Aspen Decision Analyzer 2004.

2
User Guide

Copyright
Version Number: 2004.2 October 2005 Copyright © 2005 Aspen Technology, Inc. All rights reserved. ACOL™, ACX™, APLE™, Aspen Adsim™, Aspen Aerotran™, Aspen CatRef®, Aspen Chromatography®, Aspen Custom Modeler®, Aspen Decision Analyzer™, Aspen Dynamics®, Aspen Enterprise Engineering™, Aspen FCC®, Aspen Hetran™, Aspen Hydrocracker®, Aspen Hydrotreater™, Aspen Icarus Process Evaluator™, Aspen Icarus Project Manager™, Aspen Kbase™, Aspen Plus®, Aspen Plus® HTRI®, Aspen OLI™, Aspen OnLine®, Aspen PEP Process Library™, Aspen Plus BatchFrac™, Aspen Plus Optimizer™, Aspen Plus RateFrac™, Aspen Plus SPYRO®, Aspen Plus TSWEET®, Aspen Split™, Aspen WebModels™, Aspen Pinch®, Aspen Properties™, Aspen SEM™, Aspen Teams™, Aspen Utilities™, Aspen Water™, Aspen Zyqad™, COMThermo®, COMThermo TRC Database™, DISTIL™, DISTIL Complex Columns Module™, FIHR™, FLARENET™, FRAN™, HX-Net®, HX-Net Assisted Design Module™, Hyprotech Server™, HYSYS®, HYSYS Optimizer™, ACM Model Export™, HYSYS Amines™, HYSYS Crude Module™, HYSYS Data Rec™, HYSYS DMC+ Link™, HYSYS Dynamics™, HYSYS Electrolytes™, HYSYS Lumper™, HYSYS Neural Net™, HYSYS Olga Transient™, HYSYS OLGAS 3-Phase™, HYSYS OLGAS™, HYSYS PIPESIM Link™, HYSYS Pipesim Net™, HYSYS PIPESYS™, HYSYS RTO™, HYSYS Sizing™, HYSYS Synetix Reactor Models™, HYSYS Tacite™, HYSYS Upstream™, HYSYS for Ammonia Plants™, MUSE™, PIPE™, Polymers Plus®, Process Manuals™, Process Tools™, ProFES 2P Tran™, ProFES 2P Wax™, ProFES 3P Tran™, ProFES Tranflo™, STX™, TASC-Thermal™, TASC-Mechanical™, the aspen leaf logo, Plantelligence, and Enterprise Optimization are trademarks or registered trademarks of Aspen Technology, Inc., Cambridge, MA. All other brand and product names are trademarks or registered trademarks of their respective companies. This document is intended as a guide to using AspenTech's software. This documentation contains AspenTech proprietary and confidential information and may not be disclosed, used, or copied without the prior consent of AspenTech or as set forth in the applicable license agreement. Users are solely responsible for the proper use of the software and the application of the results obtained. Although AspenTech has tested the software and reviewed the documentation, the sole warranty for the software may be found in the applicable license agreement between AspenTech and the user. ASPENTECH MAKES NO WARRANTY OR REPRESENTATION, EITHER EXPRESSED OR IMPLIED, WITH RESPECT TO THIS DOCUMENTATION, ITS QUALITY, PERFORMANCE, MERCHANTABILITY, OR FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE.

Contents
Introduction 1-1 Main Features................................................................................................................... 1-3 Links to Process Simulator Software Programs................................................... 1-3 Mapping of Simulator Models to Process Equipment Types .............................. 1-3 Sizing of Equipment ............................................................................................ 1-3 Capital Investment and Schedules: Engineer-Procure-Construct ........................ 1-3 Development of Operating Costs......................................................................... 1-3 Alternative Capacities and Locations .................................................................. 1-3 Detailed, Interactive Process Economics............................................................. 1-4 Links to Project Evaluation Programs ................................................................. 1-4 Understanding Analyzer’s Project Workflow.................................................................. 1-5 The Guide......................................................................................................................... 1-7 Organization......................................................................................................... 1-7 Related Documentation.................................................................................................... 1-8 Installation Manual .............................................................................................. 1-8 Release Notes....................................................................................................... 1-8 Icarus Reference................................................................................................... 1-8 Piping and Instrumentation Drawings ................................................................. 1-8 Technical Support ............................................................................................................ 1-8 Online Technical Support Center......................................................................... 1-8 Getting Started 2-1

Starting Analyzer ............................................................................................................. 2-1 Starting a Project Scenario............................................................................................... 2-3 Creating a New Project Scenario ......................................................................... 2-3 Importing an Analyzer 2.0B Project Scenario ..................................................... 2-7 Opening an Existing Project Scenario ............................................................................. 2-9 Understanding the Icarus Interface ................................................................................ 2-11 Project Explorer ................................................................................................. 2-12 Main Window .................................................................................................... 2-13 List View............................................................................................................ 2-15 Palette................................................................................................................. 2-17 Properties Window............................................................................................. 2-19 Customizing the Icarus Interface ....................................................................... 2-20 Analyzer's Toolbar............................................................................................. 2-21 Analyzer Menu Bar........................................................................................................ 2-23 Working with Project Scenarios .................................................................................... 2-26
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Saving Project Scenarios.................................................................................... 2-26 Deleting Project Scenarios................................................................................. 2-27 Salvaging Project Scenarios............................................................................... 2-28 Unlocking Project Scenarios.............................................................................. 2-29 Copying Project Directories............................................................................... 2-30 Preferences..................................................................................................................... 2-31 General............................................................................................................... 2-31 Forms ................................................................................................................. 2-33 Backup ............................................................................................................... 2-33 Process ............................................................................................................... 2-34 Locations............................................................................................................ 2-35 Logging .............................................................................................................. 2-37 Defining the Project Basis 3-1

Project Properties ............................................................................................................. 3-3 General Project Data ........................................................................................................ 3-4 Basis for Capital Costs..................................................................................................... 3-6 Input Units of Measure Customization ................................................................ 3-6 Output (Reports) Units of Measure Customization ............................................. 3-8 General Specs..................................................................................................... 3-10 Construction Workforce..................................................................................... 3-19 Indexing ............................................................................................................. 3-23 Process Design ............................................................................................................... 3-27 Simulator Type and Simulator File Name ......................................................... 3-27 Simulator Units of Measure Mapping Specs ..................................................... 3-27 Project Component Map Specifications............................................................. 3-30 Design Criteria ................................................................................................... 3-36 Utility Specifications ......................................................................................... 3-49 Investment Analysis....................................................................................................... 3-54 Investment Parameters ....................................................................................... 3-54 Operating Unit Costs.......................................................................................... 3-59 Raw Material Specifications .............................................................................. 3-61 Product Specifications ....................................................................................... 3-65 Developing Streams ....................................................................................................... 3-69 Viewing or Modifying an Existing Stream........................................................ 3-69 Mixture Specs Dialog Box................................................................................. 3-73 Estimation of Utility Usage and Resulting Costs in Analyzer........................... 3-74 Stream Connectivity........................................................................................... 3-75 Creating A New Stream ..................................................................................... 3-76 Deleting a Stream............................................................................................... 3-79 Specification Libraries ................................................................................................... 3-80 Customizing Specification Libraries.................................................................. 3-81 Selecting to Use a Different Specification File.................................................. 3-84 Changing File Directory Location ..................................................................... 3-84 Loading and Mapping Simulation Data 4-1

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Preparing Simulation Reports .......................................................................................... 4-2 Aspen Plus Report Generation............................................................................. 4-2 Aspen Plus – Analyzer Simulator link................................................................. 4-5 ChemCAD Report Generation............................................................................. 4-6 HYSIM Report Generation .................................................................................. 4-8 HYSYS Report Generation................................................................................ 4-10 SimSci’s PRO/II with PROVISION Report Generation ................................... 4-13 Loading Simulation Data ............................................................................................... 4-15 Viewing Data Derived from Simulator.............................................................. 4-17 Working with Block Flow Diagrams............................................................................. 4-18 Displaying the Block Flow Diagram ................................................................. 4-18 The Drag & Find Feature................................................................................... 4-19 Accessing Commands in the Block Flow Diagram ........................................... 4-20 Zooming............................................................................................................. 4-20 Mapping Simulator Items to Icarus Project Components .............................................. 4-23 Component Status .............................................................................................. 4-30 Deleting Mappings............................................................................................. 4-31 Specifying Additional Components............................................................................... 4-45 Working with Process Flow Diagrams .......................................................................... 4-46 Editing the Layout.............................................................................................. 4-46 Setting Grid Properties....................................................................................... 4-48 Editing Connectivity .......................................................................................... 4-49 Adding a Stream ................................................................................................ 4-50 Drawing a Disconnected Stream........................................................................ 4-52 Working with Streams ....................................................................................... 4-52 Defining Project Components 5-1

Adding an Area ................................................................................................................ 5-3 Adding a Project Component........................................................................................... 5-4 Method 1: Dragging a Component from the Palette............................................ 5-4 Method 2: Using the Pop-Up Menu..................................................................... 5-5 Entering Component Specifications ................................................................................ 5-7 Defining Installation Bulks .............................................................................................. 5-9 Mat’l / Man-hours Adjustments......................................................................... 5-10 Mat’l / Man-hours Additions ............................................................................. 5-12 Pipe – General Specs ......................................................................................... 5-12 Pipe – Item Details............................................................................................. 5-12 Duct.................................................................................................................... 5-15 Civil.................................................................................................................... 5-15 Steel.................................................................................................................... 5-15 Instrumentation .................................................................................................. 5-15 Electrical ............................................................................................................ 5-18 Insulation............................................................................................................ 5-19 Paint ................................................................................................................... 5-19 Importing Areas and Components ................................................................................. 5-20 Importing an Entire Scenario ......................................................................................... 5-21

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Copying Components..................................................................................................... 5-22 Cut and Paste...................................................................................................... 5-22 Drag and Drop.................................................................................................... 5-22 Deleting Components..................................................................................................... 5-23 Re-numbering Components ............................................................................... 5-23 Deleting Areas ............................................................................................................... 5-24 Re-numbering Areas .......................................................................................... 5-24 Using the Custom Model Tool....................................................................................... 5-25 Creating a Template........................................................................................... 5-29 Running Custom Model Tool at Project-Level for Batch Update ..................... 5-30 Sizing Project Components 6-1

Overview.......................................................................................................................... 6-1 Sizing for Project Components Mapped from Simulator Items........................... 6-1 Interactive Sizing Expert...................................................................................... 6-1 Sizing for Project Components Not Mapped from Simulator Items.................... 6-2 Resizing Project Components .............................................................................. 6-2 Creating Streams to Connect to Equipment Items........................................................... 6-4 Using the Interactive Sizing Form ................................................................................... 6-8 Sizing Requirements, Calculations, and Defaults.......................................................... 6-14 Air Coolers......................................................................................................... 6-14 Agitated Tanks ................................................................................................... 6-16 Compressors....................................................................................................... 6-17 Crushers ............................................................................................................. 6-18 Crystallizers ....................................................................................................... 6-19 Dryers................................................................................................................. 6-20 Dust Collectors................................................................................................... 6-20 Filters ................................................................................................................. 6-21 Heat Exchangers ................................................................................................ 6-22 Pumps................................................................................................................. 6-25 Screens ............................................................................................................... 6-27 Towers................................................................................................................ 6-28 Vessels ............................................................................................................... 6-43 Developing and Using Cost Libraries 7-1

Developing and Using an Equipment Model Library (EML).......................................... 7-3 Creating an EML.................................................................................................. 7-3 Adding an Item to an EML .................................................................................. 7-4 Adding an EML Item to a Project Scenario......................................................... 7-6 Developing and Using a Unit Cost Library (UCL).......................................................... 7-8 Creating a Unit Cost Library................................................................................ 7-8 Adding an Item to a UCL..................................................................................... 7-9 Adding a UCL Item to a Project Scenario ......................................................... 7-12 Creating an Assembly of UCL Items................................................................. 7-14 Working with Cost Libraries ......................................................................................... 7-18 Copying a Library Item...................................................................................... 7-18

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Deleting a Library Item...................................................................................... 7-18 Escalating Library Costs .................................................................................... 7-18 Importing a Cost Library ................................................................................... 7-19 Duplicating a Cost Library................................................................................. 7-20 Deleting a Cost Library...................................................................................... 7-21 Changing Plant Capacity and Location 8-1

Changing Plant Capacity.................................................................................................. 8-2 Analyzer Scale-Up Module (ASM) ................................................................................. 8-3 How ASM Works ................................................................................................ 8-3 Scale-Up Rule Set ................................................................................................ 8-4 Scale-Up for Configuration Analysis................................................................... 8-5 Analyzer Relocation Module (ARM) .............................................................................. 8-5 Relocation Terminology ...................................................................................... 8-5 Workflow ............................................................................................................. 8-6 Relocating the Project .......................................................................................... 8-9 ARM Knowledge Base ........................................................................................ 8-9 Evaluating the Project 9-19

Running a Project Evaluation ........................................................................................ 9-19 Reviewing and Revising Process Economics in the Analyzer Economics Module ...... 9-22 Loading the Analyzer Economics Module (AEM)............................................ 9-22 Overview of Workbooks.................................................................................... 9-23 Revising Premises.............................................................................................. 9-33 Saving AEM Workbook .................................................................................... 9-35 Discussion of Economic Premises ..................................................................... 9-35 Reviewing Results in Aspen Icarus Reporter ................................................................ 9-43 Accessing Aspen Reporter................................................................................. 9-43 Which Report Mode?......................................................................................... 9-45 Standard Reports................................................................................................ 9-46 HTML Reports................................................................................................... 9-54 Management Reports ......................................................................................... 9-55 Excel Reports ..................................................................................................... 9-60 Data Trending .................................................................................................... 9-64 Importing Data into Aspen Icarus Reporter....................................................... 9-67 Creating a User Database................................................................................... 9-68 Reviewing Results in Icarus Editor................................................................................ 9-69 Accessing ........................................................................................................... 9-69 Printing a Single Section.................................................................................... 9-70 Icarus Editor Toolbar ......................................................................................... 9-70 Report Sections .................................................................................................. 9-71 Reviewing Investment Analysis .................................................................................... 9-77 Viewing Investment Analysis ............................................................................ 9-77 Equipment Summary ......................................................................................... 9-77 Project Summary................................................................................................ 9-78 Cashflow ............................................................................................................ 9-88

