec. Weight 130.2 112.2 172.3 184.3 146.1 156.0 116.2 100.2 130.2 118.1 62.13

ID No. D1121 D258 D1358 D1386 D2380 D1682 D2337 D1095 D1347 D5883 B171 D1802 D1352 D704 D20 D233 D239 D1187 D1323 D1415 D6859 D512 D511 D513 D6872 D1445 D576 D577 D580 D578 D579

Temperature Range ºC Liquid Phase Gas Phase -69 > 101 -33 > 119 -63 > 198 -89 > 215 44 > 168 0 > 59 24 > 109 24 > 113 -23 > 134 -80 > 119 -147 > 34 24 > 116 24 > 258 -23 > 26 24 > 93 24 > 84 85 > 217 24 > 99 -73 > 46 -95 > 161 -80 > 165 9 > 126 100 > 293 -35 > 35 24 > 190 24 > 186 -49 > 193 24 > 188 24 > 189 176 > 726 119 > 726 198 > 726 215 > 725 168 > 726 26 > 726 109 > 726 113 > 726 134 > 726 154 > 726 -80 > 499 34 > 726 116 > 726 258 > 726 93 > 726 93 > 726 84 > 726 217 > 726 99 > 726 63 > 276 183 > 726 161 > 721 165 > 725 162 > 722 293 > 726 35 > 726 190 > 726 186 > 726 193 > 726 188 > 726 189 > 726

ETHYL METHACRYLA 114.1 1-ETHYLNAPHTHALE 3-ETHYLPENTANE 2-ETHYL-1-PENTEN 3-ETHYL-1-PENTEN P-ETHYLPHENOL ETHYL PROPIONATE ETHYL PROPYL ETH M-ETHYLTOLUENE O-ETHYLTOLUENE P-ETHYLTOLUENE ETHYL VANILLIN ETHYL VINYL ETHE 2-ETHYL-M-XYLENE 2-ETHYL-P-XYLENE 3-ETHYL-O-XYLENE 4-ETHYL-M-XYLENE 4-ETHYL-O-XYLENE 156.2 100.2 98.19 98.19 122.2 102.1 88.15 120.2 120.2 120.2 166.2 72.11 134.2 134.2 134.2 134.2 134.2

ETHYLTHIOETHANOL 106.2

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Component Name 5-Ethyl-m-xylene Ferric oxide Ferrous oxide Ferrous sulfate Fluoranthene Fluorene Fluorine Fluorobenzene Formaldehyde Formamide Formanilide Formic acid Fuel oil number 1 (k=11.0) Fuel oil number 2 (k=11.0) Fuel oil number 3 (k=11.0) Fuel oil number 6 (k=11.0) Fuel oil number 6 (low range) Fumaric acid Furan Furfural Furfuryl alcohol Gallium trichloride Germanium Germanium tetrahydride

Synonym 5-ETHYL-M-XYLENE FERRIC OXIDE FERROUS OXIDE FERROUS SULFATE FLUORANTHENE FLUORENE FLUORINE FBENZENE FORMALDE FORMAMIDE FORMANILIDE FORMACID FUEL1 FUEL2 FUEL3 FUEL6 FUEL6A FUMARIC ACID FURFURAN FURFURAL FURFURYL ALCOHOL GALLIUM TRICHLOR GERMANIUM GERMANIUM TETRAH

Molec. Weight 134.2 159.7 71.85 151.9 202.3 166.2 38.00 96.10 30.02 45.04 121.1 46.02 114.0 1.00 114.0 18.00

ID No. D575 D2974 D2973 D2950 D717 D738 B121 D917 B128 D1860 B164 D1001 D2851 D1749 B100 D1251 B344 B345 B342 B343 B350

Temperature Range ºC Liquid Phase Gas Phase 24 > 183 183 > 726

110 > 176 114 > 176 -203 > -153 -28 > 199 -33 > 46 -80 > 119 -69 > -39 18 > 219 54 > 270 9 > 199 8 > 100 -17 > 198 -17 > 198 -17 > 198 65 > 482 26 > 93 286 > 289 0 > 199 -73 > 31 0 > 199 19 > 79 -14 > 169

382 > 726 297 > 726 -199 >1199 -173 > 226 -28 > 499 84 > 326 -80 > 409 -19 > 720 219 > 726 270 > 726 9 > 499 100 > 726

116.1 68.08 96.08 98.10 176.1 72.61 76.64

D2268 B160 D1478 B87 D1889 D2855 D1949 D1993 D2966

289 > 726 0 > 499 31 > 726 0 > 254 161 > 721 169 > 726 200 > 726 -73 > 726

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Component Name l-Glutamic acid Glutaric acid Glutaric anhydride Glutaronitrile Glycerine 20 wt % Glycerine 40 wt % Glycerine 60 wt % Glycerol Glyceryl triacetate Glycolic acid Glyoxal Guaiacol Halothane Heavy water Helium-3 Helium-4 n-Heptadecane n-Heptadecanoic acid 1-Heptadecanol 1-Heptadecene 1-Heptanal n-Heptane n-Heptanoic acid 1-Heptanol 2-Heptanol 2-Heptanone 3-Heptanone 4-Heptanone cis-2-Heptene cis-3-Heptene

Synonym L-GLUTAMIC ACID GLUTARIC ACID GLUTARIC ANHYDRI GLUTARONITRILE GLYC-20 GLYC-40 GLYC-60 GLYCERIN GLYCERYL TRIACET GLYCOLIC ACID GLYOXAL GUAIACOL HALOTHANE HWATER HELIUM HELIUM-4 N-HEPTADECANE N-HEPTADECANOIC 1-HEPTADECANOL 1-HEPTADECENE 1-HEPTANAL HEPTANE N-HEPTANOIC ACID 1-HEPTANOL 2-HEPTANOL 2-HEPTANONE 3-HEPTANONE 4-HEPTANONE CIS-2-HEPTENE CIS-3-HEPTENE

Molec. Weight 147.1 132.1 114.1 94.12 92.09 92.09 92.09 92.09 218.2 76.05 58.04 124.1 197.4 4.00 4.00 240.5 270.5 256.5 238.5 114.2 100.2 130.2 116.2 116.2 114.2 114.2 114.2 98.19 98.19

ID No. D5876 D2281 D1296 D1781 B194 B195 B196 B125 D1231 D2370 D1887 D1014 D4854 D2640 B456 B183 D923 D913 D69 D2265 D1145 D281 D1008 B41 D17 D2261 D1125 D1126 D1063 D1057 D1058 D235 D249

Temperature Range ºC Liquid Phase Gas Phase 396 > 726 130 > 322 145 > 289 -28 > 285 -17 > 199 -17 > 199 -17 > 199 -17 > 315 19 > 226 24 > 248 79 > 169 14 > 50 75 > 204 -12 > 50 0 > 99 -149 > 871 -272 > -270 -270 > -268 21 > 206 61 > 206 111 > 301 11 > 300 -42 > 56 -62 > 239 -90 > 99 -7 > 76 -23 > 96 20 > 159 32 > 150 -38 > 147 -32 > 143 -81 > 78 -23 > 95 302 > 501 362 > 726 323 > 726 300 > 726 152 > 726 -62 > 342 65 > 426 222 > 726 176 > 726 159 > 726 150 > 726 147 > 726 143 > 726 98 > 726 95 > 726 -17 > 315 289 > 726 258 > 726 169 > 726 50 > 626 204 > 726 50 > 726 322 > 726 289 > 726 285 > 526

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Aspen B-JAC 11.1 User Guide

Component Name trans-2-Heptene trans-3-Heptene Heptene 1-Heptene n-Heptylamine n-Heptylbenzene Hexachlorobenzen e Hexachloro-1,3butadiene
Hexachlorocyclopenta diene

Synonym TRANS-2-HEPTENE TRANS-3-HEPTENE HEPTENE 1-HEPTENE N-HEPTYLAMINE N-HEPTYLBENZENE

Molec. Weight 98.19 98.19 98.18 98.19 115.2 176.3 132.3

ID No. D236 D237 B202 D234 D2707 D549 D1839 D1575 D1561 D1582 D1525 D68 D1272 D1144 D266 D320 D314 D310 D2651 D1864 B226 D2693 D1699 D1966 D1964 D1965

Temperature Range ºC Liquid Phase Gas Phase -109 > 97 -136 > 95 9 > 184 -93 > 56 30 > 156 -28 > 246 -43 > 176 228 > 309 97 > 208 24 > 99 186 > 248 18 > 61 70 > 209 107 > 176 4 > 30 26 > 83 26 > 81 26 > 59 -125 > -27 5 > 76 -90 > 0 -100 > -78 -156 > -29 63 > 99 24 > 125 -33 > 100 97 > 726 95 > 726 9 > 499 93 > 726 156 > 726 246 > 726 176 > 726 309 > 726 214 > 724 238 > 718 186 > 726 286 > 499 350 > 726 311 > 726 284 > 726 83 > 726 81 > 726 59 > 726 -27 > 726 80 > 326 -100 > 399 -78 > 426 -29 > 726 135 > 726 125 > 726 100 > 726

n-Heptyl mercaptan N-HEPTYL MERCAPT

HEXACHLOROBENZE 284.8 N HEXACHLORO-1,3-B HEXACHLOROCYCL OP HEXACHLOROETHA NE N-HEXADECANE N-HEXADECANOIC A 1-HEXADECANOL 1-HEXADECENE CIS,TRANS-2,4-HE TRANS,TRANS-2,41,5-HEXADIENE 260.8 272.8 236.7 226.4 256.4 242.4 224.4 82.15 82.15 82.15

Hexachloroethane n-Hexadecane n-Hexadecanoic acid 1-Hexadecanol 1-Hexadecene cis,trans-2,4Hexadiene Trans,trans-2,4Hexadiene 1,5-Hexadiene Hexafluoroacetone Hexafluorobenzene Hexafluoroethane Hexafluoropropylen e Hexamethylcyclotri siloxane Hexamethyldisilaza ne Hexamethyldisiloxa ne

HEXAFLUOROACETO 166.0 N HEXAFLUOROBENZE 186.1 N R116 HEXAFLUOROPROP YL HEXAMETHYLCYCLO T HEXAMETHYLDISILA HEXAMETHYLDISILO 138.0 150.0 222.5 161.4 162.4

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Component Name Hexamethylenedia mine

Synonym HEXAMETHYLENEDI A

Molec. Weight 116.2 99.18 179.2 100.2 86.18 118.2 97.16 116.2 102.2 102.2 100.2 100.2 84.16 84.16 84.16 84.16 84.16 144.2 101.2 162.3 118.2 118.2 212.3 216.4

ID No. D1731 D1794 D1885 D1009 B13 D11 D1243 D1786 D1262 D1114 D1115 D1062 D1059 D217 D219 D218 D220 B210 D216 D1363 D2706 D568 D1222 D1807 D714 D716

Temperature Range ºC Liquid Phase Gas Phase 56 > 199 24 > 137 199 > 726 137 > 526

Hexamethyleneimin HEXAMETHYLENEIMI e Hexamethyl phosphoramide 1-Hexanal n-Hexane 1,6-Hexanediol Hexanenitrile n-Hexanoic acid 1-Hexanol 2-Hexanol 2-Hexanone 3-Hexanone cis-2-Hexene cis-3-Hexene trans-2-Hexene trans-3-Hexene 1-Hexene n-Hexyl acetate n-Hexylamine n-Hexylbenzene Hexylene glycol n-Hexyl mercaptan 1-nHexylnaphthalene 1-n-Hexyl-1,2,3,4tetrahydronaphthal ene 1-Hexyne 2-Hexyne 3-Hexyne Humbletherm 500 Hydracrylonitrile HEXAMETHYL PHOSP 1-HEXANAL HEXANE 1,6-HEXANEDIOL HEXANENITRILE N-HEXANOIC ACID 1-HEXANOL 2-HEXANOL 2-HEXANONE 3-HEXANONE CIS-2-HEXENE CIS-3-HEXENE TRANS-2-HEXENE TRANS-3-HEXENE HEXENE N-HEXYL ACETATE N-HEXYLAMINE N-HEXYLBENZENE HEXYLENE GLYCOL N-HEXYL MERCAPTA 1-N-HEXYLNAPHTHA 1-N-HEXYL-1,2,3,

16 > 128 -62 > 219 -95 > 69 1 > 163 1 > 76 -23 > 46 -43 > 56 -52 > 109 -55 > 123 -93 > 53 -137 > 66 -53 > 67 -113 > 67 -40 > 199 -113 > 63 24 > 171 18 > 131 -19 > 226 -49 > -33 -80 > 152 24 > 176 26 > 304

128 > 726 -62 > 332 65 > 726 242 > 722 193 > 703 205 > 726 157 > 726 139 > 726 127 > 726 123 > 726 68 > 726 66 > 726 67 > 726 67 > 726 -40 > 499 63 > 726 171 > 726 131 > 726 226 > 726 197 > 726 152 > 726 321 > 726 304 > 726

1-HEXYNE 2-HEXYNE 3-HEXYNE HBL500 HYDRACRYLONITRIL

82.15 82.15 82.15 18.01 71.08

D413 D407 D406 B81 D1764

-73 > 71 26 > 84 26 > 81 65 > 343 -46 > 220

71 > 726 84 > 726 81 > 726 220 > 726

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Component Name Hydrazine Hydrazobenzene
Hydrochloric acid 30 wt %

Synonym HYDRAZIN HYDRAZOBENZENE HCL-30 HYDROGEN HBR HCL HCN HF HI HYDPEROX

Molec. Weight 32.05 184.2

ID No. B102 D1717 D2783 B351

Temperature Range ºC Liquid Phase Gas Phase 15 > 239 6 > 113 0 > 121 -249 > -244 -259 > -240 -75 > 74 -87 > -66 -100 > 49 0 > -88 0 > 139 -13 > 25 19 > 121 -78 > 19 34 > 149 -47 > -35 0 > 449 0 > 150 -73 > 93 -79 > -3 171 > 284 148 > 309 -249 >1199 -23 > 1226 -199 > 799 -66 > 326 -80 > 499 -73 > 726 0 > 149 26 > 151 19 > 799 76 > 176 34 > 799 -23 > 376 0 > 1199 99 > 326 -42 > 726 -73 > 499 -23 > 206 284 > 726 309 > 726 15 > 239 113 > 723 299 > 726

Hydrogen Hydrogen bromide Hydrogen chloride Hydrogen cyanide Hydrogen fluoride Hydrogen iodide Hydrogen peroxide Hydrogen selenide Hydrogen sulfide p-Hydroquinone

2.02 80.92 36.46 27.03 20.00 127.9 34.01

B5 D902 B214 D1906 B9 D1904 B68 D1771 B221 D1905 B216 D1907 B334 D1996 D3951 B83 D1922 D1186 D1043

HYDROGEN SELENID 80.98 H2S P-HYDROQUINONE 34.08 110.1 122.1

PpHydroxybenzaldehy HYDROXYBENZALD de Hydroxycaproic acid 2-Hydroxyethyl acrylate Hydroxylamine 8-Hydroxyquinoline Hypophosphorous acid Indane Indene Indole HYDROXYCAPROIC A 2-HYDROXYETHYL A HYDROXYLAMINE 8-HYDROXYQUINOLI HYPOPHOSPHOROU S INDANE INDENE INDOLE

132.2 116.1 33.03 145.2 66.00 118.2 116.2 117.1

D5882 D6883 D4886 D5871 D1909 D820 D803 D2784

105 > 285 57 > 209

302 > 726 209 > 726 109 > 726 266 > 726

-23 > 169 -1 > 126 52 > 226

177 > 726 182 > 722 252 > 726

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Component Name Inositol Component Name Iodine Iodobenzene Iron Isobutane Isobutanol Isobutene Isobutyl acetate Isobutyl acrylate Isobutylamine Isobutylbenzene Isobutyl formate Isobutyl isobutyrate Isobutyl mercaptan Isobutyric acid Isobutyronitrile Isopentane Isopentyl acetate Isopentyl isovalerate Isophorone Isophthalic acid Isophthaloyl chloride Isoprene Isopropanol

Synonym INOSITOL Synonym IODINE IODOBENZENE IRON IBUTANE IBUTANOL IBUTYLEN ISOBUTYL ACETATE ISOBUTYL ACRYLAT ISOBUTYLAMINE ISOBUTYLBENZENE ISOBUTYL FORMATE ISOBUTYL ISOBUTY ISOBUTYL MERCAPT IBUTACID ISOBUTYRONITRILE IPENTANE ISOPENTYL ACETAT ISOPENTYL ISOVAL ISOPHORONE ISOPHTHALIC ACID ISOPHTHALOYL CHL ISOPRENE IPOH

Molec. Weight 180.2 Molec. Weight 253.8 204.0 55.85 58.12 74.12 56.10 116.2 128.2 73.14 134.2 102.1 144.2 90.19 88.11 69.11 72.15 130.2 172.3 138.2 166.1 203.0 68.11 60.09

ID No. D1249 ID No. B224 D1998 D1691 D2923 B99 D4 B62 D1106 B211 D207 D1316 D2384 D1714 D519 D1305 D1360 D1805 B312 D1260 D1787 B103 D8 D1317 D1361 D1077 D1288 D2899 B212 D309 B45 D1104

Temperature Range ºC Liquid Phase Gas Phase

Temperature Range ºC Liquid Phase Gas Phase 121 > 499 -23 > 76 -40 > 99 -83 > 101 -40 > 199 -62 > 107 -40 > 104 -140 > -6 16 > 70 20 > 131 -23 > 67 -51 > 172 16 > 98 -23 > 147 -144 > 88 -17 > 176 -23 > 154 -71 > 103 -62 > 97 -123 > 36 -3 > 142 26 > 193 -8 > 146 345 > 479 0 > 799 113 > 476 188 > 726 -40 > 237 -11 > 426 -40 > 339 107 > 726 -40 > 499 -6 > 726 116 > 226 131 > 726 67 > 726 172 > 726 98 > 726 147 > 726 88 > 726 -17 > 499 154 > 726 103 > 703 -62 > 499 0 > 726 142 > 526 193 > 726 215 > 726 479 > 726 275 > 726 -40 > 114 0 > 34 -40 > 199 -85 > 82 -40 > 499 34 > 726 -40 > 499 82 > 726

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Component Name Isopropyl acetate Isopropylamine Isopropyl chloride Isopropylcyclohexa ne Isopropyl iodide Isopropyl mercaptan Isoquinoline Isovaleric acid Itaconic acid Ketene Krypton Lactic acid Lactonitrile Levulinic acid d-Limonene Linoleic acid Linolenic acid Lithium Lysine Magnesium nitrate Magnesium oxide Magnesium sulfate Malathion Maleic acid Maleic anhydride Malic acid Malonic acid Malononitrile Marlotherm s L-Menthol

Synonym IPACETAT IPAMINE ISOPROPYL CHLORI ISOPROPYLCYCLOH E ISOPROPYL IODIDE

Molec. Weight 102.1 59.11 78.54 126.2 170.0

ID No. B148 D1319 B101 D1719 D1530 D150 D1684 D1810 D2785 D1261 D2278 D1100 B285 D920 D5880 D5872 D4852 D290 D1280 D2255 D2924 D5873 D3953 D2951 D2952 D3887 D1286 D1298 D4853 D3268 D1785 B321 D1159

Temperature Range ºC Liquid Phase Gas Phase -40 > 199 -57 > 88 -62 > 159 0 > 32 -23 > 35 -89 > 154 -48 > 89 -14 > 52 29 > 243 26 > 175 165 > 327 -88 > -49 -40 > 499 88 > 726 -62 > 499 32 > 726 35 > 726 154 > 726 89 > 726 52 > 726 243 > 726 175 > 726 327 > 726 -49 > 726 -149 > 449 17 > 181 48 > 183 34 > 245 20 > 176 -5 > 354 116 > 176 180 >1346 224 > 337 341 > 726 181 > 726 183 > 726 245 > 726 176 > 726 354 > 726 358 > 726

ISOPROPYL MERCAP 76.16 ISOQUINOLINE ISOVALERIC ACID ITACONIC ACID KETENE KRYPTON LACTIC ACID LACTONITRILE LEVULINIC ACID D-LIMONENE LINOLEIC ACID LINOLENIC ACID LITHIUM LYSINE MAGNESIUM NITRAT MAGNESIUM OXIDE MALATHION MALEIC ACID MALEIC ANHYDRIDE MALIC ACID MALONIC ACID MALONONITRILE MARLO-S L-MENTHOL 129.2 102.1 130.1 42.04 83.80 90.08 71.08 116.1 136.2 280.5 278.4 6.94 146.2 148.3 40.30 330.4 116.1 98.06 134.1 104.1 66.06 272.0 156.3

MAGNESIUM SULFAT 120.4

130 > 291 52 > 201 129 > 307 134 > 306 31 > 218 19 > 379 42 > 216

291 > 726 201 > 726 328 > 726 306 > 726 218 > 726 216 > 726

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Component Name 2-Mercaptoethanol 3Mercaptopropionic acid Mercury Mesitylene Mesityl oxide Methacrolein 2-methacrylamide Methacrylic acid Methacrylonitrile Methane Methanesulfonic acid Methanol Methanol 20 wt % Methanol 40 wt % Methanol 60 wt % Methoxyacetic acid 2-Methoxyethanol 2-2-Methoxyethoxy ethanol p-Methoxyphenol 3Methoxypropionitril e n-Methylacetamide Methyl acetate Methyl acetoacetate

Synonym 2MERCAPTOETHANO 3MERCAPTOPROPIO MERCURY MESITYL MESITYL OXIDE METHACROLEIN 2-METHACRYLAMIDE METHACRYLIC ACID METHACRYLONITRIL METHANE METHANESULFONIC METHANOL MEOH-20 MEOH-40 MEOH-60 2METHOXYETHANOL 2-(2-METHOXYETHO P-METHOXYPHENOL 3METHOXYPROPION

Molec. Weight 78.13 106.1

ID No. D6858 D1873

Temperature Range ºC Liquid Phase Gas Phase 41 > 157 17 > 86 157 > 726 227 > 726

200.6 120.2 98.14 70.09 85.11 86.09 67.09 16.04 96.11 32.04 18.02 18.02 16.80 76.10 120.1 124.1 85.11

D2930 B279 D516 D1065 D1037 D1878 D1278 D1775 B86 D1 D4874 B14 D1101 B30 B31 B455 D4875 D2860 D2863 D2859 D5890

-38 > 356 -37 > 159 15 > 76 19 > 129 -8 > 67 110 > 214 14 > 160 24 > 90 -181 > -90 -182 > -103 -128 > 537 164 > 476 129 > 719 67 > 726 214 > 726 160 > 726 90 > 726 -128 > 648 -176 > 576

-51 > 204 -97 > 64 -6 > 119 -28 > 119 -51 > 9 72 > 205

-51 > 204 0 > 726

METHOXYACETIC AC 90.08

205 > 626 124 > 726

24 > 126 105 > 242 45 > 165

193 > 726 242 > 726 165 > 726

N-METHYLACETAMID 73.09 MACETATE METHYL ACETOACET 74.08 116.1

D6854 B129 D1312 D5886

85 > 204 -62 > 159 -19 > 100 0 > 199

204 > 726 -62 > 499 56 > 526 171 > 726

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Component Name Methylacetylene Methyl acrylate Methylal Methylamine n-Methylaniline Methyl benzoate

Synonym MACETYL MACRYLAT METHYLAL MAMINE N-METHYLANILINE METHYL BENZOATE

Molec. Weight 40.06 86.09 76.10 31.06 107.2 136.1 132.2 94.95 68.12 88.15 88.15 88.15 88.15 70.13 70.13 70.13 66.10 88.15 88.15

ID No. B152 D402 B150 D1341 D1431 B188 D1701 D1795 D1390 D1485 B134 D1641 D311 D1112 D1111 D1123 D1124 D212 D214 D213 D414 D1426 B463 D1405

Temperature Range ºC Liquid Phase Gas Phase -100 > 99 -73 > -23 0 > 239 1 > 80 -104 > 36 -60 > 119 -93 > -6 -23 > 195 14 > 199 -100 > 499 -23 > 526 0 > 499 80 > 726 41 > 701 -60 > 499 -6 > 376 195 > 726 199 > 726 197 > 726 -80 > 159 -88 > 3 -113 > 40 0 > 128 -8 > 101 11 > 111 -133 > 22 -133 > 26 0 > 20 24 > 32 -24 > 58 -73 > 54 -93 > 55 -115 > 70 -73 > 26 24 > 102 83 > 176 -40 > 99 -24 > 76 -80 > 499 0 > 551 40 > 726 128 > 726 101 > 726 131 > 726 111 > 726 31 > 721 38 > 718 90 > 720 32 > 726 58 > 726 -73 > 232 0 > 726 26 > 726 28 > 726 102 > 726 176 > 726 -60 > 299 -43 > 426

2-Methylbenzofuran 2METHYLBENZOFUR Methyl bromide 3-Methyl-1,2butadiene 2-Methyl-1-butanol 2-Methyl-2-butanol 3-Methyl-1-butanol 3-Methyl-2-butanol 2-Methyl-1-butene 2-Methyl-2-butene 3-Methyl-1-butene 2-Methyl-1-butene3-yne Methyl sec-butyl ether Methyl tert-butyl ether Methyl-n-butylether 3-Methyl-1-butyne Methyl n-butyrate 2-Methylbutyric acid Methyl chloride MBROMIDE 3-METHYL-1,2-BUT MBUTANOL 2-METHYL-2-BUTAN 3-METHYL-1-BUTAN 3-METHYL-2-BUTAN MBUTENE 2-METHYL-2-BUTEN 3-METHYL-1-BUTEN MBUTENEYNE METHYL SEC-BUTYL MTBE

METHYL-N-BUTYL-E 3-METHYL-1-BUTYN METHYL N-BUTYRAT 2-METHYLBUTYRIC MCHLORID

88.15 68.12 102.1 102.1 50.50

D1413 D419 D1332 D1257 B118 D1502

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Component Name Methyl chloroacetate Methyl chloroformate Methyl chlorosilane Methyl cyanoacetate Methylcyclohexane
cis-2Methylcyclohexanol cis-3Methylcyclohexanol cis-4Methylcyclohexanol

Synonym METHYL CHLOROACE METHYL CHLOROFOR METHYL CHLOROSIL METHYL CYANOACET MCHEXANE CIS-2-METHYLCYCL CIS-3-METHYLCYCL CIS-4-METHYLCYCL TRANS-2-METHYLCY TRANS-3-METHYLCY TRANS-4-METHYLCY 1METHYLCYCLOHEX NMETHYLCYCLOHEX METHYLCYCLOPENT A MCPENTAN

Molec. Weight 108.5 94.50 80.59 99.09 98.19 114.2 114.2 114.2 114.2 114.2 114.2 114.2 113.2

ID No. D5866 D4876 D3935 D5888 B267 D138 D1153 D1155 D1157 D1154 D1156 D1158 D1152 D2731

Temperature Range ºC Liquid Phase Gas Phase 26 > 129 -10 > 70 -23 > 8 -13 > 205 -73 > 96 0 > 46 36 > 126 15 > 47 36 > 170 6 > 51 15 > 47 36 > 170 25 > 186 37 > 148 129 > 726 70 > 626 8 > 726 205 > 726 -73 > 426 100 > 726 164 > 726 167 > 726 170 > 726 166 > 726 167 > 726 170 > 726 156 > 726 148 > 726

trans-2Methylcyclohexanol trans-3Methylcyclohexanol trans-4Methylcyclohexanol 1Methylcyclohexanol nMethylcyclohexyla mine Methylcyclopentadi ene Methylcyclopentan e Methyl dichlorosilane Methyl diethanolamine Methyldiethanolami ne 50 wt % Methyl dodecanoate 1-Methyl-1,4-ehtyl benzene

80.13 84.16

D312 B284 D105

26 > 72 -76 > 58 -24 > 71 1 > 41 65 > 225 0 > 104 82 > 252 -51 > 148

72 > 726 -73 > 426 71 > 726 41 > 726 246 > 726

METHYL DICHLOROS 115.0 METHYL DIETHANOL MDEA-50 METHYL DODECANOA MEBENZ4 214.3 120.2 119.2

D3936 D1722 B434 D2385 B278

266 > 726 -128 > 537

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Component Name Methylethanolamin e 1-Methyl-1,2,ethyl benzene 1-Methyl-1,3-ethyl benzene 1-Methyl-1ethylcyclopentane Methyl ethyl ether Methyl ethyl ketone 2-Methyl-3ethylpentane 3-Methyl-3ethylpentane Methyl ethyl sulfide Methyl fluoride n-Methylformamide Methyl formate Methylglutaronitrile 2-Methylheptane 3-Methylheptane 4-Methylheptane 2-Methylhexanal 3-Methylhexanal 2-Methylhexane 3-Methylhexane 5-Methyl-1-hexanol 5-Methyl-2hexanone 2-Methyl-1-hexene 3-Methyl-1-hexene

Synonym

Molec. Weight

ID No. D6862 B295 B277 D116 D1407 B61 D1052 D38 D39 B327 D1613 D2852 B358 D1301 D2798 B223 D28 D29 D30 D1016 D1017 B207 D18 B266 D19 D1129 D1064 D238 D240

Temperature Range ºC Liquid Phase Gas Phase 41 > 157 -51 > 159 -56 > 138 24 > 121 -54 > 7 -62 > 201 -86 > 79 -114 > 115 -71 > 108 -17 > 93 -141 > -78 24 > 199 -20 > 99 -23 > 31 97 > 262 -40 > 148 -106 > 117 -104 > 118 -33 > 86 26 > 142 26 > 142 -40 > 159 0 > 90 -73 > 82 -119 > 91 26 > 171 -73 > 144 24 > 91 24 > 83 157 > 726 -128 > 537 -128 > 537 121 > 726 0 > 726 -62 > 304 79 > 726 115 > 726 118 > 726 -17 > 371 -78 > 726 199 > 726 0 > 499 26 > 726 262 > 526 -40 > 499 117 > 726 118 > 726 117 > 726 142 > 726 142 > 726 -40 > 499 90 > 720 -73 > 426 91 > 721 171 > 726 144 > 726 91 > 726 83 > 726

METHYLETHANOLAM 75.11 I MEBENZ2 MEBENZ3 1-METHYL-1-ETHYL METHYL ETHYL ETH MEK 2-METHYL-3-ETHYL 3-METHYL-3-ETHYL METHS METHYL FLUORIDE NMETHYLFORMAMID MFORMATE METHYLGLUTARONI T MHEPTANE 3-METHYLHEPTANE 4-METHYLHEPTANE 2-METHYLHEXANAL 3-METHYLHEXANAL IHEPTANE MHEXANE 5-METHYL-1-HEXAN 5-METHYL-2-HEXAN 2-METHYL-1-HEXEN 3-METHYL-1-HEXEN 120.2 120.2 112.2 60.10 72.10 114.2 114.2 76.16 34.03 59.07 60.05 108.1 114.2 114.2 114.2 114.2 114.2 100.2 100.2 116.2 114.2 98.19 98.19

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Component Name 4-Methyl-1-hexene 1-Methylindene 2-Methylindene Methyl iodide Methyl isobutyl ether Methyl isobutyl ketone Methyl isocyanate Methyl isopropenyl ketone Methyl isopropyl ether Methyl isopropyl ketone Methyl mercaptan Methyl methacrylate 1Methylnaphthalene 2Methylnaphthalene 2-Methylnonane 3-Methylnonane 4-Methylnonane 5-Methylnonane 8-Methyl-1-nonanol 2-Methyloctane 3-Methyloctane 4-Methyloctane Methyl oleate 2-Methylpentane

Synonym 4-METHYL-1-HEXEN 1-METHYLINDENE 2-METHYLINDENE METHYL IODIDE METHYL ISOBUTYL MIBK

Molec. Weight 98.19 130.2 130.2 141.9 88.15 100.2

ID No. D226 D723 D724 D1681 D1410 B169 D1054

Temperature Range ºC Liquid Phase Gas Phase -141 > 86 86 > 726 198 > 726 184 > 726 -19 > 35 26 > 58 -80 > 159 24 > 116 26 > 97 -145 > 30 -92 > 94 -80 > 149 0 > 159 16 > 90 -30 > 126 34 > 176 -74 > 166 -84 > 167 -98 > 165 -87 > 165 -33 > 219 -80 > 143 -66 > 133 -50 > 142 19 > 336 -40 > 199 -15 > 60 26 > 726 58 > 726 0 > 499 116 > 726 38 > 726 97 > 726 30 > 726 94 > 726 -80 > 499 5 > 326 0 > 499 100 > 726 244 > 726 241 > 726 166 > 726 167 > 726 165 > 726 165 > 726 219 > 726 143 > 726 144 > 726 142 > 726 343 > 726 -40 > 499 60 > 720

METHYL ISOCYANAT METHYL I-KETONE METHYL IE METHYL IK MMERCAPT MMACRYL

57.05 84.12 74.12 86.13 48.10 100.1

D2793 D1096 D1411 D1061 B167 D1801 B54 D1351

1-METHYLNAPHTHAL 142.2 2-METHYLNAPHTHAL 142.2 2-METHYLNONANE 3-METHYLNONANE 4-METHYLNONANE 5-METHYLNONANE 8-METHYL-1-NONAN 2-METHYLOCTANE 3-METHYLOCTANE 4-METHYLOCTANE METHYL OLEATE ISOHEXANE 142.3 142.3 142.3 142.3 158.3 128.3 128.3 128.3 296.5 86.17

D702 D703 D86 D85 D87 D88 D1139 D91 D92 D93 D1362 B215 D12

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Component Name 3-Methylpentane 2-Methyl-1pentanol 4-Methyl-2pentanol 3-Methyl-2pentanone 2-Methyl-1-pentene 2-Methyl-2-pentene 3-Methyl-cis-2pentene 3-Methyl-1-pentene 4-Methyl-cis-2pentene 4-Methyl-trans-2pentene 4-Methyl-1-pentene Methyl tert-pentyl ether Methyl-n-pentyl ether 2-Methylpropanal Methyl propionate Methyl-n-propyl ether Methyl propyl ketone 2-Methylpyridine 3-Methylpyridine 4-Methylpyridine n-Methylpyrrole n-Methylpyrrolidine n-Methyl-2pyrrolidone Methyl salicylate Methyl silane

Synonym MPENTANE 2-METHYL-1-PENTA 4-METHYL-2-PENTA 3-METHYL-2-PENTA 2-METHYL-1-PENTE 2-METHYL-2-PENTE 3-METHYL-CIS-2-P 3-METHYL-1-PENTE 4-METHYL-CIS-2-P 4-METHYL-TRANS-2 4-METHYL-1-PENTE METHYL TERT-PENT METHYL-N-PENTYL 2METHYLPROPANAL METHYL PROPIONAT METHYL-N-PROPYL MPK 2-METHYLPYRIDINE 3-METHYLPYRIDINE 4-METHYLPYRIDINE N-METHYLPYRROLE N-METHYLPYRROLID N-METHYL-2-PYRRO METHYL SALICYLAT METHYL SILANE

Molec. Weight 86.18 102.2 102.2 100.2 84.16 84.16 84.16 84.16 84.16 84.16 84.16 102.2 102.2 72.11 88.11 74.12 86.13 93.13 93.13 93.13 81.12 85.15 99.13 152.1 46.14

ID No. B281 D13 D1117 D1130 D1055 D221 D224 D225 D222 D227 D228 D223 D1427 D1429 D1006 D1322 D1408 B353 D1797 D2797 D2799 D1754 D1767 D1071 D1373 D3984

Temperature Range ºC Liquid Phase Gas Phase -59 > 39 -7 > 63 31 > 147 30 > 131 24 > 117 -43 > 56 -135 > 67 -134 > 67 -152 > 54 -134 > 56 -140 > 58 -153 > 53 -6 > 86 24 > 98 24 > 64 26 > 79 -139 > 39 0 > 93 -53 > 129 19 > 59 3 > 145 -56 > 112 -23 > 79 33 > 203 22 > 223 203 > 726 220 > 726 -56 > 726 -59 > 426 63 > 723 147 > 726 131 > 726 117 > 726 62 > 726 67 > 726 67 > 726 54 > 726 56 > 726 58 > 726 53 > 723 86 > 726 98 > 726 64 > 726 76 > 726 39 > 726 0 > 499 129 > 726 144 > 726 145 > 726 112 > 726

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Component Name alphaMethylstyrene m-Methylstyrene o-Methylstyrene p-Methylstyrene 3-Methyl sulfolane Methyl trichlorosilane Methyl vinyl ether Mobiltherm light Mobiltherm 600 Mobiltherm 603 Mobiltherm 605 Monochlorobenzen e Monochlorotoluene Monoethanolamine Monoethanolamine 20 wt % Monoethanolamine 40 wt % Monoethanolamine 60 wt % Morpholine Naphthalene Natural gas (sp.gr.=0.71) Natural gas (sp.gr.=0.80) Natural gas flue gas Neon

Synonym MSTYRENE

Molec. Weight 118.2

ID No. B318 D613

Temperature Range ºC Liquid Phase Gas Phase -2 > 199 -23 > 165 -73 > 171 -68 > 169 -20 > 172 16 > 176 -48 > 26 -10 > 82 -122 > 5 9 > 343 37 > 287 9 > 287 37 > 315 -28 > 199 -23 > 86 7 > 159 18 > 179 24 > 169 9 > 99 9 > 99 9 > 99 6 > 127 99 > 459 80 > 217 127 > 726 0 > 799 217 > 726 -17 > 482 -17 > 482 99 > 899 -149 >1093 -248 > -233 18 > 499 169 > 726 -28 > 231 126 > 726 -17 > 499 165 > 726 171 > 726 169 > 726 172 > 726 275 > 726 66 > 726 -10 > 121 26 > 726

M-METHYLSTYRENE O-METHYLSTYRENE P-METHYLSTYRENE 3-METHYL SULFOLA METHYL TRICHLORO MVE MBLLIGHT MBL600 MBL603 MBL605 MCB

118.2 118.2 118.2 134.2 149.5 58.08 18.01 18.01 18.01 18.01 112.6

D603 D602 D612 D1847 D3937 B448 D1470 B323 B80 B324 B322 B8 D1571

MCLTOL MEA MEA-20 MEA-40 MEA-60 MORPHOLINE NAPHTHAL NG1 NG36 NGFG NEON

112.5 61.08 18.01 18.01 18.01 87.12 128.2 20.46 23.71 27.78 20.18

B310 B333 D1723 B33 B34 B35 D1765 B237 D701 B303 B304 B206 B184 D919

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Component Name Neopentane Neopentanoic acid Neopentyl glycol Nitric acid Nitric acid 20 wt % Nitric acid 40 wt % Nitric acid 60 wt % Nitric oxide m-Nitroaniline o-Nitroaniline p-Nitroaniline o-Nitroanisole Nitrobenzene 3Nitrobenzotrifluorid e oNitrodiphenylamine Nitroethane Nitrogen Nitrogen dioxide Nitrogen pentoxide Nitrogen tetroxide Nitrogen trichloride Nitrogen trifluoride Nitrogen trioxide Nitroglycerine Nitromethane

Synonym NEOPENT NEOPENTANOIC ACI NEOPENTYL GLYCOL NITRIC ACID HNO3-20 HNO3-40 HNO3-60 NO M-NITROANILINE O-NITROANILINE P-NITROANILINE O-NITROANISOLE NITROBEN 3-NITROBENZOTRIF

Molec. Weight 72.15 102.1 104.1 63.01 18.00 18.00 18.00 30.01 138.1 138.1 138.1 153.1 123.1 191.1

ID No. B275 D9 D2258 D1214 D1903 B230 B231 B98 B120 D912 D2782 D2780 D2781 D1891 B305 D1886 D4863

Temperature Range ºC Liquid Phase Gas Phase -17 > 9 -16 > 9 42 > 163 126 > 209 0 > 29 0 > 93 0 > 93 0 > 93 -183 > 499 -163 > -123 113 > 305 71 > 284 147 > 335 89 > 134 -17 > 209 5 > 126 -17 > 599 210 > 726 202 > 726 -151 > 476 -17 > 279 9 > 151 163 > 726 209 > 726 82 > 726

O-NITRODIPHENYLA NETHANE NITROGEN NO2 NITROGEN PENTOXI NITROGEN TETROXI NITROGEN TRICHLO NITROGEN TRIFLUO NITROGEN TRIOXID NITROGLYCERINE NMETHANE

214.2 75.07 28.01 46.01 108.0 92.01 120.4 71.00 76.01 227.1 61.04

D2738 B239 D1761 B4 D905 B341 D900 D1944 D906 D2921 D1972 D904 D2779 B67 D1760 0 > 199 -28 > 101 0 > 279 -73 > 114 -204 > -151 -209 > -161 -9 > 149 -3 > 16

342 > 726 0 > 499 114 > 726 -204 > 982 -209 >1226 -9 > 1399 26 > 726

70 > 726 -129 > 726

0 > 229 101 > 726

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Component Name 1-Nitropropane 2-Nitropropane Nitrosyl chloride m-Nitrotoluene o-Nitrotoluene p-Nitrotoluene Nitrous oxide n-Nonadecane Nonadecanoic acid 1-Nonadecanol 1-Nonadecene 1-Nonanal n-Nonane n-Nonanoic acid 1-Nonanol 2-Nonanol 2-Nonanone 5-Nonanone 1-Nonene n-Nonylamine n-Nonylbenzene n-Nonyl mercaptan 1-nNonylnaphthalene Nonylphenol 2-Norbornene n-Octadecane 1-Octadecanol 1-Octadecene Octafluoro-2butene Octafluorocyclobut ane

Synonym 1-NITROPROPANE 2-NITROPROPANE NITROSYL CHLORID M-NITROTOLUENE O-NITROTOLUENE P-NITROTOLUENE N2O N-NONADECANE NONADECANOIC ACI 1-NONADECANOL 1-NONADECENE 1-NONANAL NONANE N-NONANOIC ACID 1-NONANOL 2-NONANOL 2-NONANONE 5-NONANONE NONENE N-NONYLAMINE N-NONYLBENZENE 1-N-NONYLNAPHTHA NONYLPHENOL 2-NORBORNENE N-OCTADECANE 1-OCTADECANOL 1-OCTADECENE OCTAFLUORO-2-BUT OCTAFLUOROCYCL OB

Molec. Weight 89.09 89.09 65.46 137.1 137.1 137.1 44.01 268.5 298.5 284.5 266.5 142.2 128.3 158.2 144.3 144.3 142.2 142.2 126.2 143.3 204.4 254.4 220.4 94.16 254.5 270.5 252.5 200.0 200.0