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Executive Summary ........................................................................................... 9-96 Using the Reporting Assistant ........................................................................... 9-99 Item Evaluation............................................................................................................ 9-103 Index 1

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Introduction

In the face of global competition, you must access a wide range of business investment opportunities and identify the best to pursue. You need to respond quickly and confidently with winning strategies that offset unfavorable changes in the marketplace. You must be able to identify the best strategies quickly to advance the project from concept to on-stream production. Aspen Decision Analyzer (Analyzer) provides you with the solution. Analyzer is a comprehensive interactive knowledge-based system that provides the basis for investment decisions at the concept stage and along the project time line. Analyzer enables you to create and modify models of chemical and refinery processes or to plug in and modify models from Aspen Icarus Process Evaluator (IPE), Aspen Icarus 2000, or Aspen Kbase. Once loaded into Analyzer, models can be:
• • • • • • •

Modified for scope content Scaled to a new production capacity Augmented by importing with models of sections of a plant at different capacity to analyze various configurations Evaluated for total installed cost, EPC schedule, operating cost, economics Evaluated for different plant locations Evaluated for process economics under real-world market conditions Upgraded with more advanced scope content, along the project time line, and re-evaluated as above a. Three scenario analysis modules: • Analyzer Scale-up Module (ASM): to revise the size of all components to meet a desired production capacity

The following are Analyzer’s key unique capabilities:

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Analyzer Relocation Module (ARM): to revise location-based project and design parameters pertinent to a selected plant location Analyzer Economics Module (AEM): to revise detailed economic parameters and study periodic changes to utility, feedstock and products costs, EPC schedules, delays etc on the economics of the proposed investment

b. Process model creation modules that enable the user to • Import process simulation files from Aspen Plus, PRO/II, HYSYS, ChemCAD, WinSIM • Map simulation models to Icarus components • Size any unsized components c. Ability to import a previously created model in Aspen Icarus format (IPE, Icarus 2000, Kbase, Analyzer) and to export an Analyzer model to IPE, Icarus 2000 and Kbase d. Ability to modify a model, i.e., the scope of the project, areas, components, installation streams, economic premises e. Icarus Evaluation Engine (IEE), for the determination of capital and operating costs and EPC planning schedule, with detailed breakouts of designed quantities, costs, man-hours, etc. These capabilities allow you to evaluate the impact of plant capacity, location and market conditions on return-on-investment and to determine winning strategies quickly and confidently. Analyzer may be implemented as a system or in conjunction with Aspen Kbase. When augmented with Kbase, Analyzer provides the user with the most comprehensive level of Icarus capabilities and means to express the scope of a project. Analyzer allows you to evaluate a project and study alternatives. Based on simulator results and/or user-entered specifications, Analyzer develops costs and schedules. You can then scale the baseline model to a new capacity and/or relocate to a new plant location. The capacity scale-up and relocation modules create a revised user model that can then be evaluated using a variety of reports. Among the reports available are the unique interactive workbooks in the Analyzer Economics Module (AEM), which allow you to instantly see results of changes to economic premises.

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Aspen Decision Analyzer User Guide

Main Features
Links to Process Simulator Software Programs Analyzer uses expert system links to affect the automatic transfer of your process simulator output results. Links are available to process simulator programs, such as Aspen Plus, HYSYS, PRO/II, ChemCAD, and WinSIM. Analyzer can link to virtually any commercial and proprietary process simulator program. Mapping relates each process simulator model to one or more of Analyzer’s list of several hundred types of process equipment or other components. A simulator heat exchanger model might be mapped to a fin-tube type; a distillation model might be mapped into several items (e.g., trayed tower, kettle-type reboiler, overhead condenser, and horizontal drum). Analyzer’s expert equipment selection makes the mapping easy, allowing you to map one item at a time or all at once. Size of equipment is a prerequisite to costing. Analyzer automatically loads the results of size calculations performed during process simulation. With Analyzer, you can revise sizes, enter your values for unsized equipment or develop sizes using Analyzer’s built-in expert sizing programs. Analyzer checks and prepares all of the necessary specifications for detailed design, estimation, scheduling, and economic data. Analyzer contains built-in, up-to-date knowledge bases of:
• • •

Mapping of Simulator Models to Process Equipment Types

Sizing of Equipment

Capital Investment and Schedules: Engineer-ProcureConstruct

Design, cost and scheduling data, methods and models. Engineering, procurement and construction methods and procedures. Critical path programming for development of design, procure and construct planning schedules.

Analyzer comes with time-proven, field-tested, industry-standard design and cost modeling and scheduling methods used by project evaluators for projects worldwide. Analyzer’s detailed results are based on detailed design and cost models for the various phases of contractor engineering, process equipment, plant bulks, building site development work and associated installation – not on factors. Analyzer’s estimates and schedules are consistent, being derived from your project scope definition. Development of Operating Costs Analyzer develops operating costs in tune to your process design. You can override Analyzer’s values and with each revision, you can see the impact of your choice on investment analysis measures of profitability.

Alternative Capacities Analyzer allows you to evaluate alternate plant capacities and locations. You can make a percentage adjustment to the capacity, and Locations and Analyzer will automatically re-size all project components and
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Aspen Decision Analyzer User Guide

stream flows. You can change the plant location (choosing from twenty-two different countries), and Analyzer’s plant relocation technology will automatically revise the design and cost basis parameters, including parity exchange rate, workforce rates, productivities, and construction practices. Detailed, Interactive Process Economics Analyzer’s detailed economics module allows you to perform interactive economic scenarios. It develops key economic measures, including payout time, interest rate of return, net present value, and income and expenses on changing any economic premise. It performs economic analyses over the time line of a project, from the strategic planning phase through engineering, procurement and construction of the process facility, into start-up and throughout the production life of the process facility. You can study the impact of cyclic changes in market conditions and identify economic threats and opportunities upon changing costs of feedstocks, products and/or utilities for each period in the life of a project. After your evaluation and selection of the best design, you can export your Analyzer model to IPE or Kbase or have Analyzer prepare a project specs file in Icarus 2000 format. Then, project evaluators using these systems can easily develop detailed funding or bidding estimates and schedules.

Links to Project Evaluation Programs

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Aspen Decision Analyzer User Guide

Understanding Analyzer’s Project Workflow
Before using Analyzer, it may be helpful to review the recommended project workflow.
Load Data Translate Process Simulator Data into Analyzer.

This workflow is recommended if you are bringing process simulator data into Analyzer. However, Analyzer allows you to perform the same evaluation on a process comprised of areas and components added in Analyzer rather than mapped from simulator models. Note: during the project workflow, you can go back to previous steps to refine the project specifications.

Examine Loaded Data Using Process View, note the models and arrangement.

Map Data Map data to Icarus project components. Map (and size) all items at once.

Map (and size) one item at a time.

Specify Additional Project Component Information Enter additional project component information and sizing.

Specify New Areas and Project Components Enter areas and project components not in the loaded data.

Run Project Evaluation Run Project Evaluation to produce reports.

Review Capital Cost, Design and Basis, and Other Reports Review reports using either Aspen Icarus Reporter or Icarus Editor. Reports can also be viewed in Excel or HTML.

Review Investment Analysis Review Investment Analysis spreadsheets in Main Window.

Review and Revise AEM Review the interactive workbook. Make revisions to specs in workbook and instantly see the impact on costs and schedules.

Study Alternative Capacities and/or Locations Make a percentage modification to the production capacity and/or specify a new location and re-evaluate. (See process for studying alternatives on following page.)

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General Process for Studying Alternatives in Analyzer

User Baseline Model

Run: Analyzer Capacity Scale-up Module

Run: Analyzer Plant Relocation Module - ARM -

Scaled User Model

Scaled, Relocated User Model

Relocated User Model

Run: Evaluate Capital Investment Planning Schedule Develop EPC designs, quantities, costs, man-hours, etc

Capital Investment

Model results, Economic User Interaction to Evaluate Alternate Economic Scenarios

Analyzer Detailed Process Economics Module - ECO_U.xls -

Process Economics Reports

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Aspen Decision Analyzer User Guide

The Guide
Organization This guide contains the following: Chapter 1 − Introduction − an overview of Analyzer and the user's guide, as well as a list of related documentation and information on technical support. Chapter 2 − Getting Started − instructions on how to start Analyzer, open a project, enter project specifications, and work with the Icarus Interface. Chapter 3 − Defining the Project Basis − instructions on defining specifications: units of measure, standard basis, component map, design criteria, investment analysis, raw material, product, operating unit costs, and utility. Chapter 4 − Loading and Mapping Simulation Data − instructions on preparing different kinds of simulator reports for use in Analyzer, loading simulator data, mapping simulator models to Icarus project components, adding additional components to simulator models, and viewing and defining simulator models in Block Flow Diagram (BFD) and Process Flow Diagram (PFD) view. Chapter 5 − Defining Project Components − instructions on defining project components, which are the pieces of the process plant that, when linked together, complete a process. Chapter 6 − Sizing Project Components − instructions on sizing project components. Chapter 7 – Developing and Using Cost Libraries − instructions on developing cost libraries and adding library items as project components. Chapter 8 − Changing Capacities and Locations − instructions on modifying plant capacity and locations, as well as details on the parameters affected by these modifications. Chapter 9 − Evaluating the Project − instructions on running a project and item evaluations and reviewing capital costs, operating costs, and investment analysis reports.

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Related Documentation
In addition to this document, a number of other documents are provided to help users learn and use Analyzer. The documentation set consists of the following: Installation Manual Release Notes Icarus Reference Piping and Instrumentation Drawings Aspen Engineering Suite Installation Manual Aspen Decision Analyzer Release Notes (available at Aspen’s Online Technical Support Center: support.aspentech.com) Icarus Reference, for Icarus Evaluation Engine (IEE) Icarus Piping and Instrumentation Drawings, Third Edition

Technical Support
Online Technical Support Center AspenTech customers with a valid license and software maintenance agreement can register to access the Online Technical Support Center at: http://support.aspentech.com You use the Online Technical Support Center to: Access current product documentation. Search for technical tips, solutions, and frequently asked questions (FAQs). Search for and download application examples. Search for and download service packs and product updates. Submit and track technical issues. Search for and review known limitations. Send suggestions. Registered users can also subscribe to our Technical Support e-Bulletins. These e-Bulletins proactively alert you to important technical support information such as: Technical advisories Product updates Service Pack announcements Product release announcements

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Aspen Decision Analyzer User Guide

Getting Started

Starting Analyzer
After completing the installation, you can start Analyzer. To start Analyzer: 1. Click the Windows Start button and point to Programs. Point to AspenTech and then to Aspen Icarus 2004.2. 2. On the Aspen Icarus 2004.2 menu, click Aspen Decision Analyzer 2004.2. Analyzer starts. The Main Window, empty because no project is open, appears on the left. The Palette appears in the upper-right and the Properties Window appears in the lower-right.

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You can change the position of these windows, as explained later under “Customizing the Interface Arrangement” (page 220).

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Aspen Decision Analyzer User Guide

Starting a Project Scenario
Note: Viewing the sample project scenario provided with Analyzer before creating a new one will allow you to familiarize yourself with Analyzer without having to fill out specifications. To open the sample project, follow the instructions under “Opening an Existing Project Scenario” on page 2-9. Creating a New Project Scenario To create a new project scenario: 1. From the File menu, click New. – or – Click on the toolbar.

The Create New Project dialog box appears, with the default project directory selected.

Note: You can create scenarios in project directories other than the default one provided by Analyzer. See “Preferences,” particularly the section on the Locations tab view (page2-35), for instructions on adding project directories and setting a new default. 2. Either select an existing project in which to start a new scenario, or enter a new Project Name. Long filenames are accepted, including spaces. However, punctuation marks, such as question marks (?), exclamation points (!), tildes (~), and asterisks (*), are not allowed. 3. Enter the Scenario Name.

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This is the name of the scenario within the project. As with the Project Name, long filenames are accepted, including spaces, while punctuation marks, such as question marks (?), exclamation points (!), tildes (~), and asterisks (*) are not allowed. If you do not enter a Scenario Name, Analyzer uses “BaseCase” as the default. 4. Click OK. The Project Properties dialog box appears.

5. Enter a Project Description. The description can be up to 500 characters in length and can be comprised of letters, numbers, and punctuation. You can enter or revise the description later on the Project Properties form accessed from the Project Basis view (see page 3-3). 6. In the Units of Measure section, you can keep the default basis of Inch-Pound (IP) or select Metric. The Units of Measure selection cannot be changed after creating the project scenario. 7. If desired, enter more details about the project scenario in the Remarks field. Remarks can be up to 6,000 characters in length and can be comprised of letters, numbers, and punctuation. You can enter and revise remarks later on the Project Properties form accessed from the Project Basis view (see page 3-3). 8. Click OK. Analyzer displays the Input Units of Measure Specifications dialog box, which allows you to customize the units of measure that appear on specification forms.

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For example, if you want to use CM/H (centimeters per hour) instead of M/H (meters per hour) to specify conveyor belt speed in your metric-basis project, do the following: a. Select Velocity and Flow Rate and click Modify. b. On the Velocity and Flow Rate Units form, enter “CM/H” as the new unit name for M/H. Then enter the conversion factor between the two units in the Conversion field. In this example, the conversion factor between the two units is 100 because: 100 CM/H = 1 M/H.

9. Click OK to accept the modifications and return to the previous dialog box. When finished modifying input units of measure, click Close. 10. Analyzer displays the General Project Data form, where you can select a country base and currency.

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The default country base is US and the default currency is Dollars (USD). Changing the country base to UK, EU, or JP automatically changes the currency to Pounds (PS), Euros, or K-Yen (KY), respectively. You can, however, enter a currency different than that of the country base. Just be sure to also enter a currency conversion rate, which is the number of currency units per one country base currency unit. Country Base and Currency Symbol can only be entered at this time. Other specifications on this form can be entered later by selecting General Project Data in the Project Basis view (see page 3-4). 11. Click OK when finished entering General Project Data. The Main Window now displays Project Explorer and the List view. See “Understanding the Icarus Interface” on page 2-11 for instructions on working with these and other features now available on the interface.

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Importing an Analyzer 2.0B Project Scenario

Analyzer provides an Import feature so that you can import your Analyzer 2.0B project scenarios into Analyzer 12.2. (Analyzer 2.0B is the version previous to 11.0. With version 11.0, Analyzer became part of the Aspen Engineering Suite (AES) and adopted the AES version number. This accounts for the jump in version numbers.) To import an Analyzer 2.0B project scenario: 1. From the File menu, click New. – or – Click on the toolbar.