ID No. D1762 D1763 D1986 D1780 D1778 D1779 B122 D899 D71 D2266 D1149 D283 D1011 B259 D46 D1259 D1134 D1135 D1074 D1073 B425 D259 D2709 D570 D1808 D711 D1199 D823 D70 D1146 D267 D2653 D2654

Temperature Range ºC Liquid Phase Gas Phase -33 > 131 -23 > 120 131 > 726 120 > 726 -5 > 726

-100 > 29 32 > 329 71 > 331 118 > 344 24 > 329 46 > 194 -45 > 232 -53 > 66 12 > 126 6 > 146 38 > 188 -7 > 194 -4 > 188 26 > 204 -53 > 146 50 > 202 -3 > 282 67 > 219 10 > 365 105 > 285 46 > 95 28 > 166 115 > 206 17 > 166 -2 > -2 -28 > -3

-100 > 1315 -90 > 726 329 > 501 385 > 726 344 > 726 329 > 726 194 > 726 -128 > 537 150 > 726 255 > 726 213 > 726 198 > 726 194 > 726 188 > 726 26 > 204 146 > 726 202 > 726 282 > 726 219 > 726 365 > 726 307 > 726 95 > 726 316 > 501 334 > 726 314 > 726 24 > 726 -5 > 326

N-NONYL MERCAPTA 160.3

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Component Name Octafluoropropane

Synonym OCTAFLUOROPROP AN

Molec. Weight 188.0

ID No. D2652 D1988 D1010 B29 D27 D1265 D1132 D1133 D1083 D251 D277 D279 B208 D250 D2708 D569 D1308 D1809 D1838 D2195 B205 B32 B376 B53 B52 B377 B135 D1279 D1255 D5869 B84 D901

Temperature Range ºC Liquid Phase Gas Phase -147 > -36 17 > 174 37 > 173 -40 > 239 -56 > 101 16 > 146 6 > 151 26 > 179 -20 > 172 -71 > 117 -33 > 123 -23 > 122 -40 > 259 -73 > 41 40 > 179 -15 > 264 24 > 198 58 > 199 40 > 155 109 > 290 4 > 119 9 > 93 4 > 119 4 > 121 9 > 93 4 > 104 24 > 147 359 > 726 295 > 726 69 > 726 -199 > -125 -213 > -131 -199 >1099 -193 >1226 0 > 726 174 > 726 173 > 726 -40 > 344 76 > 476 239 > 726 195 > 726 179 > 726 172 > 726 124 > 726 123 > 726 122 > 726 -40 > 499 121 > 526 179 > 726 264 > 726 198 > 726 199 > 726 155 > 726 290 > 726 99 > 899

Octamethylcyclotetr OCTAMETHYLCYCLO 296.6 asiloxane T 1-Octanal n-Octane n-Octanoic acid 1-Octanol 2-Octanol 2-Octanone trans-2-Octene trans-3-Octene trans-4-Octene Octene 1-Octene n-Octylamine n-Octylbenzene n-Octyl formate n-Octyl mercaptan tert-Octyl mercaptan p-tert-Octylphenol Oil flue gas Oil SAE 10 Oil SAE 20 Oil SAE 30 Oil SAE 40 Oil SAE 50 Oil - Turbine 150 SSU light Oleic acid Oxalic acid Oxazole Oxygen 1-OCTANAL OCTANE N-OCTANOIC ACID 1-OCTANOL 2-OCTANOL 2-OCTANONE TRANS-2-OCTENE TRANS-3-OCTENE TRANS-4-OCTENE OCTENE 1-OCTENE N-OCTYLAMINE N-OCTYLBENZENE N-OCTYL FORMATE N-OCTYL MERCAPTA TERT-OCTYL MERCA P-TERT-OCTYLPHEN OFG LUBSAE10 LUBSAE20 LUBSAE30 LUBSAE40 LUBSAE50 TURBOIL OLEIC ACID OXALIC ACID OXAZOLE OXYGEN 128.2 114.2 144.2 130.2 130.2 128.2 112.2 112.2 112.2 112.2 112.2 129.2 190.3 158.2 146.3 146.3 206.3 29.20 86.17 86.17 86.17 86.17 86.17 18.01 282.5 90.04 69.06 32.00

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Component Name Ozone Palm oil Paraldehyde Patassium caronate 30 wt % Pentachloroethane n-Pentadecane 1-Pentadecanol 1-Pentadecene cis-1,3-Pentadiene trans-1,3Pentadiene 1,2-Pentadiene 1,4-Pentadiene 2,3-Pentadiene Pentaerythritol Pentaerythritol tetranitrate Pentafluoroethane 1-Pentanal n-Pentane 1,5-Pentanediol n-Pentanoic acid 1-Pentanol 2-Pentanol 3-Pentanol 2-Pentanone 3-Pentanone cis-2-Pentene trans-2-Pentene 1-Pentene

Synonym OZONE PALMOIL PARALDEHYDE K2CO3-30

Molec. Weight 48.00 18.01 132.2

ID No. D924 B316 D1050 B445 D1590 D67 D2259 D1143 D265 D305 D306 D304 D307 D308 D1246 D2778 D1646 D1007 B79 D7 D1242 D1258 D1109 D1110 D1120 D1060 B213 D1053 D210 D211 D209

Temperature Range ºC Liquid Phase Gas Phase -183 > -128 9 > 229 29 > 71 9 > 93 59 > 159 19 > 51 56 > 299 43 > 72 14 > 268 -86 > 44 -51 > 42 -65 > 44 -145 > 25 -125 > 48 260 > 350 159 > 726 270 > 499 338 > 726 299 > 726 268 > 726 44 > 726 42 > 726 44 > 726 25 > 726 48 > 726 357 > 717 124 > 724 -111 > 76

PENTACHLOROETHA 202.3 N N-PENTADECANE 1-PENTADECANOL 1-PENTADECENE CIS-1,3-PENTADIE TRANS-1,3-PENTAD 1,2-PENTADIENE 1,4-PENTADIENE 2,3-PENTADIENE PE PETN PENTAFLUOROETHA N 1-PENTANAL PENTANE 1,5-PENTANEDIOL N-PENTANOIC ACID 1-PENTANOL 2-PENTANOL 3-PENTANOL 2-PENTANONE DEK CIS-2-PENTENE TRANS-2-PENTENE 1-PENTENE 212.4 228.4 210.4 68.12 68.12 68.12 68.12 68.12 136.1 316.1 120.0 86.13 72.15 104.1 102.1 88.15 88.15 88.15 86.13 86.13 70.13 70.13 70.13

Pentadecanoic acid PENTADECANOIC AC 242.4

-102 > -47 10 > 102 -40 > 159 -129 > 36 -16 > 106 -3 > 56 0 > 79 2 > 118 0 > 115 -23 > 90 -40 > 119 0 > 76 -151 > 36 -140 > 36 -153 > 29

-47 > 726 102 > 726 -40 > 499 26 > 726 238 > 718 185 > 726 137 > 717 118 > 726 115 > 726 102 > 722 -40 > 799 0 > 726 36 > 726 36 > 726 29 > 526

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Component Name 1-Pentene-3-yne 1-Pentene-4-yne n-Pentyl acetate n-Pentylamine n-Pentylbenzene n-Pentyl formate n-Pentyl mercaptan 1-Pentyne Peracetic acid Perchloric acid Perchloryl fluoride alpha-Phellandrene Beta-Phellandrene Phenanthrene p-Phenetidine Phenetole Phenol cis-2Phenylbutene-2 trans-2Phenylbutene-2 mPhenylenediamine oPhenylenediamine pPhenylenediamine 2-Phenylethanol Phenylhydrazine Phenyl isocyanate Phenyl mercaptan 1Phenylnaphthalene 2-Phenyl-2propanol

Synonym 1-PENTENE-3-YNE 1-PENTENE-4-YNE N-PENTYL ACETATE N-PENTYLAMINE N-PENTYLBENZENE N-PENTYL FORMATE N-PENTYL MERCAPT 1-PENTYNE PERACETIC ACID PERCHLORIC ACID PERCHLORYL FLUOR

Molec. Weight 66.10 66.10 130.2 87.16 148.2 116.2 104.2 68.12 76.05 100.5 102.4

ID No. D420 D421 D1357 D1713 D567 D1306 D1827 D405 D1290 D2983 D1987 D317 D318 D805 D2887 D1462 B119 D1181 D583 D584 D2727 D2725 D2750 D2115 D1757 D2751 D1842 D710 D1168

Temperature Range ºC Liquid Phase Gas Phase 24 > 59 24 > 42 -23 > 148 4 > 104 -18 > 205 24 > 133 -75 > 126 -73 > 40 0 > 109 -73 > 111 -147 > -46 26 > 174 26 > 173 99 > 226 103 > 254 24 > 169 40 > 359 40 > 151 26 > 194 26 > 173 138 > 286 117 > 251 139 > 266 -26 > 218 107 > 126 -14 > 169 44 > 333 56 > 201 -46 > 726 174 > 726 173 > 726 340 > 726 254 > 726 169 > 719 0 > 499 181 > 726 194 > 726 173 > 726 286 > 726 251 > 726 266 > 726 218 > 726 243 > 726 165 > 726 169 > 726 333 > 726 201 > 726 59 > 726 42 > 726 148 > 326 24 > 726 205 > 726 133 > 726 126 > 726 40 > 726 109 > 726

ALPHA-PHELLANDRE 136.2 BETA-PHELLANDREN 136.2 PHENANTHRENE P-PHENETIDINE PHENETOLE PHENOL CIS-2-PHENYLBUTE TRANS-2-PHENYLBU M-PHENYLENEDIAMI O-PHENYLENEDIAMI P-PHENYLENEDIAMI 2-PHENYLETHANOL PHENYLHYDRAZINE PHENYL ISOCYANAT PHENYL MERCAPTAN 1-PHENYLNAPHTHAL 2-PHENYL-2-PROPA 178.2 137.2 122.2 94.11 132.2 132.2 108.1 108.1 108.1 122.2 108.1 119.1 110.2 204.3 136.2

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Component Name Phosgene Phosphine Phosphoric acid Phosphorous acid Phosphorus Phosphorus oxychloride Phosphorus pentachloride Phosphorus pentasulfide Phosphorus pentoxide Phosphorus thiochloride Phosphorus trichloride Phthalic acid Phthalic anhydride Pimelic acid alpha-Pinene beta-Pinene Piperazine Piperidine Potassium Potassium bromide Potassium carbonate Potassium carbonate 20 wt % Potassium carbonate 40 wt % Potassium chlorate Potassium chloride Potassium hydroxide

Synonym PHOSGENE PHOSPHINE PHOSPHORIC ACID PHOSPHOROUS ACID PHOSPHORUS PHOSPHORUS OXYCH P PENTACHLORIDE P PENTASULFIDE PHOSPHORUS PENTO PHOSPHORUS THIOC PHOSPHORUS TRICH PHTHALIC ACID PHTHALIC ANHYDRI PIMELIC ACID ALPHA-PINENE BETA-PINENE PIPERAZINE PIPERIDINE POTASSIUM POTASSIUM BROMID POTASSIUM CARBON K2CO3-20 K2CO3-40

Molec. Weight 98.92 34.00 98.00 82.00 30.97 153.3 208.2 444.6 283.9 169.4 137.3 166.1 148.1 160.2 136.2 136.2 86.14 85.15 39.10 119.0 138.2

ID No. B43 D1894 D1981 D1902 D1908 D1924 D1929 D1926 D1928 D1930 D1927 D1925 D1287 D1297 D2269 D840 D841 D2752 D1745 D2945 D1948 D2942 B444 B446 D1952 D1947 D1913

Temperature Range ºC Liquid Phase Gas Phase -73 > 159 -19 > 6 -124 > -87 126 > 139 -73 > 186 7 > 526 -87 > 726

-73 > 726 190 > 324 130 > 284 129 > 342 26 > 156 26 > 166 105 > 145 11 > 106 63 > 763 324 > 726 284 > 726 342 > 726 156 > 726 166 > 726 145 > 726 106 > 726

9 > 93 9 > 93

POTASSIUM CHLORA 122.5 POTASSIUM CHLORI POTASSIUM HYDROX 74.55 56.11

796 > 926

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Aspen B-JAC 11.1 User Guide

Component Name Potassium hydroxide 20 wt % Propadiene Propane 1,2Propanediamine n-Propanol Propargyl alcohol Propargyl chloride beta-Propiolactone n-Propionaldehyde Propionic acid Propionic anhydride Propionitrile n-Propyl acetate n-Propyl acrylate n-Propylamine n-Propylbenzene n-Propyl n-butyrate n-Propyl chloride nPropylcyclohexane

Synonym KOH-20 ALLENE PROPANE 1,2-PROPANEDIAMI PROPANOL PROPARGYL ALCOHO BETA-PROPIOLACTO PROPALDE PROPACID PROPANHY

Molec. Weight

ID No. B436

Temperature Range ºC Liquid Phase Gas Phase -1 > 104 -100 > 99 -73 > -34 -80 > 79 -187 > 66 -36 > 46 -62 > 199 -73 > 97 1 > 113 19 > 57 -33 > 161 -80 > 189 -71 > 47 0 > 179 -20 > 141 -40 > 279 -23 > 166 -40 > 224 -23 > 97 1 > 131 11 > 118 -84 > 47 0 > 199 0 > 144 0 > 143 -50 > 149 -23 > 46 -24 > 156 -73 > 130 -80 > 79 -185 > 24 -100 > 499 -34 > 726 -80 > 499 -42 > 476 119 > 726 -62 > 262 98 > 447 113 > 726 57 > 726 161 > 726 -80 > 499 47 > 726 0 > 179 285 > 448 -40 > 499 166 > 726 -40 > 499 0 > 726 101 > 726 118 > 726 47 > 726 0 > 499 159 > 719 143 > 726 -50 > 499 46 > 726 156 > 726 130 > 726 -80 > 499 -47 > 726

40.06 44.09 74.13 60.09 56.06

B189 D301 B177 D3 D1752 B59 D1103 D1179 D1531 D1091 B174 D1003 B91 D1253 B165 D1292

PROPARGYL CHLORI 74.51 72.06 58.08 74.08 130.1

ECYANIDE N-PROPYL ACETATE N-PROPYL ACRYLAT N-PROPYLAMINE PROPYLBE N-PROPYL N-BUTYR PROPYLCL NPROPYLCYCLOHEX

55.07 102.1 114.1 59.11 120.2 130.2 78.54 126.2 112.2 42.08

B247 D1773 D1314 D1343 D1711 B297 D509 D1327 B156 D1585 D149 D114 B10 D202

nNPropylcyclopentane PROPYLCYCLOPEN Propylene PROPYLEN

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Component Name 1,2-Propylene glycol 1,3-Propylene glycol

Synonym PGLY-F

Molec. Weight 76.10

ID No. B107 D1211

Temperature Range ºC Liquid Phase Gas Phase 9 > 199 -40 > 146 -14 > 116 0 > 159 -17 > 99 -17 > 199 -8 > 60 -62 > 159 -73 > 34 -2 > 47 -40 > 219 -40 > 179 24 > 80 -33 > 102 -113 > 67 26 > 140 -75 > 122 150 > 276 -17 > 299 -41 > 115 283 > 393 -23 > 126 -57 > 86 23 > 246 24 > 101 44 > 164 113 > 246 0 > 176 115 > 180 60 > 726 -62 > 199 34 > 726 47 > 717 -40 > 499 -40 > 499 80 > 726 102 > 726 67 > 726 140 > 720 122 > 726 394 > 726 -17 > 494 115 > 726 448 > 726 129 > 719 86 > 726 21 > 259 244 > 724 164 > 726 246 > 726 237 > 726 180 > 726 0 > 315 187 > 726 214 > 726

1,3-PROPYLENE GL

76.10 18.01 18.01 18.01 57.10 58.08 58.08 58.08 102.2 70.13 170.0

D1212 B38 B94 B197 D2726 B56 D1442 D1443 B248 B209 D1303 D1683 D1803 D1353 D1324 D807 B71 D1791 D2282 D1721 D1766 B451 D1070 D5848 D1759 D1748 D1098

Propylene glycol 20 PGLY-20 wt % Propylene glycol 40 PGLY-40 wt % Propylene glycol 60 PGLY-60 wt % Propyleneimine Propylene oxid 1,2-Propylene oxide 1,3-Propylene oxide Propyl ether Propyl ethylene n-Propyl formate n-Propyl iodide n-Propyl methacrylate Pyrene Pyridine Pyromellitic acid Pyrrole Pyrrolidine 2-Pyrrolidone Pyruvic acid Quinaldine Quinoline Quinone PROPYLENEIMINE PROPOXID 1,2-PROPYLENE OX 1,3-PROPYLENE OX PETHER PENTENE N-PROPYL IODIDE

N-PROPYL FORMATE 88.11

n-Propyl mercaptan N-PROPYL MERCAPT 76.16 N-PROPYL METHACR 128.2 116.2 202.3 79.10 254.2 67.09 71.12 85.10 88.06 143.2 129.2 108.1

n-Propyl propionate N-PROPYL PROPION PYRENE PYRIDINE PYROMELLITIC ACI PYRROLE PYRROLIDINE PYRROL PYRUVIC ACID QUINALDINE QUINOLINE QUINONE

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Aspen B-JAC 11.1 User Guide

Component Name Refrigerant 11 Refrigerant 12 Refrigerant 13 Refrigerant 14 Refrigerant 21 Refrigerant 22 Refrigerant 23 Refrigerant 113 Refrigerant 114 Refrigerant 115 Refrigerant 116 Refrigerant 123 Refrigerant 134A Refrigerant 502 Refrigerant 503 Salicylaldehyde Salicylic acid Seawater Sebacic acid Selexol Selexol 95 wt % Silane Silicon Silicon carbide Silicon dioxide Silver Sodium Sodium acetate Sodium amide Sodium bicarbonate Sodium bisulfate Sodium bromide Sodium carbonate

Synonym R11 R12 R13 R14 R21 R22 R23 R113 R114 R115 R116 R123 R134A R502 R503 SALICYLALDEHYDE SALICYLIC ACID SEAWATER SEBACIC ACID SELEXOL SELEX-95 SILANE SILICON SILICON CARBIDE SILICON DIOXIDE SILVER SODIUM SODIUM ACETATE SODIUM AMIDE SODIUM BICARBONA SODIUM BISULFATE SODIUM BROMIDE SODIUM CARBONATE

Molec. Weight 137.3 120.9 104.5 88.00 102.9 86.48 70.00 187.4 170.9 154.5 138.0 152.9 120.9 111.6 87.28 122.1 138.1 19.43 202.3

ID No. B15 B16 B13 B225 B227 B46 B219 B130 B161 B349 B226 B454 B311 B348 B464 D1042 D1284 B330 D2275 B301 B313

Temperature Range ºC Liquid Phase Gas Phase -84 > 159 -62 > 93 -62 > 219 -169 > -43 -80 > 159 -84 > 93 -120 > 9 -28 > 161 -80 > 119 -84 > 79 -90 > 0 -31 > 37 -40 > 84 -101 > 82 -101 > -6 17 > 196 0 > 159 134 > 334 -17 > 159 -17 > 159 -140 > -112 -84 > 159 -84 > 399 -62 > 332 -169 > 399 -100 > 399 -84 > 399 -120 > 399 -28 > 209 -100 > 399 -84 > 148 -100 > 399 -31 > 37 -40 > 84 -101 > 148 -101 > -1 196 > 726 255 > 726 0 > 348 368 > 726 -17 > 159 -17 > 159 27 > 99

32.12 28.09 40.10 60.08 107.9 22.99 82.03 39.01 84.01 120.1 102.9 106.0

D1982 D2939 D2953 D1962 D2986 D2954 D3956 D2941 D2936 D2955 D2938 D2935

97 > 882

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Component Name Sodium carbonate 10 wt % Sodium chlorate Sodium chloride Sodium chloride 10 wt % Sodium chloride 20 wt % Sodium chloride 25 wt % Sodium cyanide Sodium dichromate Sodium fluoride Sodium formate Sodium hexametaphosphat e

Synonym SCARB-10 SODIUM CHLORATE SODIUM CHLORIDE NACL-10 NACL-20 NACL-25 SODIUM CYANIDE SODIUM FLUORIDE SODIUM FORMATE SODIUM HEXAMETAP

Molec. Weight 106.0 106.4 58.44 18.02 18.02 18.02 49.01 41.99 68.01 611.8

ID No. B329 D1953 D1939 B22 B23 B116 D5891 D2956 D2984 D5853 D1956

Temperature Range ºC Liquid Phase Gas Phase 0 > 99

826 > 926 -1 > 119 -12 > 119 -12 > 119

SODIUM DICHROMAT 262.0

995 > 1056

Sodium hydrosulfite SODIUM HYDROSULF Sodium hydroxide Sodium hydroxide 10 wt % Sodium hydroxide 30 wt % Sodium hydroxide 50 wt % Sodium nitrate Sodium nitrite Sodium peroxide Sodium silicate Sodium sulfate Sodium sulfide Sodium thiosulfate Sorbitol Soybean oil Stearic acid Steam cis-Stilbene SODIUM HYDROXIDE NAOH-10 NAOH-30 NAOH-50 SODIUM NITRATE SODIUM NITRITE SODIUM PEROXIDE SODIUM SILICATE SODIUM SULFATE SODIUM SULFIDE SODIUM THIOSULFA SORBITOL SOYBEAN STEARIC ACID STEAM CIS-STILBENE

174.1 40.00 18.02 18.02 18.02 84.99 69.00 77.98 122.1 142.0 78.05 158.1 182.2 18.01 284.5 18.01 180.2

D2961 D1912 B21 B26 B25 D2937 D2962 D2964 D1945 D1943 D2958 D2959 D1250 B328 D1276 B2 D735 9 > 259 73 > 226 0 > 359 375 > 726 9 > 373 261 > 726 430 > 726 349 > 549 0 > 119 0 > 119 0 > 119

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Aspen B-JAC 11.1 User Guide

Component Name trans-Stilbene Styrene Suberic acid Succinic acid Succinic anhydride Succinonitrile Sucose 20 wt % Sulfamic acid Sulfolane Sulfur Sulfur dichloride Sulfur dioxide Sulfur hexafluoride Sulfuric acid Sulfuric acid 20 wt % Sulfuric acid 40 wt % Sulfuric acid 60 wt % Sulfuric acid 98 wt % Sulfur trioxide Sulfuryl chloride Syltherm xlt Syltherm 800 Syntrel 350 Tartaric acid Terephthalic acid m-Terphenyl o-Terphenyl p-Terphenyl

Synonym TRANS-STILBENE STYRENE SUBERIC ACID SUCCINIC ACID SUCCINIC ANHYDRI SUCCINONITRILE SUCRO-20 SULFAMIC ACID SULFOLANE SULFUR SULFUR DICHLORID SO2 SULFUR HEXAFLUOR SULFURIC ACID H2SO4-20 H2SO4-40 H2SO4-60 H2SO4-98 SO3 SULFURYL CHLORID SYL-XLT SYL800 SYN350 TARTARIC ACID TEREPHTHALIC ACI M-TERPHENYL O-TERPHENYL P-TERPHENYL

Molec. Weight 180.2 104.1 174.2 118.1 100.1 80.09 342.3 97.09 120.2 32.07 103.0 64.60 146.1 98.08 18.00 18.00 18.00 18.00 80.06 135.0 384.9 150.1 166.1 230.3 230.3 230.3

ID No. D736 B72 D601 D2270 D2280 D1295 D1776 B320 D5855 D1845 D1923 D3950 B203 D910 D1940 D1901 B178 B137 B39 B40 B335 D911 D1950 B453 B447 B462 D5881 D1289 D560 D561 D559

Temperature Range ºC Liquid Phase Gas Phase 306 > 726 -17 > 239 -30 > 145 142 > 351 189 > 317 132 > 263 58 > 266 -17 > 162 31 > 176 119 > 306 -62 > 126 -48 > 76 287 > 726 444 > 726 59 > 726 -62 > 399 -23 > 626 0 > 726 24 > 93 -17 > 148 -17 > 148 -17 > 148 4 > 148 23 > 199 0 > 1199 44 > 421 69 > 726 -17 > 259 37 > 398 65 > 315 386 > 726 558 > 726 86 > 376 99 > 331 224 > 349 376 > 726 335 > 726 375 > 726 336 > 726 -17 > 499 145 > 726 351 > 726 317 > 726 263 > 726 266 > 726

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Component Name alpha-Terpinene gamma-Terpinene Terpinolene 1,1,2,2Tetrabromoethane
1,1,1,2Tetrachlorodifluoroeth ane 1,1,2,2Tetrachlorodifluoroeth ane

Synonym ALPHA-TERPINENE GAMMA-TERPINENE TERPINOLENE 1,1,2,2-TETRABRO 1,1,1,2-TETRACHL

Molec. Weight 136.2 136.2 136.2 345.7 203.8

ID No. D821 D822 D291 D1649 D2658

Temperature Range ºC Liquid Phase Gas Phase 24 > 177 24 > 182 42 > 184 10 > 151 40 > 91 177 > 726 182 > 726 184 > 726 243 > 726 91 > 726

1,1,2,2-TETRACHL

203.8

D2656

25 > 92

92 > 726

1,1,1,2Tetrachloroethane 1,1,2,2Tetrachloroethane Tetrachloroethylen e Tetrachlorosilane Tetrachlorothiophe ne n-Tetradecane n-Tetradecanoic acid 1-Tetradecanol 1-Tetradecene n-Tetradecylamine Tetraethylene glycol Tetraethylene glycol dimethyl ether Tetraethylenepenta mine 1,1,1,2Tetrafluoroethane Tetrafluoroethylene

R134A

104.0

B311 D1528

-40 > 84 38 > 130 -20 > 146 24 > 99 0 > 199 -22 > 126 9 > 56

-40 > 84 130 > 726 -20 > 499 145 > 726 0 > 264 121 > 726 56 > 299

TETCE

167.9

B251 D1529

PERCHLOR

165.8

B76 D1542

TETRACHLOROSILA N TETRACHLOROTHIO P N-TETRADECANE N-TETRADECANOIC 1-TETRADECANOL 1-TETRADECENE N-TETRADECYLAMIN TEG TEGLY-DE

169.9 221.9 198.4 228.4 214.4 196.4 213.4 150.2 222.3

D1937 D4877 D66 D1271 D1142 D264 D1720 D1204 D1457

19 > 36 54 > 209 97 > 277 -12 > 176 87 > 267 0 > 76

253 > 499 326 > 726 286 > 726 251 > 726 291 > 726 329 > 726 275 > 726

TETRAETHYLENEPE N 1,1,1,2-TETRAFLU TETRAFLUOROETHY L

189.3 102.0 100.0

D2718 D2650 D1630

113 > 303 -101 > -26

332 > 726 -26 > 726 -75 > 726

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Aspen B-JAC 11.1 User Guide

Component Name Tetrafluorohydrazin e Tetrafluorosilane Tetrahydrofuran Tetrahydrofurfuryl alcohol 1,2,3,4Tetrahydronaphthal ene Tetrahydrothiophen e 1,2,3,5Tetramethylbenzen e 1,2,4,5Tetramethylbenzen e 2,2,3,3Tetramethylpentan e 2,2,3,4Tetramethylpentan e 2,2,4,4Tetramethylpentan e Tetramethylsilane Tetranitromethane Tetraphenylethylen e Tetrasodium pyrophosphate Thermalane 550 (FG-1) Thermalane 600 Thermalane 800 Therminol FR-0 Therminol FR-1 Therminol FR-1o

Synonym

Molec. Weight

ID No. D1989 D1967 B172 D1479 D1166 D706

Temperature Range ºC Liquid Phase Gas Phase -74 > 726 60 > 133 0 > 199 -108 > 65 23 > 176 -23 > 207 0 > 499 65 > 726 177 > 726 207 > 726

TETRAFLUOROHYDR 104.0 A TETRAFLUOROSILAN 104.1 THF 72.10

TETRAHYDROFURFU 102.1 R 1,2,3,4-TETRAHYD 132.2

TETRAHYDROTHIOP H 1,2,3,5-TETRAMET

88.17 134.2

D1843 D531

19 > 29 -23 > 197

121 > 726 197 > 726

1,2,4,5-TETRAMET

134.2

D532

79 > 196

196 > 726

2,2,3,3-TETRAMET

128.3

D51

-9 > 126

140 > 726

2,2,3,4-TETRAMET

128.3

D52

-121 > 133

133 > 726

2,2,4,4-TETRAMET

128.3

D53

-66 > 106

122 > 726

TETRAMETHYLSILAN TETRANITROMETHA N TETRAPHENYLETHY L

88.22 196.0 332.4

D1984 D1768 D732 D1960 B458 B460 65 > 287 65 > 301 65 > 329 37 > 315 93 > 371 -45 > 232 26 > 76 240 > 486

26 > 726 125 > 726 486 > 726

TETRASODIUM PYRO 265.9 THERM550 THERM600 THERM800 THERMFR0 THERMFR1 THERMLO 18.01 18.00 170.0 18.00 18.01

B459 B240 B17 B232

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Component Name Therminol FR-2 Therminol FR-3 Therminol VP-1 Therminol 44 Therminol 55 Therminol 66 Therminol 66 Therminol 77 Therminol 88 Thiodiglycol Thionyl chloride Thiophene Thiourea Titanium dioxide Titanium tetrachloride Titanium trichloride p-Tolualdehyde Toluene Toluenediamine m-Toluene diamine o-Toluene diamine p-Toluene diamine Toluene diisocyanate o-Toluic acid p-Toluic acid m-Toluidine o-Toluidine p-Toluidine Triamylamine Tribromomethane

Synonym THERMFR2 THERMFR3 THERMVP1 THERM44 THERM55 THERM66 THERM60 THERM77 THERM88 THIODIGLYCOL THIONYL CHLORIDE THIOPHENE THIOUREA TITANIUM DIOXIDE TITANIUM TETRACH TITANIUM TRICHLO P-TOLUALDEHYDE TOLUENE TOLUENEDIAMINE MTDA OTDA PTDA TOLUENE DIISOCYA O-TOLUIC ACID P-TOLUIC ACID M-TOLUIDINE O-TOLUIDINE P-TOLUIDINE TRIAMYLAMINE

Molec. Weight 170.0 170.0 166.0 367.0 18.00 18.00 250.0 18.00 230.0 122.2 119.0 84.14 76.12 79.88 189.7 154.2 120.2 92.13 122.2

ID No. B18 B19 B336 B181 B113 B114 B182 B115 B141 D6855 D1951 B357 D1821 D6856 D1963 D2965 D1985 D1040 B36 D502 D1732 B417 B418 B419

Temperature Range ºC Liquid Phase Gas Phase 93 > 371 93 > 371 15 > 404 -45 > 259 93 > 315 93 > 371 -45 > 343 93 > 426 148 > 482 281 > 726 75 > 726 -20 > 98 -23 > 84 0 > 499 84 > 726 262 > 726 -24 > 135 135 > 726

75 > 203 -40 > 239 -94 > 110 128 > 283 76 > 232 76 > 232 76 > 232

203 > 723 -40 > 239 110 > 726 283 > 726 76 > 259 76 > 259 76 > 259 249 > 699

174.2 136.1 136.1 107.2 107.2 107.2 227.4

D1793 D1282 D1283 B416 D1737 D1736 D1738 D3723 D1698 111 > 226 190 > 274 37 > 204 0 > 203 0 > 200 43 > 200 56 > 216 24 > 83

258 > 726 274 > 726 37 > 259 203 > 726 200 > 726 200 > 726 242 > 726 149 > 299

TRIBROMOMETHANE 252.7

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Component Name Tri-n-butylamine Tri-n-butyl borate

Synonym TRI-N-BUTYLAMINE TRI-N-BUTYL BORA

Molec. Weight 185.4 230.2 147.4

ID No. D2716 D1883 B170 D4865

Temperature Range ºC Liquid Phase Gas Phase 48 > 208 -40 > 279 9 > 97 21 > 117 9 > 209 16 > 212 23 > 215 -30 > 74 -36 > 26 -40 > 239 -48 > 86 -28 > 161 212 > 726 0 > 499 74 > 726 113 > 726 -40 > 499 24 > 726 -28 > 209 213 > 726 -40 > 499 97 > 726 197 > 626 117 > 726

Trichloroacetaldehy CHLORAL de Trichloroacetic acid Trichloroacetyl chloride Trichloro benzene 1,2,4Trichlorobenzene 1,1,1Trichloroethane 1,1,2Trichloroethane Trichloroethylene 1,1,1Trichlorofluoroetha ne Trichlorofluorometh ane 1,2,3Trichloropropane Trichlorosilane TRICHLOROACETIC TRICHLOROACETYL TCB 1,2,4-TRICHLOROB TCETHANE

163.4 181.8 181.5 181.4 133.4

D4866 D1855 B309 D1592 B243 D1527

1,1,2-TRICHLOROE TCE R113

133.4 131.4 187.4

D1524 B82 D1541 B130

D2659 R11 137.4 B15 D1602 1,2,3-TRICHLOROP TRICHLOROSILANE 147.4 135.5 187.4 D1532 D1936 D2655

-93 > 92 -84 > 159 -103 > 86 -14 > 156 -7 > 60 -30 > 63

92 > 726 -84 > 159 -23 > 226 156 > 726 31 > 226 -23 > 726

1,1,2-TRICHLOROT 1,1,2trichlorotrifluoroetha ne Tri-o-cresyl phosphate 1-Tridecanal n-Tridecane n-Tridecanoic acid 1-Tridecanol 1-Tridecene n-Tridecylbenzene TRI-O-CRESYL PHO 1-TRIDECANAL N-TRIDECANE N-TRIDECANOIC AC 1-TRIDECANOL 1-TRIDECENE N-TRIDECYLBENZEN

368.4 198.3 184.4 214.3 200.4 182.3 260.5

D5850 D1026 D65 D1270 D1141 D263 D572 76 > 246 19 > 51 41 > 312 92 > 272 -23 > 232 32 > 251 266 > 726 235 > 499 312 > 726 273 > 726 232 > 726 341 > 726

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Component Name Triethanolamine Triethyl aluminum Triethylamine Triethylenediamine Triethylene glycol Triethylene glycol dimethyl ether Triethylene glycol 20 wt % Triethylene glycol 40 wt % Triethylene glycol 60 wt % Triethylene glycol 80 wt % Triethylene tetramine Triethyl phosphate Trifluoroacetic acid 1,1,1Trifluoroethane Trifluoromethane Trimellitic anhydride Trimethylaluminum Trimethylamine 1,2,3Trimethylbenzene 1,2,4Trimethylbenzene 2,2,3Trimethylbutane

Synonym TEAMINE TRIETHYL ALUMINU TEA TRIETHYLENEDIAMI TEGLY TRIETHYLENE GLYC TEGLY-20 TEGLY-40 TEGLY-60 TEGLY-80 TRIETHYLENE TETR TRIETHYL PHOSPHA TRIFLUOROACETIC 1,1,1-TRIFLUOROE R23 TRIMELLITIC ANHY TRIMETHYLALUMINU TMA HEMIMELL

Molec. Weight 149.2 114.2 101.2 112.2 150.2 178.2 18.01 70.88 18.01 123.7 146.2 182.2 114.0 84.04 70.00 192.1 72.09 59.11 120.2

ID No. B375 D1725 D1867 B234 D1706 D1734 B340 D1203 D1454 B306 B337 B307 B339 D1739 D4884 D1870 D1619 B219 D1615 D1299 D3969 B229 D1703 B276 D514

Temperature Range ºC Liquid Phase Gas Phase 48 > 176 21 > 156 56 > 184 -40 > 199 -23 > 88 161 > 173 0 > 278 0 > 259 -43 > 76 -17 > 148 0 > 179 -17 > 148 19 > 179 85 > 255 266 > 726 335 > 726 193 > 726 -40 > 499 0 > 726 173 > 726 0 > 499 26 > 426 215 > 726

29 > 71 -107 > -52 -120 > 9 -103 > -29 164 > 389

71 > 726 -47 > 726 -120 > 399 -82 > 426 389 > 726

-80 > 119 -73 > 2 -23 > 156 -5 > 66 -37 > 162 -22 > 66 -24 > 80

-80 > 499 0 > 726 -128 > 537 176 > 726 -128 > 537 169 > 726 80 > 262

PSEUDO CUMENE

120.2

B280 D515

2,2,3-TRIMETHYLB

100.2

D25

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Component Name 2,3,3-Trimethyl-1butene Trimethylchlorosila ne Trimethylgallium 2,2,5Trimethylhexane 1,2,3Trimethylindene Trimethylolpropane 2,2,3Trimethylpentane 2,2,4Trimethylpentane 2,3,3Trimethylpentane 2,3,4Trimethylpentane 2,4,4-Trimethyl-1pentene 2,4,4-Trimethyl-2pentene Trimethyl phosphate 2,4,6Trimethylpyridine Trimethyl silane 1,3,5Trinitrobenzene 2,4,6Trinitrotoluene Trioxane Triphenylethylene Triphenyl phosphate

Synonym 2,3,3-TRIMETHYLTRIMETHYLCHLORO S TRIMETHYLGALLIUM 2,2,5-TRIMETHYLH 1,2,3-TRIMETHYLI TRIMETHYLOLPROP A 2,2,3-TRIMETHYLP IOCTANE

Molec. Weight 98.19 108.6 114.8 128.3 158.2 134.2 114.2 114.2

ID No. D248 D3988 D3970 D47 D725 D1247 D40 B66 D41

Temperature Range ºC Liquid Phase Gas Phase 24 > 77 -13 > 57 77 > 726 57 > 376

26 > 96 71 > 234

124 > 724 235 > 726 288 > 708

-75 > 100 -62 > 199 19 > 89 6 > 46 -109 > 46 -86 > 24 -103 > 25

109 > 719 -62 > 309 81 > 306 114 > 726 113 > 726 101 > 726 104 > 726

2,3,3-TRIMETHYLP 2,3,4-TRIMETHYLP 2,4,4-T-1 PENTEN 2,4,4-T-2 PENTEN TRIMETHYL PHOSPH 2,4,6-TRIMETHYLP TRIMETHYL SILANE 1,3,5-TRINITROBE 2,4,6-TRINITROTO TRIOXANE TRIPHENYLETHYLEN TRIPHENYL PHOSPH

114.2 114.2 112.2 112.2 140.1 121.2 74.20 213.1 227.1 90.08 256.3 326.3 262.3 278.3 143.3

D42 D43 D256 D257 D4885 D2795 D3986 D2746 D2747 D1422 D731 D5851 D1884 D3884 D2719

170 > 726 24 > 726

61 > 79 68 > 395

114 > 726 395 > 726

Triphenylphosphine TRIPHE Triphenylphosphine TRIPHE OXIDE oxide Tripropylamine TRIPROPYLAMINE

376 > 726

15 > 155

156 > 726

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Component Name Trisodium phosphate Turpintine 1-Undecanal n-Undecane 1-Undecanol 1-Undecene Undecylamine n-Undecylbenzene Undecyl mercaptan Urea gammavalerolactone Valeronitrile Vanadium Vanadium oxytrichloride Vanadium tetrachloride Vanillin Vinyl acetate Vinylacetonitrile Vinylacetylene Vinyl bromide Vinyl chloride Vinylcyclohexene Vinyl fluoride Vinyl formate Vinylidene chloride Vinyl propionate

Synonym TRISODIUM PHOSPH TRPNTINE 1-UNDECANAL UNDECANE 1-UNDECANOL 1-UNDECENE UNDECYLAMINE NUNDECYLBENZENE UNDECYL MERCAPTA UREA GAMMAVALEROLACT VALERONITRILE VANADIUM VANADIUM OXYTRIC

Molec. Weight 163.9

ID No. D1959 B369

Temperature Range ºC Liquid Phase Gas Phase

0 > 79 62 > 222 -25 > 239 -25 > 195 19 > 146 -49 > 38 67 > 237 16 > 313 24 > 257 232 > 726 -128 > 482 195 > 510 244 > 726 192 > 726 241 > 726 313 > 726 257 > 726

170.3 156.3 172.3 154.3 171.3 232.4 188.4 60.06 100.1 83.13 50.94 173.3

D1021 B293 D63 D1137 D261 D3724 D571 D1825 D1877 D1094 D1783 D1994 D1932 D1931 D4850 B93 D1321 D2720 D418 D2694 B65 D1504 D285 B218 D2696 D1311 B168 D1331

90 > 207 1 > 141

207 > 726 141 > 726

VANADIUM TETRACH 192.8 VANILLIN VACETATE VINYLACETONITRIL VINYLACETYLENE VINYL BROMIDE VC VINYLCYCLOHEXEN E VF VINYL FORMATE VIC VINYL PROPIONATE 152.1 86.10 67.09 52.08 106.9 62.50 108.2 46.00 72.06 96.95 100.1

115 > 284 -15 > 199 -13 > 72 18 > 118 -73 > 5 -92 > 15 -80 > 139 -73 > -13 -33 > 127 -120 > 39 -109 > -72 -24 > 46 -75 > 189 0 > 94

284 > 726 -15 > 499 72 > 726 118 > 526 5 > 726 15 > 726 -80 > 254 -13 > 726 127 > 726 -120 > 399 -72 > 726 46 > 726 -75 > 499 94 > 726

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Component Name Water Xenon m-Xylene o-Xylene p-Xylene 2,3-Xylenol 2,4-Xylenol 2,5-Xylenol 2,6-Xylenol 3,4-Xylenol 3,5-Xylenol Component Name Zinc Zinc oxide Zinc sulfate

Synonym WATER XENON XYLENEM XYLENEO XYLENEP 2,3-XYLENOL 2,4-XYLENOL 2,5-XYLENOL 2,6-XYLENOL 3,4-XYLENOL 3,5-XYLENOL Synonym ZINC ZINC OXIDE ZINC SULFATE

Molec. Weight 18.01 131.3 106.2 106.2 106.2 122.2 122.2 122.2 122.2 122.2 122.2 Molec. Weight 65.39 81.39 161.5

ID No. B1 D1921 D959 B138 D506 B73 D505 B146 D507 D1170 D1172 D1174 D1176 D1177 D1178 ID No. D2940 D2975 D2981

Temperature Range ºC Liquid Phase Gas Phase 0 > 359 0 > 259 0 > 259 -47 > 86 -17 > 239 -25 > 141 0 > 279 13 > 139 88 > 216 80 > 210 80 > 211 77 > 201 91 > 226 84 > 221 0 > 554 99 > 373 0 > 499 139 > 726 -17 > 257 144 > 726 0 > 499 138 > 726 216 > 726 210 > 726 211 > 726 201 > 726 226 > 726 221 > 726

Temperature Range ºC Liquid Phase Gas Phase 419 > 907

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7

Priprops

Introduction
The Priprops program allows you to create your own chemical properties databank for those fluids not found in the B-JAC databank. By selecting the User databank when your private component is referenced in the B-JAC programs, the program will automatically access the private databank when the programs need to retrieve properties from the databank. The private databank can accommodate up to 400 different fluids.

Accessing the Priprops databank
Accessing an existing component in the databank
Access the Priprops program by selecting Data Maintenance / Chemical Databank under the Tools button located in the Menu Bar. The user can view an existing B-JAC or Standard component in the databank by: • • • selecting B-JAC or Standard from the databank option menu, then type in the component name, formula, B-JAC ID number, or synonym, if present the component will be shown with the stored properties.

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Adding a new component to Priprops
Access the Priprops program by selecting Data Maintenance / Chemical Databank under the Tools button located in the Menu Bar. To add a new private component to the databank: • • • • • select the “User” databank type the reference name that you wish to call the component enter the required physical properties, constants, and curve fitting data for the component select the add button to add the new component to the database select the Update button to save the new component and to update the databank

Adding a new component using an existing component as a template:
• • • • • • • • • select the B-JAC or Standard databank search for similar component by typing in the name or reference to locate the component select the copy button to copy all the property information return to the User databank type in the name for the new component select the Add button to add the component select the Paste button to copy the properties from the standard databank modify as necessary the properties that differ from the standard component select the Update button to save the new component and to update the databank

Property Reference
Reference the Props section of this user guide for additional information on the components provided in the B-JAC and standard databanks.

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Property Estimation
Property Curves
Key Equation 0 .... Y = C1 + C2 * T + C3 * T**2 + C4 * T**3 + C5 * T**4 1 .... Y = exp (C1 + C2 / T + C3 * ln(T) + C4 * T ** C5) 2 .... Y = C1 * T ** C2 / (1 + C2 / T + C3 / T ** 2) 3 .... Y = C1 + C2 * exp (-C3 / T ** C4) 4 .... Y = C1 + C2 / T + C3 / T ** 3 + C4 / T ** 8 + C5 / T ** 9 5 .... Y = C1 / C2 ** (1 + (1 - T / C3) ** C4) 6 .... Y = C1 * (1 - T / Tc) ** (C2 + C3 * ( T / Tc) + C4 * (T / Tc) ** 2 + C5 * ( T / Tc) ** 3) 7 .... Y = C1 + C2 * ((C3 / T) / sinh (C3 / T)) ** 2 + C4 * ((C5 / T) / cosh (C5 / T)) ** 2 C1,C2,C3,... Coefficients T Tc Y ** ... Input Temperature in K or R ... Critical Temperature in K or R ... Calculated Value ... Power Function

Property estimation based on NBP
The physical properties program can estimate physical properties for hydrocarbon components based on their normal boiling point (NBP) and either the molecular weight or the degrees API. The estimated properties will be reasonably accurate for the hydrocarbons which meet the following criteria: 1. the normal boiling point is between 10 and 371 C (50 and 700 F) 2. the molecular weight is between 50 and 300 3. the degrees API is between 5 and 120

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To specify the component name, use one of the following formats: NBCxxxMWyyy NBFxxxMWyyy where xxx is NBP in C and yyy is the molecular weight where xxx is NBP in F and yyy is the molecular weight

NBCxxxAPIyyy where xxx is NBP in C and yyy is the degrees API NBFxxxAPIyyy where xxx is NBP in F and yyy is the degrees API

Examples: NBC113MW156 NBC98.4API40 NBF323MW70 NBF215.8API44.2

Components outside the ranges specified above will NOT be accepted.

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Aspen B-JAC 11.1 User Guide

8

Qchex

Introduction
The Qchex program calculates a budget price for shell and tube heat exchangers. It is the stand-alone version of the cost estimate routines which are built into the thermal design program Aspen Hetran. These cost estimate routines are a subset of the cost estimate routines which are part of Aspen Teams, the Aspen B-JAC program for mechanical design, detailed cost estimation, and drawings of shell and tube heat exchangers. Whereas Aspen Teams does a complete mechanical design and simulates the manufacture of every component, Qchex does only a partial mechanical design, estimating the thickness of some components. It then simulates the fabrication of some components while using more empirical correlations for other components. The Qchex program uses a database of material prices and fabrications standards. This is the same database which the Teams program uses. The database can be changed by selecting the Cost option under Tools. The accuracy of the estimates derived from Qchex is dependent upon many factors, such as: the detail in which the heat exchanger is specified; the quantity of materials required; the deviation from standard construction; the requirement for extreme design conditions; the use of premium materials (high alloys); the degree of competition; the country or region where the exchanger is purchased or installed. Refer to the "Qchex - Logic" section of this chapter for a more detailed discussion of accuracy.

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If you have access to both Qchex and Teams, use the appropriate program based on these criteria:
Use Qchex When you need a budget price. When you know relatively little about the exact configuration. Wwhen a rough mechanical design is sufficient. When you do not need material and labor details. Use Teams When you need a precise price. When you know the details of the exchanger configuration. When an exact mechanical design is required. When you need a bill of materials and the labor hour details.

Mechanical Scope
Design Code
ASME Section VIII Division 1

Front Head Types
A, B, C, N

Shell Types
E, F, G, H, J, K, X

Rear Head Types
L, M, N, P, S, T, U, W

Design Temperatures
As limited by ASME Code

Design Pressure
Approximately 3000 psi or 200 bar

Shell Diameter
No limitation

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Aspen B-JAC 11.1 User Guide

Head Cover Types
Flat (bolted or welded), ellipsoidal, torispherical, conical, 90 degree elbow, hemispherical

Tube Diameter & Tube Length
No limitation

Tube Types
Plain or integral low fin

Materials
Those stored in the Metals databank

Systems of Measure
U.S., SI, or metric Units

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Input
Problem Definition
Before running Qchex, you must create an input file. The input is divided into these basic sections: • • • Problem Definition Exchanger Geometry Design Data.

Description
Headings
The headings are optional. You can specify from 1 to 5 lines of up to 75 characters per line. These entries will appear at the top of the input summary page. You can have this input preformatted, by specifying your preferences for headings in the Setup option under Tools.

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Exchanger Geometry
The Exchanger Geometry section is divided into two sections: • • Exchanger Type Exchanger Data.

Exchanger Type
Front head type

The front head type should be selected based upon the service needs for the exchanger. A full access cover provided in the A, C, and N type heads may be needed if the tube side of the exchanger must be cleaned frequently. The B type is generally the most economical type head. Default: B Type

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Shell type

E type: Generally provides the best heat transfer but also the highest shell side pressure drop. Used for temperature cross applications where pure counter current flow is needed. F type: This two pass shell can enhance shell side heat transfer and also maintain counter current flow if needed for temperature cross applications. G type: Will enhance the shell side film coefficient for a given exchanger size. H type: A good choice for low shell side operating pressure applications. Pressure drop can be minimized. Used for shell side thermosiphons. J type: Used often for shell side condensers. With two inlet vapor nozzles on top and the single condensate nozzle on bottom, vibration problems can be avoided. K type: Used for kettle type shell side reboilers. X type: Good for low shell side pressure applications. Units is provided with support plates which provides pure cross flow through the bundle. Multiple inlet and outlet nozzles or flow distributors are recommended to assure full distribution of the flow along the bundle. V type shell: This type is not currently part of the TEMA standards. It is used for very low shell side pressure drops. It is especially well suited for vacuum condensers. The vapor belt is an enlarged shell over part of the bundle length. Default: E type (except K type shell side pool boilers)

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Aspen B-JAC 11.1 User Guide

Rear head type

The rear head type affects the thermal design, because it determines the outer tube limits and therefore the number of tubes and the required number of tube passes. Default: U type for kettle shells, M type for all others

Exchanger position
Specify that the exchanger is to be installed in the horizontal or vertical position. Default: vertical for tube side thermosiphon; horizontal for all others

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Tubesheet type

The tubesheet type has a very significant effect on both the thermal design and the cost. Double tubesheets are used when it is extremely important to avoid any leakage between the shell and tube side fluids. Double tubesheets are most often used with fixed tubesheet exchangers, although they can also be used with U-tubes and outside packed floating heads. Double tubesheets shorten the length of the tube which is in contact with the shell side fluid and therefore reduce the effective surface area. They also affect the location of the shell side nozzles and the possible baffle spacings. The gap type double tubesheet has a space, usually about 150 mm (6 in.), between the inner (shell side) and outer (tube side) tubesheets. The integral type double tubesheet is made by machining out a honeycomb pattern inside a single thick piece of plate so that any leaking fluid can flow down through the inside of the tubesheet to a drain. This type is rare, since it requires special fabrication tools and experience. Default: normal single tubesheet(s)

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Aspen B-JAC 11.1 User Guide

Tube to tubesheet joint

The tube to tubesheet joint does not affect the thermal design, but it does have a small effect on the mechanical design and sometimes a significant effect on the cost. The most common type of tube to tubesheet joint is expanded only with 2 grooves. Although TEMA Class C allows expanded joints without grooves, most fabricators will groove the tube holes whenever the tubes are not welded to the tubesheet. For more rigorous service, the tube to tubesheet joint should be welded. The most common welded joints are expanded and seal welded with 2 grooves and expanded and strength welded with 2 grooves. Default: expanded only with 2 grooves for normal service; expanded and strength welded with 2 grooves for lethal service

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Expansion Joint
Select to include an expansion joint for fixed tubesheet exchangers. This item only applies to fixed tubesheet heat exchangers; it is ignored for all other types. The specification of an expansion joint can have a significant effect on the cost. The calculations required to determine the need for an expansion joint are quite complex and are beyond the scope of the Qchex program. These calculations are part of the Teams program. However the Qchex program will estimate the differential expansion and make a simple determination on the need for an expansion joint. Default: program based on estimated differential expansion

Exchanger Data
Gross Surface Area
If you do not know the exact configuration of the exchanger, you can specify the gross surface area, and the program will determine a reasonable geometry based on the program defaults. If you do not specify the gross surface area, then you must provide values for the number of tubes, tube outside diameter, and tube length.

Shell outside diameter
If you do not specify the surface area, you must specify either the shell outside or inside diameter. Provide the actual shell outside diameter. For pipe size exchangers, it is recommended to input a shell OD rather than an ID since the program will reference standard pipe schedules. For exchangers made of rolled and welded plate materials, the shell OD or ID may be inputted. For kettles, the shell diameter is for the small cylinder near the front tubesheet, not the large cylinder.

Shell inside diameter
Provide the actual shell inside diameter. If the shell OD has been specified, it is recommend to leave the ID blank. For pipe size exchangers, it is recommended to input a shell OD rather than an ID since the program will reference standard pipe schedules. For exchangers made of rolled and welded plate materials, the shell OD or ID may be inputted. For kettles, the shell diameter is for the small cylinder near the front tubesheet, not the large cylinder.

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Baffle spacing center to center
Specify the center to center spacing of the baffles in the bundle.

Baffle inlet spacing
Specify the inlet baffle spacing at the entrance to the bundle. For G, H, J, and X shell types, this is the spacing from the center of the nozzle to the next baffle. These types should have a full support under the nozzle. If left blank, the program will calculate the space based upon the center to center spacing and the outlet spacing. If the outlet spacing is not provided, the program will determine the remaining tube length not used by the center to center spacing and provide equal inlet and outlet spacings.

Number of baffles
The number of baffles is optional input. If you do not know the number of baffles, inlet, or outlet spacing, you can approximate the number of baffles by dividing the tube length by the baffle spacing and subtracting 1. However, if you do not know the number of baffles, it is best to let the program calculate it, because it will also consider the tubesheet thickness and nozzle sizes. The number of baffles for G, H, and J type shells should include the baffle or full support under the nozzle.

Tube length
Provide the tube length. The length should include the length of tubes in the tubesheets. For U-tube exchangers, provide the straight length to the U-bend tangent point.

Number of tubes
Specify the number of tube holes in the tubesheet. This is the number of straight tubes or the number of straight lengths for a U-tube. If you specify the number, the program will check to make sure that number of tubes can fit into the shell. If you do not specify it, the program will calculate number of tubes using the tubesheet layout subroutine.

Tube passes
Provide the number of tube passes in the exchanger.

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Kettle outside diameter
Provide the actual kettle outside diameter. For pipe size exchangers, it is recommended to input a kettle OD rather than an ID since the program will reference standard pipe schedules. For exchangers made of rolled and welded plate materials, the kettle OD or ID may be inputted.

Tube type
The program covers plain tubes and external integral circumferentially finned tubes. Externally finned tubes become advantageous when the shell side film coefficient is much less than the tube side film coefficient. However there are some applications where finned tubes are not recommended. They are not usually recommended for cases where there is high fouling on the shell side, or very viscous flow, or for condensation where there is a high liquid surface tension. The dimensional standards for Wolverine's High Performance finned tubes, are built into the program. These standard finned tubes are available in tube diameters of 12.7, 15.9, 19.1, and 25.4 mm or 0.5, 0.625, 0.75, and 1.0 inch. Default: plain tubes

Fin density
If you specify fin tubes as the tube type, then you must specify the desired fin density (i.e. the number of fins per inch or per meter depending on the system of measure). Since the possible fin densities are very dependent on the tube material, you should be sure that the desired fin density is commercially available. The dimensional standards for finned tubes made by Wolverine, and High Performance Tube are built into the program. If you choose one of these, the program will automatically supply the corresponding fin height, fin thickness, and ratio of tube outside to inside surface area. If you do not choose one of the standard fin densities, then you must also supply the other fin data, which follows in the input.

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Aspen B-JAC 11.1 User Guide

The standard fin densities for various materials are:
Carbon Steel Stainless Steel Copper Copper-Nickel 90/10 Copper-Nickel 70/30 Nickel Carbon Alloy 201 Nickel Alloy 400 (Monel) Nickel Alloy 800 Hastelloy Titanium Admiralty Aluminum-Brass Alloy 687 19 16, 28 19, 26 16, 19, 26 19, 26 19 28 28 0 30 19, 26 9

Nickel Alloy 600 (Inconel) 28

Tube outside diameter
You can specify any size for the tube outside diameter, however the correlations have been developed based on tube sizes from 10 to 50 mm (0.375 to 2.0 inch). The most common sizes in the U.S. are 0.625, 0.75, and 1.0 inch. In many other countries, the most common sizes are 16, 20, and 25 mm. If you do not know what tube diameter to use, start with a 20 mm diameter, if you work with ISO standards, or a 0.75 inch diameter if you work with American standards. This size is readily available in nearly all tube materials. The primary exception is for graphite which is made in 32, 37, and 50 mm or 1.25, 1.5, and 2 inch outside diameters. For integral low fin tubes, the tube outside diameter is the outside diameter of the fin. Default: 19.05 mm or 0.75 inch

Tube wall thickness
You should choose the tube wall thickness based on considerations of corrosion, pressure, and company standards. If you work with ANSI standards, the thicknesses follow the BWG standards. These are listed for your reference in the Appendix of this manual and in the Help facility. The program defaults are a function of material per TEMA recommendations and a function of pressure. The Hetran program will check the specified tube wall thickness for internal pressure and issue a warning if it is inadequate.

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The selections to the right of the input field are provided for easy selection using the mouse. The values are not limited to those listed. Default: 0.065 in. or 1.6 mm for carbon steel; 0.028 in. or 0.7 mm for titanium; 0.180 in. or 5 mm for graphite; 0.049 in. or 1.2 mm for other materials

Tube pitch
The tube pitch is the center to center distance between two adjacent tubes. Generally the tube pitch should be approximately 1.25 times the tube O.D. It some cases, it may be desirable to increase the tube pitch in order to better satisfy the shell side allowable pressure drop. It is not recommended to increase the tube pitch beyond 1.5 times the tube O.D.. Minimum tube pitches are suggested by TEMA as a function of tube O.D., tube pattern, and TEMA class. The program will default to the TEMA minimum tube pitch, if you are designing to TEMA standards. The DIN standards also cover tube pitch. The DIN tube pitches are a function of tube O.D., tube pattern, and tube to tubesheet joint. The program will default to the DIN standard if you are designing to DIN standards. Default: TEMA minimum or DIN standard

Tube Pattern
The tube pattern is the layout of the tubes in relation to the direction of the shell side crossflow, which is normal to the baffle cut edge. The one exception to this is pool boiling in a kettle type reboiler where the tube supports are sometimes baffles with a vertical cut. Use triangular when you want to maximize the shell side film coefficient and maximize the number of tubes, and shell side cleaning is not a major concern. If you must be able to mechanically clean the shell side of the bundle, then choose square or rotated square. Rotated square will give the higher film coefficient and higher pressure drop, but it will usually have fewer tubes than a square layout. Rotated triangular is rarely the optimum, because it has a comparatively poor conversion of pressure drop to heat transfer. Square is recommended for pool boilers to provide escape lanes for the vapor generated. Default: triangular - fixed tubesheet exchangers, square - pool boilers

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Baffle Type

Single Segmental

Double Segmental

Triple Segmental

Full Support

No Tubes in Window

Rod

Strip

Baffle types can be divided up into two general categories: segmental baffles and grid baffles. Segmental baffles are pieces of plate with holes for the tubes and a segment that has been cut away for a baffle window. Single, double, triple, and no tubes in window are examples of segmental baffles. Grid baffles are made from rods or strips of metal, which are assembled to provide a grid of openings through which the tubes can pass. The program covers two types of grid baffles: rod baffles and strip baffles. Both are used in cases where the allowable pressure drop is low and the tube support is important to avoid tube vibration. Segmental baffles are the most common type of baffle, with the single segmental baffle being the type used in a majority of shell and tube heat exchangers. The single segmental baffle gives the highest shell film coefficient but also the highest pressure drop. A double segmental baffle at the same baffle spacing will reduce the pressure drop dramatically (usually somewhere between 50% - 75%) but at the cost of a lower film coefficient. The baffles should have at least one row of overlap and therefore become practical for a 20 mm or 0.75 in. tube in shell diameters of 305 mm (12 in.) or greater for double segmental and 610 (24 in.) or greater for triple segmental baffles. (Note: the B-JAC triple segmental baffle is different than the TEMA triple segmental baffle.) Full Supports are used in K and X type shells where baffling is not necessary to direct the shell side flow. No Tubes In Window is a layout using a single segmental baffle with tubes removed in the baffle windows. This type is used to avoid tube vibration and may be further enhanced with intermediate supports to shorten the unsupported tube span. The standard abbreviation for no tubes in the window is NTIW. Rod Baffle design is based on the construction and correlations developed by Phillips Petroleum. Rod baffles are limited to a square tube pattern. The rods are usually about 6 mm (0.25 in.) in diameter. The rods are placed between every other tube row and welded to a circular ring. There are four repeating sets where each baffle is rotated 90 degrees from the previous baffle.

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Strip Baffles are normally used with a triangular tube pattern. The strips are usually about 25 mm (1 in.) wide and 3 mm (0.125 in.) thick. The strips are placed between every tube row. Intersecting strips can be notched to fit together or stacked and tack welded. The strips are welded to a circular ring. Strip baffles are also sometimes referred to as nest baffles. Default: single segmental except X shells; full support for X shell

Baffle cut (% of diameter)
The baffle cut applies to segmental baffles and specifies the size of the baffle window as a percent of the shell I.D. For single segmental baffles, the program allows a cut of 15% to 45%. Greater than 45% is not practical because it does not provide for enough overlap of the baffles. Less than 15% is not practical, because it results in a high pressure drop through the baffle window with relatively little gain in heat transfer (poor pressure drop to heat transfer conversion). Generally, where baffling the flow is necessary, the best baffle cut is around 25%. For double and triple segmental baffles, the baffle cut pertains to the most central baffle window. The program will automatically size the other windows for an equivalent flow area. Refer to the Appendix for a detailed explanation of baffle cuts. Default: single segmental: 45% for simple condensation and pool boiling; 25% for all others; double segmental: 28% (28/23); triple segmental: 14% (14/15/14)

Baffle cut orientation

Horizontal

Vertical

Rotated

The baffle orientation applies to the direction of the baffle cut in segmental baffles. It is very dependent on the shell side application for vertical heat exchangers; the orientation has little meaning or effect. It may affect the number of tubes in a multipass vertical heat exchanger. For horizontal heat exchangers it is far more important. For a single phase fluid in a horizontal shell, the preferable baffle orientation of single segmental baffles is horizontal, although vertical and rotated are usually also acceptable. The choice will not affect the performance, but it will affect the number of tubes in a multipass heat exchanger. The horizontal cut has the advantage of limiting stratification of multicomponent mixtures, which might separate at low velocities.

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The rotated cut is rarely used. Its only advantage is for a removable bundle with multiple tube passes and rotated square layout. In this case the number of tubes can be increased by using a rotated cut, since the pass partition lane can be smaller and still maintain the cleaning paths all the way across the bundle. (From the tubesheet, the layout appears square instead of rotated square.) For horizontal shell side condensers, the orientation should always be vertical, so that the condensate can freely flow at the bottom of the heat exchanger. These baffles are frequently notched at the bottom to improve drainage. For shell side pool boiling, the cut (if using a segmental baffle) should be vertical. For shell side forced circulation vaporization, the cut should be horizontal in order to minimize the separation of liquid and vapor. For double and triple segmental baffles, the preferred baffle orientation is vertical. This provides better support for the tube bundle than a horizontal cut which would leave the topmost baffle unsupported by the shell. However this can be overcome by leaving a small strip connecting the topmost segment with the bottommost segment around the baffle window between the O.T.L. and the baffle o.d. Default: vertical for double and triple segmental baffles; vertical for shell side condensers; vertical for F, G, H, and K type shells; horizontal for all other cases

Nozzles
You should specify the nozzle diameters if known. Use nominal pipe sizes. If you do not specify a value, the program assumes nozzles with a diameter equal to one-third the shell diameter. The program determines the number of nozzles required based on the specified shell type and automatically determines the nozzle flange rating.

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Design Data
Materials- Vessel
Specify materials for the main components: Shell, Head, Tubes, material, Baffle, Tubesheet, Tubesheet cladding, Double tubesheet (inner). The Qchex program uses the Metals databank to retrieve material properties and prices. You can use the generic material types such as "carbon steel" which the program will assign actual default material specifications depending on the product form. For carbon steel plate, a material specification of SA-516-70 will be used for an ASME design. Appropriate specifications will be selected for other design construction codes. To select a specific material specification, use the Databank Search button to view the databank listing. If you want to exclude the pricing of a particular component, for example the tubes, specify a zero for that material. The default materials can be changed using the utility DefMats. Reference the Appendix for a complete list of generic materials. Default: carbon steel.

Gasket Materials
Specify materials for the main components: Gasket for shell side, Gasket for tube side. The Qchex program uses the Metals databank to retrieve material properties and prices. You may specify a generic material number or a code for a specific material specification. To select a specific material specification, use the Databank Search button to view the databank listing. If you want to exclude the pricing of a particular component, for example the tubes, specify a zero for that material.

TEMA class
If you want the heat exchanger to be built in accordance with the TEMA standards, choose the appropriate TEMA class - B, C, or R. If TEMA is not a design requirement, then specify Cody only, and only the design code will be used in determining the mechanical design. Default: TEMA B

Design pressure
This is the pressure, which is used in the mechanical design calculations. It influences the shell, head, and tubesheet required thicknesses and therefore affects the thermal design. This is in gauge pressure so it is one atmosphere less than the equivalent absolute pressure.

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Design temperature
This is the temperature, which is used in the mechanical design calculations. It influences the shell, head, and tubesheet required thicknesses and therefore affects the thermal design.

Mean Metal Temperatures
These temperatures are used if the program needs to determine if an expansion joint should be included in the cost.

Qchex - Program Operation
Running QCHEX
To start the Qchex calculation select the Run button on the Tools Bar. If the program has any special messages to display, these will appear at this point.

Displaying Results
To display the results of the calculations, select an item on the navigator.

Changing Units of Measure
By selecting from the units of measure in the Tools Bar, you change the units of measure displayed.

Choosing Output for Printing
You can request the printed output by selecting the File command on the Menu Bar and then the Print command.

Exiting from the Program
Once you have completed the Qchex estimate, you may exit Qchex by selecting the File command from the Menu Bar and then selecting Close to close the file.

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Qchex - Results
The results section consists of three sections: • • • • Input Summary Warnings & Messages Design Summary Cost Summary.

Input Summary
A summary of the inputted parameters for the budget estimate are shown.

Warnings & Messages
Aspen Hetran provides an extensive system of warnings and messages to help the designer of heat exchanger design. Messages are divided into five types. There are several hundred messages built into the Aspen Hetran program. Those messages requiring further explanation are described here.

Warning Messages:
These are conditions, which may be problems, however the program will continue.

Error Messages:
Conditions which do not allow the program to continue.

Limit Messages:
Conditions which go beyond the scope of the program.

Notes:
Special conditions which you should be aware of.

Suggestions:
Recommendations on how to improve the design.

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Design Summary
The design summary provides the pertinent mechanical parameters shown on the construction portion of the TEMA specification sheet.

Cost Summary
The budget pricing for the exchanger is shown. The cost of material, cost of labor, mark up are provided.

Qchex Logic
Mechanical Design
The Qchex program performs an approximate mechanical design of the heat exchanger components so that the material weight can be determined. Some of the more significant assumptions used in the analysis are summarized below.

Design Pressure
Due to limitations of the analytic procedure at high design pressures, thicknesses of flanges, tubesheets and flat covers are limited to 12 in. or 300 mm. The maximum allowable design pressure for a TEMA W-type externally sealed floating tubesheet is as detailed in TEMA.

Design Temperature and Allowable Stresses
Design temperatures are limited by the ASME maximum allowable temperature for the material specified. For design temperatures exceeding this maximum, the allowable stress is determined at the maximum allowable temperature and a warning is displayed. Design temperature for a TEMA W-type unit is limited as detailed in TEMA.

Corrosion Allowance
Corrosion allowance for cylinders, covers, and tubesheets is determined in accordance with TEMA.

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Cylinders and Covers
Calculations are to the ASME Code Section VIII Division 1. Thickness calculations are based on internal pressure loadings and assume spot radiography. Flat bolted covers which are not made of carbon steel or low alloy steel are assumed to be lined with an alloy liner.

Cylinders and Covers
Minimum TEMA thicknesses are checked. Component weights are calculated from finished dimensions, and rough dimensions are used to determine material costs.

Tubesheets
Approximate tubesheet thicknesses are calculated in accordance with TEMA. Tubesheets exceeding 6 in. or 152 mm in thickness and not made of carbon or low alloy steel are assumed to be clad. The number of clad surfaces is dependent upon the shell and tube side materials. Minimum TEMA thicknesses are checked. The tubesheet thickness is limited to a maximum of 12 in. or 300 mm. Rough weights are calculated assuming the tubesheet is fabricated from a square plate. If a double tubesheet is specified, the shell side tubesheet thickness is based on the shell side design pressure.

Flanges
Approximate flange thicknesses are determined using a modified bending formula. Ring flanges are assumed for carbon and low alloy construction and for high alloy flanges less than or equal to 1 in. or 25 mm in thickness. All other flanges are assumed to be lap joint with a carbon steel ring. The flange thickness is limited to a maximum of 12 in. or 300 mm. Rough weights are calculated assuming the flanges are fabricated from forged rings.

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Tubes
Qchex accesses the same routines which are used in TEAMS to determine tube prices for bare or finned tubes.

Nozzles and Nozzle Flanges
Inlet, outlet, and condensate nozzle sizes can be specified. The program automatically determines the number of each type of nozzle based on the shell and head types specified. Finished and rough weights are based on correlations which consider design pressure and nozzle diameter.

Material Prices
The Qchex program accesses the same material price database which is used by the cost routines in the Teams program. This database contains several hundred prices and is maintained and updated by B-JAC as the market conditions change. Users can maintain their own material price database by using the COST database. The material designators listed in this section are converted to the appropriate 4 digit material designators used by the Teams and Metals programs. You can change the correspondence between the 1 or 2 digit numbers and the 4 digit numbers by using the Defmats database. Material unit costs are multiplied by the rough weight to determine the component material cost. The material price for the heat exchanger is determined by adding all of the component material costs. If you do not want the price of a particular part of the exchanger to be included in the total price, you should assign a value of zero for that part material. For instance, the program would not include the cost of the tubing in the selling price if you set the tube material to zero.

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Labor Hours
The labor hours required to fabricate the shell and heads of the heat exchanger are calculated from correlations that were developed by Aspen B-JAC based on several hundred labor estimates for a wide variety of exchanger types and design conditions. These correlations are a function of design pressure, shell diameter, weight, tube length, and material. The labor hours for the bundle are determined more precisely using the same techniques used in the cost estimate portion of the Teams program. This portion of the program accesses the database of fabrication standards (machining and drilling speeds). This database is maintained by Aspen B-JAC or you can modify this database for your own use by running the Cost database. Drilling and machining speeds for the tubesheets and baffles are based on the tubesheet material. Labor hours for loading tubes, tube-to-tubesheet joint procedures, and bending Utubes are the same as those calculated by the Teams cost routines.

Budget Price
The budget price for the exchanger is calculated by adding the material costs, labor costs, and markups on material and labor. Labor costs are based on the total shop fabrication hours and the burdened labor rate. This rate and the markups on material and labor are the same as used in the Teams program. The price is for one heat exchanger and does not include any shipping or escalation costs. The Qchex program is intended to be used as a budget estimating tool. The accuracy of the estimate is dependent upon many factors, including: • Accuracy of the Heat Exchanger Configuration An estimate where the tube length, tube side, and shell size are known will be much more accurate than an estimate based on surface area alone.

Quantity of Materials
The material prices stored in the Aspen B-JAC standard material price file are based on average quantity brackets. Very small or very large quantities will affect the accuracy of the material prices.

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Non-standard Construction
As the construction becomes more non-standard the accuracy of the estimate decreases.

Extreme Design Conditions
When the design pressure on one or both sides becomes very high the exact mechanical design becomes more important. In these cases the TEAMS program should be used.

Premium Materials
When using premium materials (for example titanium) the material price can be very volatile and highly dependent upon quantity.

Non-competitive or Rush Orders
The budget estimate is less accurate for non-competitive situations or when delivery time is a premium.

Regional Differences
The actual price is dependent upon the country of manufacture and in the case of the United States and Canada, it is dependent upon the region of manufacture. The Qchex program does not reflect these regional differences.

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Qchex References
There are relatively few published sources of information on heat exchanger cost estimating. Most of the logic and much of the data in the Qchex program have come from the fabrication experience of the engineers at B-JAC who have worked with heat exchanger manufacturers. For a further understanding of some of the underlying concepts in cost estimating, you can refer to the following publications:

Heat Exchanger Cost Estimating
Computerized Cost Estimation of Heat Exchangers, Bruce Noe‚ and Gregory Strickler, 21st National Heat Transfer Conference, ASME, 83-HT-62, 1983.

Manufacturing Cost Estimating
Manufacturing Cost Estimating, Phillip Ostwald, Society of Manufacturing Engineers, Dearborn, Michigan, 1980. Basic Programming Solutions for Manufacturing, J. E. Nicks, pp. 35-80, Society of Manufacturing Engineers, Dearborn, Michigan, 1982.

Manufacturing Operations and Speeds
Tool & Manufacturing Engineers Handbook, Daniel Dallas, Society of Manufacturing Engineers, Dearborn, Michigan, 1976. The Procedure Handbook of Arc Welding, The Lincoln Electric Company, Cleveland, Ohio, 1973. Machining Data Handbook, Metcut Research Associates Inc., Cincinnati, Ohio, 1972.

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9

Ensea

Introduction
Ensea is a program that lays out the tube holes in the tubesheet of a shell and tube heat exchanger. It covers practically all sizes and layout types encountered in industrial heat exchangers. In addition to locating every tube hole, it will also locate the baffle cuts and an appropriate number of tie rods. The program has three modes of optimization. These are: • • • Maximize the number of tubes for a specified shell diameter Optimize the layout for a specified shell diameter and number of tubes Minimize the shell diameter for a specified number of tubes

The layout can be symmetrical or asymmetrical top to bottom; it is always symmetrical right to left. For multipass layouts, the program has a sophisticated optimization routine which moves the pass partitions to maximize the number of tubes while reasonably balancing the number of tubes per pass. Ensea has additional capabilities for U-tube layouts. It will determine a U-bend schedule showing the number and length of each different U-tube and calculate the total length of all of the tubes. The appropriate sections of the TEMA standards are built into the program to provide default values for the clearances. The defaults can be overridden if desired. As part of the output from Ensea, you can create a drawing of the tubesheet layout which can be exported to various graphics devices and CAD systems. The Ensea program also provides a means of making changes to the number of tube rows and the number of tubes per row, or if you have an existing tubesheet layout, you can reproduce the layout and make a drawing by specifying the tube row data.

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The Ensea program contains the same tubesheet layout routines used in the thermal design program, Aspen Hetran, and the mechanical design program, Teams. Therefore the tubesheet layout determined by Ensea matches the tube counts used in the Aspen Hetran program when used in design mode.

Mechanical Scope
Tube Diameter
no limitation

Tube Pitch
No limitation

Tube Patterns
Triangular, rotated triangular, square, rotated square

Tube Passes
1 to 16

Tube Rows
Maximum of 200

Shell size
No limitation if shell i.d. is specified a maximum limit of 120 in. or 3048 mm when program searches for shell i.d.

Impingement Plate
None, plate on bundle, plate in nozzle dome

Pass Layouts
Quadrant, mixed, ribbon

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Baffle Types
Segmental - single, double, triple Grid - strip, rod No tubes in window Full supports

Baffle Cuts
Horizontal, vertical, rotated Single segmental Double segmental Triple segmental

Tie Rods
4 to 12, in increments of 2 Units of Measure US, SI, Metric

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Input
Before running Ensea, you must create an input file. The input is divided into these sections: • • • Problem Definition Exchanger Geometry Tube Row Details

Problem Definition
Headings
The headings, 1-5 lines which will appear at the top of the input summary and in the title block of the drawings. Note that only the first 40 characters of each line will appear on the drawings. The headings are optional. You can specify from 1 to 5 lines of up to 75 characters per line. These entries will appear at the top of each page of printed output and at the top of the heat exchanger specification sheet. You can have this input preformatted, by specifying your preferences for headings in the Setup option under Tools.

Application Options
Application Type
When you request "design a tube layout for specified vessel diameter", the program will hold the specified vessel diameter and determine the number of tube holes that will fit based upon other tube layout information provided. The second option to " design a tube layout for specified number of tubes" allows you specify the number of tubes and the program will determine what shell size is required for that number of tubes based upon tube and baffle information you have provided. The last option " specify the tube layout" allows you to specify the number of tube holes in each row, the location of each row, the tie rods, baffle cuts, and pass partitions. This option is primarily aimed at preparing a drawing of an existing or known tubesheet layout.

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Tube Layout option
Once you have run the Ensea program and have generated a tube layout, you can interactively make modifications to the tube layout. Tubes: Tubes can be removed from the layout by clicking on the tube to be removed (tube will be highlighted in red) and then selecting the red X in the menu. If you want to designate a tube as a plugged tube or as a dummy tube, click on the tube (tube will be highlighted in red) and then select the plugged tube icon or dummy tube icon from the menu. Tie Rods: To remove a tie rod, click on the tie rod (tie rod will be highlighted in red) and then select the red X in the menu. To add a tie rod, select the add a tie rod icon in the menu and then specify the location for the tie rod. Sealing Strips: To remove a sealing strip, click on the sealing strip (sealing strip will be highlighted in red) and then select the red X in the menu. To add a sealing strip, select the add a sealing strip icon in the menu and then specify the location for the sealing strip. Once you have completed your changes to the tube layout, you may want to elect to fix the layout for subsequent Ensea runs by selecting the "Use existing layout" option located on the Tubsheet Layout tab.

TEMA Class
If you want the heat exchanger to be built in accordance with the TEMA standards, choose the appropriate TEMA class - B, C, or R. The TEMA class will affect the clearance lane for pass partitions and the standard minimum tube pitch. If TEMA is not a design requirement, then specify code only. Even if you specify "code only," the program will default to TEMA clearances and diameters, if not specified. The primary difference is that for a removable bundle with a square or rotated square pattern, the program will not force cleaning lanes all the way across the bundle if you specify "code only." Default: TEMA B

Tube Layout Option
You can select to have the Ensea program generate a new tube layout every time the program runs or you can select to use an existing layout. For the second option, you must first run Ensea to establish a layout and then select the option to use the existing layout for all subsequent runs. Default: create a new layout

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Drawing
Once you have a specified an exchanger geometry, executed Ensea, and then selected to use an existing layout in the Applications Options, you can interactively make modifications to the tube layout. Tubes: Tubes can be removed from the layout by clicking on the tube to be removed (tube will be highlighted in red) and then selecting the red X in the menu. If you want to designate a tube as a plugged tube or as a dummy tube, click on the tube (tube will be highlighted in red) and then select the plugged tube icon or dummy tube icon from the menu. Tie Rods: To remove a tie rod, click on the tie rod (tie rod will be highlighted in red) and then select the red X in the menu. To add a tie rod, select the add a tie rod icon in the menu and then specify the location for the tie rod. Sealing Strips: To remove a sealing strip, click on the sealing strip (sealing strip will be highlighted in red) and then select the red X in the menu. To add a sealing strip, select the add a sealing strip icon in the menu and then specify the location for the sealing strip.

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Exchanger Geometry
Exchanger
Front head type

The front head type does not affect the tubesheet layout. It is included in the input for completeness of the TEMA designation (e.g., BEM). Default: B type front head

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Shell type

The shell type does not affect the tubesheet layout, except for those cases where there is a longitudinal baffle (shell types: F, G, and H). For these cases the program avoids a solution where the longitudinal baffle would pass through the middle of a pass, for example a 6 pass quadrant layout. Default: E type shell

Rear head type

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The rear head type significantly affects the tubesheet layout, because it determines the outer tube limits and therefore the number of tubes. The L, M, and U type rear heads will all have the same OTL, which the Ensea program will accurately calculate. The P, S, T, and W (and to some extent the N) rear head types each have an OTL which is very dependent upon the mechanical design. The Ensea program will estimate the clearance requirements for these other heads, but the OTL may not be exact. Use the Teams program to determine the exact outer tube limit for floating head heat exchangers. Default: M type rear head (U-tube for K type shells)

Front head inside diameter
You should specify the front head inside diameter whenever it is less than the shell inside diameter. If you leave it zero, the program will use the shell ID to determine the OTL.

Shell inside diameter
You should always specify the shell ID except when you want to have the program determine the smallest shell size which will contain the given number of tubes (see "Number of Tubes" below). Ensea uses the shell ID. to calculate the outer tube limit (if not specified in input), calculate the baffle OD, locate the tie rods, locate the baffle cut, and as a reference for limiting the layout along the horizontal and vertical axis.

Shell outside diameter
The program will determine the smallest shell O.D. based on specified I.D. For shell I.D. within 24-inches, the program defaults tube wall thickness as 0.375-inch. Otherwise, the program determines shell O.D. based on 0.5-inch tube wall thickness. Hetran -- Provide the actual shell outside diameter. For pipe size exchangers, it is recommended to input a shell OD rather than an ID since the program will reference standard pipe schedules. For exchangers made of rolled and welded plate materials, the shell OD or ID may be inputted. For kettles, the shell diameter is for the small cylinder near the front tubesheet, not the large cylinder. Teams --- If you specify an outside diameter, the program will hold the outside diameter and calculate and inside diameter based upon the calculated required cylinder thickness. If a pipe material is specified, shells 24 inches and smaller, it is recommended to input the outside diameter so that a standard pipe wall thickness can be determined.

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Outer tube limit diameter
The outer tube limit (o.t.l.) is the diameter of the circle beyond which no portion of a tube will be placed. The program will allow the outer edge of a tube to be on the OTL. You can ask the program to calculate the OTL by specifying a zero, in which case the program will choose an OTL. based on the front and rear head types and the front head ID and the shell i.d. The OTL, which the program calculates, should be exact for fixed tubesheet exchangers with rear head types L and M and U-tube exchangers (rear head type U). It may not be exact for exchangers with N type heads, floating head exchangers (rear head types P, S, or T), or floating tubesheet exchangers (rear head type W), since the program makes assumptions on the gasket width, bolt size, and barrel thickness. For an exact OTL, you should use the mechanical design program Teams.

Tubes & Baffles
Number of tube holes
If you want the program to maximize the number of tubes for a given shell size, you should leave this input field blank. When you have already established an exact number of tubes, you should specify the number of tubes for this entry. The program will then attempt to find a reasonable layout with that tube count. If it cannot find a layout with that many tubes, it will show the layout with the maximum tubes it could find. If the specified tube count is below the program's normal solution, Ensea will remove tubes until it reaches the desired count. If you want to find the smallest shell i.d. to contain a given number of tubes, enter the desired tube count, and enter zeros for the shell i.d. and outer tube limits. This will cause the program to search through several shell sizes until it finds the smallest size, rounded to the nearest 0.25 inch or the nearest 5 mm, depending upon the system of measure. For U-tubes, you should specify the number of tube holes (two times the number of U's). Default: program calculated

Tube outside diameter
You can specify any size for the tube outside diameter.

Tube pitch
The tube pitch is the distance from tube center to tube center within the tube pattern. Default: per TEMA standards for specified tube diameter

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Tube pattern

The tube pattern is the layout of the tubes in relation to the direction of the shell side crossflow, which is normal to the baffle cut edge. The one exception to this is pool boiling in a kettle type reboiler where the tube supports are sometimes baffles with a vertical cut.

Type of Baffles

Single Segmental

Double Segmental

Triple Segmental

Full Support

No Tubes in Window

Rod

Strip

If you specify no tubes in the window (NTIW), the program will not place any tube beyond the baffle cut, minus an edge distance of 0.125 in or 3.2 mm. The program also covers full supports and the two types of grid baffles: rod baffles and strip baffles. Rod baffles are limited to a tube pattern of square or rotated square. Strip baffles are for triangular tube patterns. Default: single segmental ( full support X type shell)

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Baffle Cut
For single segmental baffles, specify the percentage of the baffle window height compared to the shell i.d. For double and triple segmental baffles, specify the percentage of the innermost baffle window height compared to the shell i.d. The selections to the right of the input field are provided for easy selection using the mouse. The values are not limited to those listed. For single segmental baffles the cut should be between 15 and 45%. For double segmental baffles the cut should be between 30 and 40%. For triple segmental baffles the cut should be between 15 and 20%. For full supports and grid baffles the baffle cut should be zero. Refer to the Appendix for more information on segmental baffle cuts.