The Create New Project dialog box appears, with the default project directory selected.

Note: You can create scenarios in project directories other than the default one provided by Analyzer. See “Preferences,” particularly the section on the Locations tab view (page2-35), for instructions on adding project directories and setting a new default. 2. Either select an existing project in which to start a new scenario, or enter a new Project Name. Long filenames are accepted, including spaces. However, punctuation marks, such as question marks (?), exclamation points (!), tildes (~), and asterisks (*), are not allowed. 3. Enter the Scenario Name.

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This is the name of the scenario within the project. The selected Analyzer 2.0B project file’s project and component specifications will be imported into this scenario. Again, long filenames are accepted, including spaces, while punctuation marks, such as question marks (?), exclamation points (!), tildes (~), and asterisks (*) are not allowed. After making an entry in the Scenario Name field, the Import button becomes active. 4. Click Import. The Select Import Type dialog box appears, with Analyzer 2.0B selected as the project type.

5. Click OK. The Browse for Folder dialog box appears.

Select the project scenario folder and click OK. The project scenario’s settings will be imported into the new project scenario.

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Aspen Decision Analyzer User Guide

Opening an Existing Project Scenario
To open an existing project scenario: 1. From the File menu, click Open. – or – Click on the toolbar.

The Open Existing Project dialog box appears.

In the pictured dialog box, the project named “Expansion” is expanded and the scenario named “AES A1” is selected. The pane on the right side displays information about the selected scenario.

The tree structure on the left side of the dialog box displays the projects in the default project directory:
...\AspenTech\Aspen Icarus 12.2 2003\Data\Archives_Analyzer

Note: You can create scenarios in project directories other than the default one provided by Analyzer. See “Locations” on page 2-35 for instructions on adding project directories and setting a new default. Clicking “+” next to a project expands the view to display the scenarios under that project. Selecting a scenario displays the following scenario information in the pane on the right:
• • • •

Version of Analyzer in which the scenario was created Name of the user who created the scenario Name of the computer on which the scenario was created Units of measure used in the scenario

2. Select a scenario and click OK. The project scenario opens. The Main Window now displays Project Explorer and the List view. See “Understanding the Icarus Interface” on page 2-11 for instructions on working with these and other features now available on the interface.
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Palette Shortcut

You can also open a project from the Palette, which appears to the right of the Main Window in the default interface arrangement (it can also be floated in the Main Window or dragged onto the Main Window and re-sized, as shown below). In the Projects view tab, right-click on a scenario and, on the pop-up menu, click Open.

This opens the selected scenario.

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Understanding the Icarus Interface
The Icarus interface allows you to see multiple windows and documents. You can customize the interface arrangement. The following is the default interface arrangement, with a specifications form open in the Main Window.
Title Bar Menu Bar Toolbar Palette

Status Bar

Project Explorer (Project Basis View)

Main Window

Properties Window

The Icarus interface includes the following features: Title Bar - Displays the product name, version number, project name, scenario name (in parenthesis), and Main Window view. Menu Bar - Displays menu options. Toolbar - Accesses main functions. See page 2-21. Main Window - Provides workspace for all Analyzer documents, List view, specification forms, and other views. See page 2-13. Project Explorer - Organizes project items in tree format. See page 2-12. Palette - Allows access to libraries, projects, and components. See page 2-17. Status Bar - Displays Analyzer system status. Properties Window – Describes the field selected on specifications form. See page 2-19.

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Project Explorer

Project Explorer is a graphical representation of the project. It has three views: Project Basis view, Process view, and Project view. Each view organizes items in a tree format. Switch views by selecting the appropriate tab at the bottom of Project Explorer. (Stretching the width of the Project Explorer will display the full names on the tabs.) The different views are described on page 212. To expand a tree level, click on “+” next to the condensed level. To condense a tree level, click on “-” next to the expanded level.

Project Explorer Views

Project Basis View displays project basis specifications. Double-click on a specification to view and/or modify it. A red arrow on an icon in this view indicates that you can right click on the icon for options. Level 2 3 Icon Description Specifications folder Specification

Process View displays simulator data information. In this view, simulator items can be mapped to Icarus project components. Mapped items can then be sized, modified, and/or deleted. Level 2
As in a process simulator, like AspenPlus or HYSYS, blocks represent different operations within the process. A block is sometimes referred to as a unit operation.

Icon

Description Main Project, containing a group of simulator areas Process simulator area Unmapped simulator block (yellow) Mapped simulator block (green)

3 4

Project View displays project data information. In this view, mapped items can be sized, modified, and/or deleted. In addition, new areas and Icarus project components can be defined. Level 1 2 3 Icon Description Main Project, containing the default Main Area and any user-added areas Area Project component

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Main Window

The Main Window is located to the right of Project Explorer by default. The Main Window is a workspace for all Analyzer documents, the List view, and other views. You can adjust the relative size of each window by clicking on the division bar and dragging it to the desired location.

Here, the Main Window in Workbook Mode displays several tabs because a component specifications form (component A1) and a project specifications form (General Project Data) have been opened.

Workbook Mode

By default, the Main Window is in Workbook Mode. In this mode, tabs are placed at the bottom of the window. These tabs represent all windows open in the Main Window. Clicking on a tab brings the associated window to the foreground. Clicking Tile or Cascade on the Window menu displays all windows open in the Main Window. Regardless of the window arrangement, the tabs are still at the bottom of the Main Window when in Workbook Mode. Clicking the maximize button ( ) on a window returns all windows to full tab view. Clicking the condense button ( ) on the menu bar displays all windows open in the Main Window as they were when last condensed.

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This is how the Main Window appears when in Workbook Mode with Cascade selected as the condensed window arrangement.

Analyzer allows you to float Project Explorer, the Palette, and the Properties Window in the Main window. When in this state, these windows behave just like other windows that are part of the Main Window. See “Customizing the Icarus Interface” on page 2-20 for details. You can turn off Workbook Mode by unmarking Workbook Mode on the View menu.

When Workbook Mode is off, no tabs are displayed; to bring a window to the front, you must click on the desired window or select the desired window from the Window menu.
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List View

The List view in the Main Window displays details on items selected in Project Explorer. For example, when you click on an area in Project Explorer’s Project view, the List view displays a list of all components in the area. This is referred to as the “area-level” list (shown below), in which the components are displayed in rows with component details in columns. When you click on a component in Project Explorer’s Project view, the List provides information only on the selected component, with component details listed in rows. This is referred to as the “component-level”.

Note: In the interface arrangement pictured here, the Palette and the Properties Window have been hidden to make room for the Main Window. Press ALT+1 to hide or display the Palette and press ALT+2 to hide or display the Properties Window. Press ALT+0 to hide or display Project Explorer.

Filtering Mechanism

You can limit area-level lists to a single category of component. To do so, click the drop-down arrow on the toolbar and click on a category.

For example, if you click “? Incomplete Items,” the list will only include components that still have specifications that need to be entered in order for the component to be included in an evaluation.

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Column Settings

You can select which columns appear on the area-level list and in which order. To change column settings on the area-level list: 1. Right-click on any of the column headings. A pop-up menu lists all of the columns. Columns currently displayed are checked. 2. To simply hide/unhide a column, you can click it on the menu. To change the order, click Settings on the menu. The Settings dialog box appears.

3. To move a column to the right on the List View, click Move Down. To move a column to the left, click Move Up. The Reset button returns to columns to the default setting (shown above). 4. Click OK to save the settings. When you restart Analyzer, all columns will be displayed in the default order unless Save Window States is selected in Preferences (by default, Save Window States is selected). See “Saving Window States” on page 2-21 for more information.

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Palette

The Palette contains elements that you can apply to the project scenario. If you think of Project Explorer as a picture of the project scenario, you might think of the Palette’s contents as the pigments and dyes used to first sketch out and then color in that picture. For example, if you wish to import areas or components from another scenario into your current scenario, you can double-click on the scenario in the Palette to get a listing of its areas and components and then drag the area/component to the Project Explorer’s Project View. (See “Importing Project Components” on page 5-20.) Likewise, the Palette’s Libraries view contains libraries of Project Basis specification files that, in Project Explorer’s Project Basis view, you can select to use. From the Palette, you can develop the libraries by creating new files, modifying existing files, and importing files. (See “Specification Libraries” on page 3-80.) Finally, when you add a component to the project scenario, you can choose from the components listed in the Palette’s Components view. Then, after you add the component, it appears in Project Explorer’s Project view. (See Chapter 4, “Defining Project Components”). In the default interface arrangement, the Palette appears on the right side of the screen. Like Project Explorer, it can be displayed in a variety of ways. See “Customizing the Icarus Interface” (page

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2-20) for display options. To hide/display the Palette, press ALT+1 or used the checked command on the View menu. As indicated previously, the Palette has three views: Projects, Libraries, and Components. The Components view, shown below, has a scrollable split window that displays details on equipment items. The division bar can be adjusted to hide or expand the details section.

The Palette pictured in this section has been dragged onto the Main Window and re-sized.

In addition to allowing you to import the contents of other scenarios, the Projects view provides options for opening scenarios, viewing scenario properties, and deleting scenarios. Right-click on a project scenario to access the pop-up menu of options. The Projects view displays all projects in the default project folder and any other active project folders (see “Preferences,” particularly the section on the Locations tab view (page 2-35) for information on adding project directories).

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Properties Window

When you select a field on a specifications form, the Properties Window provides a description of the field. The description often includes minimum, maximum, and default values.

Here, the Properties Window (docked on the right side of the screen) displays information on the Process Description field, which is selected on the specifications form.

Clicking on the Properties Window freezes and unfreezes the content. When the content is frozen, you can move to another field while retaining the description of the original field in the Properties Window. Like the Palette and Project Explorer, the Properties Window can be displayed in a variety of ways. See “Customizing the Icarus Interface” on page 2-20 for display options.

To hide/display the Properties Window, press ALT+2 or use the checked command on the View menu.

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Customizing the Icarus Interface

In the default interface arrangement, Project Explorer docks to the left edge and the Palette and the Properties Window share the right. When docked, windows remain attached to an edge and all other windows are sized to fit in the remaining space available. Clicking on a border of any of these three windows accesses a pop-up menu from which you can select Allow Docking. When Allow Docking is marked, the window can be docked to any edge. Note: When Float In Main Window is selected on the pop-up menu, the Allow Docking option is inactive. To dock to a different edge, click on the border that contains the Close button ( ) and hold down the mouse button. A bounding outline will appear as you drag the window. Drag the outline to the desired edge and release the mouse button.

Here, Project Explorer is docked to the top of the screen. Click the border containing the Close button when dragging Project Explorer, the Palette, or the Properties Window.

When multiple windows are docked to the same edge, you can use the division bar to adjust the relative sizes. You can also use the Contract/Expand ( / ) buttons to either switch between windows or split the side.
Undocking by Dragging onto Main Window

One way to undock the window is by dragging it onto the Main Window. Its size can then be adjusted.

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Float In Main Window Option

You can at any time select Float In Main Window on the pop-up menu. In this state, the window behaves like the List view or a specifications form, with a tab at the bottom of the Main Window. If you are using the default Preferences, Analyzer will save the interface arrangement. This way, when you open Analyzer the arrangement is the same as you left it. You can also set the Preferences so that Analyzer opens displaying the default arrangement. See “Preferences – General” on page 2-31 for more information.

Saving Window States

Analyzer's Toolbar

By default, the toolbar is docked under the menu bar. However, you can float the toolbar by clicking on a blank area of the toolbar and dragging it. You can also dock the toolbar to the bottom of the screen or vertically to the edge of the Project Explorer, Main Window, or the Palette. To do so, drag the toolbar over any one of these areas until an outline of the toolbar appears. Release the mouse button when the outline appears in the desired area. The following toolbar buttons are available in Analyzer: Create a new project. See “Creating a New Project” on page 23. Open an existing project scenario. See “Opening an Existing Project” on page 2-9. Save the current project. Print. Load simulator data. See “Loading Simulator Data” on page 4-15. Map simulator items to corresponding Icarus project components and size the component. See “Mapping Simulator Items” on page 4-23. Run project evaluation. See page 9-19 for instructions. Load Capital Costs and other reports. See page 9-43 for instructions. Load investment analysis results. See page 9-77 for instructions.

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Edit connectivity in Process Flow Diagram (PFD) view. See “Editing Connectivity” on page 4-49. Add stream in PFD view. See “Adding a Stream” on page 450. Draw disconnected stream in PFD view. See “Drawing a Disconnected Stream” on page 4-52. Zoom in. Active in PFD and Block Flow Diagram (BFD) view. Zoom out. Active in PFD and BFD view. Hide/Display ports in PFD view. Go back. Navigate back through previously viewed links. Go forward. Navigate forward through previously viewed links.

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Analyzer Menu Bar
File Menu
New – Start a new project scenario. Details on page 2-3. Open – Open an existing project scenario. Details on page 2-9. Close – Close the current project scenario. Save – Save the current project scenario. Details on page 2-26. Save As – Save the current project scenario as a different file. Details on page 2-26. Import – Access instructions for importing areas and components. Details on page 5-20. Export to Icarus 2000 – Save the current project scenario as an Icarus 2000 (*.ic2) project file. Print – Print the form or report currently active in the Main Window. Print Preview – Preview how form or report will appear printed. Print Setup – View and modify printer name and properties, paper size and source, and orientation. Page Setup – Define page specifications. Exit – Close Analyzer.