Baffle Cut Orientation

The baffle cut can be horizontal, vertical, or rotated 45 degrees. The orientation will affect the appearance of the tube pattern and the location of the tie rods. The rotated cut may be used only with a square or rotated square tube pattern. Default: horizontal cut

Number and Diameter of Tie Rods
The program will optimize the location of the tie rods to maximize the number of tube holes in the layout. The number of tie rods should be specified by assigning an even number between 4 and 12. Default: per TEMA Standards

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Tie Rod and Spacer outside diameter
You can specify the tie rod and spacer outside diameters or allow the program to use default sizes. Defaults:
Tie Rod mm 6.5 9.5 12.7 15.9 Spacer mm 12.7 15.9 19.1 25.4 Tie Rod in 0.25 0.375 0.5 0.625 Spacer in 0.5 0.625 0.75 1.0

Tube Layout
Pass layout type
For 1, 2, or 3 pass layouts, the value of this entry is not pertinent. For pass layouts of 4 or more tube passes, it will determine how the tube side inlet and outlet nozzles will enter the heads and the locations of the pass partitions. The difference between ribbon type and mixed type layouts is in how the inner passes (the passes between the first and last passes) are constructed. In the ribbon layout, each pass stretches from one side of the shell to the other, whereas the mixed layout has a vertical pass partition plate dividing the inner passes. A 4 pass layout is shown below in each of the layout types.

Quadrant

Mixed

Ribbon

Mixed and ribbon type layouts have the advantage of easier nozzle installation, especially with relatively large nozzles. Ribbon type is also preferable when there is a large pass to pass temperature change, since ribbon type minimizes the local temperature stresses in the tubesheet. Quadrant type layouts have the advantage of normally (but not always) yielding a greater number of tubes. U-tube layouts of 4 or more passes are restricted to the quadrant type. Default: program will optimize to the greatest number of tubes.

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Number of tube passes
You can specify any number of passes from 1 to 16.

Maximum % deviation in tubes per pass
For thermal performance and pressure drop reasons, it is normally desirable to reasonably balance the number of tubes per pass in multi-pass layouts. This entry will indicate the maximum percentage of deviation from the median number of tubes per pass (average between the lowest and highest number of tubes in a pass). In order to force the same number of tubes in each pass, specify 0.001. The selections to the right of the input field are provided for easy selection using the mouse. The values are not limited to those listed. Default: 5% maximum deviation

Pass partition lane width
The clearance lane is the edge to edge distance between the tube rows on each side of a pass partition. If the tubes are welded into the tubesheet, a clearance of at least 0.75 in or 19.1 mm should be used. Default: 15.9 mm or 0.625 in for TEMA B & C exchangers, 19.1 mm or 0.75 in for TEMA R exchangers

Design symmetrical tube layout
The program will always make the left half symmetrical to the right half of the layout, but the top half can be nonsymmetrical to the bottom half. If different values are specified for "Tube Limit Along Vertical Centerline" measured in from top and from bottom, the layout will always be nonsymmetrical. In some cases of nonsymmetrical layouts, you may still want to force a pass partition to be on the horizontal centerline or a tube row to be on the centerline. You can do this by specifying "design to be a symmetrical layout". This parameter is also valuable in the case of a single pass layout where the number of tubes and the shell i.d. are specified as input to the program. If a greater number of tubes can fit in the shell, the program will eliminate tubes. For a non-symmetrical layout, the program will eliminate tubes only at the top of the bundle. For a symmetrical layout, the program will eliminate the appropriate tubes from both the top and the bottom of the layout. Default: non-symmetrical

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Open space between shell I.D. and tube bundle -- at top; at bottom; at sides
You can specify the clearance from the shell inside diameter to the tube bundle at the top, bottom and sides. Default: program will minimize clearance to maximize tube count

Distance from tube center to vertical and horizontal centerlines
You can use either or both of these entries when you want to force the program to start the layout in a specific way. To force tubes to be on either or both of the centerlines, specify a value of zero for the respective distance. If field is left blank, the program will optimize. For nonsymmetrical layouts, the program will observe the specified distance from the vertical centerline, but it ignores a specified distance from the horizontal centerline. However, the distance from the horizontal centerline can be controlled by entering a value for the "Tube Limit from Top of Shell I.D. along Vertical C/L" equal to the top edge of the last tube row. Default: program optimized

Location of 1st Tube in 1st Row from the Bottom
You can use this entry when you want to force the program to start the layout in a specific way. The location of the first tube in the first row from the bottom is pertinent for triangular, rotated triangular, and rotated square layouts where the rows are staggered. By selecting "off centerline" the program will locate the tubes near the vertical off of the vertical centerline in the first row counting from the bottom. By selecting "on centerline", the program will locate a tube on the vertical centerline for the first row from the bottom. Default: program optimized

Clearance - shell I.D. to baffle O.D.
This entry determines the outer limits for spotting tie rods. The program will place the o.d. of the spacer within 0.125 in or 3.2 mm of the baffle edge. Default: per TEMA Standards.

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Minimum U-Bend diameter
This determines the minimum tube center to center distance of any U-tube. For 2-pass U-tube layouts, it will determine the distance from the pass partition to the first row of tubes on each side of the pass partition. For layouts of 4 or more passes, it determines the distance on each side of the vertical pass partition. The choice of a minimum bend diameter must take into account what the tube material is, what the wall thickness is, how much thinning in the bend is permissible, and what bending dies and procedures are to be used. This entry only applies to U-tube bundles and is ignored otherwise. Default: three times the tube O.D.

Straight length for U-tubes
If the layout is for a U-tube bundle, the program will print out a U-bend schedule showing the quantity for each different length U-tube. The program assumes that the bends for all the tubes will start at the same distance from the tubesheet and that they will be in parallel planes.

Shell side inlet nozzle outside diameter
The program will use shell inlet nozzle O.D to determine the position of the impingement plate. If you previously have done the thermal design for this heat exchanger, this input field will be filled automatically since the program will pick up the result determined from thermal design program. This is not a required input if you will specify the diameter of the impingement plate.

Shell side inlet nozzle orientation
This is a required input if you specify the impingement plate. The program will use shell inlet nozzle orientation to determine the orientation of the impingement plate. If you previously have done the thermal design for this heat exchanger, this input field will be filled automatically since the program will pick up the result determined from thermal design program.

Impingement protection type
The purpose of impingement protection is to protect the tubes directly under the inlet nozzle by deflecting the bullet shaped flow of high velocity fluids or the force of entrained droplets. If you previously have done the thermal design for this heat exchanger, this input field will be filled automatically since the program will pick up the result determined from thermal design program.

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Impingement plate diameter
The program will use this input to determine the position and the dimension of the impingement plate This input is not required if you have already specified the shell inlet nozzle O.D. Default: shell inlet nozzle O.D.

Impingement plate length and width
You can specify a retangular impingement plate size. Default: shell inlet nozzle O.D. for length and width (square plate)

Impingement plate thickness
This input is required if you specify there is an impingement field. You can specify any thickness for the impingement plate. Default: 3 mm or 0.125 inch.

Impingement distance from shell ID
You can specify the distance from the shell inside diameter to the impingement plate. Default: top row of tubes

Impingement clearance to tube edge
You can specify the distance from the impingement plate to the first row of tubes.

Impingement plate perforation area %
If you are using a perforated type impingement plate, you can specify the percent of area that the plate is perforated.

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Tube Row Details
If you are specifing the details from an existing tube layout to generate a tube layout drawing, provide the row number, number of holes, and location of tube row for each row in the tube layout. You can also specify the tie rod, pass partition, and baffle cut locations.

Tube Layout Drawing
Once you have run the Ensea program and have tube layout results, you can interactively make modifications to the tube layout. Tubes: Tubes can be removed from the layout by clicking on the tube to be removed (tube will be highlighted in red) and then selecting the red X in the menu. If you want to designate a tube as a plugged tube or as a dummy tube, click on the tube (tube will be highlighted in red) and then select the plugged tube icon or dummy tube icon from the menu. Tie Rods: To remove a tie rod, click on the tie rod (tie rod will be highlighted in red) and then select the red X in the menu. To add a tie rod, select the add a tie rod icon in the menu and then specify the location for the tie rod. Sealing Strips: To remove a sealing strip, click on the sealing strip (sealing strip will be highlighted in red) and then select the red X in the menu. To add a sealing strip, select the add a sealing strip icon in the menu and then specify the location for the sealing strip. Once you have completed your changes to the tube layout, you may want to elect to fix the layout for subsequent Ensea runs by selecting the "Use existing layout" option located on the Application Options section.

Program Operation
Running ENSEA
To start the ENSEA program calculations select the Run button in the Tools Bar or select the Run command in the Menu Bar. If the program has any special messages to display, these will appear at this point.

Displaying Results
To display the results of the calculations on the screen, select section to be displayed from the results section of the navigator.

Choosing Output for Printing
You can request the printed output by selecting the File command in the Menu Bar and then select Print command. Select which items you want printed from the menu.

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Exiting from the Program
Exit from the program by selecting File from the Menu Bar and selecting Close.

Results
The output from ENSEA is divided into six sections: • • • • • • Input Data Messages Tubesheet Layout Summary Tube Row Details U-bend Details U-bend Totals.

You can display and/or print any or all parts of this output. The format of the output is consistent between display and printed output, typically with two or three display screens equal to one printed page. Most printed pages will also have a heading with the program name, version, time, date, and filename.

Input Data
You can display the input data in a more condensed format than used in the input. It is recommended that you request the input data as part of your printed output so that it is easy to reconstruct the input which led to the design.

Warnings & Messages
Warnings & Messages are divided into five types. • • • • • Warning Messages - conditions which may be problems, however the program will continue. Error Messages - conditions which do not allow the program to continue. Limit Messages - conditions which go beyond the scope of the program. Notes - special conditions which you should be aware of. Suggestions - recommendations on how to improve the design.

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Summary & Details
The Summary section provides general information about the tubes, the tube layout design parameters, and clearances. The Tube Row Detail section provides a per row tube count and row location. Most of this output is self explanatory. The items needing some additional explanation are:

Summary
Outer Tube Circle
The outer tube circle is often slightly different than the outer tube limit. Whereas the o.t.l. is the limit beyond which no tube can extend, the outer tube circle is the actual diameter determined by the outer edge of the outermost tube, measured radially.

Equiv. tube perimeter
This is the "equivalent diameter of the tube center limit perimeter" as defined in TEMA 7.133 Tubesheet Formula - Shear. It is equal to four times the area enclosed by the tube perimeter divided by the tube perimeter.

Maximum deviation from median
This is the maximum deviation from the median number of tubes per pass, shown "Before Balancing" and "After Balancing." "Before Balancing" is before the program removes tubes to satisfy the specified (or defaulted) input for Maximum Deviation. "After Balancing" is the recomputed deviation for the tubesheet layout shown and should always be within the specified maximum.

Tube Row Details
Row number and number of holes
Row indicates the tube row number. Row number 1 is always at the bottom of the layout. The number of holes is the total number of holes in that row.

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Distance Offset From Centerlines
The first column is the distance from the vertical centerline (x-axis) to the center of the first tube in that row, counting from the vertical centerline. If a tube is on the vertical centerline, the value will be 0.0. The second column is the distance from the horizontal centerline (yaxis) to the center of each tube in the row. A positive value indicates the row is above the horizontal centerline; a negative value indicates it is below. If a tube is on the horizontal centerline, the value will be 0.0.

U-bend Details
This output will only appear when you specify a "Rear Head Type" of U and specify a "Straight Length for U-tubes". The program determines the first (smallest) bend diameter from the "Minimum U-bend Diameter" in the input.

Schedule Number
This is merely a sequential number to identify a set of equal length tubes.

Bend Diameter
This is the diameter through the center of the tube in the bend. It is equal to the distance between the tube centers of the two straight length portions of the U-tube.

Number of U's
This is the number of U-tubes of the corresponding bend diameter and length.

U-tube Length
This is the developed length from tube end to tube end through the center of the tube and bend. It is the length of the straight tube before being bent to form the U-tube.

Total length in U-bends & total straight length
These are the total length of tubing in the U-bends and the total length of tubing in the straight lengths for the U-tubes.

Total length of all tubes
This is the total length of tubing (U-bends plus straight length).

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Tubesheet Layout

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Ensea - Logic
The right half and left half of layout are always symmetrical for tube hole placement. Top and bottom halves can be nonsymmetrical. The program assumes that tube side nozzles are at the top and bottom of the layout (offset from the vertical centerline for quadrant type layouts). If the number of tubes is not given as input, the program will maximize the number of tubes by trying several solutions, varying one or more of the following: • • • Location of first tube row in relation to the vertical centerline Location of pass partition plates Pass layout type

If the number of tubes is given as input, the program will choose the layout which requires the fewest tubes to be eliminated to arrive at the desired number or the layout which has the least deviation in number of tubes per pass. If tubes are eliminated in order to balance the number of tubes per pass or to match a given number of tubes, the program follows this procedure: For the passes on the bottom or the top: • Tubes are eliminated starting from the end of the outermost row and moving toward the vertical centerline in that row, until the number of tubes is met. Tubes are eliminated from each row, one tube per row, from the periphery of the bundle until the number of tubes is met.

For inner passes: •

U-tube layouts of 4 or more passes are always quadrant type. U-tubes are always bent in parallel planes. Cleaning lanes are always maintained for square and rotated square patterns for removable bundles in TEMA heat exchangers. The baffle cut is cut through the center of a tube row except for baffles with no tubes in the window. Longitudinal baffles are assumed to be of the same thickness as pass partition plates and match the location of a pass partition. Sealing strips are assumed to not affect the placement of tubes. Multi-segmental baffle cuts are chosen so that the total window areas per baffle are approximately equal. Whenever possible there is at least one tube row which is common to each baffle set. Reference the Appendix for more information on baffle cuts.

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Tie rods are located according to the following logic: • • • • spacers are at least 0.125 inch or 3.2 mm from the nearest tube and from the baffle edge. Tie rods between the first and last tube rows are at the periphery of the bundle on or between tube rows. Preference is given to locations where tubes are not displaced. Preference is given to locations evenly distributed around the bundle or close to the baffle cut when appropriate.

The tubesheet layout is drawn to scale. The scale is chosen by the program. The program draws all of the pitch lines within the o.t.l. It also draws the tube holes for each tube along the perimeter of each pass.

Ensea References
For a further understanding of subjects relating to ENSEA, you can refer to the following publications:

Terminology, Construction Types, and Clearances
1. Standards of Tubular Exchanger Manufacturers Association, TEMA, Seventh Edition, 1988

Pass Layout Types
2. Heat Exchangers: Design and Theory Sourcebook, Afgan and Schlunder, pp.33-34 (section author, K.A. Gardner), McGraw-Hill, New York, 1974

Numerical Control
3. Programming for Numerical Control Machines, A.D. Roberts and R.C. Prentice, McGraw-Hill, New York, 1968 4. Modern Machine Shop NC/CAM Guidebook, Gardner Publications, Brookfield, Wisconsin

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10

Metals

Introduction
Metals is a program which retrieves the properties of materials used in the construction of pressure vessels. It covers a wide range of pure and alloyed metals in a number of different forms (i.e., pipe, plate, forging, tube). It also includes non-metallic materials in the form of gaskets. Metals accesses a databank of materials. This is the same databank which is accessed from the mechanical design program, Teams, and the thermal design programs Aspen Hetran and Aspen Aerotran. The databank is divided up into sections based on the material standard or country of origin, for example: ASTM for American materials; AFNOR for French materials; DIN for German materials. You can specify which material you want by using a four digit BJAC material designator. There are also two digit generic material designators, which you can use in the Hetran, Aerotran, and Teams programs. These generic material designators identify a general material (e.g. carbon steel), instead of a specific grade of material. The program will decide which specific material to use for the properties, based on the size and type of component. You can establish which specific materials to use for generic material assignments by using the Defmats database. Temperature dependent data (e.g. allowable stress) is stored in the form of data points corresponding to the data points given in the source. For temperatures between stored data points, the program will interpolate. For temperatures outside the stored data points, the program will return a value of zero. The databank also includes cost data, which is stored as price per unit weight (i.e., $/lb or $/kg), except for tubing which is stored as price per unit length (i.e., $/ft or $/m) for a 19.05 mm (3/4") o.d., 1.65 mm (0.065") thick tube. You can change the cost data by using the Cost database.

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The Metals program retrieves temperature dependent properties over the temperature range which you specify in the input. You can also use the Metals program to search for a material name or specification number (e.g., SA-240). If you use a material frequently which is not in the standard Aspen B-JAC materials databank, you can build your own private databank with the Primetals program.

Metals Scope
Material Groups
Bolting Couplings Forgings Gaskets Pipe Plate Sheet Tubes Weld Cap

Properties
Allowable Stress Density Gasket Seating Stress Gasket m Factor Group No. Modulus of Elasticity P No. Price Poisson Ratio Specified Min. Tensile Strength Specified Min. Yield Strength Stress Intensity Tensile Strength Thermal Conductivity Thermal Expansion Coefficient Yield Strength

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Material Standards
ANSI - American National Standards Institute ASME - American Society of Mechanical Engineers ASTM - American Society for Testing and Materials DIN - Deutsches Institut für Normung VdTÜV - Verband der Technischen Überwachungs-Vereine AFNOR - Association Française de Normalisation

Systems of Measure
U.S., SI, or Metric

Input
Preparing Input Data
The input data for the Metals program is very short, and therefore it does not require that you create an input file on disk before running.

Aspen B-JAC Material Reference Material Name
Specify materials for required components. You can use the generic material types such as "carbon steel" which the program will assign actual default material specifications depending on the product form. For carbon steel plate, a material specification of SA-516-70 will be used for an ASME design. Appropriate specifications will be selected for other design construction codes. The default materials can be changed using the utility DefMats. Reference the Appendix for a complete list of generic materials. To search for a specific material specification, select the Search Databank button. Type the first few characters to search for a material in the databank. Default: carbon steel.

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Temperature Range for Temperature Dependent Properties
Many of the properties in the metals databank are temperature dependent. The starting and ending temperatures determine the temperature range. Either may be higher or lower. The program will retrieve properties beginning at the starting temperature, then incrementing the temperature by the temperature increment value until it reaches the ending temperature or a maximum of eleven points. The selections to the right of the input field are provided for easy selection using the mouse. The values are not limited to those listed.

Program Operation
Options
The Metals program gives you the option of retrieving the properties for a specific material or searching the databank for matches of a material name or standard number.

Running the Program
To retrieve the properties for a given input, select the Run button from the Tools Bar.

Changing Units
You can change the system of measure shown in the display output and the printed output by selecting the Units in the Tools Bar. The units will switch back and forth between U.S., SI, and Metric units.

Printing Output
You can request printed output by selecting the File command from the Menu Bar and selecting the Print command.

Multiple Runs
To make alternate runs, change the input as necessary and select Run to recalculate with the conditions.

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Results
The Metals program gives you the option of requesting properties at a single temperature or at up to ten temperatures. If you request properties at a single temperature you will also retrieve the properties which are not temperature dependent.

Warnings & Messages
Metals provides an extensive system of warnings and messages to help the designer of heat exchanger design. Messages are divided into five types. There are several messages built into the Metals program.

Warning Messages
These are conditions, which may be problems, however the program will continue.

Error Messages
Conditions which do not allow the program to continue.

Limit Messages
Conditions which go beyond the scope of the program.

Notes
Special conditions which you should be aware of.

Suggestions
Recommendations on how to improve the design.

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Properties Independent of Temperature
Material Properties Price Density P No. Group No. Specified Min. Yield 31.75 USD/kg 4512 kg/m3 52 — 379 MPa

Specified Min. Tensile 448 MPa Poisson Ratio Material Class 0.32 Titanium Alloy

Price - The price for all materials except tubing is shown as cost per unit weight. The price for tubing is the cost per unit length for a 19 mm (0.75 in.) o.d. tube with a wall thickness of 1.65 mm (0.065 in.). This is the price which is used in the cost estimate routines. It can be changed by using the Newcost program. P No. - This is a number listed in the ASME Code Section IX. It indicates which welding procedure group a material belongs to. Carbon steel materials have a P number of 1. Group No. - The group specification further divides materials under a certain P number to which special ASME Code rules apply. For example, certain non-destructive examination of P3 group 3 materials are different from other P3 materials. Specified Minimum Yield - This mechanical property shows the stress at which permanent material deformation starts to occur at room temperature. Specified Minimum Tensile - This mechanical property is obtained by dividing the maximum load under certain test conditions by the cross sectional area of the piece being tested at room temperature. Poisson Ratio - This is the ratio of lateral strain to longitudinal strain. Material Class - This is a general classification pertaining to materials sharing similar chemistry. Some ASME Code rules apply to whole material classes. The classes are: carbon steel, low alloy steel, high alloy steel, nickel, nickel alloy, copper, copper alloy, titanium alloy, and zirconium alloy.

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Properties Dependent on Temperature
Yield Strength Tensile Stress Stress Intensity Thermal Conductivity Modulus Elasticity Thermal Expansion Coefficient This part of the output is self-explanatory. Where the property is not stored, or the temperature exceeds the acceptable range for the material, the program will show a dash.

Gasket Properties
Material Properties Price Density Gasket Factor m 44.09 USD/kg 2201 kg/m3 2.75 25511 MPa 1.6 mm 2

Min. Design Seating Stress y Gasket Thickness ASME Column

Gasket Factor m - This factor denotes the compression load necessary to maintain a tight joint expressed as a multiple m of the internal pressure. This value is a function of the gasket material and construction. Min. Design Seating Stress y - This value is the minimum load required to properly seat the gasket. It is a function of the gasket material and construction. Generally, harder gaskets have higher seating stresses. ASME Column - This indicates the column in Table 2-5.2 Appendix 2 of the ASME Code Section VIII Division 1, which shows the appropriate formula for the calculation of the basic gasket seating width.

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References
For a further understanding of subjects relating to METALS, you can refer to the following publications:

Material Properties
ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code, Section II, Materials, Part D Properties, annual American National Standards Institute (ANSI) Deutsches Institut für Normung e.V. (DIN) AD-Merkblätter - Technical Rules for Pressure Vessels, Carl Heymanns Verlag KG, Berlin, Germany, annual Verband der Technischen Überwachungs-Vereine e.V. (VdTÜV) Association Française de Normalisation (AFNOR) Standards of Tubular Exchangers Manufacturers Association, Seventh Edition, TEMA, New York, USA, 1988

Equivalent Materials
Worldwide Guide to Equivalent Irons and Steels, ASM International, Metals Park, Ohio, USA, 1987 Worldwide Guide to Equivalent Nonferrous Metals and Alloys, ASM International, Metals Park, Ohio, USA, 1987 Stahlschlüssel, C. W. Wegst, Verlag Stahlschlüssel Wegst GmBH, Marbach, Germany,1992

Material Prices
Metal Statistics - The Purchasing Guide of the Metal Industries, Fairchild Publications, New York, USA, annual

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Metals Directory - ASTM - Generic
Generic Material
Number 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 33 Generic Material Carbon Steel Low Alloy Steel C 1/2 Mo Low Alloy Steel 1/2 Cr 1/2 Mo Low Alloy Steel Cr 1/2 Mo Low Alloy Steel 1 1/4 Cr 1/2 Mo High Alloy Steel Grade 304 High Alloy Steel Grade 304L High Alloy Steel Grade 316 High Alloy Steel Grade 316L High Alloy Steel Grade 347 High Alloy Steel Grade 310S High Alloy Steel Grade 310S XM-27 (E-brite) High Alloy Steel Grade 410 Nickel Alloy 200 Nickel Low Carbon Alloy 201 Nickel Alloy 400 (Monel) Nickel Alloy 600 (Inconel) Nickel Alloy 800 Nickel Alloy 825 (Inconel 825) Nickel Alloy B (Hastelloy B) Nickel Alloy C (Hastelloy C) Nickel Alloy G (Hastelloy G) Nickel Alloy 20Cb (Carpenter 20) Titanium Copper-Nickel 70/30 Alloy CDA 715 Copper-Nickel 90/10 Alloy CDA 706 Copper-Nickel Alloy CDA 655 Naval Brass Alloy 464 Aluminum-Bronze Alloy 630 Aluminum Brass Alloy 687 Admiralty Alloy 443 Zirconium

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Metals Directory - ASTM - Pipe
Carbon Steel Pipe and Weld Cap
Number 1101 1269 1102 1264 1265 1479 Carbon Steel Pipe SA-53 Grade B Seamless Steel Pipe SA-53 Grade B Electric Resistance Welded Steel Pipe SA-106 Grade B Seamless Steel Pipe SA-333 Grade 1 Seamless Steel Pipe SA-333 Grade 6 Seamless Steel Pipe SA-234 Grade WPB Weld Cap

Low Alloy Pipe and Weld Cap
Number 1472 1110 1111 1443 1112 1113 1460 1480 1481 1482 1483 Low Alloy Pipe and Weld Cap SA-333 Grade 3 Seamless Alloy Pipe SA-335 Grade P1 Seamless Alloy Steel Pipe SA-335 Grade P2 Seamless Alloy Steel Pipe SA-335 Grade P5 Seamless Alloy Steel Pipe SA-335 Grade P12 Seamless Alloy Steel Pipe SA-335 Grade P11 Seamless Alloy Steel Pipe SA-335 Grade P22 Seamless Alloy Steel Pipe SA-234 Grade WP5 Weld Cap SA-234 Grade WP11 Weld Cap SA-234 Grade WP12 Weld Cap SA-234 Grade WP22 Weld Cap

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High Alloy Pipe
Number 1188 1189 1181 1182 1193 1186 1190 1191 1183 1184 1192 1185 1298 High Alloy Pipe SA-312 TP304 Seamless High Alloy Pipe SA-312 TP304L Seamless High Alloy Pipe SA-312 TP304 Welded High Alloy Pipe SA-312 TP304L Welded High Alloy Pipe SA-312 TP310 Seamless High Alloy Pipe SA-312 TP310 Welded High Alloy Pipe SA-312 TP316 Seamless High Alloy Pipe SA-312 TP316L Seamless High Alloy Pipe SA-312 TP316 Welded High Alloy Pipe SA-312 TP316L Welded High Alloy Pipe SA-312 TP347 Seamless High Alloy Pipe SA-312 TP347 Welded High Alloy Pipe SA-312 TP321 Seamless High Alloy Pipe

High Alloy Pipe and Weld Cap
Number 1299 1187 1194 1484 1485 1486 1487 1488 1489 1490 High Alloy Pipe and Weld Cap SA-312 TP321 Welded High Alloy Pipe SA-731 XM-27 Welded High Alloy Pipe SA-731 XM-27 Seamless High Alloy Pipe SA-403 Grade 304 Weld Cap SA-403 Grade 304 WPS Weld Cap SA-403 Grade 316 CR/WPW Weld Cap SA-403 Grade 304L CR/WP Weld Cap SA-403 Grade 316 WPS Weld Cap SA-403 Grade 316L CR/WP-W Weld Cap SA-403 Grade 304L WPS Weld Cap

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Nickel or Nickel Alloy Pipe
Number 1195 1277 1280 1196 1281 1197 1276 1198 1282 1282 1199 1473 1200 1203 1204 1201 1202 1501 Nickel or Nickel Alloy Pipe SB-161 Alloy 200 Sml Ni Pipe (Annealed) (up to 5" od) SB-161 Alloy 200 Sml Ni Pipe (Annealed) (larger than 5" od) SB-161 Alloy 201 Sml Ni Low C Pipe (Annealed) (up to 5" od) SB-161 Alloy 201 Sml Ni-Low C Pipe (Annealed) (larger than 5" od) SB-165 Alloy 400 Sml Ni Alloy Pipe (Annealed) (up to 5" od) SB-165 Alloy 400 Sml Ni Alloy Pipe (Annealed) (larger than 5" od) SB-167 Alloy 600 Sml Ni Pipe (HF) (up to 5" od) SB-167 Alloy 600 Sml Ni Alloy Pipe (CD) (larger than 5" od) SB-167 Alloy 600 Sml Ni Alloy Pipe (CD) (up to 5" od) SB-167 Alloy 600 Sml Ni Alloy Pipe (HF) (larger than 5" OD) SB-407 Alloy 800 Sml Ni Alloy Pipe SB-407 Alloy 800H Seamless Ni Alloy Pipe SB-423 Alloy 825 Seamless Ni Alloy Pipe SB-464 Alloy 20CB Seamless Ni Alloy Pipe SB-464 Alloy 20CB Welded Ni Alloy Pipe SB-619 Alloy B Welded Ni Alloy Pipe SB-619 Alloy C-276 Welded Ni Alloy Pipe SB-673 Alloy 904 Welded Ni Alloy Pipe (Annealed)

Titanium Pipe
Number 1463 1205 1206 1462 1334 1336 1335 1337 Titanium Pipe SB-337 Grade 1 Welded Annealed Titanium Pipe SB-337 Grade 2 Seamless Titanium Pipe SB-337 Grade 2 Welded Titanium Pipe SB-337 Grade 3 Welded Annealed Titanium Pipe SB-337 Grade 7 Seamless Titanium Pipe SB-337 Grade 7 Welded Titanium Pipe SB-337 Grade 12 Seamless Titanium Pipe SB-337 Grade 12 Welded Titanium Pipe

10-12

Aspen B-JAC 11.1 User Guide

Copper Alloy Pipe
Number 1207 1209 1278 1279 Copper Alloy Pipe SB-466 Alloy 706 Seamless Cu-Ni 90/10 Pipe SB-466 Alloy 715 Seamless Cu-Ni 70/30 Pipe SB-467 Alloy 706 Welded Cu-Ni 90/10 Pipe (Annealed) SB-467 Alloy 715 Welded Cu-Ni 70/30 Pipe

Zirconium Pipe
Number 1454 1456 Zirconium Pipe SB-658 Grade R60702 Zirconium Seamless Pipe SB-658 Grade R60702 Zirconium Welded Pipe

Metals Directory - ASTM - Plate
Carbon Steel Plate
Number 1267 1103 1286 1104 1105 1106 1107 1108 1109 Carbon Steel Plate SA-36 Steel Plate SA-285 Grade C Steel Plate SA-414 Grade C Steel Plate SA-515 Grade 55 Steel Plate SA-515 Grade 60 Steel Plate SA-515 Grade 70 Steel Plate SA-516 Grade 55 Steel Plate SA-516 Grade 60 Steel Plate SA-516 Grade 70 Steel Plate

Aspen B-JAC 11.1 User Guide

10-13

Low Alloy Steel Plate
Number 1474 1114 1115 1116 1117 1118 1291 1121 1122 1119 1120 1466 1272 1289 Low Alloy Steel Plate SA-203 Grade E Alloy Plate SA-204 Grade A Alloy Steel Plate SA-204 Grade B Alloy Steel Plate SA-204 Grade C Alloy Steel Plate SA-387 Grade 2 Cl.1 Alloy Steel Plate SA-387 Grade 2 Cl.2 Alloy Steel Plate SA-387 Grade 5 Cl.1 Alloy Steel Plate SA-387 Grade 11 Cl.1 Alloy Steel Plate SA-387 Grade 11 Cl.2 Alloy Steel Plate SA-387 Grade 12 Cl.1 Alloy Steel Plate SA-387 Grade 12 Cl.2 Alloy Steel Plate SA-387 Grade 22 Cl.1 Alloy Steel Plate SA-455 Steel Plate (up to 0.375") SA-537 Cl.1 Alloy Steel Plate (up to 2.5")

10-14

Aspen B-JAC 11.1 User Guide

High Alloy Steel Plate
Number 1123 1124 1125 1126 1133 1134 1127 1128 1129 1130 1292 1293 1294 1295 1131 1132 1136 1445 1135 High Alloy Steel Plate SA-240 Grade 304 High Alloy Steel Plate SA-240 Grade 304 High Alloy Steel Plate (gasketed) SA-240 Grade 304L High Alloy Steel Plate SA-240 Grade 304L High Alloy Steel Plate (gasketed) SA-240 Grade 310S High Alloy Steel Plate SA-240 Grade 310S High Alloy Steel Plate (gasketed) SA-240 Grade 316 High Alloy Steel Plate SA-240 Grade 316 High Alloy Steel Plate (gasketed) SA-240 Grade 316L High Alloy Steel Plate SA-240 Grade 316L High Alloy Steel Plate (gasketed) SA-240 Grade 317L High Alloy Steel Plate SA-240 Grade 317L High Alloy Steel Plate (gasketed) SA-240 Grade 321 High Alloy Steel Plate SA-240 Grade 321 High Alloy Steel Plate (gasketed jnt) SA-240 Grade 347 High Alloy Steel Plate SA-240 Grade 347 High Alloy Steel Plate (gasketed jnt) SA-240 Grade 410 High Alloy Steel Plate SA-240 Grade S31803 High Alloy Steel Plate SA-240 Grade XM-27 High Alloy Steel Plate

Aspen B-JAC 11.1 User Guide

10-15

Nickel or Nickel Alloy Plate
Number 1140 1141 1137 1138 1139 1249 1142 1143 1146 1247 1248 1250 1144 1251 1145 1255 1152 1252 1149 1253 1150 1500 Nickel or Nickel Alloy Plate SB-127 Alloy 400 Ni-Cu Alloy Plate (Annealed) SB-127 Alloy 400 Ni-Cu Alloy Plate (Hot Rolled) SB-162 Alloy 200 Ni Plate (Annealed) SB-162 Alloy 200 Ni Plate (Hot Rolled) SB-162 Alloy 201 Ni-Lo C Plate SB-168 Alloy 600 Ni-Cr-Fe Alloy Plate (Annealed) SB-168 Alloy 600 Ni-Cr-Fe Alloy Plate (Ann.) (gasketed) SB-168 Alloy 600 Ni-Cr-Fe Alloy Plate (Hot Rolled) SB-333 Alloy B Ni Alloy Plate SB-333 Alloy B-2 Ni Alloy Plate SB-333 Alloy B-2 Ni Alloy Plate (gasketed joint) SB-409 Alloy 800 Ni-Fe-Cr Alloy Plate SB-409 Alloy 800 Ni-Fe-Cr Alloy Plate (gasketed joint) SB-424 Alloy 825 Ni Alloy Plate SB-424 Alloy 825 Ni Alloy Plate (gasketed joint) SB-463 Alloy 20 Cb Ni Alloy Plate SB-463 Alloy 20 Cb Ni Alloy Plate (gasketed joint) SB-575 Alloy C-276 Ni Alloy Plate SB-575 Alloy C-276 Ni Alloy Plate (gasketed joint) SB-582 Alloy G Ni Alloy Plate SB-582 Alloy G Ni Alloy Plate (if at gasketed joint) SB-625 Alloy 904L Ni Alloy Plate (Annealed)

Titanium Plate
Number 1464 1153 1154 1333 1332 Titanium Plate SB-265 Grade 1 Titanium Plate SB-265 Grade 2 Titanium Plate SB-265 Grade 3 Titanium Plate SB-265 Grade 7 Titanium Plate SB-265 Grade 12 Titanium Plate

10-16

Aspen B-JAC 11.1 User Guide

Copper Alloy Plate
Number 1157 1256 1261 1258 1259 1155 1156 Copper Alloy Plate SB-96 Alloy Cda 655 Copper Alloy Plate SB-171 Alloy 464 Naval Brass Plate SB-171 Alloy 630 Al-Bronze Plate SB-171 Alloy 706 Cu-Ni 90/10 Plate SB-171 Alloy 715 Cu-Ni 70/30 Plate SB-402 Alloy Cda 715 Cu-ni 70/30 Alloy Plate SB-402 Alloy Cda 706 Cu-Ni 90/10 Alloy Plate

Aluminum Plate
Number 1361 Aluminum Plate SB-209 Alloy 6061 Temper T651 Aluminum Plate

Zirconium Plate
Number 1453 Zirconium Plate SB-551 Grade R60702 Zirconium Plate

Metals Directory - ASTM - Bolting
Carbon Steel Bolting
Number 1158 1287 1270 1344 Carbon Steel Bolting SA-307 Grade B Carbon Steel Bolting SA-325 Grade Types 1 & 2 Steel Bolting SA-354 Grade BD Carbon Steel Bolting (<2.5" diam) SA-354 Grade BD Carbon Steel Bolding (2.5" to 4" diam)

Aspen B-JAC 11.1 User Guide

10-17

Low Alloy Steel Bolting
Number 1159 1246 1161 1162 1164 Low Alloy Steel Bolting SA-193 B7 Alloy Steel Bolting SA-193 B7 CC 1510 Alloy Steel Bolting SA-193 B7M Alloy Steel Bolting SA-193 B16 Alloy Steel Bolting SA-193 B6 (410) High Alloy Steel Bolting

High Alloy Steel Bolting
Number 1165 1166 1167 1168 High Alloy Steel Bolting SA-193 B8 Cl.1 (304) High Alloy Steel Bolting SA-193 B8M Cl.1 (316) High Alloy Steel Bolting SA-193 B8T Cl.1 (321) High Alloy Steel Bolting SA-193 B8C Cl.1 (347) High Alloy Steel Bolting

Nickel or Nickel Alloy Bolting
Number 1169 1170 1171 1172 1173 Nickel or Nickel Alloy Bolting SB-160 Alloy 200 Ni Bolting (Cold Drawn) SB-164 Alloy 400 Ni Alloy Bolting (CD & Stress Relieved) SB-166 Alloy 600 Ni Alloy Bolting (Cold Drawn) SB-335 Alloy B Ni Alloy Bolting (Annealed) SB-574 Alloy C-276 Ni Alloy Bolting (Annealed)

10-18

Aspen B-JAC 11.1 User Guide

Metals Directory - ASTM - Forging
Carbon Steel Forging
Number 1176 1174 1175 1266 Carbon Steel Forging SA-105 Carbon Steel Forging SA-181 Class 60 Carbon Steel Forging SA-181 Class 70 Carbon Steel Forging SA-350 Grade LF2 Carbon Steel Forging

Low Alloy Steel Forging
Number 1177 1178 1180 1179 1461 1288 1467 Low Alloy Steel Forging SA-182 Grade F1 Alloy Steel Forging SA-182 Grade F2 Alloy Steel Forging SA-182 Grade F11 Alloy Steel Forging SA-182 Grade F12 Alloy Steel Forging SA-182 Grade F22 Alloy Forging SA-266 Grade 2 Alloy Steel Forging SA-350 Grade LF3 Alloy Steel Forging

High Alloy Steel Forging
Number 1223 1234 1235 1239 1236 1237 1300 1238 High Alloy Steel Forging SA-182 F6A Cl.1 High Alloy Steel Forging SA-182 F304 High Alloy Steel Forging SA-182 F304L High Alloy Steel Forging SA-182 F310 High Alloy Steel Forging SA-182 F316 High Alloy Steel Forging SA-182 F316L High Alloy Steel Forging SA-182 F321 High Alloy Forging SA-182 F347 High Alloy Steel Forging

Aspen B-JAC 11.1 User Guide

10-19

Number 1240 1241 1242 1471 1468 1469 1470 1475 1243

High Alloy Steel Forging SB-160 Alloy 200 Ni Forging (Annealed) SB-160 Alloy 201 Ni-Lo C Forging SB-164 Alloy 400 Ni Alloy Forging (Annealed) SB-425 Alloy 825 Ni Alloy Forging (Annealed) SB-564 Alloy 400 Ni Alloy Forging (Annealed) SB-564 Alloy 600 Ni Alloy Forging (Annealed) SB-564 Alloy 800 Ni Alloy Forging (Annealed) SB-564 Alloy 800H Ni Alloy Forging (Annealed) SB-166 Alloy 600 Ni Alloy Forging (Annealed)

Titanium Alloy Forging
Number 1465 1244 1245 Titanium Alloy Forging SB-381 Grade F1 Titanium Forging SB-381 Grade F2 Titanium Forging (Annealed) SB-381 Grade F3 Titanium Forging (Annealed)

Zirconium Alloy Forging
Number 1455 Zirconium Alloy Forging SB-493 Grade R60702 Zirconium Forging

Metals Directory - ASTM - Coupling
Carbon Steel Coupling
Number 1211 Carbon Steel Coupling SA-105 Carbon Steel Coupling

10-20

Aspen B-JAC 11.1 User Guide

Low Alloy Steel Coupling
Number 1212 1213 1215 1214 Low Alloy Steel Coupling SA-182 F1 Alloy Steel Coupling SA-182 F2 Alloy Steel Coupling SA-182 F11 Alloy Steel Coupling SA-182 F12 Alloy Steel Coupling

High Alloy Steel Coupling
Number 1216 1217 1221 1218 1219 1220 1222 High Alloy Steel Coupling SA-182 F304 High Alloy Steel Coupling SA-182 F304L High Alloy Steel Coupling SA-182 F310 High Alloy Steel Coupling SA-182 F316 High Alloy Steel Coupling SA-182 F316L High Alloy Steel Coupling SA-182 F347 High Alloy Steel Coupling SA-479 XM-27 High Alloy Steel Coupling

Nickel or Nickel Alloy Coupling
Number 1224 1225 1226 1227 1228 1229 1230 1232 Nickel or Nickel Alloy Coupling SB-160 Alloy 200 Ni Coupling (Annealed) SB-160 Alloy 201 Ni-Lo C Coupling SB-164 Alloy 400 Ni-Cu Alloy Coupling (Annealed) SB-166 Alloy 600 Ni-Cr-Fe Alloy Coupling (Annealed) SB-408 Alloy 800 Ni Alloy Coupling SB-425 Alloy 825 Ni Alloy Coupling SB-462 Alloy 20CB Ni Alloy Coupling SB-574 Alloy C-276 Ni Alloy Coupling

Titanium Alloy Coupling
Number 1233 Titanium Alloy Coupling SB-381 Grade F1 Titanium Coupling

Aspen B-JAC 11.1 User Guide

10-21

Metals Directory - ASTM - Gasket
Gaskets
Number 1324 1301 1302 1330 1331 1306 1320 1309 1305 1307 1308 1319 1311 1322 1313 1310 1312 1323 1321 1326 1314 1315 1316 1317 1303 1304 1318 1327 1328 1329 1325 Gasket Material Compressed Asbestos 1/32" Thick (0.8 mm) Compressed Asbestos 1/16" Thick (1.6 mm) Compressed Asbestos 1/8" Thick (3.2 mm) Compressed Fiber 1/16" Tk (1.6 mm) Compressed Fiber 1/8" Tk (3.2 mm) Flat Metal Jacket Asbestos Iron Flat Metal Jacket Asbestos Soft Steel Flat Metal Jacket Asbestos Stainless Steel Flat Metal Jacket Asbestos Soft Copper Flat Metal Jacket Asbestos Monel Flat Metal Jacket Asbestos 4-6% Chrome Flat Metal Jacket Asbestos Brass Solid Flat Metal Iron Solid Flat Metal Soft Steel Solid Flat Metal Stainless Steel Solid Flat Metal Soft Copper Solid Flat Metal Monel Solid Flat Metal 4-6% Chrome Solid Flat Metal Brass Self-Energizing Types Solid Teflon 1/32" Thick (0.8 mm) Solid Teflon 1/16" Thick (1.6 mm) Solid Teflon 3/32" Thick (2.4 mm) Solid Teflon 1/8" Thick (3.2 mm) Spiral-Wound Metal Asbestos Carbon Steel Spiral-Wound Metal Asbestos Stainless Spiral-Wound Metal Asbestos Monel Ring Joint Iron or Soft Steel Ring Joint Monel or 4-6% Cr Ring Joint Stainless Steel Elastomers 75A or Higher Shore Durometer