Run Menu
Load Data – Load simulator data. See page 4-15 for details. Map Items – Map simulator items to Icarus project components and size components. See page 4-23 for details. Evaluate Project – Run a project evaluation. See page 9-19 for details. Develop Schedule – This sub-menu contains commands for use in IPM only. Decision Analyzer – Access the Decision Analyzer dialog box, where you can change plant capacity and location (see Chapter 8), develop Capital Cost EPC reports to review in Icarus Editor (see side note on page 9-69), and develop detailed process economics reports (see page 9-77). Scan for Errors – Scan for potential errors in the project evaluation. Regenerated Block Diagram – Regenerate the Block Flow Diagram. If you have indicated that some of the simulator streams are utility streams, the placement of blocks will reflect this. Regenerate Process Flow Diagram – Regenerate the Process Flow Diagram. See “Working With Process Flow Diagrams,” page 4-46, for details. Reroute All Streams - Reroute all streams on the Process Flow Diagram. Re-number – Re-number project components or project areas so that the numbering contains no gaps. Details on page 5-23. - continued on next page -

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Analyzer Menu Bar (continued)

View Menu
Toolbar – View or hide the toolbar. See page 2-21 for description of the toolbar. Status Bar – View or hide the status bar. See page 2-11 for description of the status bar. Project Explorer - View or hide Project Explorer. See page 2-12 for description of Project Explorer. Palette - View or hide the Palette. See page 2-17 for description of the Palette. Properties Window – View or hide the Properties Window. See page 219 for a description of the Properties Window. Workbook Mode – Turn Workbook Mode on and off. See page 2-13 for an explanation of Workbook Mode. Capital Costs View – Launch Aspen Icarus Reporter. The Project Evaluation needs to have already been run. See page 9-43 for details. Investment Analysis View –Display Investment Analysis spreadsheets. See “Reviewing Investment Analysis” on page 9-77 for details. Block Flow Diagram – Display Block Flow Diagram of the loaded simulator data. See page 4-18 for details. Process Flow Diagram – Display Process Flow Diagram. This command is not active until you have mapped the simulator items. See page 4-46 for details. Streams List – Display a read-only list of all simulator-derived stream properties in a spreadsheet. You can customize some of the features of the spreadsheet (which stream properties to display, whether to display names of the properties, and the display style of the property values) by editing the stream list template file: ...\Aspen Icarus 12.2 2003\Data\ICS\strlist.fil

- continued on next page -

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Analyzer Menu Bar (continued)
Tools Menu
Icarus Editor – Launch Icarus Editor. See “Reviewing Results in Icarus Editor” on page 9-69 for instructions. External Simulation Import Tool – Access tool for importing data from simulator. See page 4-10 for instructions on using the tool to import HYSYS simulator data. Options – Access Options sub-menu. See below. Options Sub-menu Automatic Item Evaluation – Turn Automatic Item Evaluation on and off. A check mark indicates the feature is turned on. See page 9-104 for feature description. View Spreadsheets in Excel – Select to have the results normally reported in Icarus spreadsheets exported to Excel. The following Excel workbook, containing some Excel macros, is provided as a sample: ...\Aspen Icarus 12.2 2003\Data\ICS\IpeWb.xls A copy of this workbook also resides in each project directory. When Analyzer needs to report the results (i.e., when you click the Investment Analysis button), the results will be exported to ASCII delimited files and loaded into IpeWb.xls. The macro contained in the workbook will also be run. Reporting Assistant – Access the Reporting Assistant Options dialog box, where you can create your own customized report spreadsheets, combining information from all other Icarus generated spreadsheets. See pages 9-99 through 9-102 for details. Custom Tasks – This command is reserved for future releases. Preferences – Access Preferences. See page 2-31 for details.

Window Menu
Cascade – View the Main Window contents in Cascade mode. See page 2-13. Tile – View the Main Window contents in Tile mode. See page 2-13. Arrange Icons – Return all minimized windows to the bottom of the Main Window. # XXX – View opened window in the Main Window.

Help Menu
Contents – Access Docs.pdf. About – Access program information, version number, and copyright information.

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Working with Project Scenarios
This section explains how to save, delete, salvage, and unlock project scenarios. Saving Project Scenarios To save a project scenario: Click on the toolbar or click Save on the File menu.

Analyzer saves any changes. If you are using the default Preferences settings, Analyzer will ask if you wish to save any changes when you close the project scenario.

You can select in Preferences not to have this prompt appear (see page 2-31). To save the scenario with a new name: 1. Click Save As on the File menu.

Save As is useful when studying alternatives.

Note: You can save scenarios to project directories other than the default one provided by Analyzer. See “Preferences,” particularly the section on the Locations tab view (page 2-35), for instructions. 2. Specify a Project Name and Scenario Name and click OK. Analyzer saves the scenario as specified.

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Deleting Project Scenarios

It is recommended that you delete project scenarios when they are no longer needed. Deleting old scenarios opens free disk space and makes working with scenarios easier. To delete a project or scenario: 1. To delete a project scenario, right-click on the scenario within the project directory and click Delete on the pop-up menu.

A dialog box asks you to confirm deletion.

Note: You can select in Preferences not to have this prompt appear (see page 2-31). 2. Click Yes to delete the project scenario. Click No to retain the project scenario.

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Salvaging Project Scenarios

If you exit Analyzer abnormally without being able to save the current project scenario, you can salvage the project scenario from cached project information. To salvage a project scenario: 1. Restart Analyzer. A window appears asking if you wish to save the cached information found in storage.

2. Click Yes. Analyzer displays the Salvage Project As dialog box.

3. Specify a project and scenario name. You cannot overwrite the scenario being salvaged; you must specify a project and scenario name different from that of the original scenario. 4. Click OK. Analyzer creates the new scenario. Except in name, this project scenario will be identical to the scenario that was open when Analyzer was abnormally exited. After creating the new scenario, Analyzer asks if you wish to open it.

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Unlocking Project Scenarios

If Analyzer crashes while you have a project scenario open, Analyzer remembers that you have the project scenario checked out. When you re-open Analyzer, you will have to unlock the project scenario before opening it. Anyone trying to open a locked project is denied access and provided with a message that states the time the project scenario was checked out, the user name of the person who checked it out, and the computer on which it was checked out.

A project can only be unlocked by the user who checked it out or by an administrator. To unlock a project scenario: Right-click on the project scenario in the Palette and click Unlock on the pop-up menu.

You can now open the project scenario as you normally would.

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Copying Project Directories

Within a project directory, Analyzer creates an independent folder for each project and also creates, within a project folder, an independent folder for each project scenario. This makes it easy to move project scenario files from one computer to another on the same network. Simply copy and paste the folder in Windows Explorer. You can also copy an entire project directory with multiple project and project scenario folders. Doing so creates an identical set of folders and files in the new location. Note: Copied projects need to have been created in Analyzer 12.2 to be used. In order to use an Analyzer 2.0B project scenario, you must import it first (see page 2-7 for instructions). See “Preferences,” particularly the section on the Locations tab view (page 2-35), for information on adding project directories and setting a new default project directory.

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Preferences
The settings in Preferences allow you to specify how Analyzer will act each time it is used. To access Preferences: Click Options on the Tools menu, and then click Preferences on the sub-menu. Analyzer displays the Preferences dialog box.

Click OK Apply Cancel

To do this Save changes and close the Preferences. Save changes without closing Preferences. Close Preferences without saving changes. (Clicking Apply and then immediately clicking Cancel would have the same effect as clicking OK.)

General

In the General tab view, you can select the following:

Prompts Select which prompts appear. Close Project – prompt to save any changes when closing project.

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Overwrite Project – prompt to confirm overwriting project that has the same name as the one being created. Delete Project – prompt to confirm deletion of project. Delete Area – prompt to confirm deletion of area. Delete Component – prompt to confirm deletion of component. Cancel Component Edit – prompt to save changes when you click Cancel after editing a Component Specifications form. Delete Library – prompt to confirm deletion of library. Delete Report Group – prompt to confirm deletion of Report Group in Kbase. Does not apply to Analyzer.

Evaluation Display results after evaluation - mark to have Analyzer open Aspen Icarus Reporter and load reports after you run an evaluation. Scan for Errors before evaluation – mark to have Analyzer scan for errors before evaluation.

Item Report Select which type of report you wish to display when generating an Item Report. HTML Item Report – mark to display the HTML Item Report, like the one shown on page 9-103, in the Main Window Capital Cost Report – mark to display the Capital Cost Report in Icarus Editor. Reporter Report – mark to display the Single Component Summary, exported from Aspen Icarus Reporter, in the Main Window.

Display Save Window States – mark to have Analyzer save the position of Project Explorer, the Main Window, the Palette, and the Properties Window, as well as selected columns on the List view. Unmark to have Analyzer open with the default interface arrangement (shown on page 211). Display IPE& Analyzer Choice Dialog on Kbase – mark to have Kbase ask you at startup whether to use IPE or Analyzer in the Kbase environment. This option is

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included here because Preference selections, except for file locations, made in one product affects all other Aspen Icarus products in the AES suite. Show Report Groups in Kbase – mark to have Kbase display Report Groups. Forms The Forms tab view provides options related to Component Specification and Installation Bulk forms. Display P&I Installation Bulks in Grid – mark to have Analyzer display all items on the Installation Bulk specification forms for Pipe and Instrumentation. If you unmark the checkbox, Analyzer allows you to select, when opening the form, the items to include. Use OK Button in Installation Bulks Form to Go to Main Component Form – mark to have Analyzer return you to the main Component Specifications form when you click OK at an Installation Bulks form. Otherwise, clicking OK simply closes the Component specifications. Save Component When Switching to Different Installation Bulk or Main Component Form – mark to have Analyzer save the Component specifications when you switch to a different form on the Component’s Options menu. Backup The Backup tab view lets you select when backups are to be performed. You can select both options. Automatic Task Backup – mark to have Analyzer perform a backup before executing major tasks, such as a project evaluation. Timed Backup (Interval, in minutes) – mark to have Analyzer perform a backup at a specified interval. Specify the interval in the box provided. You can also select to either have Analyzer overwrite the project backups or create unique backups. Overwrite Project Backups – mark to have Analyzer overwrite the previous backup every time the program performs a backup. Unique Project Backups – mark to have Analyzer retain previous backups by creating a unique backup each time. Depending on the frequency of backups (see task and timed backup options above), selecting Unique Project Backups could result in large amounts of disk space being consumed by backups.

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Process

The Process tab view provides options for importing from an external project. Import Connected Streams – mark to include connected streams when importing an external project. Import Installation Bulks – mark to include installation bulks when importing an external project. The Process tab view also provides options for unsupported simulator models and custom models. Map Unsupported Models To Quoted Cost Item – mark to have Analyzer map, by default, unsupported simulator models to quoted cost items. “Unsupported Models” refer to models not listed in the Project Component Map Specifications dialog box shown on page 3-30. Analyzer does not recognize them and, therefore, cannot map them to Icarus project components. If this option is left unmarked, Analyzer will not map unsupported models. As a result, a unit operation could appear disconnected in the Process Flow Diagram (PFD). Quoted cost items are not project components, but act as place markers to ensure that unit operations remain connected in the PFD. Note that marking this option will not affect the mapping of supported simulator models. If a simulator model is listed in the Project Component Map Specification dialog box, then the specified mapping will be used. Further, if a simulator model is listed and has no default mapping (i.e. Current Map List section is blank), then it is assumed that the user does not want to map such simulator models to any Icarus project components. For example, if this option is marked, a USER unit operation in Aspen Plus can be mapped to a quoted cost item if this option is marked. This ensures that the unit operation remains connected in the PFD. Activate Custom Model – mark to activate the Custom Model tool explained on pages 5-25 through 5-31. Use Automatic Mapping Selection when Available (Beta feature) – Mark to use the Mapping Selection feature explained in the section on 'Default and Simulator Data' Mapping.

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Locations

In the Locations tab view, you can select:

Project Directories Add/remove alternate project directories and set the default project directory. See “Adding Project Directories” on page 235 for instructions.

Other Location Specifications Specify the location of various specification files and data. Click an item in the list to display its description and location. Click the Browse button to select a new location. Note that in some cases the description warns against changing the location.

Adding Project Directories

Analyzer comes set up with only one project directory: ...\AspenTech\Aspen Icarus 12.2 2003\Data\Archives_Analyzer This directory, by default, is the sole choice of project directory when opening or saving a new project, as well as the only directory displayed on the Palette’s Projects view. In the Locations tab view, however, you can enter alternate project directories, which will then appear on the Palette’s Projects view and as choices when opening and saving projects. You can also select an alternate project directory as the default.

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To add a project directory and set a new default: 1. Click Add on the Preferences Locations tab view. The Browse for Folder dialog box appears.

2. Select the folder you wish to add as an alternate directory and click OK. Analyzer adds the directory to the Alternate Project Directories list.

3. To set an alternate project directory as the default, select it and click Set Default.

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Analyzer displays a prompt asking you to confirm the change. Click Yes to set the new default. If the old default location is not on the list of alternate project directories, Analyzer displays another prompt asking if you wish to add it to the list.
Adding the old default directory to the alternate project directory list allows you to easily revert to it.

Click Yes or No. 4. Click OK to save the changes to Preferences. 5. Before the added project directory appears on the Create New Project dialog box and elsewhere, you will need to either restart Analyzer or else right-click on the current project in the Palette and click refresh on the pop-up menu. Logging The Logging tab view is reserved for future releases, in which it will be used to help clients with Technical Support issues. It is not currently activated.

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Defining the Project Basis

The Project Basis defines specifications that pertain to the overall project scenario. These specifications influence the design and cost estimate by defining system defaults and environmental variables. Project Basis Specifications are accessed from the Project Basis view in Project Explorer.

A red arrow on an icon indicates that you can right-click on the item to access a pop-up menu.

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This chapter describes the different Project Basis specifications, as well as how to customize specification libraries.

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Project Properties
Project Properties are initially specified when creating a new project. To access, right-click on Project Properties in the main Project Basis folder, and then click Edit.

The Project Properties dialog box appears.

You cannot edit Project Name, Scenario Name, or Units of Measure; they can only be specified when creating a new project. You can edit the following: Project Description: The description entered here appears as the Project Description on the Project Summary spreadsheet and as the Brief Description on the Executive Summary spreadsheet. All scenarios that are under the project share the project description. The description can be up to 500 characters in length and can be comprised of letters, numbers, and punctuation. Remarks: Any remarks entered will appear immediately after the Title Page of evaluation reports in Icarus Editor. Remarks can be up to 6,000 characters in length and can be comprised of letters, numbers, and punctuation. Remarks might include, for example, the intended purpose of the estimate, executive summary of results, or an explanation of assumptions.

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General Project Data
General Project Data is initially specified when creating a project. To access, right-click on General Project Data in the main Project Basis folder, and then click Edit on the pop-up menu.

The Standard Basis Input File Specifications form appears.

You cannot edit Units of Measure, Country Base, or Currency Symbol; they can only be specified when creating a new project. You can edit the following: Currency Conversion Rate: The number of currency units per one country base currency unit. This is for when you are using a currency other than that of the country base. Project Title: Appears as the project title on reports in Aspen Icarus Reporter and Icarus Editor, and also appears as the Scenario Description on the Project Summary spreadsheet. Estimate Class: Appears on the Title Page in Icarus Editor. Intended to indicate the purpose of specifications (e.g., budget).