10-22

Aspen B-JAC 11.1 User Guide

Number 1345 1366 1346 1347 1367 1349 1369 1348 1368 1350 1370 1351 1352 1353 1371 1353 1372 1355 1373 1356 1357 1358 1374 1375 1376

Gasket Material Garloc Blue-Gard 3000 1/16" Thick (1.6 mm) Garloc Blue-Gard 3000 1/8" Thick (3.2 mm) Garloc Blue-Gard 3100 1/16" Thick (1.6 mm) Garloc Blue-Gard 3200 1/16" Thick (1.6 mm) Garloc Blue-Gard 3200 1/8" Thick (3.2 mm) Garloc Blue-Gard 3300 1/16" Thick (1.6 mm) Garloc Blue-Gard 3300 1/8" Thick (3.2 mm) Garloc Blue-Gard 3400 1/16" Thick (1.6 mm) Garloc Blue-Gard 3400 1/8" Thick (3.2 mm) Garloc Blue-Gard 3700 1/16" Thick (1.6 mm) Garloc Blue-Gard 3700 1/8" Thick (3.2 mm) Garloc Enhanced HTC 9800 1/16" Thick (1.6 mm) Garloc Enhanced HTC 9850 1/16" Thick (1.6 mm) Garloc Gylon 3500 Fawn 1/16" Thick (1.6 mm) Garloc Gylon 3500 Fawn 1/8" Thick (3.2 mm) Garloc Gylon 3504 Blue 1/16" Thick (1.6 mm) Garloc Gylon 3504 Blue 1/8" Thick (3.2 mm) Garloc Gylon 3510 Off-White 1/16" Thick (1.6 mm) Garloc Gylon 3510 Off-White 1/8" Thick (3.2 mm) Garloc Gylon 3530 Black 1/16" Thick (1.6 mm) Garloc Gylon 3565 Envelon 1/16" Thick (1.6 mm) Garloc Guardian Plus 1/32" Thick (0.8 mm) Garloc Graph-lock 3123 (Homogeneous) 1/8" Thick (3.2 mm) Garloc Graph-lock 3124 (Wire Inserted) 1/8" Thick (3.2 mm) Klinger 5401 1/8" Thick (3.2 mm)

Aspen B-JAC 11.1 User Guide

10-23

Metals Directory - ASTM - Tube
Carbon Steel Tube
Number 1401 1402 1450 1403 Carbon Steel Tube SA-179 Seamless Carbon Steel Tube SA-178 Grade A Welded Carbon Steel Tube SA-210 Grade A-1 Seamless Carbon Steel Tube SA-214 Welded Carbon Steel Tube

Low Alloy Steel Tube
Number 1442 1271 1404 1405 1407 1406 1457 1441 1459 Low Alloy Steel Tube SA-199 Grade T5 Seamless Low Alloy Tube SA-199 Grade T11 Seamless Low Alloy Tube SA-209 Grade T1B Seamless Low Alloy Tube SA-213 Grade T2 Seamless Low Alloy Tube SA-213 Grade T11 Seamless Low Alloy Tube SA-213 Grade T12 Seamless Low Alloy Tube SA-213 Grade T22 Seamless Low Alloy Tube SA-334 Grade 1 Seamless Low Alloy Tube SA-334 Grade 3 Seamless Low Alloy Tube

10-24

Aspen B-JAC 11.1 User Guide

High Alloy Steel Tube
Number 1408 1409 1413 1410 1411 1296 1412 1297 1415 1414 1416 1417 1421 1418 1419 1420 1422 1423 High Alloy Steel Tube SA-213 TP304 Seamless High Alloy Tube SA-213 TP304L Seamless High Alloy Tube SA-213 TP310 Seamless High Alloy Tube SA-213 TP316 Seamless High Alloy Tube SA-213 TP316L Seamless High Alloy Tube SA-213 TP321 Seamless High Alloy Tube SA-213 TP347 Seamless High Alloy Tube SA-249 TP321 Welded High Alloy Tube SA-268 TP410 Seamless High Alloy Tube SA-268 XM-27 Seamless High Alloy Tube SA-249 TP304 Welded High Alloy Tube SA-249 TP304L Welded High Alloy Tube SA-249 TP310 Welded High Alloy Tube SA-249 TP316 Welded High Alloy Tube SA-249 TP316L Welded High Alloy Tube SA-249 TP347 Welded High Alloy Tube SA-268 XM-27 Welded High Alloy Tube SA-268 TP410 Welded High Alloy Tube

Copper or Copper Alloy Tube
Number 1436 1437 1438 1439 1440 Copper or Copper Alloy Tube SB-111 Alloy 122 Seamless Copper Tube (Light Drawn) SB-111 Alloy 443 Seamless Admiralty Brass Tube SB-111 Alloy 687 Seamless Aluminum-Brass Tube SB-111 Alloy 706 Seamless Cu-Ni 90/10 Tube SB-111 Alloy 715 Seamless Cu-Ni 70/30 Tube (Annealed)

Aspen B-JAC 11.1 User Guide

10-25

Nickel or Nickel Alloy Tube
Number 1424 1425 1426 1427 1428 1429 1476 1430 1431 1477 1478 1432 1433 1502 Nickel or Nickel Alloy Tube SB-163 Alloy 200 Seamless Ni Tube (Annealed) SB-163 Alloy 201 Seamless Ni-Lo C Tube (Annealed) SB-163 Alloy 400 Seamless Ni-Cu Alloy Tube (Annealed) SB-163 Alloy 600 Seamless Ni Alloy Tube SB-163 Alloy 800 Seamless Ni-Cr-Fe Alloy Tube SB-163 Alloy 825 Seamless Ni Alloy Tube SB-163 Alloy 800H Seamless Alloy Tube SB-468 Alloy 20CB Seamless Ni Alloy Tube (Annealed) SB-468 Alloy 20CB Welded Ni Alloy Tube (Annealed) SB-622 Alloy G-3 Seamless Ni Alloy Tube (Annealed) SB-622 Alloy G-30 Seamless Ni Alloy Tube SB-626 Alloy B Welded Ni Alloy Tube SB-626 Alloy C-276 Welded Ni Alloy Tube SB-674 Alloy 904 Welded Ni Alloy Tube (Annealed)

Titanium Alloy Tube
Number 1458 1434 1435 1338 1340 Titanium Alloy Tube SB-338 Grade 1 Seamless Titanium Tube (Annealed) SB-338 Grade 2 Seamless Titanium Tube SB-338 Grade 2 Welded Titanium Tube SB-338 Grade 7 Seamless Titanium Tube SB-338 Grade 7 Welded Titanium Tube

Zirconium Alloy Tube
Number 1451 1452 Zirconium Alloy Tube SB-523 R60702 Seamless Zirconium Tube SB-523 R60702 Welded Zirconium Tube

10-26

Aspen B-JAC 11.1 User Guide

Metals Directory - AFNOR - Genenic
Number 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 33 Generic Material Carbon Steel Low Alloy Steel C 1/2 Mo Low Alloy Steel 1/2 Cr 1/2 Mo Low Alloy Steel Cr 1/2 Mo Low Alloy Steel 1 1/4 Cr 1/2 Mo High Alloy Steel Grade 304 High Alloy Steel Grade 304L High Alloy Steel Grade 316 High Alloy Steel Grade 316L High Alloy Steel Grade 347 High Alloy Steel Grade 310S High Alloy Steel Grade 310S XM-27 (E-brite) High Alloy Steel Grade 410 Nickel Alloy 200 Nickel Low Carbon Alloy 201 Nickel Alloy 400 (Monel) Nickel Alloy 600 (Inconel) Nickel Alloy 800 Nickel Alloy 825 (Inconel 825) Nickel Alloy B (Hastelloy B) Nickel Alloy C (Hastelloy C) Nickel Alloy G (Hastelloy G) Nickel Alloy 20Cb (Carpenter 20) Titanium Copper-Nickel 70/30 Alloy CDA 715 Copper-Nickel 90/10 Alloy CDA 706 Copper-Nickel Alloy CDA 655 Naval Brass Alloy 464 Aluminum-Bronze Alloy 630 Aluminum Brass Alloy 687 Admiralty Alloy 443 Zirconium

Aspen B-JAC 11.1 User Guide

10-27

Metals Directory - AFNOR - Pipe
Carbon Steel Pipe
Number 2100 2101 2103 2104 2105 2106 2107 2108 2109 2110 2111 2112 2113 2114 2115 2116 Carbon Steel Pipe NFA-49.112 TUE220A Seamless Steel Pipe NFA-49.112 TUE235A Seamless Steel Pipe NFA-49.142 TS37e Welded Steel Pipe NFA-49.142 TS34b Welded Steel Pipe NFA-49.142 TS37b Welded Steel Pipe NFA-49.142 TS42b Welded Steel Pipe NFA-49.142 TS47b Welded Steel Pipe NFA-49.211 TUE220 Seamless Steel Pipe NFA-49.211 TUE250 Seamless Steel Pipe NFA-49.211 TUE275 Seamless Steel Pipe NFA-49.212 TU37c Seamless Steel Pipe NFA-49.212 TU42c Seamless Steel Pipe NFA-49.213 TU37c Seamless Steel Pipe NFA-49.213 TU42c Seamless Steel Pipe NFA-49.213 TU48c Seamless Steel Pipe NFA-49.213 TU52c Seamless Steel Pipe

High Alloy Steel Pipe
Number 2117 2118 2119 2119 2120 2121 High Alloy Steel Pipe NFA-49.214 TUZ6CN19.10 Seamless High Alloy Pipe NFA-49.214 TUZ6CND17.12B Seamless High Alloy Pipe NFA-49.214 TUZ6CNT18.12B Seamless High Alloy Pipe NFA-49.214 TUZ6CNNb18.12B Seamless High Alloy Pipe NFA-49.214 TUZ8CNDT17.13B Seamless High Alloy Pipe NFA-49.214 TUZ10CNWT17.13B Seamless High Alloy Pipe

10-28

Aspen B-JAC 11.1 User Guide

Metals Directory - AFNOR - Plate
Carbon Steel Plate
Number 2212 2213 2214 2200 2201 2202 2203 2204 2205 2206 2207 2208 2209 2210 2211 Carbon Steel Plate NFA-35.501 E24-2 Steel Plate NFA-35.501 E24-3 Steel Plate NFA-35.501 E24-4 Steel Plate NFA-36.205 A37-CP Steel Plate NFA-36.205 A37-AP Steel Plate NFA-36.205 A37-FP Steel Plate NFA-36.205 A42-CP Steel Plate NFA-36.205 A42-AP Steel Plate NFA-36.205 A42-FP Steel Plate NFA-36.205 A48-CP Steel Plate NFA-36.205 A48-AP Steel Plate NFA-36.205 A48-FP Steel Plate NFA-36.205 A52-CP Steel Plate NFA-36.205 A52-AP Steel Plate NFA-36.205 A52-FP Steel Plate

Aspen B-JAC 11.1 User Guide

10-29

High Alloy Steel Plate
Number 2233 2234 2215 2235 2216 2217 2220 2218 2219 2229 2230 2221 2227 2224 2228 2236 2225 2222 2226 2223 2237 2231 2238 2239 2232 2233 High Alloy Steel Plate NFA-36.209 Z1CN18.12 High Alloy Steel Plate NFA-36.209 Z1CNS17.15 High Alloy Steel Plate NFA-36.209 Z3CN18.10 High Alloy Steel Plate NFA-36.209 Z4CN19.10 High Alloy Steel Plate NFA-36.209 Z6CN18.09 High Alloy Steel Plate NFA-36.209 Z7CN18.09 High Alloy Steel Plate NFA-36.209 Z6CNNb18.10 High Alloy Steel Plate NFA-36.209 Z6CNT18.10HT High Alloy Steel Plate NFA-36.209 Z6CNT18.10BT High Alloy Steel Plate NFA-36.209 Z3CN18.10Az High Alloy Steel Plate NFA-36.209 Z6CN19.09Az High Alloy Steel Plate NFA-36.209 Z3CND17.11.02 High Alloy Steel Plate NFA-36.209 Z3CND17.12.03 High Alloy Steel Plate NFA-36.209 Z3CND18.12.03 High Alloy Steel Plate NFA-36.209 Z3CND19.15.04 High Alloy Steel Plate NFA-36.209 Z4CND18.12.03 High Alloy Steel Plate NFA-36.209 Z6CND18.12.03 High Alloy Steel Plate NFA-36.209 Z7CND17.11.02 High Alloy Steel Plate NFA-36.209 Z6CNDNb18.12 High Alloy Steel Plate NFA-36.209 Z6CNDT17.12 High Alloy Steel Plate NFA-36.209 Z3CND17.11Az High Alloy Steel Plate NFA-36.209 Z3CND17.12Az High Alloy Steel Plate NFA-36.209 Z3CND18.14.05Az High Alloy Steel Plate NFA-36.209 Z3CND19.14Az High Alloy Steel Plate NFA-36.209 Z4CMN18.08.07Az High Alloy Steel Plate

10-30

Aspen B-JAC 11.1 User Guide

Metals Directory - AFNOR - Bolting
Low Alloy Steel Bolting
Number 2600 2601 Low Alloy Steel Bolting NFA-35.558 25CD4 Alloy Steel Bolting NFA-35.558 42CDV4 Alloy Steel Bolting

Metals - Directory - AFNOR - Forging
Carbon Steel Forging
Number 2400 2401 2402 2403 2404 2405 2406 2407 2408 2409 2410 2411 Carbon Steel Forging NFA-36.601 A37-CP Steel Forging NFA-36.601 A37-AP Steel Forging NFA-36.601 A37-FP Steel Forging NFA-36.601 A42-CP Steel Forging NFA-36.601 A42-AP Steel Forging NFA-36.601 A42-FP Steel Forging NFA-36.601 A48-CP Steel Forging NFA-36.601 A48-AP Steel Forging NFA-36.601 A48-FP Steel Forging NFA-36.601 A52-CP Steel Forging NFA-36.601 A52-AP Steel Forging NFA-36.601 A52-FP Steel Forging

Aspen B-JAC 11.1 User Guide

10-31

High Alloy Steel Forging
Number 2412 2413 2414 2416 2417 2418 2419 2420 2422 2423 High Alloy Steel Forging NFA-36.607 Z2CN18.10 High Alloy Steel Forging NFA-36.607 Z5CN18.09 High Alloy Steel Forging NFA-36.607 Z6CN18.09 High Alloy Steel Forging NFA-36.607 Z6CNT18.10 High Alloy Steel Forging NFA-36.607 Z6CNNb18.10 High Alloy Steel Forging NFA-36.607 Z2CND17.12 High Alloy Steel Forging NFA-36.607 Z6CND17.11 High Alloy Steel Forging NFA-36.607 Z6CNDT17.12 High Alloy Steel Forging NFA-36.607 Z2CND18.13 High Alloy Steel Forging NFA-36.607 Z6CND18.13 High Alloy Steel Forging

10-32

Aspen B-JAC 11.1 User Guide

Metals Directory - AFNOR - Gasket
Gaskets
Number 2324 2301 2302 2314 2316 2317 2318 2303 2304 2305 2319 2320 2306 2307 2308 2309 2310 2311 2312 2313 2321 2322 2323 2325 2326 2327 2328 2329 Gasket Material Compressed Asbestos 1 mm Thk. Compresses Asbestos 2 mm Thk. Compressed Asbestos 3 mm Thk. Solid Teflon 1 mm Thk. Solid Teflon 2 mm Thk. Solid Teflon 3 mm Thk. Spiral-Wound Metal Asbestos Monel Spiral-Wound Metal Asbestos Carbon Steel Spiral-Wound Metal Asbestos Stainless Steel Flat Metal Jacket Asbestos Soft Copper Flat Metal Jacket Asbestos Brass Flat Metal Jacket Asbestos Soft Steel Flat Metal Jacket Asbestos Iron Flat Metal Jacket Asbestos Monel Flat Metal Jacket Asbestos 4-6% Chrome Flat Metal Jacket Asbestos Stainless Steel Solid Flat Metal Soft Copper Solid Flat Metal Iron Solid Flat Metal Monel Solid Flat Metal Stainless Steel Solid Flat Metal Soft Brass Solid Flat Metal Soft Steel Solid Flat Metal 4-6% Chrome Elastomers 75A or Higher Shore Durometer Self-Energizing Types Ring Joint Iron or Soft Steel Ring Joint Monel or 4-6% Chrome Ring Joint Stainless Steel

Aspen B-JAC 11.1 User Guide

10-33

Metals Directory - AFNOR - Tube
Carbon Steel Tube
Number 2700 2701 2702 Carbon Steel Tube NFA-49.215 TU37c Seamless Steel Tube NFA-49.215 TU42c Seamless Steel Tube NFA-49.215 TU48c Seamless Steel Tube

Low Alloy Steel Tube
Number 2703 2704 2705 2706 2707 2708 Low Alloy Steel Tube NFA-49.215 TU15D3 Seamless Low Alloy Tube NFA-49.215 TU15CD2.05 Seamless Low Alloy Tube NFA-49.215 TU10CD5.05 Seamless Low Alloy Tube NFA-49.215 TU10CD9.10 Seamless Low Alloy Tube NFA-49.215 TUZ10CD5.05 Seamless Low Alloy Tube NFA-49.215 TUZ10CD9 Seamless Low Alloy Tube

High Alloy Steel Tube
Number 2715 2716 2710 2711 2712 2713 2714 2717 2718 2719 2720 2721 2722 High Alloy Steel Tube NFA-49.217 TUZ12C13 Seamless High Alloy Tube NFA-49.217 TUZ10C17 Seamless High Alloy Tube NFA-49.217 TUZ2CN18.10 Seamless High Alloy Tube NFA-49.217 TUZ6CN18.09 Seamless High Alloy Tube NFA-49.217 TUZ6CNT18.10 Seamless High Alloy Tube NFA-49.217 TUZ2CND17.12 Seamless High Alloy Tube NFA-49.217 TUZ6CND17.11 Seamless High Alloy Tube NFA-49.247 TSZ2CN18.10 Welded High Alloy Tube NFA-49.247 TSZ6CN18.09 Welded High Alloy Tube NFA-49.247 TSZ6CNT18.10 Welded High Alloy Tube NFA-49.247 TSZ2CND17.12 Welded High Alloy Tube NFA-49.247 TSZ6CND17.11 Welded High Alloy Tube NFA-49.247 TSZ2CND19.15 Welded High Alloy Tube

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Aspen B-JAC 11.1 User Guide

Metals Directory - DIN - Generic
Generic Material
Number 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 13 15 16 17 19 25 26 33 Generic Material Carbon Steel Low Alloy Steel C 1/2 Mo Low Alloy Steel 1/2 Cr 1/2 Mo Low Alloy Steel Cr 1/2 Mo Low Alloy Steel 1 1/4 Cr 1/2 Mo High Alloy Steel Grade 304 High Alloy Steel Grade 304L High Alloy Steel Grade 316 High Alloy Steel Grade 316L High Alloy Steel Grade 410 Nickel Low Carbon Alloy 201 Nickel Alloy 400 (Monel) Nickel Alloy 600 (Inconel) Nickel Alloy 825 (Incoloy) Copper-Nickel 70/30 Alloy CDA 715 Copper-Nickel 90/10 Alloy CDA 706 Zirconium

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Metals Directory - DIN - Pipe
Pipe - Alloyed and Non-Alloyed Steel - Seamless - AD W4
Number 3202 3208 3204 3210 3230 3214 3216 3232 3206 3248 3234 3236 3250 3252 3212 3246 3238 3224 3228 3226 3220 3222 3218 3240 3242 3244 3254 3256 3287 3289 3291 3257 Pipe Alloyed and NonAlloyed Steel Seamless AD W4 1.0254 - St 37.0 - DIN 1629 1.0255 - St 37.4 - DIN 1630 1.0256 - St 44.0 - DIN 1629 1.0257 - St 44.4 - DIN 1630 1.0305 - St 35.8 - DIN 17175 1.0356 - TTSt 35 N - DIN 17173 1.0356 - TTSt 35 V - DIN 17173 1.0405 - St 45.8 - DIN 17175 1.0421 - St 52.0 - DIN 1629 1.0462 - WStE 255 - DIN 17179 1.0481 - 17 Mn 4 - DIN 17175 1.0482 - 19 Mn 5 - DIN 17175 1.0487 - WStE 285 - DIN 17179 1.0565 - WStE 355 - DIN 17179 1.0581 - St 52.4 - DIN 1630 1.4922 - X 20 CrMoV 12 1 - DIN 17175 1.5415 - 15 Mo 3 - DIN 17175 1.5637 - 10 Ni 14 - DIN 17173 1.5662 - X 8 Ni 9 - DIN 17173 1.5680 - 12 Ni 19 - DIN 17173 1.6212 - 11 MnNi 5 3 - DIN 17173 1.6217 - 13 MnNi 6 3 - DIN 17173 1.7219 - 26 CrMo 4 - DIN 17173 1.7335 - 13 CrMo 4 4 - DIN 17175 1.7380 - 10 CrMo 9 10 - DIN 17175 1.7715 - 14 MoV 6 3 - DIN 17175 1.8932 - WStE 420 - DIN 17179 1.8935 - WStE 460 - DIN 17179 1.0315 - St 37.8 - DIN 17177 1.0498 - St 42.8 - DIN 17177 1.5415 - 15 MoV 3 - DIN 17177 1.8935 - WStE 460 - DIN 17178

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Aspen B-JAC 11.1 User Guide

Pipe - Stainless Steel - Welded - AD W2 - DIN 17457
Number 3261 3263 3265 3271 3273 3279 3281 3283 3285 3267 3269 3275 Pipe - Stainless Steel - Welded - AD W2 - DIN 17457 1.4301 - X 5 CrNi 18 10 - DIN 17457 1.4306 - X 2 CrNi 19 11 - DIN 17457 1.4331 - X 2 CrNiN 18 10 - DIN 17457 1.4401 - X 5 CrNiMo 17 12 2 - DIN 17457 1.4404 - X 2 CrNiMo 17 13 2 - DIN 17457 1.4429 - X 2 CrNiMoN 17 13 3 - DIN 17457 1.4435 - X 2 CrNiMoN 17 13 3 - DIN 17457 1.4436 - X 5 CrNiMo 17 13 3 - DIN 17457 1.4439 - X 2 CrNiMoN 17 13 5 - DIN 17457 1.4541 - X 6 CrNiTi 18 10 - DIN 17457 1.4550 - X 6 CrNiNb 18 10 - DIN 17457 1.4571 - X 6 CrNiMoTi 17 12 2 - DIN 17457

Pipe - Nickel and Nickel Alloy - VdTÜV
Number 3292 3288 3290 3294 3286 Pipe - Nickel and Nickel Alloy - VdTÜV 2.4068 - Nickel 201 - VdTÜV 345 2.4360 - Monel 400 - VdTÜV 263 2.4816 - Inconel 600 - VdTÜV 305 2.4856 - VdTÜV 499 2.4858 - Incoloy 825 - VdTÜV 432

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Metals Directory - DIN - Plate
Plates - Alloyed and Non-Alloyed Steel - AD W1
Number
3000 3001 3002 3003 3005 3008 3009 3010 3004 3006 3020 3021 3011 3024 3023 3012 3013 3014 3007 3025 3032 3035 3033 3029 3030 3031 3034 3028 3026 3015 3016 3017 3018 3019

Plates - Alloyed and Non-Alloyed Steel - AD W1
1.0035 - St 33 - DIN 17100 1.0036 - USt 37-2 - DIN 17100 1.0037 - St 37-2 - DIN 17100 1.0038 - RSt 37-2 - DIN 17100 1.0044 - St 44-2 - DIN 17100 1.0050 - St 50-2 - DIN 17100 1.0060 - St 60-2 - DIN 17100 1.0070 - St 70-2 - DIN 17100 1.0116 - St 37-3 - DIN 17100 1.0144 - St 44-3 - DIN 17100 1.0345 - H I - DIN 17155 1.0425 - H II - DIN 17155 1.0462 - WStE 255 - DIN 17102 1.0473 - 19 Mn 6 - DIN 17155 1.0481 - 17 Mn 4 - DIN 17155 1.0487 - WStE 285 - DIN 17102 1.0506 - WStE 315 - DIN 17102 1.0565 - WStE 355 - DIN 17102 1.0570 - St 52-3 - DIN 17100 1.5415 - 15 Mo 3 - DIN 17155 1.5637 - 10 Ni 14 - DIN 17280 1.5662 - X 8 Ni 9 - DIN 17280 1.5680 - 12 Ni 19 - DIN 17280 1.6212 - 11 MnNi 5 3 - DIN 17280 1.6217 - 13 MnNi 6 3 - DIN 17280 1.6228 - 14 NiMn 6 - DIN 17280 1.6349 - X 7 NiMo 6 - DIN 17280 1.7219 - 26 CrMo 4 - DIN 17280 1.7335 - 13 CrMo 4 4 - DIN 17155 1.8930 - WStE 380 - DIN 17102 1.8932 - WStE 420 - DIN 17102 1.8935 - WStE 460 - DIN 17102 1.8937 - WStE 500 - DIN 17102 1.8937 - WStE 500 - DIN 17102

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Aspen B-JAC 11.1 User Guide

Plates - Stainless Steel - AD W2 - DIN 17440
Number 3036 3037 3038 3062 3040 3039 3041 3042 3043 3066 3065 3064 3044 3045 3046 3047 3048 3049 3052 3053 3054 3057 3058 3059 3060 3061 3063 3050 3051 3055 3056 Plates - Stainless Steel - AD W2 - DIN 17440 1.4000 - X 6 Cr 13 - DIN 17440 1.4002 - X 6 CrAl 13 - DIN 17440 1.4006 - X 10 Cr 13 - DIN 17440 1.4016 - X 6 Cr 17 - DIN 17440 1.4021 - X 20 Cr 13 - DIN 17440 1.4024 - X 15 Cr 13 - DIN 17440 1.4028 - X 30 Cr 13 - DIN 17440 1.4031 - X 38 Cr 13 - DIN 17440 1.4034 - X 48 Cr 13 - DIN 17440 1.4057 - X CrNi 17 2 - DIN 17440 1.4104 - X 12 CrMoS 17 - DIN 17440 1.4105 - X 4 CrMoS 18 - DIN 17440 1.4116 - X 45 CrMoV 15 - DIN 17440 1.4301 - X 5 CrNi 8 10 - DIN 17440 1.4303 - X 5 CrNi 18 12 - DIN 17440 1.4305 - X 10 CrNiS 18 9 - DIN 17440 1.4306 - X 2 CrNi 19 11 - DIN 17440 1.4311 - X 2 CrNiN 18 10 - DIN 17440 1.4401 - X 5 CrNiMo 17 12 2 - DIN 17440 1.4404 - X 2 CrNiMo 17 13 2 - DIN 17440 1.4406 - X 2 CrNiMoN 17 12 2 - DIN 17440 1.4429 - X 2 CrNiMoN 17 13 3 - DIN 17440 1.4435 - X 2 CrNiMo 18 14 3 - DIN 17440 1.4436 - X 5 CrNiMo 17 13 3 - DIN 17440 1.4438 - X 2 CrNiMo 18 16 4 - DIN 17440 1.4439 - X 2 CrNiMoN 17 13 5 - DIN 17440 1.4510 - X 6 CrTi 17 - DIN 17440 1.4541 - X 6 CrNiTi 18 10 - DIN 17440 1.4550 - X 6 CrNiNb 18 10 - DIN 17440 1.4571 - X 6 CrNiMoTi 17 12 2 - DIN 17440 1.4580 - X 6 CrNiMoNb 17 12 2 - DIN 17440

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Plates - Copper and Copper Alloy - AD W6/2
Number 3070 3071 3072 Plates - Copper and Copper Alloy - AD W6/2 2.0090.10 - SF-Cu F20 - AD W6/2 2.0872.19 - CuNi10Fe1Mn F30 - AD W6/2 2.0882.19 - CuNi30Fe1Mn F35 - AD W6/2

Plates - Nickel and Nickel Alloy - VdTÜV
Number 3076 3074 3075 3077 Plates - Nickel and Nickel Alloy - VdTšV 2.4068 - Nickel 201 - VdTÜV 345 2.4360 - Monel 400 - VdTÜV 263 2.4816 - Inconel 600 - VdTÜV 305 2.4856 - VdTÜV 499

Metals Directory - DIN - Bolting
Bolts - DIN 17240
Number 3701 3707 3706 3708 3702 3704 3705 3709 Bolts - DIN 17240 1.1181 - Ck 35 1.4913 - X 19 CrMoVNbN 11 1 1.4923 - X 22 CrMoV 12 1 1.4986 - X 8 CrNiMoBNb 16 16 1.7258 - 24 CrMo 5 1.7709 - 21 CrMoV 5 7 1.7711 - 40 CrMoV 4 7 2.4952 - NiCr20TiAl

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Aspen B-JAC 11.1 User Guide

Metals Directory - DIN - Forging
Forging - Alloyed and Non-Alloyed Steel - AD W13
Number
3600 3601 3602 3603 3605 3608 3609 3610 3604 3606 3670 3611 3672 3612 3613 3614 3607 3674 3676 3686 3678 3632 3635 3633 3629 3630 3631 3634 3628 3680 3682 3684 3615 3616 3617 3618

Forging - Alloyed and Non-Alloyed Steel - AD W13
1.0035 - US 33 - DIN 17100 1.0036 - USt 37-2 - DIN 17100 1.0037 - St 37-2 - DIN 17100 1.0038 - RSt 37-2 - DIN 17100 1.0044 - St 44-2 - DIN 17100 1.0050 - St 50-2 - DIN 17100 1.0060 - St 60-2 - DIN 17100 1.0070 - St 70-2 - DIN 17100 1.0116 - St 37-3 - DIN 17100 1.0144 - St 44-3 - DIN 17100 1.0460 - C 22.8 - DIN 17243 1.0462 - WStE 255 - DIN 17102 1.0481 - 17 Mn 4 - DIN 17243 1.0487 - WStE 285 - DIN 17102 1.0506 - WStE 315 - DIN 17102 1.0565 - WStE 355 - DIN 17102 1.0570 - St 52-3 - DIN 17100 1.1133 - 20 Mn 5 N - DIN 17243 1.1133 - 20 Mn 5 V - DIN 17243 1.4922 - X 20 CrMoV 12 1 - DIN 17243 1.5415 - 15 Mo 3 - DIN 17243 1.5637 - 10 Ni 14 - DIN 17280 1.5662 - X 8 Ni 9 - DIN 17280 1.5680 - 12 Ni 19 - DIN 17280 1.6212 - 11 MnNi 5 3 - DIN 17280 1.6217 - 13 MnNi 6 3 - DIN 17280 1.6228 - 14 NiMn 6 - DIN 17280 1.6349 - X 7 NiMo 6 - DIN 17280 1.7219 - 26 CrMo 4 - DIN 17280 1.7335 - 13 CrMo 4 4 - DIN 17243 1.7380 - 10 CrMo 9 10 - DIN 17243 1.7715 - 14 MoV 6 3 - DIN 17243 1.8930 - WStE 380 - DIN 17102 1.8932 - WStE 420 - DIN 17102 1.8935 - WStE 460 - DIN 17102 1.8937 - WStE 500 - DIN 17102

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Forging - Stainless Steel - AD W2 - DIN 17440
Number 3636 3637 3638 3662 3640 3639 3641 3642 3643 3666 3665 3664 3644 3645 3646 3647 3648 3649 3652 3653 3654 3657 3658 3659 3660 3661 3663 3650 3651 3655 3656 Forging - Stainless Steel - AD W2 - DIN 17440 1.4000 - X 6 Cr 13 - DIN 17440 1.4002 - X 6 CrAl 13 - DIN 17440 1.4006 - X 10 Cr 13 - DIN 17440 1.4016 - X 6 Cr 17 - DIN 17440 1.4021 - X 20 Cr 13 - DIN 17440 1.4024 - X 15 Cr 13 - DIN 17440 1.4028 - X 30 Cr 13 - DIN 17440 1.4031 - X 38 Cr 13 - DIN 17440 1.4034 - X 48 Cr 13 - DIN 17440 1.4057 - X CrNi 17 2 - DIN 17440 1.4104 - X 12 CrMoS 17 - DIN 17440 1.4105 - X 4 CrMoS 18 - DIN 17440 1.4116 - X 45 CrMoV 15 - DIN 17440 1.4301 - X 5 CrNi 8 10 - DIN 17440 1.4303 - X 5 CrNi 18 12 - DIN 17440 1.4305 - X 10 CrNiS 18 9 - DIN 17440 1.4306 - X 2 CrNi 19 11 - DIN 17440 1.4311 - X 2 CrNiN 18 10 - DIN 17440 1.4401 - X 5 CrNiMo 17 12 2 - DIN 17440 1.4404 - X 2 CrNiMo 17 13 2 - DIN 17440 1.4406 - X 2 CrNiMoN 17 12 2 - DIN 17440 1.4429 - X 2 CrNiMoN 17 13 3 - DIN 17440 1.4435 - X 2 CrNiMo 18 14 3 - DIN 17440 1.4436 - X 5 CrNiMo 17 13 3 - DIN 17440 1.4438 - X 2 CrNiMo 18 16 4 - DIN 17440 1.4439 - X 2 CrNiMoN 17 13 5 - DIN 17440 1.4510 - X 6 CrTi 17 - DIN 17440 1.4541 - X 6 CrNiTi 18 10 - DIN 17440 1.4550 - X 6 CrNiNb 18 10 - DIN 17440 1.4571 - X 6 CrNiMoTi 17 12 2 - DIN 17440 1.4580 - X 6 CrNiMoNb 17 12 2 - DIN 17440

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Aspen B-JAC 11.1 User Guide

Metals - Directory - DIN - Gasket
Gaskets
Number 3312 3313 3314 3300 3301 3307 3302 3303 3306 3305 3308 3309 3310 3311 Gaskets Blechummantelte Dichtung - Al Blechummantelte Dichtung - Cu-Ms Blechummantelte Dichtung - weicher Stahl Flachdichtung - PTFE Flachdichtung - It - DIN 2505 (4/90) Flachdichtung - It - DIN 2505 (1/86) Flachdichtung - It PTFE-ummantelt Graphit mit Verstürkung - DIN 2505 Linsendichtung - DIN 2696 Metall-Flachdichtung - Stahl - St 35 Spiral-Asbestdichtung - unlegierter Stahl Welldichtring - Al Welldichtring - Cu-Ms Welldichtring - weicher Stahl

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Metals Directory - DIN - Tube
Tubes - Alloyed and Non-Alloyed Steel - Seamless - AD W4
Number 3401 3402 3408 3404 3410 3430 3414 3416 3432 3406 3448 3434 3436 3450 3452 3412 3446 3438 3424 3428 3426 3420 3422 3418 3440 3442 3444 3454 3456 TubesAlloyed and NonAlloyed Steel Seamless AD W4 1.0253 - USt 37.0 - DIN 1626 1.0254 - St 37.0 - DIN 1629 1.0255 - St 37.4 - DIN 1630 1.0256 - St 44.0 - DIN 1629 1.0257 - St 44.4 - DIN 1630 1.0305 - St 35.8 - DIN 17175 1.0356 - TTSt 35 N - DIN 17173 1.0356 - TTSt 35 V - DIN 17173 1.0405 - St 45.8 - DIN 17175 1.0421 - St 52.0 - DIN 1629 1.0462 - WStE 255 - DIN 17179 1.0481 - 17 Mn 4 - DIN 17175 1.0482 - 19 Mn 5 - DIN 17175 1.0487 - WStE 285 - DIN 17179 1.0565 - WStE 355 - DIN 17179 1.0581 - St 52.4 - DIN 1630 1.4922 - X 20 CrMoV 12 1 - DIN 17175 1.5415 - 15 Mo 3 - DIN 17175 1.5637 - 10 Ni 14 - DIN 17173 1.5662 - X 8 Ni 9 - DIN 17173 1.5680 - 12 Ni 19 - DIN 17173 1.6212 - 11 MnNi 5 3 - DIN 17173 1.6217 - 13 MnNi 6 3 - DIN 17173 1.7219 - 26 CrMo 4 - DIN 17173 1.7335 - 13 CrMo 4 4 - DIN 17175 1.7380 - 10 CrMo 9 10 - DIN 17175 1.7715 - 14 MoV 6 3 - DIN 17175 1.8932 - WStE 420 - DIN 17179 1.8935 - WStE 460 - DIN 17179

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Aspen B-JAC 11.1 User Guide

Tubes - Alloyed and Non-Alloyed Steel - Welded - AD W4
Number 3403 3409 3405 3411 3415 3417 3407 3449 3451 3453 3413 3425 3429 3427 3421 3423 3455 Tubes-Alloyed and Non-Alloyed Steel Welded AD W4 1.0254 - St 37.0 - DIN 1626 1.0255 - St 37.4 - DIN 1628 1.0256 - St 44.0 - DIN 1626 1.0257 - St 44.4 - DIN 1628 1.0356 - TTSt 35 N - DIN 17174 1.0356 - TTSt 35 V - DIN 17174 1.0421 - St 52.0 - DIN 1626 1.0462 - WStE 255 - DIN 17178 1.0487 - WStE 285 - DIN 17178 1.0565 - WStE 355 - DIN 17178 1.0581 - St 52.4 - DIN 1628 1.5637 - 10 Ni 14 - DIN 17174 1.5662 - X 8 Ni 9 - DIN 17174 1.5680 - 12 Ni 19 - DIN 17174 1.6212 - 11 MnNi 5 3 - DIN 17174 1.6217 - 13 MnNi 6 3 - DIN 17174 1.8932 - WStE 420 - DIN 17178

Tubes - Stainless Steel - Seamless - DIN 17458
Number 3460 3462 3464 3470 3472 3478 3480 3482 3484 3466 3468 3474 3476 Tubes - Stainless Steel - Seamless - DIN 17458 1.4301 - X 5 CrNi 18 10 - DIN 17458 1.4306 - X 2 CrNi 19 11 - DIN 17458 1.4331 - X 2 CrNiN 18 10 - DIN 17458 1.4401 - X 5 CrNiMo 17 12 2 - DIN 17458 1.4404 - X 2 CrNiMo 17 13 2 - DIN 17458 1.4429 - X 2 CrNiMoN 17 13 3 - DIN 17458 1.4435 - X 2 CrNiMoN 17 13 3 - DIN 17458 1.4436 - X 5 CrNiMo 17 13 3 - DIN 17458 1.4439 - X 2 CrNiMoN 17 13 5 - DIN 17458 1.4541 - X 6 CrNiTi 18 10 - DIN 17458 1.4550 - X 6 CrNiNb 18 10 - DIN 17458 1.4571 - X 6 CrNiMoTi 17 12 2 - DIN 17458 1.4580 - X 6 CrNiMoNb 17 12 2 - DIN 17458

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Tubes - Copper and Copper Alloy - Seamless - AD W6/2
Number 3492 3494 3496 Tubes - Copper and Copper Allo Seamless - AD W6/2 2.0090.10 - SF-Cu F22 - AD W6/2 2.0872.19 - CuNi10Fe1Mn F29 - AD W6/2 2.0882.19 - CuNi30Fe1Mn F37 - AD W6/2

Tubes - Nickel and Nickel Alloy - VdTÜV
Number 3504 3500 3502 3506 3498 Tubes - Nickel and Nickel Alloy - VdTÜV 2.4068 - Nickel 201 - VdTÜV 345 2.4360 - Monel 400 - VdTÜV 263 2.4816 - Inconel 600 - VdTÜV 305 2.4856 - VdTÜV 499 2.4858 - Incoloy 825 - VdTÜV 432

Tubes-Alloyed and Non-Alloyed Steel-Welded-AD W4
Number 3487 3489 3491 3457 Tubes-Alloyed and Non-Alloyed Steel-Welded-AD W4 1.0315-St37.8-DIN 17177 1.0498-St42.8-DIN 17177 1.5415-15MoV3-DIN 17177 1.8935-WStE460-DIN 17178

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Aspen B-JAC 11.1 User Guide

11

Primetals

Introduction
Primetal is a program that allows you to build and maintain your own databank of materials which supplements the materials in the Metals databank. The material can be in the form of plate, pipe, tube, forging, coupling, bolt, or gasket. Once you assign a material name and store the material properties, you can then use the new material name in any of the Aspen B-JAC programs which allow specific material names (Hetran, Teams, Metals). The Primetal program provides the following functions: • • • • • Add a material Modify the properties of a material Delete a material Display or print a list of materials Display or print the properties of a material

This program does not require an input data file, since all of the data is stored in the databank itself. You specify the input data directly into the Primetal program when you run it. The input data can be specified in either U.S., SI, or Metric units and is divided into three sections: • • • • • • Names Constant properties Temperature dependent properties Full name (up to 78 characters) Short name (up to 39 characters) for the mechanical design output Very short name (up to 24 characters) for the bill of materials

The names are:

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The constant properties include: • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • Material type and class Price and currency Equivalent material numbers for pipe, plate, forging, coupling Density Minimum thickness P number and group number External pressure chart Minimum tensile and yield strengths Maximum thickness for x-ray exemption Poisson ratio Minimum and maximum diameter for validity Thermal conductivity Allowable stress Yield strength Coefficient of thermal expansion Modulus of elasticity Stress intensity Tensile strength

The temperature dependent properties include:

For each of the temperature dependent properties, you can specify from 2 to 21 points, starting from a specified starting temperature, then according to a specified temperature increment. Each property should also have minimum and maximum temperatures. If a value is not available for one or more of the temperature points, you can specify a zero (or leave it blank) and the databank routine will automatically interpolate using the closest specified values.

Currency
This item refers to the currency of the values in the cost files. The original selections are: 1= $US 2= $Canadian 3= French Franc 7= Italian Lire 4= British Pound 8= Yen 1 (US

5= Belgium Franc 6= Deutch Mark

The default values are already in US dollars. Dollar).

I recommend to always us

The user can enter the Korean Won in the UOM Control (Unit of Measure control - the user can enter any currency here). Go to Tools > Data Maintenance > Units of Measure > Units Maintenance. Fill out the new currency information. Save the changes. From this point forward, the user can convert to the new currency. Also, using one of three customizable unit-sets, the user can default to a currency and other special units.

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Aspen B-JAC 11.1 User Guide

Material Type
The number designator used by the program for the material type are: 1= seamless pipe 2= seamless tube 25= welded pipe 26= welded tube 51= plate 101= forging 102= coupling 151= gasket 165= bolt (SP = Seamless pipe, ST = Seamless tube, etc.)

Material Class
The number designator used by the program for the material class are:

1= Carbon Steel 3= High Alloy Steel 5= Titanium Alloy 7= Nickel Alloy B,C, or G 9= Nickel Alloy HT 0=Gasket

2= Low Alloy Steel 4= Ni or Ni Alloy 6= Cu Alloy HT (HT=High Tensile) 8= Zirconium 10= Cu or Cu Alloy

The material type and class is important when the user enters his/her own materials.

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External Pressure Chart Reference
An external pressure chart reference, ASME Section II, Part D, must be provided for external pressure calculations. The correlation is determine the number to be entered is as follows: Material database external pressure chart reference number = X*100 + Y Where X represents the material type: X=1 for CS X=2 for HA X=3 for NF X=4 for HT ` X=5 for CI X=6 for CD Where Y = chart number Examples: Chart CS-3 = 103 ( X=1, Y=3 ) Chart NFN-16 (old reference was UNF-28.40) = 340 ( X=3, Y=40 )

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Aspen B-JAC 11.1 User Guide

Example Input to Primetals

Steps to create a private material
1. Open Materials Database by selecting Tools / Data Maintenance / Material Database form the B-JAC User Interface. 2. Open one of the existing Code material databases, such as ASME, from the Database Menu option. 3. Select a similar material in the Code database to the private material you wish to create. This will act as a template for the new material. 4. Select Property / Copy to copy the contents into the buffer. 5. Select Database / User.

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6. If no user materials exist in the database, you will be asked if you wish to create a new material. Answer Yes and set the user database number for the new material. Your new material in the database will be displayed with the existing properties being used as a template. Proceed to step 8. 7. If user materials already exist, your existing database items will be displayed. To copy the template properties, select Property and Paste and then select a number new material reference number. 8. Now modify the template properties to generate your new material. If you have selected a very similar material, you may only need to modify the material names and the allowable design stresses. 9. Once all changes have been made, select Save to update the database. Now this new user material may be referenced from any of the B-JAC programs.

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12

Newcost Database

Introduction
Newcost is a database maintenance program, designed to modify and/or print the contents of the labor and material cost files associated with the Aspen B-JAC programs which address cost estimation (Teams, Qchex, and Hetran). B-JAC supplies a standard database with each version of the program. When you make any changes to the database, your changes will always override any values in the standard database. To start the Newcost database, first change your working directory to where you want the modified database to reside. This can be the same directory as the Aspen B-JAC programs or other user sub-directories. When you make changes using Newcost the changes are stored in your current directory. In this way you can build separate databases on different directories, which can reflect different costing requirements for different projects or bids. Access the Newcost program by selecting Tools from the Menu Bar and then selecting Data Maintenance and then selecting Costing. The Newcost gives you access to six different databases. These are: 1. General cost and labor adjustment 2. Fabrication and operation standards 3. Material dependent fabrication standards 4. Welding standards 5. Labor efficiency factors 6. Material prices 7. Part numbers for bill of materials and drawings 8. Horizontal support standards

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Labor & Cost Standards
General Cost and Labor Adjustment
This database contains the burdened labor rate (total cost per hour of labor), the markups on labor and material, and the overall efficiency factors for welding, machining, drilling, grinding, and assembly.

Fabrication and Operation Standards
This section allows you to specify over 100 specific fabrication options which affect the mechanical design and/or the cost. In many cases these options will establish the defaults for the Teams program where "0 = program." Included are such things as minimum and maximum material dimensions (e.g. minimum thickness for nozzle reinforcement pads, minimum and maximum bolt diameter, and maximum length of pipe) and cost factors (e.g., cost of x-ray, stress relieving, skidding, and sandblasting). Also included are the system of measure and the money currency, which apply to all of the Newcost databases.

Material Dependent Fabrication Standards
This file contains the fabrication variables which are dependent upon the type of material. The materials are divided into ten classes. It includes such items as machining and drilling speeds, weld deposition rates, maximum dimensions for various operations, and dimensional rounding factors.

Welding Standards
Here you can specify the type of welding to be used for each type of vessel component made from each of ten different material classes. You can choose from stick electrode, self shielded flux core, gas metal arc, submerged arc, tungsten inert gas, and plasma welding.

Labor Efficiency Factors
The cost estimate routines use the data in this file to correct the number of hours for each labor operation for each type of component. The raw hours determined by the program are divided by the appropriate efficiency factor. For example, if the program calculates 20 hours to drill a tubesheet, and the efficiency factor is 0.5, the estimated number of hours will be 40 hours. The operations covered are layout, saw, shear, burn, bevel, drill, machine, mill, form, roll, weld, grind, and assemble.

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Material Prices
This is the database which contains the prices for each material. Prices for most materials are price per unit weight (e.g. $/lb), except tubing which is price per unit length for a 19.05 mm (3/4") tube with a 1.65 mm (0.065") wall thickness. The standard Aspen B-JAC price is displayed. You can specify a price for any material, which will then override the standard Aspen B-JAC price.

Part numbers for bill of materials and drawings
Default part numbers for every component are provided in this database. You can modify the default numbers as necessary.

Horizontal support standard dimensions
You can customize the standard support dimensions used by the programs or use the default dimensions shown in the database.

Newcost Database

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13

B-JAC Example Run

Aspen B-JAC Example

This is the Aspen B-JAC program window. Select File from the menu bar to open a new or existing file. For this example you will open an existing file to first perform a thermal design using Aspen Hetran and then transferring the information in the Aspen Teams program for a mechanical design. Operation of the Aspen Aerotran program is very similar to the Aspen Hetran program.

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On the left hand side of the window is the data browser to help you navigate through the program. The input and results sections are organized in a series of forms or folders. Each folder may contain multiple tabs to assist you through the program. For this Aspen Hetran file, select the Description section under Problem Definition. The units of measure are set at US. You can access the specific input folders by selecting a item on the navigator. As an alternate you can select the N (Next) button to help you navigate to the next required input item. Note that with the use of the Next button, the program will use default values for some design parameters.

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In this section provide the general equipment description and fluid titles that will appear on the heat exchanger data sheet and printed documentation.

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Applications for the hot side and cold side of the exchanger are then selected. This exchanger has a multi-component mixture condensing on the shell side and coolant on the tube side. The condensation curve will be specified by you from a process simulation run. The program will run in the Design Mode to optimize a size for the exchanger.

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Now specify the process flow conditions for the hot and cold sides for the exchanger. At any point in the program you can obtain context sensitive Help by selecting the ? button and then selecting the input field that you need help on. You can also access the reference help for the subject by selecting the input field and then pressing F1. Input sections that are not complete will be identified by a red X on the navigator. Required input fields will be highlighted by a green background. Inputted valued which exceeds a normal range for that field will be highlighted in red. Note that if you still proceed with a value outside the normal range, the program will still use the inputted value.

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Physical property data for the streams may be supplied by the Aspen B-JAC Databank, the Aspen Properties Plus Databank, or you can input the properties. If you select the Aspen Plus Databank you must supply a APPDF interface file. For this example, you will be specifying the Aspen B-JAC Databank.

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To reference the Aspen B-JAC Databank, specify each component of the stream in the Hot Side Composition section. Vapor in, liquid in, and liquid out flows are provided for each component. If a component is known to be a noncondensable or immiscible, it should be specified. You can access the Aspen B-JAC Databank listing by selecting the Search button.

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To search the Aspen B-JAC Databank for a compound, type in the component name or formula and the program will search the databank. Once located, you can select the Add key to add that component to the stream list to be referenced. Select OK to return to the composition form and the items selected will be added to the list.

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The VLE curve is specified in the Hot Side Properties section. Heat load may be provided as cumulative, incremental, or as enthalpy. Flowrate per increment may be specified by vapor/liquid flow rate or vapor/liquid mass fraction.

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Since you are referencing the Aspen B-JAC Databank, the liquid, vapor, and noncondensable properties will be retrieved from the databank.

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The properties for the cooling water on the cold side will be retrieved from the Aspen B-JAC Property Databank. This completes the process data section of the Aspen Hetran input file. At this point you could proceed with the calculations allowing the program to set defaults for the mechanical design constraints. We will proceed through the mechanical section to review what has been specified for this exchanger.

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Aspen Hetran supports all the TEMA type heads and shell configurations. For this item, a BEM type is selected. Each input field is select by clicking on the arrow in the appropriate box to see the drop down menu selections. You then select which option you want.

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You then provide the tubing requirements: type, diameter, and thickness. Many of the drop down menus are supported with diagrams which will assist you in you selection process, such as the tube pattern shown above. Note also the Prompt Area located at the bottom of the form which will provide additional information for many of the input fields.

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For most applications, the Aspen Hetran program will default to single segmental baffles. The program will also select a baffle cut and baffle orientation based upon the application. If the shell pressure drop is controlling the design, you may want to change to a double or triple segmental type.

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The Design Constraints section controls the optimization limits for the Design Mode of the program. Minimum and maximum limits for shell diameter and tube length should only be set as necessary to meet the exchanger size limits in the plant.

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The B-JAC Metals Databank provides a generic material list which allows to specify general classes of materials, such as carbon steel or 304 stainless steel. The program will then reference an appropriate material class for a specific pressure vessel component. You can search the Metals Databank by selecting the Search button.

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By typing the material to be referenced, the program will search to find the material in the Databank. Once located, you can select the component and then the Set Key to select that material for that component. After all materials have been selected, click OK to return to the Material form and your selections will be inserted.

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Specify the applicable design code and standards for the unit. The Aspen Hetran program will estimate the design pressure and temperature for you based upon the operating conditions but it is recommended to provide these if known. You have completed the input for the design. Select the Run command from the Menu Bar and then select to Run Hetran. As an alternate you can select the Run icon button located in the Tool Bar.

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The optimization path screen will appear. Hetran will first select an exchanger size which is close to compiling to the specification requirements. The program will then provide incremental results allowing you to see

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Once the optimization is complete, you can display the final resulting design. First to be displayed are any warnings or notes. Note the heat load adjustment made by the program.

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You can review the Performance Summary section. Process conditions, calculated film coefficients, pressure drops, and mechanical summary are provided.

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Thermal Resistance Analysis includes three cases: • • • Clean Spec. Foul Max. Foul

The clean condition is expected performance assuming no fouling exists in the exchanger. For this case the exchanger is 87.7% oversurfaced in the clean condition. The Spec. Foul case shows a 7.71% excess surface area based upon the designed conditions. The last case, Max. Foul, uses all the excess surface area, the 7.71%, and translates this to additional fouling available. Fouling factors are increased to .0012 and .0024.

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Hetran, for a multiphase application, will calculate separate film coefficients for the vapor, liquid, and condensing present. For this condenser, a condensing film of 313.25 is weighted with the liquid cooling film for an overall film coefficient of 310.38.

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The pressure drop distribution summary will help you determine if adjustments need to be made in nozzle sizes and/or baffling to re-distribute pressure loss and enhance heat transfer in the tube bundle.

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A shell side stream analysis and mass velocity summaries are provided.

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To view the exchanger data sheet, select the TEMA Sheet in the navigator. Use the slide bars to view the balance of the data sheet.

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A scaled outline drawing is provided so you can view the nozzle and baffle arrangements for the exchanger design.

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Also provided is a scaled tube layout drawing showing the location of the tubes, baffle cuts, tie rods, and nozzles.

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To view the detail calculations, select the Interval Analysis sections. This section provide a results for each thermal interval analyzed by the program. Viewed above is the Performance section heat loads, overall coefficients, areas, and pressure drops for each increment.

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This section provides the incremental film coefficients.

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The heat load incremental analysis is also provided.

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Now let us consider that the controlling design optimization parameter was the tube length. Select Design Constraints in the Navigator and change the maximum tube length to 288 inches from the original 240 inches. Select the Run button and have Aspen Hetran re-optimize the design with the longer allowable tube length.

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The optimization summary shows that the exchanger size and cost was reduced.

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In the results section, select the Recap of Designs in the Navigator to view the comparison summary of the original design and the new design. By following these steps, you can possibly make further improvements to the design by making adjustments and having Aspen Hetran re-optimize. We have complete the thermal design so now we will interface to the Teams program to complete the mechanical design.

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First we need to transfer the necessary thermal design results from Aspen Hetran into the Teams section. Select the Run command in the Menu Bar and then select the Transfer command. Select the Teams program and select OK.

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Specify the applicable code: ASME, Codap, or ADM. By selecting the TEMA class, default settings for flange design, corrosion allowance, and clearance will be set in accordance to the respective TEMA class.

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Appropriate design conditions have been entered. Note that each input field has it own unique units control. You can enter any set of units by selecting the unit set required beside the input field. If you wish to convert to a different set of units, select the desired units and the value in the field will be converted.

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Teams has specific defaults set for each TEMA head type. For example the selected B type head will default to the ellipsoidal cover shown unless a different cover is specified. Defaults follow typical TEMA conventions. If you are rating an existing exchanger for a new set of design conditions, select the Detail Cylinder and Detail Cover tabs and enter the dimensions of the existing equipment. You can enter details for other components in a similar way.

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Shell type should be selected to correspond the nozzle and baffle location requirements. If pipe material is being used for the cylinders, it is best to enter an outside diameter for the vessel diameter so that standard pipe schedules may be referenced. If the cylinders are fabricated from plate material, either inside or outside diameters by being entered.

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In a similar way as the front head, select the type for the head and cover for the rear head. Program will default to a ellipsoidal cover unless you specify one of the alternate types. If the exchanger is a one pass unit with a nozzle located in the rear head, specify that a rear head cylinder is to be provided.

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Teams will default to a hub type body flanges for a TEMA Class R exchanger. NO flanges will be specified for the shell side since this example has the tube sheet extended for bolting to the head flanges. If you need to control individual flange specifications go to the Individual Standards tab in this form. For check rating existing flange designs, enter the actual flange size by selecting the Dimensions tab.

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Due to the relative high design pressure on the shell side, an expanded and seal weld tube joint has been specified. The program default is to extend the tubesheet for bolting to the heads for our BEM example.

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Teams will check to see if an expansion joint is required and will provide one, if necessary, if you specify by program. In this example, an expansion joint has been specified. Accurate mean metal temperatures are required to properly analyze the expansion joint/tubesheet design.

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The tubing requirements are inputted. If low fin tubes are required, provide the fin density, height, and thickness.

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Baffle type and baffle cut orientation are specified. Enter baffle cut, number of baffles, and baffle spacings in the Baffle Details tab form.

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Tubesheet layout information is provided. Teams will default to TEMA requirements if you allow the program to select. Tube pass layout type was passed into TEAMS from the Aspen Hetran results. If not specified, the program will select the layout type to provide the maximum number of tubes possible.

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You can set the global information for the shell side and tube side nozzles. To set specific information for each nozzle, select the Nozzles-Details section in the Navigator.

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Select the Nozzles Tab to provide nominal nozzle diameters and approximate nozzle zone locations. For nozzles located in the front/rear head covers, specify zones 1 or 9 and an angle of 360 degrees. For hill side nozzles, specify any angle other than multiples of 45 degrees.

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Saddle support zone locations are set.

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For this design, Hetran passed into Teams the generic material for all the components. Teams will then use the material properties for an appropriate material specification for each component. For example, the program will use SA-516-70 for the carbon steel tubesheet since ASTM standards were referenced. If you wish to specify actual material specifications, select the Search Databank button.

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The Metals search window will then be shown. Enter the material name in the top input field and the program will search for a match. Select the desired material in the list. The next step is to select the component in the component list and then select the Set button to set the material to that component. Continue this process until the materials are selected for all the components. Nozzle materials are set in a similar method located under Nozzle Materials in the Navigator. The Teams input file is now complete and the next step is to run the program.

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Select the Run command in the Menu Bar, then select Run Teams. The Run Teams options are: calculations only, calculations plus cost estimate, calculations plus drawings, or calculations plus cost plus drawings. As an alternative, the Run icon can be selected in the Tools Bar which will run calculations plus cost estimate and plus drawings. The Program Status window will appear to provide you with a run status.

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The warnings and notes will be displayed first. Note that the flanged and flued type expansion joint selected does not meet the design requirements. The Teams results will first be reviewed then a bellows type expansion joint will be selected as a possible solution.

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The Teams results are organized in two five major sections: • • • • • Design Summary Vessel Dimensions Price Drawings Code Calculations

The Design Specification sections is shown here.

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The limiting MAWP components are shown in the above summary. The MAWP for the tubesheets are limited to the specified design conditions. To review the MDMT results, select the MDMT tab.

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Select the Cylinders/Covers/Belts to review the cylinder results summary.

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Calculation results for the body flanges are shown above.

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Teams provides results per the TEMA method and per the applicable selected code method. The program will use the thicker of the two methods.

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The cost estimate is based upon the Teams design code calculation results and the manufacture settings. The manufacturing standards are accessed by selecting Tools from the Menu Bar, selecting Data Maintenance, and then selecting Costing.

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The scaled outline drawing can be viewed by selecting Setting Plan in the navigator. To view a specific area of the drawing, window the section of the drawing to be viewed. Select View command in the Menu Bar and then select Zoom In. As an alternative, use the magnifying glass icon in the Tools Bar. Use Zoom Out to restore the drawing to full view. The standard setting plan drawing can be accessed by selecting All Drawings in the navigator.

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To review the detail calculation documentation, select the component from the Code Calculation area of the navigator. Shown above is the tubesheet calculations. Let us now address the warning message concerning the overstress condition of the vessel supports. Generally if the supports are moved closer to the tubesheets, the shell stresses can be reduced.

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Change the flanged and flued expansion joint type to bellow type.

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Re-run the Teams calculations.

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Review of the warnings/notes shows that the expansion joint problem has been resolved by using the bellows type. Other adjustments to the design may done in a similar sequence by making changes and re-running Teams. This completes our mechanical design for the heat exchanger.

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14

Exporting Results from B-JAC to Excel

Introduction
The Aspen B-JAC Windows user interface is designed to allow you to export input and results information into an Excel spread sheet. This chapter describes how to use these export features. Topics include: • • • • • • Export features Exporting results to an existing spread sheet template Creating your own customized template Copying and pasting input and results from a B-JAC application to Excel Copying and pasting drawings to Excel Launching a B-JAC application from Excel

Export features -- B-JAC Templates
You can export the program results to an Excel spreadsheet. Several Excel spreadsheet templates have been provided for your use. You can select one of the pre-formatted output summaries such as TeamsSummary.xlt or you can select one of the blank templates such as HetranBlank.xlt and customize your output in Excel.

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Exporting results to a B-JAC standard summary template or your customized template
File / Export function - spread sheet created without Excel being open: First open the B-JAC program window and open an exchanger design file, *.BJT. If no results are present, run B-JAC to obtain results. Select the “File / Export to” functions from the Menu Bar. Select to open the default template or you can specify which template to open. You can set the default template from the “Tools / Program Settings / Template” window. If you are selecting which template to open, select from the template list, HetranSummary, TeamsSummary, AerotranSummary or your customized template, located in the BJAC10\DAT\Template sub-directory. Select to open the template. Then provide a file name to save the results as a spread sheet *.xls data file. Results for the B-JAC design file will be now be saved in the created Excel spreadsheet.

Spread sheet created with Excel open
First open the B-JAC program window and open an exchanger design file, *.BJT. If no results are present, run B-JAC to obtain results. Open Excel and then open the desired Excel template, HetranSummary, TeamsSummary, AerotranSummary, or your own customized template, located in the BJAC10\DAT\Template sub-directory. For information on how to create your own customized template, see the next section. Enable the macros. Results for the B-JAC design file will be shown in the Excel spreadsheet. If you wish to save these results as *.xls file, use the File / Save function in Excel.

Creating your own customized Template
To create you own customized Excel spreadsheet for the results from B-JAC, first make a copy of the *Blank.xlt template located in the BJAC10\DAT\Template sub-directory and rename it to use as your template for the customized results form. Open this new template in Excel. Enable the macros. Now by selecting various sections of the output results in B-JAC you can drag and drop into your template. You can change what information is moved from B-JAC by clicking on the right hand mouse button and selecting Drag-Drop format. You can select to drag-drop the value or units of measure only or to drag-drop the Caption, value, and units. For more information on customizing the spreadsheet in Excel, access Help provided in Excel. Once your customized template is complete and saved, every time B-JAC is run you can open your customized template to review the results from the run.

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Copying Data from a B-JAC application to Excel
Copy Format:
First you need to set the format for the copy. By default, the Drag-Drop function copies only the value (or values) of information. To reset the format, select Tools/Program Settings/Advanced and set the copy format. • • • • Value only Value and units of measure Caption, value ands units of measure Units of measure only

Copying Individual fields:
Select (or highlight) the information you wish to copy by clicking and holding down the left mouse button on the value and then dragging the mouse cursor to the desired location in the spread sheet. This ‘drag & drop” method will move the value as was as any caption and units you have set in the format described above.

Copying Columns of information:
Select (or highlight) the column of information you wish to copy by clicking and holding down the left mouse button on any value in the column and then dragging the mouse cursor to the desired location in the spread sheet. This ‘drag & drop” method will move the entire column of information as was as any caption and units that you have set to be copied in the format settings.

Copying Tables of information:
Select (or highlight) the table you wish to copy. Select the Edit / Copy function in the Menu Bar. Select the location for the table in the spread sheet. Select the Edit / Paste function from the Menu Bar in Excel to paste the table into the spread sheet. This copy & paste method will move the entire table of information as was as any caption and units that you have set to be copied in the format settings.

Copying drawings:
Select the drawing you wish to copy by clicking and holding down the left mouse button on the drawing then dragging the mouse cursor to the desired location in the spread sheet. This ‘drag & drop” method will move the drawing with border into the spread sheet.

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Example of Pasting Aspen B-JAC results into Excel.
This example shows the steps necessary to paste a column of information from the Interval Analysis Performance in the Aspen Hetran results into an Excel spreadsheet. • • • Open the B-JAC program window and select a Hetran file. If results are not present, run the file. Open Excel and open the HetranBlank.xlt template. Save as a different template name. Locate the Overall Coefficient column in the Interval Analysis / Performance section of Hetran.

• •

Set the format for the copy to caption, values, and units under Tools/Program settings/Advanced as described above in the Copy Format instructions. Using the mouse click on the Overall coefficient column with the left mouse button an hold the button down. Now drag the mouse cursor to the desired location in your Excel spread sheet and release the mouse button.

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Launching B-JAC programs from Excel
Once you have created you own Excel spread sheet, it is possible to launch the B-JAC programs from within the spread sheet. To run a B-JAC program from within Excel, select Aspen B-JAC / Run from the Excel menu bar. Input design parameters may be changed within Excel and the results in the B-JAC program and in the spread sheet will reflect these changes.

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15

Using the ASPEN B-JAC ActiveX Automation Server

Introduction
This chapter describes how to use the ASPEN B-JAC ActiveX Automation Server. The topics include: • • • • • About the Automation Server Viewing the ASPEN B-JAC objects. Overview of the ASPEN B-JAC objects Programming with the ASPEN B-JAC objects Reference information

This chapter assumes that you are familiar with Microsoft Visual Basic and understand the concepts of object-orientated programming. The examples in this chapter use Visual Basic 5.0 and Visual Basic for Application (VBA) as the Automation Client. Much of the code examples in this chapter are taken from the example files, which are distributed with the standard ASPEN B-JAC installation. If you installed ASPEN B-JAC in the default location, the code examples are located in the Program Files\AspenTech\BJAC101\xmp\VB. The examples use the example problem file LiquidLiquid.BJT, which is provided with the standard ASPEN B-JAC installation. You will find this file in Program Files\AspenTech\BJAC101\xmp if you installed ASPEN B-JAC in the default location.

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About the Automation Server
The ASPEN B-JAC Windows user interface is an ActiveX Automation Server. The ActiveX technology (formally called OLE Automation) enables an external Windows application to interact with ASPEN B-JAC through a programming interface using a language such Microsoft’s Visual Basic. The server exposes objects through the Common Object Model (COM). With the Automation Server, you can: • • connect both the inputs and the results of the ASPEN B-JAC program to other applications such as design programs of databases. write your own user interface to control the ASPEN B-JAC program from creating a new application to printing results of the calculation. With your own interfaces you can use the ASPEN B-JAC program as a model for your design plan or use the ASPEN B-JAC program as a part of your design system.

Using the Automation Server
In order to use the ASPEN B-JAC Automation Server, you must: • • Have ASPEN B-JAC installed on your PC. Be licensed to use ASPEN B-JAC.

The ASPEN B-JAC Automation Server consists of its principal component BJACWIN.EXE, the core component AtvCoreComponents.DLL and other supporting components. The principal component, BJACWIN.EXE, is an out-of-process component, or ActiveX EXE. You will use this component to deal with ASPEN B-JAC documents and applications such as Hetran. The core component, ATVDataServer.DLL, is an inprocess component, or ActiveX DLL. You will use this component to access application objects and data objects. The supporting components consist of several DLLs and OCXs and are intended to be for internal use only. If you installed the program in the default location, you will find those files in the Program File\AspenTech\BJAC101\xeq. If you access ASPEN B-JAC objects using strongly typed declaration, you must reference the ASPEN B-JAC Automation Server in your project before you access the objects in your program.

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To reference the ASPEN B-JAC Automation Server from Visual Basic, or Excel, open the References dialog box, and check the ASPEN B-JAC Design System box and ATV core component box as shown here:

If ASPEN B-JAC Design System or ATV core component does not exist in the list, click Browse and find the ASPEN B-JAC executable directory. Select BJACWIN.EXE or ATVDataServer.DLL. If you opened a project used earlier version of the ASPEN B-JAC or the Excel example file for the ASPEN Hetran, HETRANAUTO.XLS, you might find missing components in your project. In order to use the ASPEN B-JAC objects you should open the Reference dialog box and check the ASPEN B-JAC Design System box or the ATV core component box as mentioned earlier.

Error Handling
Errors may occur in calling methods or accessing properties of the ASPEN B-JAC objects. It is important to create an error handler for all code, which accesses an automation interface. An automation interface may return a dispatch error for many reasons, most of which do not indicate fatal or even serious errors. Although any error will normally causes a dialog box to be displayed on the user’s screen, it is strongly recommended that you write your own error handler to trap the error in order to exit the application cleanly or proceed with the next step.

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Releasing Objects
One object can not be destroyed unless all of the references to the object are released. Therefore, it is a good practice that you always release the objects you have referenced when the objects are no longer needed. Releasing an object is a simple task. This can be done by setting the object to Nothing. As a general rule, you should release the objects in the opposite sequence as the objects are referenced. For example: Dim objBjac As Object Dim objApp As Object ‘ References objects Set objBjac = CreateObject(“BJACWIN.BJACApp”) Set objApp = objBjac.LoadApp(“Hetran”) . . . ‘ Release objects Set objApp = Nothing Set objBjac = Nothing

Viewing the ASPEN B-JAC Objects
The detailed description of the ASPEN B-JAC objects, including properties, methods and named constants, may be viewed in the Automation Client Object Browser. To use the browser, in Visual Basic and Excel, from the View menu, click Object Browser, the Object Browser will be displayed as shown here:

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Overview of the ASPEN B-JAC Objects
The object exposed by ASPEN B-JAC Automation Server is the BJACApp object. Through this object other objects and their properties and methods may be accessed.

Object Model Diagram
The following diagram provides a graphical overview of the ASPEN B-JAC object model:

Exposed by BJACWIN.EXE BJACApp ( The ASPEN B-JAC client object) Exposed by AtvDataServer.DLL ATVApps ( Application object collection ) ATVApp ( Application object )

ATVArrays ( Array data objects collection ) ATVArray ( Array data object ) ATVScalars ( Scalar data objects collection ) ATVScalar ( Scalar data object )

The BJACApp Object
The BJACApp object is the principal object exposed by ASPEN B-JAC. This object provides methods and properties such as: • • • • Creating a new or opening an existing ASPEN B-JAC file Creating a new or getting an existing ATVApp object Controlling the default settings of the ASPEN B-JAC Window Enumerating ATVApp objects

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• •

Printing results Saving a file

For more information about the BJACApp object refer to the “Reference Information” section.

Example of Opening an Existing File
The following Visual Basic example creates the ASPEN B-JAC object for an existing ASPEN B-JAC document, and shows the ASPEN B-JAC Window by setting the Visible property to True. Function OpenFile(ByVal FileName As String) As BJACApp Dim objBjac As BJACApp ' Declare the BJAC object Set OpenFile = Nothing On Error GoTo ErrorHandler ' Error trap Set objBjac = New BJACApp ' Create the BJAC object If Not objBjac.FileOpen(FileName) Then MsgBox "Can't open file " & FileName Exit Function End If objBjac.Visible = True ' Show BJAC Window Set OpenFile = objBjac Set objBjac = Nothing Exit Function ErrorHandler: MsgBox "Can't create BJAC object" End ' End the program End Function The above code uses Set objBjac = New BJACApp to create an ASPEN B-JAC object. You can use Set objBjac = CreateObject(“BJACWIN.BJACApp”) to get the same result. Note If there is a running ASPEN B-JAC Automation Server on your PC, the effect of using Set objBjac = New BJACApp or Set objBjac =CreateObject(“BJACWIN.BJACApp”) only gets a reference to the same instance of the server.

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The ATVApp object
The ATVApp object exposes the ASPEN B-JAC application, such as Hetran. Through properties and methods of the ATVApp object you can: • • • • Change the units of measure set Execute the calculation engine Check application status Enumerate inputs and results through data objects collections

Of the many properties and methods in the ATVApp object, there are four collections for representing data: • • • • Scalars – a collection of ATVScalar objects for representing scalar variables of input Arrays – a collection of ATVArray objects for representing array variables of input ResultScalars – a collection of ATVScalar objects for representing scalar variables of results ResutlArrays – a collection of ATVArray objects for representing array variables of results

Those data collections provide a bridge to allow you to manipulate data in the application including changing the units of measure, modifying the value and so on. For more information about the ATVApp object refer to the “Reference Information” section.

Example of using an ATVApp object
The following Visual Basic example shows how to get the ASPEN B-JAC Hetran object from the BJACApp object by opening an existing file, checking the input status and launching the calculation engine. Sub AccessHetran() Dim objBjac As BJACApp ' Declare a BJAC object Dim objHetran As ATVApp ' Declare a ATVApp object Dim nRetCode As Integer On Error Resume Next ' Error trap ' We try to get a BJACApp object Set objBjac = New BJACApp If Err.Number <> 0 Then MsgBox "Can't create BJACApp object!" End End If

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' First, we check to see if Hetran object is alreay there ' in case there is a BJACApp object running and ' Hetran object is created. If objBjac.Hetran Is Nothing Then ' ' If no Hetran object in the current BJACApp object then we open the sample file to get a Hetran object If Not objBjac.FileOpen( _ "C:\Program Files\AspenTech\BJAC10\xmp\LiquidLiquid.BJT") Then MsgBox "Can't open the file." GoTo ExitThisSub End If End If ' Get the reference to Heatran Set objHetran = objBjac.GetApp("Hetran") ' Notice that this time we use method GetApp ' to get Hetran object. You can use ' Set objHetran = objBjac.Hetran ' or ' Set objHetran = objBjac.ATVApps("Hetran") ' Check to see if Hetran object is loaded ' this time. If objHetran Is Nothing Then MsgBox "Hetran is not created." GoTo ExitThisSub End If ' We change the units of measure to SI objHetran.UomSet = ATV_UOMSET_SI ' Check to see if you can run Hetran If objHetran.CanRun() Then ' If yes, run Hetran and get the return code nRetCode = objHetran.Run() if we got any error If nRetCode <> 0 Then MsgBox "Error in Hetran calculation. Code=" & nRetCode End If End If

'

' Release objects ExitThisSub: Set objHetran = Nothing Set objBjac = Nothing End Sub

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ATVScalar Object and ATVArray Object
The ATVScalar object and the ATVArray object are used to represent data in the ASPEN BJAC objects. As mentioned earlier, the ATVScalar object is used for scalar data and the ATVArray is used for array data. The ATVApp uses two pairs of collections containing ATVScalar objets and ATVArray objects to represent inputs and results, respectively. By accessing the properties and methods of the data objects, you can: • • • Return or set a value Change the units of measure if the data is a physical quantity Check the status of the variable

For more information about programming with the ATVScalar object and ATVArray object is provided in the “Programming with the ASPEN B-JAC Objects” section. Detailed reference information about the ATVScalar object and ATVArray object is provided in the "Reference Information” section.

Example of accessing data objects
The following Visual Basic example shows how to access a scalar input variable, change its units of measure and value, and how to retrieve an array data from results. Note that the example code is stored in the prjAccessData.VBP VB project in the xmp\VB subdirectory. Sub Main() ' Variale declarations Dim objBjac As BJACApp Dim objHetran As ATVApp Dim objScalar As ATVScalar Dim objArray As ATVArray ' We try to get a BJACApp object Set objBjac = New BJACApp ' We use FileClose to make sure there is no ATVApp object ' loaded since we are going to open the existing sample file objBjac.FileClose ' Open a BJAC document file to create a Hetran object objBjac.FileOpen ' Get the Hetran object reference Set objHetran = objBjac.Hetran If objHetran Is Nothing Then MsgBox "Cann't create Hetran object." & vbCrLf & _ "Please try a different file." End End

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' Get the data object for hot side flow rate ' Notice that "FlRaHS" is the variable name for ' hot side flow rate in Hetran object. Set objScalar = objHetran.Scalars("FlRaHS") ' We declare a buffer to retrieve current value ' in units "kg/s" no matter what units are actually ' used in the data Dim xBuf As Single xBuf = objScalar.Value("kg/s") ' now xBuf is in kg/s ' Let's increase the flow rate by 0.5 kg/s objScalar.Value("kg/s") = xBuf + 0.5 ' Let's try to access Tube OD data object With objHetran.Scalars("TubeOD") .Uom = "in" ' Change the units string to "in" .Value = 0.75 ' Now the tube OD has value of 0.75 in End With ' Run the Hetran appliation If objHetran.CanRun Then objHetran.Run ' For example, let's retrieve the shell side pressure drop shown in the ' optimization path. ' Notice that because variable arPresDropShell is an array ' you will need to access the array collection. Set objArray = objHetran.ResultArrays("arPresDropShell") ' Loop through the array to view every element in the array Dim I As Integer For I = 1 To objArray.GetSize() Debug.Print objArray.Values(I) Next I ' release objects Set objScalar = Nothing Set objArray = Nothing Set objHetran = Nothing Set objBjac = Nothing End Sub

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Programming with ASPEN B-JAC Objects
In this section we will discuss the programming with the APSEN B-JAC object in depth. The topics include: • • • • • • • Creating application and file operations Enumerating objects Checking status Controlling the units of measure Accessing data Exploring variables Limitations and restrictions

Creating Application and File Operations
To create or get a BJACApp object, you can either use
Set objBJAC = new BJACApp

or
Set objBJAC = CreateObject(“BJACWIN.BJACApp”)

Once you have a connection to the BJACApp object, the next step is to create a new file or open an existing file. The BJACApp object exposes several methods allowing you to deal with the ASPEN B-JAC document file including creating a new file, opening an existing file, printing a file or saving a file. Using FileNew One way to create an ASPEN B-JAC application is to use the FileNew method in the BJACApp object. The code segment below describes how to create a new file for the ASPEN Teams:
Dim objBjac As Object Dim objTeams As Object Set objBjac = CreateObject("BJACWIN.BJACApp") objBjac.FileNew "Teams"

By executing above code a new Teams application is created. The document containing the new application is named as UNTITLE.BJT. Notice that the actual document is not created on the disk until the FileSave or FileSaveAs method is called.

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The FileNew method takes the argument AppName as optional. If you just call the method using the default, in which the argument AppName is an empty string, then you will see the File New dialog box will appear:

You can check the box next the application to create one or more applications. Note Because the BJACApp object can only contain one document at a time, the FileNew method will unload the current document before creating a new one. In other words, you can not call the FileNew twice to create two different applications in the same BJACApp object. Using LoadApp The BJACApp object can contain one or more applications. If you want to add a new application to your existing document, use the LoadApp method. For example if you want to add a Hetran application in the above example code, you use
Dim objHetran as ATVApp Set objHetran = objBjac.LoadApp(“Hetran”)

By executing the above code, a Hetran application object will be added to the document. Using FileOpen The Method FileOpen, in the BJACApp object, is the only way you can open an existing ASPEN B-JAC document file. The method uses one string argument to represent the name of the document file to be opened. The argument is optional. If the default is used or an empty string is assigned, a standard Windows File Open dialog box will appear, in which the user can browse the system to select a demand file.

Note The FileOpen method also unloads the current document before loading the document supplied. You should save the document if you have made changes to the document before calling the FileOpen method.

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Using FilePrint
Once the calculation is executed successfully, the results will be generated. And then you can use the FilePrint method to print the results in the format created by the ASPEN B-JAC program. The following code segment shows how to use the FilePrint method to print the Teams results after the calculation succeeded:
If objTeams.Run() = 0 Then objBjac.FilePrint End If

By default the FilePrint method will print every result form for every application in the object. If you want to just print one application, you can supply the application name in the first argument. For example, to print Teams only:
objBjac.FilePrint “Teams”

Or if you only want to print a portion of the results, you can set the second argument to False. For example:
objBjac.FilePrint , False

In this case, the ASPEN B-JAC Print Dialog box will appear as shown here:

This dialog box is the same as you select the Print menu in the ASPEN B-JAC user interface. You can select any result by checking box next the list item and change other settings as well.

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Using FileSave and FileSaveAs As mentioned earlier if you use FileNew to create a new file the actual file is not created in the disk until the file is saved. To save an ASPEN B-JAC document file to the disk you use the FileSave or FileSaveAs method. Use the FileSaveAs method or to save a copy of an existing document under a different name or an existing document to a different drive or path. For example, supply an existing filename, path to save, and name a new document:
objBjac.SaveAs “C:\Program File\MyBJACFile\Exchan ger.BJT”

Use the FileSave method to save the document in the same filename, or in the default name defined by the program. For example:

objBjac.Save

It is strongly recommended that you use the FileSaveAs method to save the document in a desire filename if the document was newly created using the FileNew method. Because the default filename defined by the program is UNTITLE.BJT. The argument of the FileSaveAs method can be omitted. If do so, a standard “Save As” Windows dialog box will appear and you will be able to specify any filename or file path.

Enumerating Objects
The ASPEN B-JAC Automation Server provides following collections to keep track of the objects: • • • • • Application collection: BJACApp.ATVApps Scalar data collection for input: ATVApp.Scalars Array data collection for input: ATVApp.Arrays Scalar data collection for results: ATVApp.ResultScalars Array data collection for results: ATVApp.ResultArrays

You can use For Each …Next to enumerate the objects in the collections, without losing any part of the information for the BJACApp object. This is particularly important if you want to generate your own database to store input and results information rather than using the ASPEN B-JAC document, or create your own graphic user interface to access the ASPEN BJAC objects.

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The following example code prints names and values for all scalar variables in the input:
Dim objApp as ATVApp Dim objScalar as ATVScalar … For Each objScalar In objApp.Scalars Debug.Print objScalar.Name, objScalar.Value Next

Checking Status
Checking Status for an application or for a data object is important when you want to know whether you have made changes to the application, whether you can run the program, or whether the results are present. Using IsSaved The IsSaved property is provided in the BJACApp object and the ATVApp object. You can use this property to check to see if any change in the input of the document has been made and the changes have not been saved. This is particularly useful when changes have been made and you need to save these changes. The following code gives an example that shows how to use the property:
Private Sub SaveFile(ByVal objBjac as BJACApp ) If Not objBjac.IsSaved Then objBjac.FileSave End If End Sub

If you just want to check to see if a particular application has been modified or not, you can query the ATVApp.IsSaved property. For example:
Dim objHetran as ATVApp … If Not objHetran.IsSaved Then objBjac.FileSave End If

Notice that once the document is saved the IsSaved property will return a value of True to reflect the change of the status. Using IsComplete The IsComplete property is used to check the completion status for an application or check for required input data. The ASPEN B-JAC object provides a variety of comprehensive algorithms checking the completion status for applications based on various input conditions. The IsComplete property returns a value of True to indicate the status is complete.

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Use the IsComplete property in an ATVApp object to check the completion status for the application. For example:
Dim objHetran as ATVApp … If objHetran.IsComplete then ‘ the input is complete, … End if

Use the IsComplete property in a data object to check to see if the input data is complete. For an input data, if the data is not required then the property always returns True. If the data is required and the value is missing then the IsComplete property returns False. The following example shows how to find an incomplete data in the input scalar objects:
Function FindIncompleteData(ByVal objApp As ATVApp) As ATVScalar Dim objScalar As ATVScalar ' Loops through the scalar objects For Each objScalar In objApp.Scalars ' Checks to see if the data is complete If Not objScalar.IsComplete Then ' Found the first incomplete data, return the data and exit Set FindIncompleteData = objScalar Exit Function End If Next End Function

Controlling the Units of Measure
The ASPEN B-JAC user interface has provided a solution to handle the complexity of different units of measure. Through the ASPEN B-JAC user interface, you can add your own units, or change any existing units in the units table, and then use these new or modified units for input field, calculation or printed results without even closing the application window. The ASPEN B-JAC Automation Server provides you three different levels to control the units of measure in your program: • • • The UomSet property in the BACApp object The UomSet property in the ATVApp object The Uom property in the data objects

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UomSet in BJACApp Object Use the UomSet property in the BJACApp object to view or change the units of measure set for the BJACApp object. For example:
Dim objBjac as BJACApp Dim nSet as Integer … ‘ Gets the current units set nSet = objBjac.UomSet ‘ Checks to see if it’s SI, if not then change it to SI if nSet <> ATV_UOMSET_SI then objBjac.UomSet = ATV_UOMSET_SI

Note: The UomSet property is the default units set for application objects. Changing UomSet in the BJACApp object will not have any effect on the applications that are already created. UomSet in ATVApp Object Use the UomSet property in an ATVApp object to return or change the units of measure set for the application. For example:
Dim objApp as ATVApp . . . ‘ Sets the units set to user defined SET1 objApp.UomSet = ATV_UOMSET_SET1

Note: By changing the UomSet in the ATVApp object, the units of physical quantity data objects in the application will be changed to the units defined in the units set table. Consequently the values of these data will be converted appropriately to the new units if the current units set is different. Also, you will notice that the units controls in the ASPEN B-JAC user interface will prompt in accordance with the changes. Uom in ATVScalar Object and ATVArray Object Use the Uom property in the ATVScalar and ATVArray objects to view or change the units of measure for the data. For example:
Dim objHetan as ATVApp … ‘ Changes the units of hot side flowrate to “lb/s” objHetran.Scalars(“FlRaHS”).Uom = “lb/s”

Notes: • • • The Uom property only applies to the physical quantity data, for example, temperature and pressure. The Uom property is a string. You must assign an existing unit string to the data. The unit string remains unchanged if an invalid unit string is supplied. Changing the unit string will not result in the value being converted.