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Job Number: Appears on the Title Page in Icarus Editor. Prepared By: Appears at the top of reports generated by Aspen Icarus Reporter and on the Title Page in Icarus Editor. Estimate Date: Appears immediately under the project title at the top of the Title Page in Icarus Editor. Reports generated by Aspen Icarus Reporter also include an Estimate Date; however, the Estimate Date shown in Aspen Icarus Reporter is the date on which the project evaluation was run.

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Basis for Capital Costs
The Basis for Capital Costs folder include: Units of measure customization. General specs affecting capital and operating costs, including contingency (based on specified process description, process complexity, and project type), process control, location, engineering start date, soil conditions, vessel design code, and level of instrumentation. Workforce wage rates (for both the overall project and by craft), productivities, and workweek definition. Indexing of material costs and man-hours by COA. Input Units of Measure Customization Input Units of Measure Customization allows you to customize the units of measure that appear on specification forms. Input Units of Measure Customization can only be accessed from outside of the project in the Palette’s Libraries view. It does not appear in the Project Explorer’s Project Basis view. To customize input units of measure: 1. With no project open, expand the Basis for Capital Costs folder in the Palette’s Libraries view. Expand the appropriate units of measure basis folder – Inch-Pound or Metric. Right-click on one of the specification files and click Modify. Note: If you are modifying a file other than the one named “Default”, you will need to later select the file in the project. To do so, right-click on Basis for Capital Costs in the Project Explorer’s Project Basis view, click Select, and select the file. Analyzer displays the Basis for Capital Costs library in Project Explorer.

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2. In the Units of Measure Customization folder, right-click on Input and click Edit on the pop-up menu. The Input Units of Measure Specifications dialog box appears.

3. If, for example, you want to use CM/H (centimeters per hour) instead of M/H (meters per hour) to specify conveyor belt speed in your metric-basis project, click Velocity and Flow Rate and then click Modify. 4. On the Velocity and Flow Rate Units form, enter “CM/H” as the new unit name for M/H. Then enter the conversion factor between the two units in the Conversion field. In this example, the conversion factor between the two units is 100 because: 100 CM/H = 1 M/H.

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5. Click OK to accept the modifications and return to the previous dialog box. When finished modifying input units of measure, click Close. Output (Reports) Units of Measure Customization Output (Reports) Units of Measure Customization allows you to customize the units of measure that appear on Capital Costs and other reports. To customize output units of measure: 1. Right-click on Output (Reports) Units of Measure Customization in the Basis for Capital Costs folder in Project Explorer’s Project Basis view, and then click Edit on the pop-up menu.

The Output Units of Measure dialog box appears.

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2. You can change the basis for all output units of measure by selecting a different basis in the Unit of Measure Basis section; however, note that this voids all previous customizations. To customize only individual units, such as velocity and flow rate units, select the unit type and click Modify. Then, for each unit you wish to change, enter the new unit name and the conversion factor (between the old and new units).

In this example, centimeters per hour (CM/H) replaces meters per hour (M/H). A conversion factor of 100 has been entered because 100 CM/H = 1 M/H.

For example, if you want to use CM/H (centimeters per hour) instead of M/H (meters per hour) to specify conveyor belt speed in your metric-basis project, enter “CM/H” as the new unit name for M/H. Then, enter the conversion factor between the two units in the Conversion field. In this example, the
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conversion factor between the two units is 100 because 100 CM/H = 1 M/H. 3. Click OK to accept the modifications and return to the previous dialog box. When finished modifying output units of measure, click Close. General Specs General Specs greatly affect the total capital and operating cost of the project. To access, right-click on General Specs in the Project Basis view’s Basis for Capital Costs folder, and then click Edit on the pop-up menu.

The section of the Standard Basis file containing General Specs appears in a specification form.

Process Description, Process Complexity and Project Type combine to generate contingency (as a percent of total project cost). They are interdependent, and the final value is a nonlinear combination of the individual contribution. As an example of the various rule-based deductions used, consider the selections made in the Standard Basis file pictured above: Process Description: New and unproven process

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Process Complexity: Highly complex Project Type: Grass roots/Clear field
Note: You must clear the Contingency Percent field for the system to calculate the contingency based on your changes.

Since the process is new and unproven, contingency value is made “high” compared to the base condition. Also, since the process complexity is high, the contingency is “raised” again. The Grass roots/Clear field project type “lowers” the contingency because of reduced site constraints. Field Process Description Description Also drives the design allowances for all equipment whose material cost is systemgenerated. User-entered costs are not affected. A new and unproven process has a higher design allowance compared with a proven process. This is applied against all non-quoted equipment Used to adjust contingency. Highly complex implies high temperature/pressure and more instrumentation and controllers (e.g., batch), whereas simplicity implies offsites. You can provide digital, analog or distributed control system for the project and the process control strategy is fixed with this choice.

Process Complexity

Process Control

Project Information Project Location Adjusts the various location dependent cost fields based on the actual geographical location of the project site. The system calculates values such as freight (domestic and ocean), taxes/duties, wage rates and workforce productivities. Used to determine the configuration of the project’s electrical power distribution and process control systems. This field will have the value of the contingency percentage calculated by the standard basis expert based on user specification of project information. This allows the user to modify the value estimated by Analyzer. This value represents: (i.) Construction Contingency

Project Type

Contingency Percent

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Field

Description (ii.) Material Contingency (iii.) Engineering Contingency

Estimated Start Year/Month/Day of Basic Engineering Soil Condition Around Site

These three fields show the year, month, and day that the basic engineering will begin. Refer to Icarus Reference, Chapter 31: Engineering, for a definition of engineering functions. Specifies the nature of the soil most prevalent around the site. This impacts the development of all foundations, the amount of pilings developed, any excavation and trenching work items, and the construction rental requirement. For descriptions of soil types, see Icarus Reference, Chapter 19, “Civil”.

Equipment Specification Pressure Vessel Design Code Specifies the design code used for pressure vessels design. The following design codes can be chosen:
ASME = ASME code, Section VIII, Div 1 BS5500 = British code, BS5500 JIS = Japanese code, B8243 DIN = German Code, AD Merkblatt

Vessel Diameter Specification P and I Design Level

Specifies the vessel dimension in the component specification form as inside diameter (ID) or outside diameter (OD). Specifies the level of instrumentation provided for the equipment. The P and I may be standard instrumentation (STD) or highly instrumented (FULL). Refer to the Piping and Instrumentation Drawings for instrumentation on specific equipment.

Data Affected by General Specs

The following is a detailed description of the data affected by the General Specs and the magnitude of their effect depending on the different selections.

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• Domestic Freight (% of material) Specifies cost of domestic freight as a percentage of material costs. The value for this field depends on the Project Location selected in General Specs. Domestic freight percentages for the different locations are:
North America = 4 South America = 5 Central America = 5 Europe = 1 Asia = 1 Africa = 4 Australia = 2

• Ocean Freight (% of material) Specifies cost of ocean freight as a percentage of material costs. The value for this field depends on the project location selected in the standard basis. Ocean freight for the different locations is adjusted based on the percentage of plant material that can be purchased locally. The percent adjustments for the different locations are:
North America = 0 South America = 8 Central America = 5 Europe = 0 Asia = 0 Africa = 8 Australia = 12

The final value of the field is calculated by the following formula: O.F (%) = % Adjust * (100 - % material locally purchased) / 100 • Taxes/Duty (% of material) Specifies taxes as a percentage of total material costs. The value used in the capital cost evaluation depends on the project location chosen in the file. They are:
North America = 6.25 South America = 4.00 Central America = 4.00

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Europe = 0.00 Asia = 6.00 Africa = 4.00 Australia = 7.00

• Contingency (%) Specifies allowance for contingencies as a percentage of the bare plant cost. This field depends on the selection made for the following fields in the standard basis file:
Process Description Process Complexity Project Type

You must clear the Contingency Percent field for the system to calculate the contingency based on your changes. The following data defines the general design conditions to be applied to the entire project being estimated; this information is used to reflect the desired project design methodology. • Equipment Design Allowance (%) Specifies percent allowance for design changes for system developed equipment costs. The value depends on the Process Description field. The following values are selected for the different project conditions:
New and unproven process = 15 New process = 10 Redesigned process = 7 Licensed process = 5 Proven process = 3

• Equipment Rotating Spares (%) Specifies a percentage of the purchase cost of all rotating equipment in the estimate to allow for spare rotors, seals and parts. The allowance for spares is developed based upon-0 purchased equipment cost values for pumps, compressors, drivers and generators. The following value is chosen for the above field based on the Project Location:
North America = 7 South America = 10 Central America = 10 Europe = 7

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Asia = 10 Africa = 15 Australia = 7

• Soil Condition at Site Specifies the soil type used to develop data for civil work throughout the project. Based on the soil type chosen, soil loading and soil density are selected. The Icarus Reference provides a complete definition for all the soil types. Once the soil type is selected, the system automatically selects the type of piles used in the project. The following pile types will be selected: Soil Type
Soft clay Firm clay Wet sand Sand+clay Dry sand Sand Gravel Soft rock Hardpan Med-rock Hard rock

Pile Type
Creosoted wood - 18-30 tons Creosoted wood - 18-30 tons Creosoted wood - 18-30 tons Precast concrete - 24-50 tons Precast concrete - 24-50 tons Precast concrete - 24-50 tons Steel h-pile - 60-170 tons Steel h-pile - 60-170 tons Steel h-pile - 60-170 tons Steel h-pile - 60-170 tons Steel h-pile - 60-170 tons

Pile foundations are designated according to the country base default capacities and spacing. Pile foundations are provided for equipment and structures whose weight (including concrete) exceeds one-half the pile compression capacity. • Power Distribution The type of project is used to configure the electrical power distribution system inside Analyzer. The power distribution specification generated by Analyzer provides the means of designating MAIN and UNIT substations and the cabling between them.

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Note that no transmission LINE is provided for any of the different choices of “Project Type.” Components Included Project Type
Grass roots/Clear field

MAIN Substation
Transformers, Switchgears Switchgear

UNIT
MCC, SW Transformer MCC

Plant addition adjacent to existing plant Plant addition - inside existing plant Plant addition suppressed infrastructure Plant Modifications / Revamps

Switchgear

MCC

None Added

None Added

Switchgear

MCC

In addition, for plant modifications/revamps, the capital cost excludes cable costs related to connecting the main substation with the unit, whereas a default distance of 1,000 FEET [300 M] (excluding hook-up allowance) is used to cost the power distribution components for the remaining project types. • Process Control Specifies the desired type of control scheme: Analog, DDCTL (Distributed Digital), or PLC (Programmable Logic Controllers) Components Included Project Type
Grass roots/Clear field Plant addition suppressed infrastructure All others

Operator Center
YES NO NO

Control Center
YES NO YES

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• Project Schedule The system develops a project schedule based upon the estimate scope of work including dates and durations for design engineering, procurement, delivery of materials and equipment, site development and construction. The construction schedule is integrated with the cost estimate to provide the basis for estimation of schedule-dependent costs such as equipment rental requirements, field supervision and construction management. The schedule commences at the start of basic engineering, as indicated by the date for basic engineering in the standard basis file. In addition, the General Specs provide defaults for various general design conditions. These design conditions, along with the system defaults, reflect the project design methodology. This in turn affects costs for equipment, material and manpower, and the overall project schedules. These defaults are not editable in Analyzer. The following defaults (based on their major categories) are used by Analyzer to convey specifications for the project design data: Item Equipment Defaults Remote shop fabrication maximum dimensions:
Maximum diameter: 14.5 FEET [4.5 M] Maximum length: 100 FEET [30 M] Maximum weight: 250 TONS [225 TON]

Piping

Pipe Fabrication: Remote shop fabricated piping

Specifies the general method of pipe fabrication for the project. Civil
Concrete Mix type: READY - Ready mix (purchased)

Steel

Steel finish type: PT – painted steel

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Item

Defaults

Project Schedule

Start engineering phase: BASIC – Basic engineering phase Delivery Schedule Adjust (%): 100

Specifies an adjustment, as a percentage, to the schedule durations developed by the system for delivery of equipment items, bulk materials, control system. This adjustment applies to receipt of vendor data and fabricate/ship lead times.
Construction Schedule Adjust (%):100

Specifies an adjustment, as a percentage, to the schedule durations developed by the system for all construction manpower.
Bar Symbol: *

Specifies the symbol to be used to print summary activity bars.
Gap Symbol: -

Specifies the symbol to print the gaps within activity bars.
Critical path symbol: c

Specifies the symbol to be used to print the critical path.
User bar symbol: x

Symbol for printing user-defined bars on bar charts. Engineering Adjustment for Basic Engineering Phase
% man-hour: 100

Adjustment of the duration of the basic engineering phase. A value less than 100% will shorten the duration. A value greater than 100% will increase the duration.

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Item Engineering Adjustment for Detailed engineering Phase

Defaults
% man-hour: 100

Adjustment of the duration of detail engineering. A value less than 100% will shorten the duration. A value greater than 100% will increase the duration.
Contract number: 1

Contracts (scope/definition)

Specifies the number used to reference this contract, its description, scope of effort and profile of indirects, overheads, fee, contingency, etc.
Company title: PRIME CONTRACTOR

Specifies the description of the contract. This description is used as the title in appropriate reports.

Construction Workforce
General Rates

Construction Workforce specifications are divided into General Rates and Craft Rates. The General Wage Rates information globally sets wage rates and productivities for all crafts. To access, right-click on General Wage Rates in the Project Basis view’s Basis for Construction Workforce folder, and then click Edit on the pop-up menu.

Analyzer displays the Wage General Info specifications form in the Main Window.

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Descriptions of the General Wage Rate specifications follow. Field Number of shifts Description Number of shifts used during construction. If any premium pay is involved with second and third shift work (beyond overtime pay), such premium should be indicated by a properly averaged craft rate per shift. Specifies whether to use multi-shift /workweek adjustments or not. If wage rates are to be treated as all-inclusive, the indirects may be deleted for this workforce by specifying “-”. Selecting an all-in rate suppresses all construction indirects: fringes, burdens, small tools, construction rental equipment, etc.

Productivity adjustment Indirects

All Crafts Percent of Base Workforce reference base Enter B for system base. (Reference to a previously defined workforce number applies to Icarus 2000 only.)