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Accessing Data
The data in the ASPEN B-JAC applications can be accessed through the two data objects: ATVScalar and the ATVArray. You can not create a new data object, but you can access all the attributes including changing the value or unit string for all the data objects. To access a data of interest, one possible method is as follows: • • • • Locate the variable of interest. Find out the attributes for the variable. Especially, you need to know the variable is a scalar or an array, and input or result. Get the reference to the data object using the appropriate data object collection. View or change the value or unit string if necessary.

Detailed information about the data objects is given in the “Reference Information” section.

Exploring Variables
In order to access the data of interest in an ASPEN B-JAC design, you need to locate the variables of interest in the system. To do this, you can use the Application Browser together with the Variable List Window in the ASPEN B-JAC User Interface to navigate the data. In the ASPEN B-JAC user interface, every application, for example, Hetran, is represented in an Application Browser. The Application Browser has a tree structure and contains the visual representation for inputs and results in a series of forms. On each form, for input and results, each data control is connected a data object, and each data has a variable associated with it. The Variable List window will list all the variables behind the form. To open the Variable List Window, from the View menu, click Variable List.

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The Variable List Window displays the attributes including names, variable type, current values, and descriptions for all the variables used on the form. Notice that the indicates an input variable, and the indicate a result variable.

Another way to locate a variable is to view the variable attributes in the description pane on the Application Browser by clicking a control. To show the variable attributes on the description pane: • • • • From the Tool menu, click the Program Setting to display the program setting dialog box. Click the Advanced tab, and check the option Show Variable Attributes on the Description Pane. Click OK to close the dialog box. On the Application Browser, display any input or results form. Click a control on the form to see the attributes of the variable associated with the control, which are isplayed on the description pane.

For example:

Click data control here

The attributes associated with the data control are displayed here.

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Limitations and Restrictions
The ASPEN B-JAC Automation Server is a single threaded object and only one copy of its instance can be created at a time. In other words, if the server is running before you create a BJACApp object, using following code:
Set objBJAC = New BJACWIN.BJACApp

or
Set objBJAC = CreateObject(“BJACWIN.BJACApp”)

will share with the existing thread. The BJACApp object can only deal with one document at a time. If you try to create another new document or open another existing document, the consequence is that the program will unload the current document first. Although multiple ATVApp objects can co-exist in the BJACApp object, you can only create one kind of the application object at a time. For example, the Hetran object, is not allowed having more than one copy. In other words, you can not create two Hetran applications in the same BJACApp object. Only the BJACApp object can be created in your code. Other objects can only be referenced. The object collections can only be referenced. You can not add any item to the collections. If you try to do so, it may cause unpredictable results.

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Reference Information
The topics in this section includes: • • • Lists of the members for each exposed ASPEN B-JAC classes Member descriptions Error descriptions

Members of Class BJACApp
Name Aerotran ATVApps ExecutionControlEnabled FileClose FileExit FileNew FileOpen FilePrint FileSave FileSaveAs GetApp GetFileName GetFilePath GetList GetListCollection GetUomString GetVersion Hetran Hide IsSaved Language LoadApp Minimize Show Teams UomSet Visible Member Type Function Property (Set) Property (Get/Let) Sub Sub Function Function Sub Function Function Function Function Function Function Function Function Function Function Sub Property (Get) Property (Get/Let) Function Sub Sub Function Property (Get/Let) Property (Get/Let) Data Type Object Collection Boolean Description Returns the ATVApp object for Aerotran Returns the ATVApp objects collection Returns/sets a value that determines execution control Closes the current document Terminates the program Creates a new document Opens an existing document Prints the results Saves the document Saves the document to a different file Returns an ATVApp object Returns the current document filename Returns path name Retrieves static list information Retrieves static list information Returns a valid units string Returns the version information Returns the ATVApp object for Hetran Hides the UI Windows Returns a Boolean value determining whether the document is saved Returns/sets the language for the UI Windows Creates or gets an ATVApp object Minimize the UI Windows Show the UI Windows Returns the ATVApp object for Teams Returns/sets the default units of measure set Returns/sets a value that controls the visibilty of the UI Windows

Boolean Boolean Boolean Boolean Object String String Long Long String String Object Boolean Long Object

Object Long Boolean

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Members of Class ATVApp
Name Arrays CanRun DisplayDrawing ExportToDXF HasResults IsComplete Name Parent ResultArrays ResultScalars Run Run2 RunFinished Scalar UomSet Member Type Property (Get) Property (Get) Sub Function Property (Get) Property (Get) Property (Get) Property (Get) Property (Get) Property (Get) Function Function Event Property (Get) Property (Get/Let) Data Type Collection Boolean Description Returns the collection of array data objects for input Returns a value determining whether the calculation can be executed Displays the given drawing Exports drawings to AutoCAD DXF format file and returns True if successful Returns a value indicating whether the results are present Returns a value indicating whether the required data are inputted Returns the name of the object Returns the parent object Returns the collection of array data objects for results Returns the collection of scalar data objects for results Runs the calculation engine and returns the status Runs the calculation engine with the given run type, and returns the status Gets fired when the calculation is done Returns the collection of scalar data objects for input Returns or sets the units of measure set for the application

Boolean Boolean Boolean String Object Collection Collection Long Long

Collection Collection

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Members of Class ATVScalar
Name Category IsComplete IsEmpty Name Parent PQOrListType Member Type Property (Get) Property (Get) Function Property (Get) Function (Get) Property (Get) Data Type Long Boolean Boolean String Object String Description Returns a value that indicates the data category Returns a value that indicates whether the required data is inputted Check to see if the data is empty Returns the name of the data object Returns the parent object Returns the physical quantity name if the data is a physical quantity, or the name of the list if the data is a static list. Returns a supplemental information Returns a string that represents the unit for a physical quantity data. Returns/sets a value for the data

Text Uom Value

Property (Get) Property (Get/Let) Property (Get/Let)

String String Variant

Members of Class ATVArray
Name Category Insert IsComplete IsElementEmpty IsEmpty Name Parent PQOrListType Member Type Property (Get) Sub Property (Get) Function Function Property (Get) Property (Get) Property (Get) Data Type Long Description Returns a value that indicates the data category Insets an element in the array Returns a value that indicates whether the required data are inputted Check to see if the given element is empty Check to see if the whole array is empty Returns the name Returns the parent object Returns the physical quantity name if the data is a physical quantity, or the name of the list if the data is a static list. Removes an element from the array Returns a supplemental information Returns a string that represents the unit for a physical quantity data. Returns/sets a value for the given element

Boolean Boolean Boolean String Object String

Remove Text Uom Values

Sub Property (Get) Property (Get/Let) Property (Get/Let)

String String Variant

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Member Descriptions
Aerotran Method
Gets a reference to an ATVApp object that represents the Aerotran application.

Applies To
Syntax

BJACApp Object
object.Aerotran

Data Type
Remarks:

Object
This method is the same as the statement:

Set objAerotran = object.GetApp(“Aerotran”).

Arrays Property (Read-only) Gets a reference to the collection containing array data objects for input in an ATVApp object. Applies To
Syntax

ATVApp Object
object.Arrays

Data Type

Collection

ATVApps Property (Read-only)
Gets a reference to the collection containing the ATVApp objects in the BJACApp object.

Applies To
Syntax

BJACApp Object
object.ATVApps

Data Type
Remarks:

Collection

In the ASPEN B-JAC object, an application object named “UTILITIES” is always loaded for the internal service purpose. This internal application object has no visual representation and will stay the BJACApp object as long as a document is loaded.

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CanRun Property (Read-only) Returns a Boolean value that determines whether or not the calculation engine can be executed. Applies To
Syntax

ATVApp Object
object.CanRun

Data Type
Remarks

Boolean

If the property ExecutionControlEnabled in the BJACApp object is True, the CanRun method will be controlled by the completion of the input. In this case, if the IsComplete method in the application object returns True, then the CanRun also is True. However, if the BJACApp.ExecutionControlEnabled is False, the CanRum always returns True. Category Property (Read-only) Returns a long integer that determines the category for the data object. Applies To
Syntax

ATVScalar Object, ATVArray Object
object.Category

Data Type Remarks
category:
Constant

Long
The ASPEN B-JAC object has defined following seven constants for the data

ATV_DATACATEGORY_PQ ATV_DATACATEGORY_LIST

Valu VB Data Description e Type 0 Single Physical quantities, such as temperature and pressure. 1 Long StaticList, such as TEAM Class. A StaticList data has a list of items from which the use can select one and the index of the item selected will be returned as the value of the data. Numeric number Character string Boolean data Vocabulary (internal use only) Message (internal use only)

ATV_DATACATEGORY_NUM ATV_DATACATEGORY_STR ATV_DATACATEGORY_BOOL ATV_DATACATEGORY_VOC ATV_DATACATEGORY_MSG

2 3 4 5 6

Single String Boolean String String

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DisplayDrawing Method
Displays the given drawing.

Applies To Syntax

ATVApp Object

object.DisplayDrawing (hWndClient, DrawingID)

Parameters hWndClient DrawingID

Long Long

Required. A long value representing the handle of client window, on which the drawing will be displayed. Required. A long value representing the drawing to be displayed. See Drawing ID Definitions below for details.
Teams Aerotran Ensea

Drawing ID Definitions
ID 10 11 20 30 40 50 60 61 62 70 80 90 100 110 120 130 140 150 160 171 172 173 181 182 183 184 185 186 190 191 192 193 194 200 Description Hetran Outline ü Setting plan ü Material specifications Sectional Bundle layout Tubesheet layout ü Shell Shell A Shell B Shell cover Front head Rear head Floating head Bundle Baffles Flat covers Front tubesheet Rear tubesheet Expansion joint Gaskets A Gaskets B Gaskets C Body flanges A Body flanges B Body flanges C Body flanges D Body flanges E Body flanges F Vertical supports Bottom front supports Top front Supports Bottom rear Supports Top rear supports Weld details

ü ü ü ü ü ü ü ü ü ü ü ü ü ü ü ü ü ü ü ü ü ü ü ü ü ü ü ü ü ü ü ü ü ü

ü

ü

ü

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Example
The following code shows how to display the Setting Plan drawing on a VB PictureBox control. To try this example, paste the code into the Declarations section of a form with a PictureBox control, Picture1, and two command bottoms, Command1 and Command2:
Dim objBjac As Object Dim objApp As Object Private Sub Command1_Click() ' Displays a FileOpen dialog box and let ' user to select a BJAC document file ' Note: the BJAC document must contain Teams ' in order to test the drawing objBjac.FileOpen ' Releases the object first Set objApp = Nothing ' Gets a Teams reference If objApp Is Nothing Then Set objApp = Nothing Set objApp = objBjac.GetApp("Teams") If objApp is Nothing Then Beep MsgBox "The document doesn't contain Teams." & vbCrLf & _ "Please try a differnet file." Else ' Displays the setting plan ' Note: 11 is the drawing ID for setting plan objApp.DisplayDrawing Picture1.hWnd, 11 End If ' Displays the setting plan ' Note: 11 is the drawing ID for setting plan If Not objApp Is Nothing Then objApp.DisplayDrawing Picture1.hWnd, 11 End If End Sub Private Sub Command2_Click() Unload Me End Sub Private Sub Form_Load() ' Creates a BJAC object Set objBjac = CreateObject("BJACWIN.BJACApp") ' Checks the error If objBjac Is Nothing Then Beep MsgBox "Can't create BJAC object" Unload Me End If End Sub

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Private Sub Form_Unload(Cancel As Integer) Set objApp = Nothing Set objBjac = Nothing End Sub Private Sub Picture1_Paint() ' Since the drawing doesn't get repainted automatically, ' we need to repaint. If Not objApp Is Nothing Then objApp.DisplayDrawing Picture1.hWnd, 11 End Sub

ExecutionControlEnabled Property
Returns or sets a Boolean value that determines whether or not the program can take control of the calculation execution. When set to True, the input must be complete in order to execute the calculation engine. When set to False, the calculation engine can be launched at any time. Applies To BJACApp Object object.ExecutionControlEnabled [ = Boolean ] Boolean

Syntax Data Type

ExportToDXF Method
Exports the drawings to AutoCAD DXF format file and returns True if the function succeeds.

Applies To Syntax
Data Type

ATVApp Object object.ExportToDXF( [DrawingID][,DXFFileName]) Boolean

Parameters DrawingID

Long

DXFFileName

String

Optional. A long value representing the drawing to be exported. If omitted, all the drawings in the object will be exported. For detailed definitions for DrawingID, see the DisplayDrawing method. Optional. A string value representing the filename drawing to be exported. If omitted, the current document file will be used. Note: If DrawingID is omitted, each drawing will be saved to a file with corresponding DrawingID appended to the DXFFileName.

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FileClose Method
Closes the current open document.

Applies To Syntax Remarks

BJACApp Object object.FileClose

The FileClose method will close all of the application user interface windows associated with the open document and destroy all the objects associated with the document as well. Note: Prior to calling this method, you should release all the objects you have referenced in the code except the BJACApp object.

Example
Dim objBjac As Object Dim obhApp As Object Dim objDat As Object . . . ‘ Gets a reference to the App object Set objApp = objBjac.ATVApps(“Aerotran”) ‘ Gets a reference to a data Set objDat = objApp.Arrays(“BJACDBSymbHS”) . . . ‘ Release the references prior to calling FileClose Set objApp = Nothing Set objDat = Nothing ‘ Call FileClose to destroy the document objBjac.Close . . .

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FileExit Method
Destroys all the objects in the BJACApp object.

Applies To Syntax Remarks
• •

BJACApp Object object.FileExit The FileExit method will perform following steps:

Close all of the application user interface windows associated with the open document if the necessary. If there is no running BJACWIN.EXE prior to the BJAC object is created in your code, the FileExit method will also destroy the ASPEN B-JAC user interface main window.

Note 1) Prior to calling this method, you should release all the objects referenced in your code in the opposite sequence of referencing. 2) Instead of calling this method, you could simple use Set objBjac = Nothing in your code.

FileNew Method
Creates a document and returns a Boolean value indicating whether or not the process succeeded.

Applies To Syntax Data Type

BJACApp Object object.FileNew( [AppName]) Boolean

Parameters AppName String

Optional. A string value representing the name of an application to be created. If omitted, the File New Dialog box appears and user can select one or more applications to create.

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FileOpen Method
Opens an existing document from the disk and returns a Boolean value indicating whether or not the process succeeded.

Applies To Syntax Data Type

BJACApp Object object.FileOpen( [Filename]) Boolean

Parameters Filename String

Optional. A string value representing the name of an existing document file to be opened. If omitted, the standard Windows FileOpen Dialog box will be displayed to allow user to open any existing document.

FilePrint Method
Prints the results for the document if results are present.

Applies To Syntax

BJACApp Object object.FilePrint( [AppName], [PrintAll])

Parameters AppName String PrintAll Boolean

Optional. A string value representing the name of an application to be printed. If omitted, every application will be printed. Optional. A Boolean value that determines whether or not to print all of the results. If False, then the Print Selection Dialog box appears and user can select the results to print.

FileSave Method
Saves the current document file to a disk without changing the name and returns a Boolean value indicating whether or not the process succeeded.

Applies To Syntax Data Type

BJACApp Object object.FileSave Boolean

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FileSaveAs Method
Saves a copy of the document to the disk using a different name or path and returns a Boolean value indicating whether or not the process succeeded.

Applies To Syntax Data Type

BJACApp Object object.FileSaveAs( [Filename]) Boolean

Parameters Filename String

Optional. A string value representing the full path name of the document to be saved. If omitted, the standard Windows FileSaveAs Dialog box appears and user will be able to specify the name through the dialog.

GetApp Method
Returns a reference to the specified ATVApp object if succeeded or Nothing if failed.

Applies To Syntax Data Type

BJACApp Object object.GetApp( Appname ) Object

Parameters Appname String

Required. A string value representing the name of the application.

GetFileName Method
Returns a string value representing the full path name of the open document.

Applies To Syntax

BJACApp Object

object.GetFileName

Data TypeString

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GetFilePath Method
Returns a string value representing the file path information.

Applies To Syntax Data Type

BJACApp Object object.GetFilePath(Type ) String

Parameters Type Long

Required. A Long value indicating the type of information to be retrieved. Accepted values are: 0 - The program installation folder name. 1 - Executable files folder name 2 - Help files folder name 5 - Current open document name 10 - Full path name for the static list database 11 - Full path name for the units of measurement database

GetListCollection Method
Retrieves information from a static list and returns the number of items in the list if succeeded or 0 if failed.

Applies To Syntax Data Type

BJACApp Object object.GetListCollection(ListName, ListItems, ListIndices ) Long

Parameters ListName String ListItems Collectio n ListIndices Collectio n

Required. A string value representing the name of the static list to be retrieved Required. A collection to be used to store the items in the list. Required. A collection to be used to store the corresponding indices for the list

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Example
The following code shows how to retrieve the shell type list in the ASPEN B-JAC static list database:
Dim Dim Dim Dim Dim . . objBjac As Object ListItems As Collection ListInices As Collection nItems As Long I as Long .

nItems = objBjac.GetListCollection(“ShellType”,ListItems,ListIndices) For I = 1 to nItmes Debug.Print ListIndices(I),”,” ListItems(I) Next I . . . The code will print following results on the debug window: 0, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, Program E – one pass shell F - two pass shell with long. baffle G - split flow H - double split flow J - divided flow (nozzles: 1 in, 2 out) K – kettle X – crossflow V - vapor belt J - divided flow (nozzles: 2 in, 1 out)

GetSize Method
Returns the number of elements in the array data object.

Applies To Syntax Data Type

ATVArray Object object.GetSize Long

GetVersion Method
Returns a string value representing the current version information of the program.

Applies To Syntax Data Type

BJACApp Object object.GetVersion String

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HasResults Property (Read-only)
Returns a Boolean value that indicates whether or not the results are present.

Applies To Syntax Data Type

ATVApp Object object.HasResults Boolean

Hetran Method
Gets a reference to an ATVApp object that represents the Hetran application.

Applies To Syntax Data Type Remarks

BJACApp Object object.Hetran Object The following statements will have the same results:

Set objApp = objBjac.Hetran Set objApp = objBjac.GetApp(“Hetran”) Set objApp = objBjac.ATVApps(“Hetran”)

Hide Method
Hides the ASPEN B-JAC user interface.

Applies To Syntax Remarks

BJACApp Object object.Hide This is the same as if you use the statement: object.Visible = False

Insert Method
Inserts an element into the array data object.

Applies To Syntax

ATVArray Object object.Insert(Data [,Index] )

Parameters Data Variant Index Long

Required. A variant value to be assigned Optional. A Long value indicating where the new element should be inserted after. If omitted, the new element will be added to the last.

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IsComplete Property (Read-only)
Returns a Boolean value that indicates whether or not the required data are inputted.

Applies To Syntax Data Type

ATVApp Object, ATVArray Object, ATVScalar Object object.IsComplete Boolean

IsElementEmpty Method
Returns a Boolean value that indicates whether or not an element in the array data is empty.

Applies To Syntax Data Type

ATVArray Object object.IsElementEmpty(Index ) Boolean

Parameters Index Long Remarks

Required. A Long value indicating the element to be checked.

Use this method to check an individual element in the array. Use the IsEmpty method to check the entire array.

IsEmpty Method
Returns a Boolean value that indicates whether or not the data is empty.

Applies To Syntax Data Type Remarks

ATVArray, ATVSalar Object object.IsEmpty Boolean

Use this method to check to see if the data is empty or not. For ATVArray objects, the return is True only if all of the elements in the array are empty.

IsSaved Property (Read-only)
Returns a Boolean value that indicates whether or not the new changes made to the input of the open document have been saved.

Applies To Syntax Data Type

BJACApp, ATVApp Object object.IsSaved Boolean

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Language Property
Returns or sets a Long value that determines the language used in the program.

Applies To Syntax Data Type

BJACApp Object object.Language [ = Setting% ] Long

Remarks Currently, the APSEN B-JAC program has assigned following constants for language:
Constant ATV_LANGUAGE_ENGLISH ATV_LANGUAGE_GERMAN ATV_LANGUAGE_SPANISH ATV_LANGUAGE_FRENCH ATV_LANGUAGE_ITALIAN ATV_LANGUAGE_CHINESE ATV_LANGUAGE_JAPANESE Value 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 Descriptio n English German Spanish French Italian Chinese Japanese

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LoadApp Method
Gets or creates an ATVApp object the specified application. It returns the reference to the object if the method succeeded or Nothing if failed.

Applies To Syntax Data Type

BJACApp Object object.LoadApp( Appname ) Object

Parameters Appname String

Required. A string value representing the name of the application.

Remarks The LoadApp method will create the object if the specified ATVApp object is available in the BJACApp object. If the object already exists, the method will act like the GetApp method. Minimize Method
Minimize the ASPEN B-JAC user interface Windows

Applies To Syntax

BJACApp Object object.Minimize

Name Property (Read-only)
Returns a string value representing the name of the object.

Applies To Syntax Data Type Remarks

ATVApp Object, ATVArray Object, ATVScalar Object object.Name String

When used for an ATVApp object, it returns the name for the application, for example, Hetran. When used for an ATVArray object or ATVScalar object it returns the variable name associated with data.

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Parent Property (Read-only)
Returns a reference to the parent object.

Applies To Syntax Data Type Remarks

ATVApp Object, ATVArray Object, ATVScalar Object object.Parent Object

It returns a BJACApp object the ATVApp object, and returns an ATVApp object for the data objects.

PQOrListType Property (Read-only)
Returns a string value that represents the name of the physical quantity or static list assigned to the data.

Applies To Syntax Data Type Remarks Example

ATVScalar Object, ATVArray Object object.PQOrListType String

The PQOrListType property is used only for data that are physical quantities or lists. The property returns the name of the physical quantity or the list.

The following example shows how to access the PQOrListType property:
Dim objHetran As ATVApp . . . ‘ For a PQ data Debug.Print objHetran.Scalars(“FlRaHS”).PQOrListType ‘ For a List data Debug.Print objHetran.Scalars(“ApplTypeHS”).PQOrListType . . . The result of these statements prints following string on the Debug Window: MassFlowrate ApplicationTypeHS

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Remove Method
Removes an element from an array data object.

Applies To Syntax

ATVArray Object object.Remove([Index] )

Parameters Index Long

Optional. A Long value indicating the element to be removed in the array. If omitted, the last element will be removed.

ResultArrays Property (Read-only)
Gets a reference to the collection containing array data objects for results in an ATVApp object.

Applies To Syntax Data Type

ATVApp Object object.ResultArrays Collection

ResultScalars Property (Read-only)
Gets a reference to the collection containing scalar data objects for results in an ATVApp object.

Applies To Syntax Data Type Run Method

ATVApp Object object.ResultScalars Collection

Launches the calculation engine to perform the calculation and returns a status. It returns 0 if the calculation succeeded and a none-zero error code to indicate an error if the calculation failed.

Applies To Syntax Data Type Remarks

ATVApp Object object.Run Long See the error descriptions for error code.

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Run2 Method
Launches the calculation engine to perform the calculation and returns a status. It returns 0 if the calculation succeeded and a none-zero error code to indicate an error if the calculation failed.

Applies To Syntax Data Type

ATVApp Object object.Run2([RunType] ) Long

Parameters RunType Long

Optional. A Long value indicating the type of calculation to be performed. If omitted, the method will act as same as the Run method. Note: Currently only the Teams application has different run types as shown below: 1- Calculations + Cost + Drawings 2- Calculations only 3- Calculations + Cost 4- Calculations + Drawings

RunFinished Event
Gets fired when the calculation finished successfully.

Applies To Syntax Example

ATVApp Object Private Sub object_RunFinished

The following example shows how to implement the RunFinished method to catch the event when the calculation is done.
‘ Declarations Private objBjac as BJACApp Private WithEvents objAerotran as ATVApp ‘ you must use WithEvents . . . Private Sub MyMain( ) ‘ Create a BJACApp object, and open an Aerotran problem file . . . ‘ Get the Aerotran object, and run Aerotran Set objAerotran = objBjac.Aerotran objAerotran.Run End Sub Private Sub objAerotran_RunFinished() ‘ Add your code below. For example, retrieve some results . . . End Sub

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Scalars Property (Read-only)
Gets a reference to the collection containing scalar data objects for input in an ATVApp object.

Applies To Syntax Data Type Show Method

ATVApp Object object.Scalars Collection

Shows the ASPEN B-JAC user interface.

Applies To Syntax Remarks

BJACApp Object object.Show This statement is equivalent to object.Visible = False

Text Property (Read-only)
Returns supplemental information to the Value property of the data object.

Applies To Syntax

ATVArray Object, ATVScalar Object object.Text([Index] ) object.Text for ATVArray object for ATVScalar object

Parameters Index Long

Optional. A Long value representing the element number in the array. If omitted, the first element is assigned.

Data Type Remarks

String

The Text property has no effect on the calculation, and is only used to store extra information to help understanding of the Value property. For example, for a data object representing a material, the Value property of the data object will be the material number assigned by the ASPEN B-JAC, and the Text property will contains the description for the material.

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Example
The example below prints the value and its text of an ATVScalar object on the Debug Window:
Private Sub ShowApplicationType( Byval objHetran As ATVApp ) Dim objAppType As ATVScalar ‘ Get a reference to application type in hot side Set objAppType = objHetran.Scalar(“ApplTypeHS”) ‘ Display the Value and Text in the Debug Window Debug.Print objAppType.Value, objAppType.Text End Sub

On the Debug Window, the results are:
1 Liquid, no phase change

Uom Property
Returns or sets a String that represents the unit for a physical quantity data object.

Applies To Syntax
Data Type

ATVArrayApp Object, ATVScalar Object object.Uom [=NewUnitString] ) String

Remarks

If an invalid unit string is supplied, the unit string remains unchanged. Changing the unit string will not cause the value conversion.

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UomSet Property
Returns or sets a units of measure used in the object.

Applies To Syntax Data Type Remarks

BJACApp Object, ATVApp Object object.UomSet [=NewSetting%] ) Long The UomSet property accepts the following constants:
Value 1 2 3 4 5 6 Description US units set. Predefined in the program. SI units set. Predefined in the program METRIC units set. Predefined in the program. User units set. Customizable through the UI User units set. Customizable through the UI User units set. Customizable through the UI

Constant ATV_UOMSET_US ATV_UOMSET_SI ATV_UOMSET_METRIC ATV_UOMSET_SET1 ATV_UOMSET_SET2 ATV_UOMSET_SET3

When a new setting is assigned to a BJACApp object, the new setting makes no effect on the ATVApp objects that are created already. However, if a new setting is assigned to an ATVApp object, the entire object, including the contained data objects, or even the user interface window that represents the object, will be changed accordingly.

Value Property, Values Property
Returns or sets a value to the data object.

Applies To Syntax

ATVArray Object, ATVScalar Object object.Values([Index],[Uom] ) for ATVArray object object.Value([Uom]) for ATVScalar object

Parameters Index Long Uom String

Optional. A Long value representing the element number in the array. If omitted, the first element is assigned. Optional. A String value representing the units of measure to be based or assigned if the data is a physical quantity. If omitted the current units of measure will be used. Note When the Uom parameter is used to returns a value, the data will be converted according to the Uom. However, if the Uom parameter is assigned the data object, the value of the data object will not be converted.

Data Type

Variant

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Remarks

The Value or Values property is a variant type variable. Depending on the Category property, it uses different VB data types to represent the data, and assigns different undefined constants when the data is Empty, as shown in the following table:
VB Data Type Undefined Note Value Single 0 Used for physical quantities. It returns 0 if the data is empty. You should use the IsEmpty method to check to see if the data is empty. Long -30000 Used for StaticList. The Value property represents the index of an item in the list. The Text property stores the item. You must use a valid index number when you assign a value to the property. Single 0 “” False User for numeric data except physical quantities. You should use the IsEmpty method to check the empty status.

Data Category ATV_DATACATEGORY_PQ ATV_DATACATEGORY_LIST

ATV_DATACATEGORY_NUM

ATV_DATACATEGORY_STR String ATV_DATACATEGORY_BOOL Boolean

The optional parameter Index is used only for an ATVArray object. It represents the element number in the array object. The optional parameter Uom is a string description for the units of measure, for example, kg/s for mass flow rate. You can use the Uom parameter to assign a new units of measure to the data, or returns a value based the specified Uom parameter. Example
Dim objHetran As ATVApp Dim objArray As ATVArray Dim objScalar As ATVScalar Dim Buf As Single . . . ‘ Get the reference to the hot side flow rate Set objScalar = objHetran.Scalars(“FlRaHS”) ‘ Get the current value in kg/h no matter what units the data is ‘ actually using Buf = objScalar.Value(“kg/h”) ‘ Assign the 10000 lb/h to the data objScalar.Value(“lb/h”) = 10000.0 ‘ Now the data’s units is lb/h ‘ Get the reference to the specific heat for liquid cold side Set objArray = objHetran.Arrays(“SpHtLiqCS“) ‘ Gets the value of the element #1 in the current units Buf = objArray.Values(1) ‘ Assign a value to the element and change the units objArray.Values(1,”kJ/(kg*K)”) = 0.2 . . .

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Visible Property
Returns or set a Boolean value that determines the ASPEN B-JAC user interface is visible or hidden.

Applies To Syntax Data Type
Number -1 1000 1001 1002 1003 1004 1005 1006 1007 1008 1009 1010 1011 1012 1013 1014 1101 1102 1103 1104 1105 1106 1107 1108 1109 1110 1111 1112 1113 1114 1115 1116

BJACApp Object object.Visible [=NewSetting] Boolean

Error Descriptions
Descriptions Input is incomplete An unknown error has occurred. Unknown security error occurred. Couldn't detect security key on your system. Couldn't detect HASP single-user security key on your system. Couldn't detect NetHASP key on your system or no active NetHASP server was found. License to run the program has expired. The program doesn't have enough BRUs to run. Couldn't read security key. Couldn't write to security key. The security key date or time has been changed. Failed to access NetHASP key. General security key error. Failed to access Aspen License Manager(ASPLM) or no active ASPLM was found. Number of stations that may run the application at the same time has been exceeded. No license was found to run the program. EXCEPTION_ACCESS_VIOLATION has occurred. EXCEPTION_BREAKPOINT has occurred. EXCEPTION_DATATYPE_MISALIGNMENT has occurred. EXCEPTION_SINGLE_STEP has occurred. EXCEPTION_ARRAY_BOUNDS_EXCEEDED has occurred. EXCEPTION_FLT_DENORMAL_OPERAND has occurred. EXCEPTION_FLT_DIVIDE_BY_ZERO has occurred. EXCEPTION_FLT_INEXACT_RESULT has occurred. EXCEPTION_FLT_INVALID_OPERATION has occurred. EXCEPTION_FLT_OVERFLOW has occurred. EXCEPTION_FLT_STACK_CHECK has occurred. EXCEPTION_FLT_UNDERFLOW has occurred. EXCEPTION_INT_DIVIDE_BY_ZERO has occurred. EXCEPTION_INT_OVERFLOW has occurred. EXCEPTION_PRIV_INSTRUCTION has occurred. EXCEPTION_NONCONTINUABLE_EXCEPTION has occurred.

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Number 1200 1201 1300 1301 1400

Descriptions The file <$> contains an unrecognized format. Error occurred while accessing a file. Failed to load Aspen Properties Plus DLL. Error occurred while executing Aspen Properties Plus. Fatal error in Aspen Plus / BJAC interface

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A

Appendix

A Appendix................................................................................................................................................................................................................1 Tubing ...........................................................................................................................................................................................3 Tube Wall Thickness..............................................................................................................................................................3 Tube Low Fin Information .....................................................................................................................................................4 Enhanced Surfaces Standard Sizes .........................................................................................................................................5 Pipe Properties...............................................................................................................................................................................7 ANSI Pipe Dimensions...........................................................................................................................................................7 DIN / ISO 4200 Pipe Dimensions ..........................................................................................................................................9 Standard Nozzle Flange Ratings...........................................................................................................................................10 Material Selection........................................................................................................................................................................11 Generic Materials List ..........................................................................................................................................................11 Gaskets – hot side.................................................................................................................................................................12 Gaskets – cold side...............................................................................................................................................................13 Corrosion Table....................................................................................................................................................................14 Baffle Cuts...................................................................................................................................................................................18 Single Segmental ..................................................................................................................................................................18 Double Segmental ................................................................................................................................................................18 Triple Segmental ..................................................................................................................................................................19 Asme Code Cases ........................................................................................................................................................................20 ASME Code Case 2278........................................................................................................................................................20 ASME Code Case 2290........................................................................................................................................................20 Technical References...................................................................................................................................................................22 Introduction ..........................................................................................................................................................................22 General .................................................................................................................................................................................23 Shell Side Heat Transfer and Pressure Drop ........................................................................................................................25 Tube Side Heat Transfer and Pressure Drop ........................................................................................................................31

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Tubing
Tube Wall Thickness
B.W.G. Gauge 28 27 26 25 24 23 22 21 20 19 18 17 16 15 14 13 12 11 10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 in 0.014 0.016 0.018 0.20 0.22 0.25 0.028 0.032 0.035 0.042 0.049 0.058 0.065 0.072 0.083 j0.095 0.109 0.120 0.134 0.148 0.165 0.180 0.203 0.220 0.238 0.259 0.284 0.300 mm 0.36 0.41 0.46 0.51 0.56 0.64 0.71 0.81 0.89 1.07 1.24 1.47 1.65 1.83 2.11 2.41 2.77 3.05 3.40 3.76 4.19 4.57 5.16 5.59 6.05 6.58 7.21 7.62

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Tube Low Fin Information
Standard fin outside diameters
in.: mm: 1.5 38 2.0 50 2.5 63 3.0 76 3.5 89

Program Default: Tube Outside Diameter + 0.75 in or 19.05 mm

Standard fin thickness
integral or extruded: 0.012-0.025 in or 0.3-0.7 mm welded or wrapped: 0.025-0.165 in or 0.6-4 mm in: mm: 0.031 0.8 0.036 0.9 0.049 1.2 0.059 1.5

Program Default: 0.23 in or 0.58 mm for tube O.D. less than 2 in or 50.8 0.36 in or 0.91 mm for tube O.D. greater than 2 in or 50.8 mm

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Enhanced Surfaces Standard Sizes
The following are the standard available tube sizes that are available for indicated enhance surfaces. Manufacture-Type Tube OD, in Wolverine TURBO B MHT 1 3/4" OD 2 3/4" OD 3 3/4" OD 4 3/4" OD 7 1" OD Wolverine TURBO B LPD 5 3/4" OD 6 3/4" OD Wolverine TURBO C MHT 1 1" OD 2 3/4" OD 3 3/4" OD 4 3/4" OD Wolverine TURBO C LPD 5 3/4" OD Wolverine TURBO BII 1 3/4" OD 2 3/4" OD 3 3/4" OD Wolverine TURBO CII 1 3/4" OD 2 3/4" OD 3 3/4" OD Wolverine KORODENSE MHT Wolverine KORODENSE LPD 1 5/8" OD 2 5/8" OD 3 5/8" OD 4 5/8" OD 5 5/8" OD 6 5/8" OD 7 5/8" OD 8 3/4" OD 9 3/4" OD 10 3/4" OD 11 3/4" OD 12 3/4" OD 13 3/4" OD 14 3/4" OD 15 7/8" OD 16 7/8" OD 17 7/8" OD 18 7/8" OD 19 7/8" OD 20 7/8" OD 21 7/8" OD 22 1" OD 23 1" OD 24 1" OD 25 1" OD 26 1" OD Wall Thk, in .051" .054" .059" .065" .053" WALL WALL WALL WALL WALL the

.051" WALL .057" WALL .052" .051" .054" .058" WALL WALL WALL WALL

.051" WALL .049" WALL .051" WALL .058" WALL .047" WALL .050" WALL .056" WALL .020" .025" .032" .035" .042" .049" .065" .020" .025" .032" .035" .042" .049" .065" .020" .025" .032" .035" .042" .049" .065" .020" .025" .032" .035" .042" WALL WALL WALL WALL WALL WALL WALL WALL WALL WALL WALL WALL WALL WALL WALL WALL WALL WALL WALL WALL WALL WALL WALL WALL WALL WALL

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27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40

1" OD 1" OD 1-1/8" 1-1/8" 1-1/8" 1-1/8" 1-1/8" 1-1/8" 1-1/4" 1-1/4" 1-1/4" 1-1/4" 1-1/4" 1-1/4"

OD OD OD OD OD OD OD OD OD OD OD OD

.049" .065" .025" .032" .035" .042" .049" .065" .025" .032" .035" .042" .049" .065"

WALL WALL WALL WALL WALL WALL WALL WALL WALL WALL WALL WALL WALL WALL

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Pipe Properties
ANSI Pipe Dimensions
ANSI Pipe Dimensions Dimensions: in
Nom OD 0.75 1.0 1.25 1.5 2.0 2.5 3.0 3.5 4.0 5.0 Actual OD 1.050 1.315 1.660 1.900 2.375 2.875 3.500 4.000 4.500 5.563 ------------------------------------------------------------------------------Sch 5S | 0.065 0.065 0.065 0.065 0.065 0.083 0.083 0.083 0.083 0.109 Sch 10S |0.083 0.109 0.109 0.109 0.109 0.120 0.120 0.120 0.120 0.134 Sch 10 | Sch 20 | Sch 30 | Std | 0.113 0.133 0.140 0.145 0.154 0.203 0.216 0.226 0.237 0.258 Sch 40 | 0.113 0.133 0.140 0.145 0.154 0.203 0.216 0.226 0.237 0.258 Sch 60 | Ext Str | 0.154 0.179 0.191 0.200 0.218 0.276 0.300 0.318 0.337 0.375 Sch 80 | 0.154 0.179 0.191 0.200 0.218 0.276 0.300 0.318 0.337 0.375 Sch 100 | Sch 120 | 0.438 0.500 Sch 140 | Sch 160 | 0.219 0.250 0.250 0.281 0.344 0.375 0.438 0.531 0.625 XX Str | 0.308 0.358 0.382 0.400 0.436 0.552 0.600 0.750 0.864

ANSI Pipe Dimensions

Dimensions: in

Nom OD 6 8 10 12 14 16 18 20 22 24 Actual OD 6.625 8.625 10.75 12.75 14.0 16.0 18.0 20.0 22.0 24.0 ------------------------------------------------------------------------------Sch 5S | 0.109 0.109 0.134 0.156 0.156 0.165 0.165 0.188 0.188 0.218 Sch 10S | 0.134 0.148 0.165 0.180 0.188 0.188 0.188 0.218 0.218 0.250 Sch 10 | 0.250 0.250 0.250 0.250 0.250 0.250 Sch 20 | 0.250 0.250 0.250 0.312 0.312 0.312 0.375 0.375 0.375 Sch 30 | 0.277 0.307 0.330 0.375 0.375 0.438 0.500 0.500 0.562 Std | 0.280 0.322 0.365 0.375 0.375 0.375 0.375 0.375 0.375 0.375 Sch 40 | 0.280 0.322 0.365 0.406 0.438 0.500 0.562 0.594 0.688 Sch 60 | 0.406 0.500 0.562 0.594 0.656 0.750 0.812 0.875 0.969 Ext Str | 0.432 0.500 0.500 0.500 0.500 0.500 0.500 0.500 0.500 0.500 Sch 80 | 0.432 0.500 0.594 0.688 0.750 0.844 0.938 1.031 1.125 1.218 Sch 100 | 0.594 0.719 0.844 0.938 1.031 1.156 1.281 1.375 1.531 Sch 120 | 0.562 0.719 0.844 1.000 1.094 1.219 1.375 1.500 1.625 1.812 Sch 140 | 0.812 1.000 1.125 1.250 1.438 1.562 1.750 1.875 2.062 Sch 160 | 0.719 0.906 1.125 1.312 1.406 1.594 1.781 1.969 2.125 2.344 XX Str | 0.864 0.875 1.000 1.000 -

Aspen B-JAC 11.1 User Guide

A-7

ANSI Pipe Dimensions

Dimensions: mm

Nom OD 19 25 32 38 51 64 76 89 102 127 Actual OD 26.6 33.4 42.2 48.3 60.3 73.0 88.9 101.6 114.3 141.3 ------------------------------------------------------------------------------Sch 5S | 1.6 1.6 1.6 1.6 1.6 2.1 2.1 2.1 2.1 2.7 Sch 10S | 2.1 2.7 2.7 2.7 2.7 3.0 3.0 3.0 3.0 3.4 Sch 10 | Sch 20 | Sch 30 | Std | 3.4 3.6 3.7 3.9 5.2 5.5 5.7 6.0 6.6 Sch 40 | 2.8 3.4 3.6 3.7 3.9 5.2 5.5 5.7 6.0 6.6 Sch 60 | Ext Str | 3.9 4.5 4.9 5.1 5.5 7.0 7.6 8.1 8.6 9.5 Sch 80 | 3.9 4.5 4.9 5.1 5.5 7.0 7.6 8.1 8.6 9.5 Sch 100 | Sch 120 | 11.1 12.7 Sch 140 | Sch 160 | 5.5 6.4 6.4 7.1 8.7 9.5 11.1 13.5 15.9 XX Str | 7.8 9.1 9.7 10.2 11.1 14.0 15.2 16.2 17.1 19.1