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Field Wage Rate percent of base Productivity percent of base

Description Wage rates for all crafts as a percentage of reference base wage rates. Productivities for all crafts as a percentage of reference base wage rates.

All Crafts Fixed Rates This input may be used to globally set the wage rates and productivities of all crafts in this workforce to fixed values. Wage rate all crafts Productivity all crafts Specifies the fixed wage rate (in the project currency) for all crafts in the workforce. See discussion in Icarus Reference. Specifies the fixed productivity value for all crafts in this workforce. See discussion in Icarus Reference. If no value is specified, the system defaults to 100%. Refer to the description of workforces in Icarus Reference for the effect of changing the work week and number of shifts upon productivity and job duration. The standard work week plus overtime must not exceed 84 hours per week per shift. Specifies number of standard hours per week per man per shift. Specifies number of overtime hours per week per man per shift. Specifies overtime pay expressed as a percentage of standard pay (e.g., time and one half = 150%).

Work week per shift

Standard work week Overtime Overtime rate percent standard

General Craft Wages The general craft wages are for crafts that could appear in most crews and whose productivities and/or wage rates are dependent on the type of crew. Helper wage rate UK Base only. Specifies wage rate for craft help as a fixed rate to be used in all crews. UK Base only. Specifies the wage rate for Helper wage percent craft rate craft help as a percent of the principal craft in the crew. This value must be less than 100%.

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Field Foreman wage rate

Description Specifies the wage rate for foremen as a fixed rate to be used in all crews. Default: 110% of rate of highest paid craft in crew.

Foreman wage Specifies the wage rate for foreman as a percent craft rate percent of the highest paid craft in crew. This value must be greater than or equal to 100%. Default: 110% of rate of highest paid craft in crew.
Craft Rates

Craft Rates set the wage rate and productivity individually for each craft. To access, right-click on Craft Rates in the Project Basis view’s Basis for Capital Costs\Construction Workforce folder, and the click Edit on the pop-up menu.

Analyzer displays the Wage Rate Info specifications form in the Main Window.
To add multiple definitions to Craft Wage Rates, click the Add button on the button bar:

Use these fields to set the wage rate and productivity individually for each craft. Field Craft wages/prod. Description Wage rates and productivities may be assigned to individual crafts. Those crafts not referenced are assigned wage rates and productivities specified in General Wage Rate or the system default values.
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Field Craft code

Description Identifies the craft to which the following wage rate and productivity apply. The craft code must be an existing system craft code.

Wage rate/mh

Specifies the wage rate (in the project currency) for this craft for standard hours. Specifies the productivity of this craft as a percentage of the system’s base. (See discussion in Icarus Reference)

Productivity

Indexing

The Material and Man-hour specification forms in the Indexing folder allow you to manipulate the material and/or man-hour costs for process equipment and installation bulks. You can also adjust these indexes by location by using the Location specification form. For example, you could specify to increase the material costs associated with a type of process equipment. Indexing is used to tailor Kbase to mimic your work methods and costs. If your equipment costs for a category are consistently offset from Kbase’s values, use Indexing to correct that. To adjust the Material or Man-hour index: 1 Right-click on Material or Man-hour and click Edit.

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2. To adjust the index for all equipment or for all of one of the installation bulks, enter the index value in the box provided. For example, entering “200” in the Equipment box will double the material costs for all items under the equipment account group. To adjust the index for a sub-category, click the arrow-button in the box. This accesses a similar form listing sub-categories corresponding to the Code of Accounts (see Icarus Reference, Chapter 34, for a complete list). Adjustments to a sub-category override adjustments to the account-group. 3. Click OK to close the form and apply changes. To adjust by location: 1. Right-click on Location and click Edit.

2. Type the location description.

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3. Type the Code of Account (COA) to indicate the start of the COA range, or click the red arrow and then click Select by the subcategory on the COA Subcategory Selection window.

The Equipment COA Selection window appears.

Click Select again by the COA.

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The COA is entered on the form. 4. Do the same to indicate the end of the COA range. 5. Enter the amount to escalate material costs and/or the amount to escalate man-hour costs. 6. To escalate another range, click Add. 7. Click OK to close the form and apply changes.

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Process Design
The Process Design specifications are used in Analyzer projects that contain a simulator input. These specs allow Analyzer to map simulator models into Icarus project components. For example, a distillation column model in a simulator may be mapped to a combination of equipment such as a double diameter tower, an aircooler (for a condenser), a horizontal tank (for a reflux drum), a general service pump (for a reflux pump) and a thermosiphon reboiler. The Process Design Specifications indicate the default settings that the system uses for mapping all models of the same class. These specs can be customized in files and used in many projects. Simulator Type and Simulator File Name Simulator Units of Measure Mapping Specs Simulator Type and Simulator File Name are described under “Loading Simulator Data” on page 4-15. The Simulator Units of Measure Mapping Specs are used in mapping simulator units to Analyzer units, serving as the cross-reference. To access, right-click on Simulator Units of Measure Mapping Specs in the Project Basis view’s Process Design folder.

The Units of Measure Specification dialog box appears.

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Each simulator cross-reference UOM file contains a basis (which may be METRIC or I-P). The basis indicates the Analyzer base units set to which simulator units will be converted.

The left side of the screen displays the simulation output units. The right side of the screen displays the corresponding Analyzer units. The conversion factors between the two units are entered in the lower-center section of the screen. Analyzer provides a set of common simulator units and their conversions to Analyzer units. You can modify and/or add units to these files.
Specifying the Mapping for a Simulator Unit

To specify the mapping for a simulator unit: 1. Select the simulation unit from the Units Used list in the Simulation Output section. In the example below, the simulation unit is CM/HR (Centimeters/Hour). 2. Select the appropriate units category from Units Category list in the Analyzer section. In the example below, the units category is Velocity. 3. Select the appropriate Analyzer unit from Units list in the Analyzer section. In the example below, the Analyzer unit is M/H (Meters/Hour). 4. Enter the conversion factor between the two units (the simulation unit and the Analyzer unit) in the Conversion Factor box. In the example below, the conversion factor between the two units is 100 because: 100 CM/HR = 1 M/H

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If an equivalent Analyzer unit is not found, select Miscellaneous as the Units Category and map the simulator unit to Other in the Units window.

5. Click Save to save the mapping. When a unit has been mapped and saved, a green box appears next to the simulation unit. A yellow box indicates the unit is not mapped.
Deleting a Mapping

To delete a mapping, select the simulator unit and then click Delete. To remove a particular unit from the simulation units list, first select the unit and then click Remove. To add a new unit to the list, enter the new unit symbol in the New Units to Add box in the Simulation Output section and click Add. Changes will not affect existing project components. To change existing components, you should un-size the item or unmap the items and then re-map and re-size. Once all of the units have been specified, click OK to store and save the specifications. It is critical that all simulator units of measure be mapped into Analyzer units. When the simulator output is loaded, Analyzer identifies all units of measure in the file. Any units not mapped in the project’s current simulator cross-reference UOM specification

Removing a Unit

Adding a Unit

Changing Existing Components

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are automatically added to the list and you are alerted to the need to define the mapping and re-load the file. You must correct this in order to continue without problems. Complete the steps above to specify the mapping for a simulator unit. Scroll through the Units Used list for any yellow-tagged units. Map all these, save the file, and re-load the simulator data. Project Component Map Specifications The Project Component Map Specifications dialog box contains a list of models for the selected simulator and a list of the corresponding Icarus project components to which the simulator models will map. To access, right-click on Project Component Map Specifications in the Project Basis view’s Process Design folder, and then click Edit on the pop-up menu.

Models that are mapped in the current file are marked with an asterisk (*). If no asterisk is present, then that model will not generate any project components when loaded, mapped, and sized.

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Exclude simulator models from the mapping process by selecting the simulator item and then clicking Delete All Mappings. You can select a simulator item and review the mapping(s) for that item. To change one of the mappings, select an item in the Current Map List, click Delete One Mapping, and then create a new mapping. To create a new mapping, click New Mapping and then select an appropriate Icarus project component. For simulator column models, an additional specification can be made. Since a column may be mapped to multiple pieces of equipment, Analyzer requires an identification for each of these mappings. Refer to Mapping Simulator Models in Chapter 4 for tower/column configuration mapping identifications.

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Default Simulator Mapping Specs
The following tables list models that are mapped to Analyzer project components. Models not supported can be mapped to a quoted item if you mark “Map Unsupported Models To Quoted Cost Item” in Preferences (Process tab).

AspenTech’s Aspen Plus Map Specs
Model Name CCD CFUGE COMPR CRUSHER CYCLONE DECANTER DISTL DSTWU ESP FABFL FILTER FLASH2 FLASH3 FSPLIT HEATER HEATX HYCYC PUMP RADFRAC Model Description Countercurrent decanter Centrifuge filter Compressor/turbine Solids crusher Solid-gas cyclone Liquid-liquid decanter Shortcut distillation rating Shortcut distillation design Electrostatic precipitator Baghouse filter Continuous rotary vacuum Two-outlet flash Three-outlet flash Stream splitter Heater/cooler Two-stream heat exchanger Solid-liquid hydrocyclone Pump/hydraulic turbine Rigorous fractionation Floating head heat exchanger Floating head heat exchanger Water only cyclones - mineral Centrifugal single or multi-stage pump Single-diameter trayed tower (column) Floating head heat exchanger (condenser) U-tube reboiler (reboiler) Horizontal drum (accumulator) Centrifugal single or multi-stage pump (reflux pump) PETROFAC Consists of 42 configurations. It has been confirmed that the following can be mapped to Analyzer: PREFLIF- preflash block with furnace, zero pumparounds and zero sidestrippers. CDUIOF – crude block with furnace, three pumparounds and three sidestrippers. CDU 3 – vacuum block with two pumparounds and two sidestrippers. RBATCH RCSTR REQUIL RGIBBS RPLUG RSTOIC RYIELD SCFRAC SCREEN SWASH VSCRUB Batch reactor Continuous stirred tank Equilibrium reactor Equilibrium reactor-gibbs Plug-flow reactor Stoichiometer reactor Yield reactor Short-cut distillation Wet or dry screen separator Single-stage solids washer Venturi scrubber Agitated Tank – enclosed, jacketed Agitated Tank – enclosed, reactor jacketed Agitated Tank – enclosed, jacketed Agitated Tank – enclosed, energy jacketed minimization Single diameter packed tower Agitated Tank – enclosed, jacketed Agitated Tank – enclosed, jacketed Single-diameter trayed tower Vibrating system Rotary drum filter Washer dust collector Single-diameter trayed tower (column) Floating head heat exchanger (condenser) U-tube reboiler (reboiler) Horizontal drum (accumulator) Centrifugal single or multi-stage pump (reflux pump) Furnace block Analyzer Default Rotary drum filter Centrifuge SOLID-BOWL Centrifugal gas compressor / Gas turbine with combustion chamber Jaw crusher Cyclone Dust collector Vertical vessel – process Single-diameter trayed tower Single-diameter trayed tower Low voltage electrical precipitator Cloth bay baghouse Rotary drum filter Vertical vessel – process Vertical vessel – process

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Default Simulator Mapping Specs (continued)

Chemstation’s ChemCAD V Map Specs
Model BAGH COMP CFUG CRYS CSED CYCL DRYE EREA ESPT FIRE FLAS FLTR GIBS HCYC HTXR KREA LLVF MIXE PUMP REAC SCDS Model Description Baghouse filter Adiabatic (isentropic) or polytopic Compression Basket centrifugal filter Crystallizer or melting by cooling/heating Solid-wall basket centrifuge separating solids from liq slurry Gas-solid cyclone separator Dryer Equilibrium reactor Electrostatic precipitator Fired heater Multipurpose flash Vacuum or constant-pressure filter Gibbs reactor Hydrocyclone Heat exchanger Kinetic reactor (plug flow or continuous stirred tank reactors) Vapor/liquid/liquid flash Stream mixer (flash calculation at output pressure) Liquid pump (to increase pressure of liquid stream) Stoichiometric reactor Simultaneous correction rigorous fractionation (single column) Analyzer Default Cloth bay baghouse dust collector Centrifugal Axial Gas Compressor Atmospheric suspended basket centrifuge Batch vacuum crystallizer Solid bowl centrifuge Cyclone dust collector Direct rotary dryer Agitated tank reactor Low voltage electrical precipitator Floating head heat exchanger Vertical cylindrical vessel Rotary disk filter Agitated tank reactor Water cyclone (separation equipment) Floating head heat exchanger Agitated tank reactor Vertical cylindrical vessel Vertical cylindrical vessel Centrifugal pump Agitated tank reactor Single diameter trayed tower Floating head heat exchanger (condenser) U-tube reboiler (reboiler) Horizontal drum (accumulator) Centrifugal single or multi-stage pump (reflux pump) SCRE TOWR Screen Inside/out rigorous fractionation (single column) Single deck rectangular vibrating screen Single diameter trayed tower Floating head heat exchanger (condenser) U-tube reboiler (reboiler) Horizontal drum (accumulator) Centrifugal single or multi-stage pump (reflux pump) WASH Washer Washer dust collector

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Default Simulator Mapping Specs (continued) Hyprotech’s HYSIM Map Specs
Model Name Model Description Analyzer Default

BAG FILTER COLUMN

Baghouse filter Distillation column

COMPRESSOR CSTR CYCLONE EXPANDER FILTER HEATER HEATEX HYDROCYCLONE PIPING PLUG PUMP RATEHEATEX REQUI RGIBBS RSTOIC SOLIDSEP

Compressor Continuous stirred-tank Gas-solid separator Expander Rotary drum filter Heater/cooler Simple heat exchanger Solid-liquid hydrocyclone Pipeline Plug-flow reactor Pump Rigorous heat exchanger Equilibrium reactor Gibbs-energy reactor Stoichiometric reactor Solids separator

Dust collector cloth bay Single-diameter trayed tower Floating head heat exchanger (condenser) U-tube reboiler (reboiler) Horizontal drum (accumulator) Centrifugal single or multi-stage pump (reflux pump) Centrifugal gas compressor Agitated Tank - enclosed, jacketed Cyclone dust collector Gas turbine Rotary drum filter Floating head heat exchanger Floating head heat exchanger Water only cyclones - mineral separation Single-diameter packed tower and others Centrifugal single or multi-stage pump Floating head heat exchanger Agitated Tank - enclosed, jacketed Agitated Tank - enclosed, jacketed Agitated Tank - enclosed, jacketed Cyclone dust collector

Hyprotech’s HYSYS Map Specs
Model Name Model Description Analyzer Default

AIR COOLER BAG FILTER COLUMN COMPRESSOR CSTR CYCLONE EXPANDER FILTER HEATER HEATX HYDROCYCLONE PLUG PUMP REQUI RGIBBS RSTOIC SOLIDSEP

Air cooler Baghouse filter Distillation column Compressor Continuous stirred-tank Gas-solid separator Expander Rotary drum filter Heater/Cooler Simple heat exchanger Solid-liquid hydrocyclone Plug-flow reactor Pump Equilibrium reactor Gibbs-energy reactor Stoichiometric reactor Solids separator

Air cooler, free-standing or rack-mounted. Dust collector cloth bay Single-diameter trayed tower Centrifugal gas compressor Agitated Tank – enclosed, jacketed Cyclone dust collector Gas turbine Rotary drum filter Floating head heat exchanger Floating head heat exchanger Water only cyclones – mineral separation Single-diameter packed tower and others Centrifugal single or multi-stage pump Agitated Tank – enclosed, jacketed Agitated Tank – enclosed, jacketed Agitated Tank – enclosed, jacketed Cyclone dust collector

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Default Simulator Mapping Specs (continued)

SimSci’s PRO/II Map Specs
Model Name
CENTRIFUGE COLUMN UNITS

Model Description
Centrifuge Distillation column

Analyzer Default
Solid bowl centrifuge Single-diameter trayed tower Floating head heat exchanger (condenser) U-tube reboiler (reboiler) Horizontal drum (accumulator) Centrifugal single or multi-stage pump (reflux pump) Centrifugal gas compressor Oslo growth type crystallizer Agitated Tank - enclosed, jacketed Rotary drum filter Vertical vessel - process Atmospheric tray dryer Gas turbine Vertical vessel - process Floating head heat exchanger Single diameter packed tower Centrifugal single or multi-stage pump Agitated Tank - enclosed, jacketed Floating head heat exchanger Rotary drum filter Single-diameter trayed tower

COMPRESSOR CRYSTAL CSTR DECANTER DEPRESSURE DRYER EXPANDER FLASH HEATEX PLUG PUMP REACTOR RIGHTEX ROTDRUM SHORTCUT

Compressor Crystallizer Continuous stirred tank Countercurrent decanter Non-steady-state depressure Solids dryer Expander FLASH Simple heat exchanger Plug-flow reactor Pump Reactor Rigorous heat exchanger Rotary drum filter Distillation column

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Defining the Project Basis • 3-35

Design Criteria

After the simulator model is loaded into Kbase, mapping and sizing of the items can be performed. If an item is already sized inside the simulator, the sizing parameters are automatically brought into Kbase and used. Items not sized by the simulator can be sized following the instructions in Chapter 6. In addition to process information obtained from the simulator, certain design specifications may be required before sizing can be accomplished. Kbase’s Sizing Expert uses design values based on the userdefined field values on specification forms in the Design Criteria sub-folder. The values on these forms provide the basis for developing design specifications from operating conditions for all equipment to be sized.

You can enter design conditions (design pressure and temperature) for all equipment (using the Common form) and also enter design conditions for types of equipment. (Conditions entered on the equipment type forms override those on the Common form). Common Design pressure and temperature entered on the Common specifications form applies to all equipment except equipment for which you have separately specified these design conditions. Design Pressure Click on the Design Pressure field to open the Design Pressure Specifications form. The specifications form lets you specify rules for calculating the design pressure based on the range in which the operating pressure falls. The design pressure is calculated from the operating pressure using the formula shown

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on the form. You can modify the pressure limit (upper and lower limit) as well as parameters A and B.

Note:

In earlier versions of IPE, the “Design Pressure – Multiplier” field was used. This field has now been replaced by the Design Pressure Specifications form. If projects created using these earlier versions are opened, then the parameters A and B are automatically adjusted based on the multiplier value specified. This ensures that old projects can be carried over using the same design criteria.

Design Temperature Click on the Design Temperature field to open the Design Temperature Specifications form. The specifications form lets you specify rules for calculating the design temperature based on the range in which the operating temperature falls. The design pressure is calculated from the operating temperature using the formula shown on the form. You can modify the temperature ranges (upper and lower limit) as well as parameters A and B.

Note:

In earlier versions of IPE, the “Design Temperature - Increase” field was used. This field has now been

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replaced by the Design Temperature Specifications form. If projects created using these earlier versions are opened, then the parameters A and B are automatically adjusted based on the multiplier value specified. Pumps In addition to entering design pressure and temperature (see instructions under Common, page 3-36), you can enter the following design criteria for pumps: Pump Overdesign Factor The pump overdesign factor is used by Kbase to increase the volumetric throughput of the pump and the power requirement of the pump. The total volumetric flow rate calculated from the simulator information is multiplied by the value provided in this field to estimate the design flow rate for the equipment. For example: Operation flow rate: 250 GPM Pump overdesign factor: 1.1 Calculated design capacity: 250 X 1.1 = 275 GPM Compressors In addition to entering design pressure and temperature (see instructions under Common, page 3-36), you can enter the following design criteria for compressors: Driver Type Specifies the driver type used for compressors. The default value is “None.” The selections are NONE, GAS ENGINE, MOTOR, TURBINE. Heat Exchangers In addition to entering design pressure and temperature (see instructions under Common, page 3-36), you can enter the following design criteria for heat exchangers: Launch MUSE MUSE™ performs detailed simulation of multi-stream platefin heat exchangers made from brazed aluminum, stainless steel or titanium. A valid MUSE version 3.3 license is required to use this feature.

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Select “Yes” to launch MUSE during interactive sizing of plate fin heat exchangers. Select “No” to run MUSE in the silent mode. Furnace Fractional Efficiency The furnace duty obtained from the simulator is the absorbed duty. Total fired duty is obtained by dividing the absorbed duty by fractional efficiency. This value should be <1.0. Fuel Heating Value The Lower Heating Value (LHV) used to estimate the fuel consumption by fired furnaces. Air Cooler Inlet Temperature This field represents the default value that shall be used as the inlet air temperature in the case of Air Coolers. Air Cooler Exit Temperature Air Cooler Exit Temperature is used when estimating the surface area of air cooled heat exchangers. The value given in this field is used as the exit temperature for the air cooler. If the field is empty or has value of 0.0, then the Sizing Expert assigns the exit air temperature value to be 10.0 DEG F greater than the inlet air temperature. For example, if the Air Cooler Inlet Temperature is 77.0 DEG F and you do not enter the Air Cooler Exit Temperature, Kbase uses 87.0 DEG F as the default value. Apply 2/3 Rule for Design Pressure In the design of shell and tube heat exchangers, design engineers sometimes apply the 2/3rd rule in calculating the design pressure. As per ASME heat exchanger code, if the design pressure of the lower-pressure side (either tube or shell) is at least 2/3rd the design pressure on the high-pressure side, then overpressure in the high-pressure side will not result in rupture in the lower-pressure side (provided relief devices have been properly sized). When specified, the 2/3 rule will increase the design pressure of the low pressure side to at least 67% of the design pressure of the high pressure side, even when the operating pressure on the low pressure side could result in a lower design pressure as per the Design Pressure field. Heat Exchanger Area Minimum Overdesign Factor The calculated heat transfer area is multiplied by the value given in the field. The mechanical design is performed for the final heat transfer area.

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For example: Calculated surface area = 1000 SF Heat Exchanger Area Minimum Overdesign Factor = 1.1 Surface area used for mechanical design: 1000 X 1.1 = 1100 SF Note that the final surface area in general is greater than the calculated value because of mechanical considerations. Towers In addition to entering design pressure and temperature (see instructions under Common, page 3-36), you can enter the following design criteria on the Towers form (applies to all towers): Bottom Sump Height (For Trayed and Packed Towers) For both trayed and packed towers, extra height in addition to that required for separation is provided at the bottom for liquid level and reboiler return. The value in this field is added to the calculated height of the tower. R/R-Minimum (For SHORTCUT model in Pro/II) The SimSci simulator shortcut distillation model calculates the number of theoretical stages required for different ratios of operating reflux ratio (R) to minimum reflux ratio (RMinimum). The number of stages should be available in the simulator report for the ratio chosen. Vapor Disengagement Height (For Trayed and Packed Towers) For both trayed and packed towers, extra height in addition to that required for separation is provided at the top for vapor disengagement before passing to the condenser. The value in this field is added to the calculated height of the tower.
Packed Towers

In addition to entering design pressure and temperature (see instructions under Common, page 3-36), you can enter the following design criteria for packed towers: Packing Type Two types of packings, random and structured, are used in packed towers. The type of packing affects the flood point pressure drop estimation and the packing efficiency (HETP) value.

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The value in this field is used by the Sizing Expert in the calculation of the tower diameter and height. Packing Factor for Packings Packing factor is used in the Kister and Gill correlation to estimate pressure drop at the flood point. Once the pressure drop is known, the flood velocity is calculated using the latest versions of the generalized pressure drop correlation (GPDC) charts for both the random and structured packings. Packed Tower Derating Factor With certain systems, traditional flooding equations consistently predict higher flood points than those actually experienced. To allow for such discrepancies, an empirical derating factor (< 1.0) is applied. The derating factor is multiplied by the predicted flood vapor load or liquid load obtained from the traditional equation to obtain the actual or derated flood load for the given system. The derating factors are often vaguely related to the foaming tendency of the system. The higher the foaming tendency, the lower the derating factor. If you do not enter a value, Kbase uses 1.0 as the derating factor. Packed Tower Flooding Factor Packed towers are usually designed for 70 to 80 percent of the flood point velocity. This allows a sufficient margin for uncertainties associated with the flood point concept and prediction and to keep the design point away from the region at which efficiency rapidly diminishes (just below the flood point). The Sizing Expert uses the default value specified if the user-provided value is not available. HETP The concept of HETP (height equivalent of a theoretical plate) enables comparison of efficiency between packed and plate columns. Because there are only a few variables that significantly affect HETP and due to the unreliability of even the best mass transfer models, rules of thumb for HETP successfully compete with the mass transfer models. For the packing types available in Kbase (given in the Icarus Reference), Kbase estimates the HETP value based on the packing shape, dimensions and type of material. If a userprovided value is available, then the Sizing Expert uses the value in the above field for calculating the height of the packed tower. Packed Section Height
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The value represents the height of each packed section and is used in the design of packed towers to estimate the number of packed sections. Surface Area Per Unit Volume Higher specific surface areas (surface area per unit volume) increases vapor-liquid contact area and therefore, efficiency. For structured packings, Kbase determines this value empirically and uses it in estimating HETP if you have not already specified an HETP value. A default value of 75 SF/CF is used in the absence of a user-entered value.
Trayed Towers

In addition to entering design pressure and temperature (see instructions under Common, page 3-36), you can enter the following design criteria for trayed towers: Trayed Tower Flooding Factor Flooding is the condition where pressure drop across a tray is sufficient to cause the dynamic liquid head to be equivalent to the tray spacing plus the weir height. At this point, the liquid backup in the downcomer is just at the point of overflowing the weir on the plate above. When this happens, the column fills with a foamy liquid and becomes inoperable. The flood factor is the fractional velocity approach to flooding, i.e., (Actual Vapor Velocity)/(Vapor velocity at the point of flooding). The Sizing Expert uses the default value specified if the userprovided value is not available. Foaming Tendency Vapor disengagement is easy in non-foaming, low-pressure systems. However, vapor disengagement from downcomer liquid in foaming systems is difficult as the liquid hangs on to the entrained vapor. Sufficient residence time must be provided in the downcomer to allow adequate disengagement of vapor from the descending liquid. Industrial practice has created a guideline for the mum downcomer velocity of clear liquids based on their foaming tendency.

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The following values for the downcomer liquid velocity are used based on the choice for the above field.
Downcomer Liquid Velocity, (FPS) Tray Spacing, INCHES Foaming Tendency Low Moderate High 18 0.4 – 0.5 0.3 – 0.4 0.2 – 0.25 24 0.5 – 0.6 0.4 – 0.5 0.2 – 0.25 30 0.6 – 0.7 0.5 - 0.6 0.2 - 0.3

With certain systems, traditional flooding equations consistently predict higher flood points than those actually experienced. To allow for such discrepancies, an empirical derating factor (< 1.0) is applied. The derating factor is multiplied by the predicted flood vapor load or liquid load obtained from the traditional equation to obtain the actual or derated flood load for the given system. The trayed derating factors are often related to the foaming tendency of the system. The higher the foaming tendency, the lower the derating factor. If the user-specified value is not available, a derating factor is selected based on the value of foaming tendency. The default value for foaming tendency is Moderate. Trayed Tower Derating Factor With certain systems, traditional flooding equations consistently predict higher flood points than those actually experienced. To allow for such a discrepancy, an empirical derating factor (< 1.0) is applied. The derating factor is multiplied by the predicted flood vapor load or liquid load obtained from the traditional equation to obtain the actual or derated flood load for the given system. The derating factors are often vaguely related to the foaming tendency of the system. The higher the foaming tendency, the lower the derating factor. If the user-provided value is not available, or the value 0.0 is entered in the field, then the derating factor is selected based on the foaming tendency of the liquids in the column. Relative Volatility of Key Components The number of theoretical stages for a trayed tower is obtained from the simulator report. The actual number of trays is calculated by using the tray efficiency value provided by the user in the design criteria file. However, if the field is empty or has a 0.0 value, the tray efficiency for the separation is estimated by using the
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correlation of relative volatility of key components with tray efficiency. The O’Connell correlation is used to estimate the overall tray efficiency. Tray Efficiency Overall column efficiency is defined by: E_oc = N_t/ N_a where: N_t = Number of theoretical stages required for the separation minus the sum of theoretical stages provided by the reboiler, condenser, and intermediate heat exchangers. N_a = Number of actual trays in the column. Several empirical correlations are available in the literature. Also, rigorous theoretical predictions based on gas and liquid film resistances are available to assist in predicting the tray efficiency. If the user specification is not available for the field, then the value is estimated using empirical correlations from the literature.
Configurations Towers

Use this form to specify design criteria for tower configurations. Vessels In addition to entering design pressure and temperature (see instructions under Common, page 3-36), you can enter the following design criteria on the Vessels form (applies to all process vessels): Residence Time The amount of liquid holdup in the vessel is estimated by the liquid volumetric flow through a vessel in a specified amount of time. The vessel volume divided by volumetric flow rate is defined as the residence time for the vessel. For example: Liquid flow through the vessel: 100 CFM Residence time: 5 MIN Calculated liquid volume in the vessel: 100 CFM X 5 = 500 CF.