ANSI Pipe Dimensions

Dimensions: mm

Nom OD 152 203 254 305 356 406 457 508 559 610 Actual OD 168.3 219.1 273.1 323.9 355.6 406.4 457.2 508.0 558.8 609.6 ------------------------------------------------------------------------------Sch 5S | 2.7 2.7 3.4 4.0 4.0 4.0 4.0 4.8 4.8 5.5 Sch 10S | 3.4 3.7 4.1 4.5 4.8 4.8 4.8 5.5 5.5 6.3 Sch 10 | 6.3 6.3 6.3 6.3 6.3 6.3 Sch 20 | 7.9 7.9 7.9 9.5 9.5 9.5 Sch 30 | 7.0 7.8 8.4 9.5 9.5 11.1 12.7 12.7 14.3 Std | 7.1 8.2 9.3 9.5 9.5 9.5 9.5 9.5 9.5 9.5 Sch 40 | 7.1 8.2 9.3 10.3 11.1 12.7 14.3 15.1 17.5 Sch 60 | 10.3 12.7 14.3 15.1 16.7 19.1 20.6 22.2 24.6 Ext Str | 11.0 12.7 12.7 12.7 12.7 12.7 12.7 12.7 12.7 12.7 Sch 80 | 11.0 12.7 15.1 17.5 19.1 21.4 23.8 26.2 28.6 30.9 Sch 100 | 15.1 18.3 21.4 23.8 26.2 29.4 32.5 34.9 38.9 Sch 120 | 13.5 18.3 21.4 25.4 27.8 31.0 34.9 38.1 46.0 Sch 140 | 20.6 25.4 28.6 31.8 36.5 39.7 44.5 52.4 Sch 160 | 18.3 23.0 28.6 33.3 35.7 40.5 45.2 50.0 59.5 XX Str | 21.9 22.2 25.4 25.4 -

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Aspen B-JAC 11.1 User Guide

DIN / ISO 4200 Pipe Dimensions
DIN / ISO 4200 Pipe Dimensions
Nom OD Actual OD 20 26.9 25 33.7 32 42.4 40 48.3

Dimensions: mm
50 60.3 65 76.1 80 88.9 100 114.3 125 139.7 150 168.3

------------------------------------------------------------------------------Row A Row B Row C Row D Row E Row F Row G | | | | | | | 1.6 1.8 2.0 3.2 4.0 1.6 2.0 2.0 2.3 3.2 4.5 1.6 2.0 2.3 2.6 3.6 5.0 1.6 2.0 2.3 2.9 3.6 5.0 1.6 2.0 2.3 2.3 2.9 4.0 5.6 1.6 2.3 2.6 2.6 2.9 5.0 7.1 2.0 2.3 2.9 2.9 3.2 5.6 8.0 2.0 2.3 2.9 3.2 3.6 6.3 8.8 2.0 2.3 3.2 3.6 4.0 6.3 10 2.0 2.3 3.2 4.0 4.5 7.1 11

DIN / ISO 4200 Pipe Dimensions

Dimensions: mm

Nom OD 200 250 300 350 400 450 500 600 700 800 Actual OD 219.1 273 323.9 355.6 406.4 457 508 610 711 813 ------------------------------------------------------------------------------Row A Row B | | 2.0 2.6 2.0 3.6 2.6 4.0 2.6 4.0 2.6 4.0 3.2 4.0 3.2 5.0 3.2 5.6 4.0 6.3 4.0 7.1

Aspen B-JAC 11.1 User Guide

A-9

Row C Row D Row E Row F Row G

| | | |

3.6 4.5 6.3 8.0

4.0 5.0 6.3 10 14.2

4.5 5.6 7.1 10 16

5.0 5.6 8.0 11 17.5

5.0 6.3 8.8 12.5 20

5.0 6.3 10 14.2 22.2

5.6 6.3 11 16 25

6.3 6.3 12.5 17.5 30

7.1 7.1 14.2 20 32

8.0 8.0 16 22.2 36

| 12.5

Standard Nozzle Flange Ratings
ANSI: 50 ISO: DIN: 10 10 300 16 16 400 20 25 600 25 40 900 40 63 1500 50 100 2500 100 160 250 320 400

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Aspen B-JAC 11.1 User Guide

Material Selection
Generic Materials List
Abbrev CS C½Mo Material Carbon Steel Low Alloy Steel C½Mo Low Alloy Steel ½Cr½Mo Low Alloy Steel Cr½Mo Low Alloy Steel 1¼Cr½Mo High Alloy Steel Grade 304 High Alloy Steel Grade 304L High Alloy Steel Grade 316L High Alloy Steel Grade 310S High Alloy Steel Grade 347 High Alloy Steel Grade 310S High Alloy Steel Grade XM-27 High Alloy Steel Grade 410

½Cr½Mo
Cr½Mo 1¼Cr½Mo SS 304 SS 304L SS 316L SS 310S SS 347 SS 310S SS XM-27 SS 410

Aspen B-JAC 11.1 User Guide

A-11

Abbrev NI 200 NI 201 Monel Inconel NI 800 NI 825 Hast. B Hast. C Hast. G NI 20 Titanium Cu-Ni 70/30 Cu-Ni 90/10 Cu-Si NavBrass AlBronze AlBrass Admiralty Tantalum Zirconium

Material Nickel Alloy 200 Nickel Low Carbon Alloy 201 Nickel Alloy 400 (Monel) Nickel Alloy 600 (Inconel) Nickel Alloy 800 Nickel Alloy 825 (Incoloy 825) Nickel Alloy B (Hastelloy B) Nickel Alloy C (Hastelloy C) Nickel Alloy G (Hastelloy G) Nickel Alloy 20 Cb (Carpenter 20) Titanium Copper-Nickel 70/30 Alloy CDA 715 Copper-Nickel 90/10 Alloy CDA 706 Copper-Silicon Alloy CDA 655 Naval Brass Alloy 464 Aluminum-Bronze Alloy 630 Aluminum-Brass Alloy 687 Admiralty Alloy 443 Tantalum Zirconium

Gaskets – hot side
Specify one of the following generic materials for the gaskets: • • • • • • • • • compressed fiber flat metal jacketed fiber solid flat metal solid teflon graphite spiral wound ring joint self-energized elastomers

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Aspen B-JAC 11.1 User Guide

Gaskets – cold side
Specify one on the following generic gasket materials: • • • • • • • • compressed fiber flat metal jacketed fiber solid flat metal solid teflon graphite spiral wound ring joint self-energized
elastomers

Aspen B-JAC 11.1 User Guide

A-13

Corrosion Table
The following table is provided as a quick reference for acceptable materials of construction. The corrosion ratings are at a single temperature (usually 20 C) and a single concentration. A final decision on material selection should be based on operating temperature, actual concentration and galvanic action. A B C D = = = = Excellent Good Fair Not suitable E = Explosive I = Ignites - = Information not available

The material abbreviations used in the table are as follows: CS Carbon steel Cu Copper Admi Admiralty CuSi Copper silicon CN90 Cupro-nickel 90-10 CN70 Cupro-nickel 70-30 SS304 Stainless steel 304 SS316 Stainless steel 316 Ni Nickel Monel Monel Inco Inconel Hast Hastelloy Ti Titanium Zr Zirconium Ta Tantalum Corrosion Table Acetaldehyde Acetic acid Acetic anhydride Acetone Acetylene Aluminum chloride Aluminum hydroxide Ammonia (anhydrous) Ammonium chloride Ammonium sulfate Ammonium sulfite Corrosion Table Amyl acetate Aniline Aroclor Barium chloride Benzaldehyde Benzene Benzoic acid Boric acid Butadiene CS A D D A A D B A D C D CS B A B B B A D D A Cu E D B A E D B A D C B Cu A D A B B A B B A Ad mi E D C A E D B A D C B Ad mi A D A C B A B B A Cu Si E D B A E D B A D C B Cu Si B D A B B A B B A CN 90 E C B A E D B A D C B CN 90 A D A B B A B B A CN 70 E C B A E D B A D C B CN 70 A D A B B A B B A SS SS Ni 304 316 A A A A A D B B B A A B A A A D D C B B B A A B B B B C C B C C D SS SS Ni 304 316 A A A A A B B B A B B B B B B B B B B B B A A B A A A Mo nel A A B A A B B A B A D Mo nel A B A B B B B B A In co A B B A A D B B B B D In co A B A B B B B B A Ha st A A A B A A B B B B Ha st B B A B A B B A A Ti B A A A A A A A A A Ti A A A A A A A A A Zr A A A A A Zr A Ta A A B A A A B A A A A Ta A A A A A A A A A

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Aspen B-JAC 11.1 User Guide

Butane Butanol Butyl acetate Corrosion Table Butyl chloride Calcium chloride Calcium hydroxide Carbon dioxide(wet) Carb. tetrachloride Carbonic acid Chlorine gas (dry) Chloroform (dry) Chromic acid Citric acid Creosote Dibutylphthalate Corrosion Table Dichlorobenzene Dichlorofluorometh. Diethanolamine Diethyl etheride Diethylene glycol Diphenyl Diphenyl oxide Ethane Ethanolamine Ether Ethyl acetate (dry) Ethyl alcohol

A A A CS A B B C B C B B D D B A CS B A A B A B B A B B B B

A A B Cu A B B C B C B B D C B A Cu B A B B B B B A B B B B

A A B Ad mi A C B C B C B B D C B A Ad mi B A B B B B B A B B B B

A A B Cu Si A B B C B C B B D C B A Cu Si B A B B B B B A B B B B

A A B CN 90 A B B C B C B B D C B A CN 90 B A B B B B B A B B B B

A A B CN 70 A B B C B C B B D C B A CN 70 B A B B B B B A B B B B

A A B

A A B

A A A

A A B Mo nel A A B A A C B A D B B B Mo nel B B A B B B B A B B B B

A A A In co A A B A A A A B B A B B In co B B A B B B B A B B B B

A A B Ha st A B B A B A B B B C B B Ha st B A A B B B B A B B B A

A A A Ti A A A A A A I A B A A A Ti B A A A A A A A B A A A

Zr A A A A A A Zr A

A A A Ta A A A A A A A A A A A A Ta A A A A A A A A A A A A

SS SS Ni 304 316 A A A C B A B B B A A A B B A B B B B B B B B A C B D C B B B B B B B B SS SS Ni 304 316 B B B A B B A A A B B B A A B B B B B B B A A A A B B B B B B B B B B B

Aspen B-JAC 11.1 User Guide

A-15

Corrosion Table Ethyl ether Ethylene Ethylene glycol Fatty acids Ferric chloride Ferric sulfate Ferrous sulfate Formaldehyde Furfural Glycerine Hexane Hydrochloric acid Corrosion Table Hydrofluoric acid Iodine Isopropanol Lactic acid Linseed oil Lithium chloride Lithium hydroxide Magnesium chloride Magnesium hydroxide Magnesium sulfate Methane Methallyamine Corrosion Table Methyl alcohol Methyl chloride-dry Methylene chloride Monochlorobenzene M.dichl.difl.mehane Monoethanolamine Naptha Napthalene Nickel chloride Nickel sulfate Nitric acid Nitrous acid

CS B A B D D D D D B A A D CS D D A D A B B B B B A C CS B A B B A B A A D D D D

Cu B A B D D D B B B A A D Cu C D B B B B B B B B A B Cu B A B B A B B B B B D D

Ad mi B A B D D D B B B A A D Ad mi D D B C B B B C B B A B Ad mi B A B B A B B B B B D D

Cu Si B A B D D D B B B A A D Cu Si D D B B B B B B B B A B Cu Si B A B B A B B B B B D D

CN 90 B A B D D D B B B A A D CN 90 D D B B B B B B B B A B CN 90 B A B B A B B B B B D D

CN 70 B A B D D D B B B A A D CN 70 C D B B B B B B B B A B CN 70 B A B B A B B B B B D D

SS SS Ni 304 316 B B B A A A B B B D A B D D D B B D B B D B B B B B B A A A A A A D D D SS SS Ni 304 316 D D D D D D B B B B A B A A B B A A B B B B B A B B B A A B A A A B B B SS SS Ni 304 316 B B B A A B B B B B B A A A A B B B B B B A A A B B D B B B B B D B B D

Mo nel B A B C D D D B B A A D Mo nel C D B C B A B B B B A C Mo nel A B B A A B B A B B D D

In co B A B B D D D B B A A D In co D D B A B A B A B B A B In co B B B A A B B A D B D D

Ha st B A B A B A B B B A A B Ha st A B B A B A B A B A A B Ha st A B B B A B B A B D -

Ti A A A B A A A B A A A D Ti D D A A A A A A A B Ti A A B B A B B A B A -

Zr D D Zr D A A A A Zr A A A B -

Ta A A A A A A A A A A A A Ta D A A A A A A A B A A A Ta A A A A A A A A A A A A

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Aspen B-JAC 11.1 User Guide

Corrosion Table Oleic acid Oxalic acid Perchloric acid-dry Perchloroethylene Phenoldehyde Phosphoric acid Phthalic anhydride Potassium bicarbon. Potassium carbonate Propylene glycol Pyridine Refrigerant 12 Corrosion Table Refrigerant 22 Seawater Silver chloride Silver nitrate Sodium acetate Sodium hydroxide Sodium nitrate Sodium sulfate Sulfur dioxide(dry) Sulfuric acid Toluene Trichlorethylene Corrosion Table Turpentine Vinyl chloride(dry) Water (fresh) Water (sea) Xylene Zinc chloride Zinc sulfate

CS B D D A B D B B B B A A CS A C D D D D B B B D A B CS B A C C B D D

Cu B B D B B D B B B B B A Cu A B D D B D B B B D A B Cu B B A B A D B

Ad mi B B D B B D B B B B B A Ad mi A A D D B D B B B D A B Ad mi B C A A A D B

Cu Si B B D B B D B B B B B A Cu Si A B D D B D B B B D A B Cu Si B B A B A D B

CN 90 B B D B B D B B B B B A CN 90 A A D D B D B B B D A B CN 90 B B A A A D B

CN 70 B B D B B D B A B B B A CN 70 A A D D B D B B B D A B CN 70 B B A A A D B

SS SS Ni 304 316 B B A B B C B B D B B A B B B B B D B B B B B B B B B B B B B B B A B B SS SS Ni 304 316 A A A A A B D D D B B D B B B D D A A A B B A B B B B D D D A A A B B A SS SS Ni 304 316 B B B B A A A A A A A B A A A B B B B A B

Mo nel A B D A A D B B B B B B Mo nel A A D D B B B B B D A A Mo nel B A A A A A B

In co A B D A B B B B B B B B In co A B C B B B A B B D A B In co B A A B A D A

Ha st B B A A B B B B B A Ha st A B B B B B B B B B A A Ha st B A A B A B B

Ti B D A A C A A A B A Ti A A B A B B A A A D A A Ti B A A A A A A

Zr B B D Zr A A B A A A Zr A A A A -

Ta B A A A A B A A A A A A Ta A A A A A D A A A A A A Ta A A A A A A A

Aspen B-JAC 11.1 User Guide

A-17

Baffle Cuts
Single Segmental
In all Aspen B-JAC programs, the single segmental baffle cut is always defined as the segment opening height expressed as a percentage of the shell inside diameter.

Typical baffle cut: 15% to 45%

Double Segmental
In all Aspen B-JAC programs, the double segmental cut is always defined as the segment height of the innermost baffle window expressed as a percentage of the shell inside diameter. In the output, the baffle cut will be printed with the percent of the inner window / percent of one of the outer windows. The area cut away is approximately equal for each baffle.

Typical baffle cut: 20% to 42%

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Aspen B-JAC 11.1 User Guide

Triple Segmental
In all Aspen B-JAC programs, the triple segmental cut is always defined as the segment height of the innermost baffle window expressed as a percentage of the shell tube inside diameter. In the output, the baffle cut will be printed with the percent of the innermost window / percent of one intermediate window / percent of one outermost window. The area cut away is approximately equal for each baffle.

Typical baffle cut: 22% to 32%

Aspen B-JAC 11.1 User Guide

A-19

Asme Code Cases
ASME Code Case 2278
Alternative Method for Calculating Maximum Allowable Stresses Based on a Factor of 3.5 on Tensile Strength Section II and Section VIII Div. 1. Important items are:

• • • •

These materials are the same as previously used. No chemical specifications have been changed. Materials are limited to those listed in the tables in ASME-VIII Div.1 (for example, UCS-23). The maximum permitted temperature for these materials are less than the original listings. Only materials with both tensile strength and yield strength tables can be used (ASME Section II, Part D - if the materials are not listed on tables U and Y-1, they can not be used per code case 2278). New figure provided for the calculation of the reduction in minimum design metal temperature without impact testing. The allowable stress values are calculated from the tensile strength and the yield strength. The application of this case is not recommended for gasketed joints or other applications where slight distortion can cause leakage or malfunction. The hydrostatic test factor is reduced from 1.5 to 1.3. All other code requirements apply (external pressure charts, etc.).
When using code case 2278, no reference is made to this case when the program lists materials. It is recommended that you note the use of code case in you file headings description. You select the usage of code case 2278 as an input in the program options section.

• • • • •

ASME Code Case 2290
Alternative Maximum Allowable Stresses Based on a Factor of 3.5 on Tensile Strength Section I. Part D and Section VIII Division 1. Important items are:

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Aspen B-JAC 11.1 User Guide

• • • • • •

These materials are the same as previously used. No chemical specifications have been changed. The alternative maximum allowable stresses are listed in Table 1 of code case 2290 (same format as Section II, Part D materials). New figure provided for the calculation of the reduction in minimum design metal temperature without impact testing. The application of this case is not recommended for gasketed joints or other applications where slight distortion can cause leakage or malfunction. The hydrostatic test factor is reduced from 1.5 to 1.3. All other code requirements appl (external pressure charts, etc.).
When using code case 2290, the program will access a new database in which all materials end with the characters '2290'. Therefore, the user and inspector will know what materials fall within this code case. This new database will be listed in the user's interface as 'ASME-2290'. All materials in the new database start from the B-JAC number 5000 (5000-5999). The new database filenames for the engine are AS2290P.PDA and NAS2290I.PDA. The user selects the usage of code case 2290 by selecting any available material in the 5000 series.

Aspen B-JAC 11.1 User Guide

A-21

Technical References
Introduction
Aspen B-JAC updates its programs with the best of the most recent correlations for heat transfer and pressure drop available from research and published literature sources. The references have been categorized into their applicable areas as follows: General Shell Side Heat Transfer & Pressure Drop • • • No Phase Change Vaporization Condensation

Tube Side Heat Transfer & Pressure Drop • • • No Phase Change Vaporization Condensation

Although AspenTech does not publish the exact formulas used in the program, we will gladly direct you to the correct source in the published literature pertaining to your question. AspenTech continually examines new correlations as they become available and incorporates them into the Aspen B-JAC program only after extensive evaluation. This evaluation includes comparisons of results between new and old correlations, field data from a multitude of units currently in service, and many years of design experience. Please do not request copies of references from AspenTech. Request for copies of articles should be made to : Engineering Societies Library 345 East 47th Street New York, NY 10017 U. S. A.

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Aspen B-JAC 11.1 User Guide

General
Perry's Chemical Engineers' Handbook, Sixth Edition, McGraw-Hill, 1984 General Discussion on Heat Transfer, Institution of Mechanical Engineers London, 1951 Practical Aspects of Heat Transfer, AIChE Technical Manual, 1976 Gas Engineers Handbook, C. George Segeler, Industrial Press, 1974 Heat Transfer and Fluid Flow Data Books, General Electric, 1984 Engineering Data Book, Gas Processors Suppliers Association, 1979 Standard Handbook of Engineering Calculations, Second Edition, Tyler G. Hicks, McGrawHill, 1985 Heat Exchanger Design Handbooks, Volumes 1-5, Hemisphere Publishing Corporation, 1984 International Heat Transfer Conference Proceedings, Hemisphere Publishing Corporation, Heat Transfer 1978, Toronto Heat Transfer 1982, Munich Heat Transfer 1986, San Francisco Heat Transfer 1990, Jerusalem AIChE Symposium Heat Transfer Series Seattle 82 Volume 64, 1968 Philadelphia 92 Volume 65, 1969 Minneapolis 102 Volume 66, 1970 Tulsa 118 Volume 68, 1972 Fundamentals 131 Volume 69, 1973 Research & Design 138 Volume 70, 1974 St. Louis 164 Volume 73, 1977 Research & Application 174 Volume 74, 1978 Seattle 225 Volume 79, 1983 Niagara Falls 236 Volume 80, 1984 Denver 245 Volume 81, 1985 Process Heat Transfer, Donald Q. Kern, McGraw-Hill, 1950 Compact Heat Exchangers, Third Edition, Kays & London, McGraw-Hill, 1984 Process Design for Reliable Operations, Norman P. Lieberman, Gulf Publishing Company, 1983 Heat Exchangers: Design and Theory Sourcebook, Afgan & Schlunder, McGraw Hill, 1974 Heat Exchangers Thermal-Hydraulic Fundamentals and Design, Kakac, Bergles & Mayinger, McGraw-Hill, 1981 Convective Boiling and Condensation, John G. Collier, McGraw-Hill, 1972 Industrial Heat Exchangers, A Basic Guide, G. Walker, McGraw-Hill, 1982

Aspen B-JAC 11.1 User Guide

A-23

Heat Transfer, J.P. Holman, McGraw-Hill, 1981 Heat Transfer in Counterflow, Parallel Flow and Cross Flow, Helmuth Hausen, McGraw-Hill, 1983 Extended Surface Heat Transfer, D.O. Kern & A.D. Kraus, McGraw-Hill, 1972 Heat Exchangers, Theory and Practice, Taborek, Hewitt & Afgan, McGraw-Hill, 1983 Two-Phase Flow and Heat Transfer in the Power and Process Industries, Bergles, Collier, Delhaye, Hewitt & Mayinger, McGraw-Hill, 1981 Standards of Tubular Exchangers Manufacturers Association, Seventh Edition, TEMA, 1988 Wolverine Trufin Engineering Data Book, Wolverine Tube Division, 1967 Heat Transfer Pocket Handbook, Nicholas P. Cheremisinoff, Gulf Publishing Company, 1984 Fluid Flow Pocket Handbook, Nicholas P. Cheremisinoff, Gulf Publishing Company, 1984 Handbook of Chemical Engineering Calculations, Chopey & Hicks, McGraw-Hill, 1984 Heat Exchangers for Two-Phase Applications, ASME, HTD-Vol. 27, 1983 Reprints of AIChE Papers, 17th National Heat Transfer Conference, Salt Lake City, 1977 Standards for Power Plant Heat Exchangers, Heat Exchange Institute Inc., 1980 A Reappraisal of Shellside Flow in Heat Exchangers, ASME HTD-36, 1984 Shellside Waterflow Pressure Drop and Distribution in Industrial Size Test Heat Exchanger, Halle & Wambsganss, Argonne National Laboratory, 1983 Basic Aspects of Two Phase Flow and Heat Transfer, ASME, HTD-Vol. 34, 1984 ASME Heat Transfer Publications, 1979, 18th National Heat Transfer Conference, Condensation Heat Transfer, & Advances in Enhanced Heat Transfer Shell and Tube Heat Exchangers, Second Symposium, American Society for Metals, Houston, Texas, September, 1981 Two-Phase Heat Exchanger Symposium 23rd National Heat Transfer Conference, Denver, Colorado, HTD-Vol.44 August, 1985 Advances in Enhanced Heat Transfer 23rd National Heat Transfer Conference, Denver, Colorado, HTD-Vol.43 August, 1985 Heat Tranfer Equipment Design, R.K. Shah, Subbarao, and R.A. Mashelkar, Hemisphere Publishing Corporation, 1988 Heat Transfer Design Methods, Edited by John J. McKetta, Marcel Dekker Inc., 1992 Boilers Evaporators & Condesers, Sadik Kakac, John Wiley & Sons Inc., 1991 Enhanced Boiling Heat Transfer, John R. Thome, Hemisphere Publishing Corporation, 1990

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Aspen B-JAC 11.1 User Guide

Handbook of Heat Transfer Applications Second Edition Editors W.M. Rohsenow, J.P. Hartnett and Ejup N. Ganic, McGraw-Hill Book Co., 1985 Piping Handbook, Sixth Edition, Mobinder L. Nayyar, McGraw-Hill Inc., 1992 Practical Aspects of Heat Transfer, Proceedings of 1976 Fall Lecture Series of New Jersey-North Jersey Sections of AICHE, 1976. Air Cooled Heat Exchangers For General Refinery Services, API Standard 661 Second Edition, January 1978. ESCOA Fintube Manual, Chris W. Weierman, ESCOA Fintube Corporation Moore Fan Company Manual, Moore Fan Company, 1982. Heat Transfer: Research and Application, ed. John Chen, AIChE Symposium Series, No. 174, Vol. 74, 1978 Heat Transfer— Seattle 1983, Nayeem M. Farukhi, AIChE Symposium Series, No. 225, Vol. 79, 1983. Principles of Heat Transfer, Frank Kreith, International Textbook Company, 1958. Fundamentals of Heat Transfer, S. S. Kutateladze, Academic Press, 1963. NGPSA Engineering Data Book, Natural Gas Processors Suppliers Association, 1979. “Design of Air-Cooled Exchangers,” Robert Brown, Chemical Engineering, March 27, 1978. “Process Design Criteria,” V. Ganapathy, Chemical Engineering, March 27, 1978.

Shell Side Heat Transfer and Pressure Drop
No Phase Change Stream Analysis Type Correlations
Shell Side Characteristics of Shell and Tube Heat Exchangers, Townsend Tinker, ASME Paper No. 56-A-123. Exchanger Design Based on the Delaware Research Program, Kenneth J. Bell, PETRO/CHEM, October, 1960 Heat Exchanger Vibration Analysis, A. Devore, A. Brothman, and A. Horowitz, Practical Aspects of Heat Transfer, (Proceedings of 1976 Fall Lecture Series of New Jersey), AIChE

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The Effect of Leakage Through the Longitudinal Baffle on the Performance of Two-Pass Shell Exchangers, T. Rozenman and J. Taborek AIChE Symposium Series Heat Transfer Tulsa 118, Volume 68, 1972 Patterns of Fluid Flow in a Shell-and-Tube Heat Exchanger, J.A. Perez and E.M. Sparrow, Heat Transfer Engineering, Volume 5 Numbers 3-4, 1984, Hemisphere Publishing Corporation Solution of Shell Side Flow Pressure Drop and Heat Transfer, Stream Analysis Method, J.W. Palen and Jerry Taborek, AIChE Symposium Series Heat Transfer-Philadelphia 92, Volume 65, 1969 Shellside Waterflow Pressure Drop and Distribution in Industrial Size Test Heat Exchanger, H. Halle and M.W. Wambsganss, ANL-83-9 Argonne National Laboratory, 1983 A Reappraisal of Shellside Flow in Heat Exchangers, HTD-Vol. 36, ASME, 1984 Delaware Method for Shell Side Design, Kenneth J. Bell, Heat Exchangers ThermalHydraulic Fundamentals and Design, McGraw-Hill Book Co., 1981

Low Fin Tube Correlations
Handbook of Chemical Engineering Calculations, Nicholas P. Chopey and Tyler G. Hicks, McGraw-Hill Book Co., 1984 Wolverine Trufin Engineering Data Book, Wolverine Division, UOP Inc. Fine-Fin Tubing Specifications, High Performance Tube Inc., 2MI/78

Transfer Rates at the Caloric Temperature
Improved Exchanger Design, Riad G. Malek, Hydrocarbon Processing, May 1973 Process Heat Transfer, Donald Q. Kern, McGraw Hill Book Co., 1950 The Caloric Temperature Factor for a 1-2 Heat Exchanger with An Overall Heat Transfer Coefficient Varying Linearly with Tube Side Temperature, R.B. Bannerot and K.K. Mahajan, AIChE Symposium Series 174, Volume 74, Heat Transfer - Research and Applications, 1978

Grid Baffle Correlations
The Energy-Saving NESTS Concept, Robert C. Boyer and Glennwood K. Pase, Heat Transfer Engineering, Vol. 2, Number 1, Hemisphere Publishing Corporation, July-Sept. 1980 Thermal Design Method for Single-Phase RODBaffle Heat Exchangers, C.C. Gentry and W.M. Small, Phillips Petroleum Company, 1981

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RODbaffle Exchanger Thermal-Hydraulic Predictive Models Over Expanded Baffle-Spacing and Reynolds Number Ranges, C. C. Gentry and W. M. Small, AIChE Symposium Series 245, Vol 81 Heat Transfer-Denver, 1985 RODbaffle Heat Exchanger Thermal-Hydraulic Predictive Methods for Bare and Low-Finned Tubes, C. C. Gentry, R. K. Young, W. M. Small, AIChE Symposium Series Heat Transfer Niagara Falls 236, Volume 80, 1984

Phase Change - Natural and Forced Circulation Boiling
Thermal Design of Horizontal Reboilers, James R. Fair and Abraham Klip, Chemical Engineering Progress, March 1983 Two-Phase Flow and Heat Transfer in the Power and Process Industries, A. E. Bergles, J. G. Collier, J. M. Delhaye, G. F. Hewitt, and F. Mayinger, McGraw-Hill, 1981 Circulation Boiling, Model for Analysis of Kettle and Internal Reboiler Performance, J. W. Palen and C. C. Yang, Heat Exchangers for Two-Phase Applications, ASME HTD-Vol 27, July 1983. A Prediction Method for Kettle Reboilers Performance, T. Brisbane, I. Grant and P. Whalley, ASME 80-HT-42 Nucleate Boiling: A Maximum Heat Flow Correlation for Corresponding States Liquids, C. B. Cobb and E. L. Par, Jr., AIChE Symposium Series Heat Transfer Philadelphia 92, Volume 65, 1969 Boiling Coefficients Outside Horizontal Plain and Finned Tubes, John E. Myers and Donald L. Katz, Refrigerating Engineering, January, 1952 Forced Crossflow Boiling in an Ideal In-Line Tube Bundle, G. T. Pooley, T. Ralston, and I. D. R. Grant, ASME 80-HT-40 Characteristics of Boiling Outside Large-Scale Horizontal Multitube Bundles, J. W. Palen, A. Yarden, and J. Taborek, AIChE Symposium Series Heat Transfer - Tulsa 118, Volume 68, 1972 A Simple Method for Calculating the Recirculating Flow in Vertical Thermosyphon and Kettle Reboilers", P.B. Whalley and D. Butterworth, Heat Exchangers for Two-Phase Applications, ASME HTD-Vol.27, July 1983 Analysis of Performance of Full Bundle Submerged Boilers, By P. Payvar, Two-Phase Heat Exchanger Symposium, ASME HTD-Vol.44, August 1985 Enhanced Boiling Heat Transfer, Hemisphere Publishing Corporation, 1990

Phase Change - Condensation
Handbook of Chemical Engineering Calculations, Nicholas P. Chopey and Tyler G. Hicks, McGraw-Hill Book Company, 1984

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Heat Transfer and Two-Phase Flow During Shell-Side Condensation, P. J. Marto, Heat Transfer Engineering, Vol. 5, Number 1-2, 1984 Process Heat Transfer, Donald Q. Kern, McGraw-Hill Book Company, 1950 Design Parameters for Condensers and Reboilers, P. C. Lord, R. E. Minton and R. P. Slusser, Chemical Engineering, March 23, 1970 Condensation of Immiscible Mixtures, S. H. Bernhardt, J.J. Sheridan, and J. W. Westwater, AIChE Symposium Heat Transfer-Tulsa No. 118, Vol. 68, 1972 Design of Cooler Condensers for Mixtures of Vapor with Noncondensing Gases, A. P. Colburn and O. A. Hougen, Industrial and Engineering Chemistry, November 1939 Simplify Design of Partial Condensers, J. Starzewski, Hydrocarbon Processing, March 1981 Calculate Condenser Pressure Drop, John E. Diehl, Petroleum Refiner, October 1957 Two-Phase Pressure Drop for Horizontal Crossflow Through Tube Banks, J. E. Diehl and C. H. Unruh, Petroleum Refiner, October 1958 Mean Temperature Difference for Shell-And-Tube Heat Exchangers with Condensing on the Shell Side, Robert S. Burligame, Heat Transfer Engineering, Volume 5, Numbers 3-4, 1984 An Assessment of Design Methods for Condensation of Vapors from a Noncondensing Gas, J. M. McNaught, Heat Exchanger Theory and Practice, McGraw-Hill Book Co., 1983 A Multicomponent Film Model Incorporating a General Matrix Method of Solution to the Maxwell-Stefan Equations, AIChE Journal, Vol 22, March 1976 Modified Resistance Proration Method for Condensation of Vapor Mixtures, R. G. Sardesai, J. W. Palen, and J. Taborek, AIChE Symposium Series Heat Transfer - Seattle 225, Volume 79, 1983 An Approximate Generalized Design Method for Multicomponent Partial Condensers, K. J. Bell and M. A. Ghaly, AIChE Symposium Series Heat Transfer No. 131, Vol 69, 1973 Rating Shell-and-Tube Condensers by Stepwise Calculations, R. S. Kistler, A. E. Kassem, and J. M. Chenoweth, ASME 76-WA/HT-5, 1976 Two-Phase Flow on the Shell-Side of a Segmentally Baffled Shell-and-Tube Heat Exchanger, I. D. R. Grant and D. Chismolm, ASME 77-WA/HT-22, 1977 Shellside Flow in Horizontal Condensers, I. D. R. Grant, D. Chisholm, and C. D. Cotchin, ASME 80-HT-56, 1980 Critical Review of Correlations for Predicting Two-Phase Flow Pressure Drop Across Tube Banks, K. Ishihara, J. W. Palen, and J. Taborek, ASME 77-WA/HT-23 Design of Binary Vapor Condensers Using the Colburn-Drew Equations, B C. Price and K. J. Bell, AIChE Symposium Series No. 138, Volume 74, 1974 Theoretical Model for Condensation on Horizontal Integral-Fin Tubes, T.M. Rudy and R. L. Webb, AIChE Symposium Series Heat Transfer Seattle 225, Volume 79, 1983

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Condensers: Basic Heat Transfer and Fluid Flow, D. Butterworth, Heat Exchangers ThermalHydraulic Fundamentals and Design, McGraw-Hill Book Company, 1981 Condensers: Thermohydraulic Design, D. Butterworth, Heat Exchangers Thermal-Hydraulic Fundamentals and Design, McGraw-Hill Book Company, 1981

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High Fin Heat Transfer & Pressure Drop
“Fired Heaters,” Herbert L. Berman, Chemical Engineering, June 19, 1978. “Bond Resistance of Bimetalic Finned Tubes,” E.H. Young and D. E. Briggs, Chemical Engineering Progress, Vol. 61, No. 7, July 1965. “Efficiency of Extended Surface,” Karl A. Gardner, Transactions of the ASME, November, 1945. Heat Transfer 1978: Sixth International Heat Transfer Conference, Vol. 1-6 Washington, D. C., Hemisphere Publishing Corporation, 1978 “Pressure Drop of Air Flowing Across Triangular Pitch Banks of Finned Tubes,” K. Robinson and D. E. Briggs, Eighth National Heat Transfer Conference, Los Angeles, California, August, 1965. “Convective Heat Transfer and Pressure Drop of Air Flowing Across Triangular Pitch Banks of Finned Tubes,” D. E. Briggs and E. Young, Chemical Engineering Progress Symposium Series, No. 64, Vol. 62, 1966. “Tube Spacing in Finned-Tube Banks,” S. L. Jameson, Transactions of the ASME, Vol. 67, November 1945. “Pressure Drop of Air Flowing Across Triangular Pitch Banks of Finned Tubes,” K. Robinson and D. E. Briggs, Chemical Engineering Progress Symposium Series, No. 64, Vol. 62, 1966. ”Comparison of Performance of Inline and Staggered Banks of Tubes with Segmented Fins,” AIChE-ASME 15th National Heat Transfer Conference, San Francisco, 1975. “Efficiency of Extended Surfaces,“ Karl Gardner, Transactions of ASME, November 1945. “Thermal Contact Resistance in Finned Tubing,” Karl Gardner and T. C. Carnavos, Journal of Heat Transfer, November 1960. ESCOA Fintube Manual, Chris W. Weierman ESCOA Fintube Corporation.

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Tube Side Heat Transfer and Pressure Drop
No Phase Change
Process Heat Transfer, Donald Q. Kern, McGraw-Hill Book Co. 1950 Improved Exchanger Design, Transfer Rates at the Caloric Temperature, Riad G. Malek, Hydrocarbon Processing, May 1973 Heat Transfer Colburn-Factor Equation Spans All Fluid Flow Regimes, Bill L. Pierce, Chemical Engineering, December 17, 1979 An Improved Heat Transfer Correlation for Laminar Flow of High Prandtl Number Liquids in Horizontal Tubes, By J. W. Palen, and J. Taborek, AIChE Symposium Series Heat TransferDenver 245, Volume 81, 1985 The Caloric Temperature Factor for a 1-2 Heat Exchanger with an Overall Heat Transfer Coefficient Varying Linearly with Tube Side Temperature, P. B. Bannerot and K. K. Mahajan, AIChE Symposium Series 174, Volume 74, 1978 Turbulent Heat Transfer and Pressure Drop in Internally Finned Tubes, A. P. Watkinson, D. L. Miletti and P. Tarassoff, AIChE Symposium Series 131, Volume 69, 1973 The Computation of Flow in a Spirally Fluted Tube, A. Barba, G. Bergles, I. Demirdzic, A. D. Godman, and B. E. Lauder, AIChE Symposium Series Heat Transfer-Seattle 225, Volume 79, 1983 Investigation of Heat Transer Inside Horizontal Tubes in the Laminar Flow Region, P. Buthod, University of Tulsa Report, 1959 Design Method for Tube-Side Laminar and Transition Flow Regime Heat Transfer With Effects of Natural Convection, 9th International Heat Transfer Conference, Open Forum Session, Jerusalem, Israel, 1990

Phase Change - Natural and Forced Circulation Boiling
Simulated Performance of Refrigerant-22 Boiling Inside Tubes in a Four Tube Pass Shell and Tube Heat Exchanger, By John F. Pearson and Edwin H. Young, AIChE Symposium Series Heat Transfer-Minneapolis 102, Volume 66, 1970 Heat Transfer to Boiling Refrigerants Flowing Inside a Plain Copper Tube, B. W. Rhee and E. H. Young, AIChE Symposium Series 138, Volume 70, 1974 An Improved Correlation for Predicting Two-Phase Flow Boiling Heat Transfer Coefficient in Horizontal and Vertical Tubes, S. G. Kandliker, Heat Exchanger for Two-Phase Applications, ASME HTD-Vol. 27, July 1983

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A Simple Method for Calculating the Recirculating Flow in Vertical Thermosyphon and Kettle Reboilers, P. B. Whalley and D. Butterworth, Heat Exchangers for Two-Phase Applications, ASME HTD-Vol. 27, July 1983 Performance Prediction of Falling Film Evaporators, K.R. Chun and R. A. Seban, ASME 72 HT-48 Thermal Design of Horizontal Reboilers, James R. Fair and Abraham Klip, Chemical Engineering Progress, March 1983 What You Need To Design Thermosiphon Reboilers, J. R. Fair, Petroleum Refiner, February 1960 Vaporizer and Reboiler Design Part 1, James R. Fair, Chemical Engineering, July 8, 1963 Vaporizer and Reboiler Design Part 2, James R. Fair, Chemical Engineering, August 5, 1963 Mist Flow in Thermosiphon Reboilers, J. W. Palen, C.C. Shih and J. Taborek, Chemical Engineering Progress, July 1982 A Computer Design Method for Vertical Thermosyphon, N. V. L. S. Sarma, P. J. Reddy, and P.S. Murti, Industrial Engineering Chemistry Process Design Development, Vol. 12, No. 3, 1973 Designing Thermosiphon Reboilers, G. A. Hughmark, Chemical Engineering Progress, Vol. 65, No. 7, July 1969 Design of Falling Film Absorbers, G. Guerrell and C. J. King, Hydrocarbon Processing, January 1974 Heat Transfer to Evaporating Liquid Films, K. R. Chun and R. A. Seban ASME 71-HT-H Performance of Falling Film Evaporators, F. R. Whitt, British Chemical Engineering, December 1966, Vol. 11, No. 12 Selecting Evaporators, D. K. Mehra, Chemical Engineering, February 1986 Heat Transfer in Condensation Boiling, Karl Stephan, Springer-Verlag, 1988 Flow Boiling Heat Transfer in Vertical Tubes Correlated by Asympotic Model, Dieter Steiner and Jerry Taborek, Heat Transfer Engineering Vol. No. 2, 1992

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Phase Change - Condensation
Flooding Velocity Correlation for Gas-Liquid Counterflow in Vertical Tubes, J. E. Diehl and C. R. Koppany, AIChE Symposium Series Heat Transfer-Philadelphia 92, Volume 65, 1969 Interpretation of Horizontal In-Tube Condensation Heat Transfer Correlations with a TwoPhase Flow Regime Map, K. J. Bell, J. Taborek, and F. Fenoglio, AIChE Symposium Series Heat Transfer-Minneapolis 102, Volume 66, 1970 Filmwise Condensation of Light Hydrocarbons and Their Mixtures in a Vertical Reflux Condenser, L. D. Clements and C. P. Colver, AIChE Symposium Series 131, Volume 69, 1973 Prediction of Horizontal Tubeside Condensation of Pure Components Using Flow Regime Criteria, G. Breber, J. Palen & J. Taborek, ASME Condensation Heat Transfer, August 1979 Prediction of Flow Regimes in Horizontal Tubeside Condensation, J. Palen, G. Breber, and J. Taborek, AIChE 17th National Heat Transfer Conference Salt Lake City, Utah, August 1977 Condensers: Basic Heat Transfer and Fluid Flow, D. Butterworth, Heat Exchangers ThermalHydraulic Fundamentals and Design, McGraw-Hill Book Company, 1981 Prediction of Horizontal Tubeside Condensation Using Flow Regime Criteria, Condensation Heat Transfer, National Heat Transfer Conference, San Diego, 1979, ASME 1979

Vibration Analysis
Natural Frequencies and Damping of Tubes on Multiple Supports, R. L. Lowery and P.M. Moretti, AIChE Symposium Series 174, Volume 74, 1978 Tube Vibrations in Shell-And-Tube Heat Exchangers, J. M. Chenoweth and R. S. Kistler, AIChE Symposium Series 174, Volume 74, 1978 Critical Review of the Literature and Research on Flow-Induced Vibrations in Heat Exchangers, P.M. Moretti, AIChE Symposium Series 138, Volume 70, 1974 Vibration in Heat Exchangers, Franz Mayinger and H. G. Gross, Heat Exchangers ThermalHydraulic Fundamentals and Design, McGraw Hill Book Company, 1981 Predict Exchanger Tube Damage, J. T. Thorngren, Hydrocarbon Processing, April 1970 Flow-Induced Tube Vibration Tests of Typical Indstrial Heat Exchanger Configurations, H. Halle, J. M. Chenoweth and M. W. Wambsganss, ASME 81-DET-37

Fans
Moore Fan Company Manual, Moore Fan Company, 1982. “Specifying and Rating Fans,” John Glass, Chemical Engineering, March 27, 1978.

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