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Process Vessel Height to Diameter Ratio (For Vertical and Horizontal Vessel Design) Kbase defaults for this field are used if the field is empty or has the value of “0.0.” The Kbase defaults depend on the operating conditions for the vessel. Based on the operating pressure of the vessel obtained from the simulator report, the following values are used:
Pressure (PSIA) 0 – 250 250 – 500 > 500 Process Vessel Height to Diameter Ratio 3 4 5

For example: Vessel operation pressure: <250 PSIA Diameter: 6 FEET Calculated vessel height: 6 X 3 = 18 FEET Residence time overrides Process Vessel Height to Diameter Ratio. Minimum Vessel Diameter The Minimum Vessel Diameter field is used if the vessel diameter calculated by the sizing routines is less than this value. Vapor/Liquid Separator Sizing Method When sizing vertical and horizontal vapor liquid separators, Kbase computes the maximum allowable vapor velocity using the method selected in this field. Liquid Entrainment Method: This is an empirical correlation developed by Watkins and is a function of vapor and liquid densities, and the parameter Kv, which itself is a polynomial function of vapor and liquid flows and densities. Particle size separation method: This method estimates the disengagement velocity of the liquid droplet in the continuous vapor phase. The design velocity is determined as a percentage of the disengagement velocity. Average Liquid Particle Diameter (For particle size separation method) This field specifies the default average liquid droplet diameter. This value is used in the design of horizontal and vertical vessels by the particle size separation method (which can be selected in the Vapor/Liquid Separator Sizing Method field right above this field).

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Design Factor Multiplier for Disengagement Velocity (For particle size separation method) This field is used in the calculation of the maximum allowable design velocity, which is a percentage of the disengagement velocity. For example: Disengagement velocity : 10 FEET/SECOND Design factor multiplier for disengagement velocity: 0.5 Maximum allowable design velocity: 10 X 0.5 = 5 FEET/SECOND Separation Factor (For liquid entrainment method) In the liquid entrainment method, the separation factor is used to determine the maximum allowable vapor velocity. The separation factor is either entered by the user in this field or computed by Kbase using the relation described in the vessel sizing design procedure.
Agitated Vessels

In addition to entering design pressure and temperature (see instructions under Common, page 3-36), you can enter the following design criteria for agitated vessels: Agitator Type The various types of agitators that can be chosen for design are described in the Icarus Reference. The type of agitator selected determines the default driver power and impeller speed. This is used to estimate the agitation requirements in tanks.
Storage Vessels

In addition to entering design pressure and temperature (see instructions under Common, page 3-36), you can enter the following design criteria for storage vessels: Number of Holding Days Storage vessel sizing is determined by estimating the volume of liquid required for a certain period of operation. Kbase uses this field to determine the liquid volume stored in the vessel. For example: Inlet flow rate: 500 CF per day. Number of holding days: 30 (specified by user). Liquid volume inside the storage vessel: 500 X 30 = 1,500 CF.

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Holding Hours in a Day Storage vessel sizing is determined by estimating the volume of liquid required for a certain period of operation. Kbase uses this field to determine the liquid volume required per day. For example: Inlet flow rate: 500 CFH. Holding Hours in a Day: 24 (specified by user). Final volume per day : 500 X 24 = 12,000 CF/day. Storage Vessel Height to Diameter Ratio Once the volume of the storage vessel is determined based on the process fluid flow rate and design conditions, the actual dimensions (height and diameter) of the equipment must be estimated. You can specify the dimensional requirements of the equipment using this field. A default is used if the field is empty or has value 0.0. The default depends on the operating conditions for the vessel. Vapor Free Space (% of Total Storage Vessel Volume) A percent volume of the sized vessel in excess of the required liquid volume.
Horizontal Vessels

In addition to entering design pressure and temperature (see instructions under Common, page 3-36), you can enter the following design criteria for horizontal vessels: Vapor Area /Cross-Sectional Area Once Kbase calculates the maximum vapor velocity, the velocity and flow rate are used to determine the vapor space required. The vapor space is then divided by the vapor area /cross-sectional area to get the total required cross-sectional area. The process vessel height to diameter ratio overrides this field. Separation Factor Multiplier For horizontal vessels, the separation factor is normally higher under similar operating conditions than for vertical vessels. Therefore, the calculated separation factor is multiplied by the separation factor multiplier. Minimum Boot Length When horizontal vessels are used for three phase separations, the heavy second liquid phase is removed in the drip leg situated at the bottom of the vessel.

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Minimum Boot Diameter This field represents diameter of the boot leg which is designed to remove the heavy second liquid. Boot Leg Liquid Velocity The bootleg cross-sectional area is estimated using the liquid velocity field specified in this field and the process vessel height to diameter ratio.
Vertical Vessels

In addition to entering design pressure and temperature (see instructions under Common, page 3-36), you can enter the following design criteria for vertical vessels: Minimum Disengagement Height This is the height from the liquid level to the mist eliminator. Minimum Height Above the Mist Eliminator Used in the calculation of the total vessel height. Height of Mist Eliminator Height of mist eliminator section. Minimum Ht. Btw Low and High Liquid Level Taps The liquid level based on residence time should meet this minimum specification. (Field is at bottom of form, not in Vertical Vessels section.) Ht. Btw Inlet Nozzle and High Liquid Level Tap Represents the height between the inlet nozzle (center line) and the high liquid level tap. (Field is at bottom of form, not in Vertical Vessels section.) Ht. Btw Low Liquid Level Tap and Tangent Line Represents the height between the low liquid level tap and the tangent line. (Field is at bottom of form, not in Vertical Vessels section.) Miscellaneous Vibrating Screen Feed Material This field specifies the solid material type used by solids handling equipment. The material type affects the screen unit capacity which is defined as the amount of solids (TPH) flowing through one square foot of screen cloth based on material, having 6 to 8% moisture, screen cloth having 50% or more open area; 85% screen efficiency. Based on the choice made for this field and the screen opening size, the screen unit capacity is estimated.

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The following choices are available for this field: Sand and Gravel Limestone/Crushed Stones Coal Cinders Coke Wood Cyclone Inlet Linear Velocity In case of cyclones, the sizing program assumes a default linear velocity of 150 FPS. You can enter a different velocity here. Configurations Flash Use this form to specify design criteria for flash configurations. Utility Specifications Most chemical processes require heating or cooling process utility fluids to operate. In many cases, the choice of which utilities are used plays an important role in determining the total project cost by defining heat transfer equipment sizing. In addition, utility costs form an important part of the operating costs of the plant. In the design of heat exchangers and reboilers, Analyzer permits you to select appropriate process utility fluids for the application. You can select utility fluids from the list already present in Analyzer or can create your own based on utility fluid classes allowed by Analyzer. Once the utility resource for the equipment is selected either by you or by the sizing expert, then an actual utility process stream is created for the equipment. The utility stream contains the amount of utility used by the equipment. During the operating cost evaluation, Analyzer processes all the utility streams connected to the equipment to determine the utility cost for every utility resource used in the project. You can override these selections by a combination of disabling/enabling appropriate utilities and re-mapping and resizing the equipment items. Alternately, you can specify the desired utility in the interactive Sizing Expert. This method is available even if the utility has been disabled. To modify or create a utility stream: 1. Right-click on Utility Specifications in the Project Basis view’s Process Design folder, and then click Edit on the pop-up menu.

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The Develop Utility Specifications dialog box appears.

Analyzer provides 11 default utility streams resources: • • • • • • • • • • • Cooling Water High Temp Heating Oil * Low Temp Heating Oil ** Refrigerant – Ethane Refrigerant - Ethylene Refrigerant - Freon 12 Refrigerant - Propane Refrigerant - Propylene Steam @165 PSI Steam @100 PSI Steam @400 PSI
* High temperature heating oil has the properties of DOWTHERM A. ** Low temperature heating oil has the properties of DOWTHERM E.

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2. To modify an existing utility stream, highlight it on the Modify Existing Stream list and click Modify. To create a new utility stream, click Create in the Option section. Then, in the Create New Utility Stream section, type the name and select one of the following fluid classes: • • • • • • • • • • High Temp Heating Oil * Low Temp Heating Oil ** Refrigerant – Ethane Refrigerant – Ethylene Refrigerant – Freon 12 Refrigerant – Propane Refrigerant – Propylene Refrigerant 50 Utility Steam Water
* High temperature heating oil has the properties of DOWTHERM A. ** Low temperature heating oil has the properties of DOWTHERM E.

Click Create. 3. Enter or modify the specifications on the Utility Specifications form.

The form contains the following fields: • Description: Describes the utility fluid resource in the sizing report generated by Analyzer. Also, the field value is used to represent the utility fluid usage and its related cost in the investment analysis spreadsheet (PROJSUM.ICS).

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Fluid: Determines the type of utility fluid described by the current specification. The fluid class is used to determine the heat transfer coefficient, fouling tendency and related thermal and transport properties used by sizing expert.

Design Temperature Specifies the temperature, which will be considered in the estimation of the design temperature for the process equipment carrying the utility fluid.

Design Pressure: Specifies the pressure, which will be considered in the estimation of the design pressure for the process equipment carrying the utility fluid.

• • • •

Inlet temperature: Provides the inlet temperature for the utility fluid. Exit temperature: Provides the exit temperature condition for the utility fluid. Pressure: Provides the operating pressure for the utility fluid. Energy transfer per unit mass: Specifies the amount of energy provided or removed by the utility fluid over the specified temperature range. The value in this field is used to estimate the amount of utility required for the given process conditions.

Unit Cost: Provides the cost value used to estimate the utility cost for the project.

Unit Cost Units: Provides the units for the value provided in the unit cost field. When you specify a new utility fluid resource, all the information on the specification form must be provided; otherwise, the sizing expert will not be able to use the utility fluid resource properly. Using the utility specification form, you can specify a maximum of 20 utility fluids.

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If different utility fluid resource was used by simulation, then it is added to the utility resource in Analyzer. • Utility type: Describes the usage of the utility fluid. Select either Heat source or Heat sink. 4. Click OK when done entering the utility specifications.

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Investment Analysis
Investment Parameters To specify parameters required for investment analysis, right-click on Investment Parameters in the Project Basis view’s Investment Analysis folder, and then click Edit on the pop-up menu.

Analyzer displays the Investment Parameters in the Main Window.

A description of the parameters follows.

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General Investment Parameters

Period Description

This field allows the user to enter text indicating the name/description of a period. The period is defined in “Number of Weeks per Period.” The period description is used in the display of some of the results in the spreadsheets.
Number of Weeks per Period

The period used for investment analysis is defined in terms of number of weeks.
Number of Periods for Analysis

The number of periods to include in the cashflow and other project totals and calculations.
Tax Rate

The tax rate for investment analysis, in terms of percent per period, is used to calculate the percentage of earnings before taxes that must be paid to the government.
Desired Rate of Return

The desired rate of return, in percent per period, for the investment.
Economic Life of Project

This field indicates the length of time in terms of periods over which capital costs will be depreciated.
Salvage Value (Percent of Initial Capital Cost)

This number indicates the approximate worth of capital costs at the end of the Economic Life of Project. The number is expressed as a percent of initial capital cost.
Depreciation Method

There are four depreciation methods allowed in Analyzer. The description of each follows: • Straight Line — The straight line method is used most commonly. In this method, the Salvage Value is subtracted from the Total Project Cost. This result is then divided by the Economic Life of Project, so that the project is depreciated evenly over its economic life. Sum of the Digits — When this method is used, the Depreciation Expense decreases during each period of the Economic Life of Project. Therefore, the highest value for the depreciation occurs in the first period and decreases
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every period thereafter. The sum of the digits multiplier is n/((N(N+1))/2), where N is the Economic amount is the Total Project Cost less its Salvage Value. For the duration of the project’s economic life, this factor is multiplied by the depreciable amount. • Double Declining (Balance) — When this method is used, the project is depreciated in geometric increments. The multiplier for the first period is 2/N, where N is the Economic Life of Project. For the second period, the depreciation rate, D2, is (1-D1)D1 where D1 is 2/N. For the third period, the depreciation rate, D3, is (1-D1)D2. For the fourth period, the depreciation rate is (1-D1)D3. These factors are multiplied by the Total Project Cost. This process (multiplying the factor by the capital cost) continues until the Straight Line Method produces a higher value for the depreciation. When the Straight Line Method produces a higher value, this higher value is used for the remaining depreciation calculations. Accelerated Cost Recovery System (ACRS) — The ACRS approach assumes that operations begin during the second half of the first period and stop during the first half of the last period. Therefore, as a result of the two half-periods (one at the beginning and one at the end of the operating cycle), it takes 6 periods to depreciate a project which has an Economic Life of 5 periods. The ACRS adapts the Double Declining Balance Method to the half-life system. The depreciation rate for the first period, D1, is 2/N, where N is the Economic Life of Project. However, the half-life convention reduces this factor to 1/N. For the second period, the depreciation rate, D2, is D1(1-1/ N). For the third period, the depreciation rate, D3, is D1(1-1/N-D2). This process (multiplying the factor by the Total Project Cost continues until the Straight Line Method produces a higher value for the depreciation. When the Straight Line Method produces a higher value, this higher value is used for the remaining depreciation calculations.

Escalation Parameters

Project Capital Escalation

This number indicates the rate at which project capital expenses may increase expressed in percent per period. If the addition of Engineer-Procure-Construct (EPC) period and start-up period is greater than one whole period, Project Capital Escalation is used to escalate the capital expenses for periods beyond the first period.

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Products Escalation

This is the rate at which the sales revenue from products of the facility is to be escalated (increased) in terms of percent per period.
Raw Material Escalation

This is the rate at which the raw material costs of the facility are to be escalated (increased) in terms of percent per period.
Operating and Maintenance Labor Escalation

This is the rate at which the operating and maintenance costs of the facility are to be escalated (increased) in terms of percent per period. The operating labor costs include operators per shift and supervisory costs.
Utilities Escalation

User-entered percentages reflecting the anticipated utility price increase each period.
Project Capital Parameter Working Capital Percentage

The working capital expressed as a percentage of total capital expense per period indicates the amount required to operate the facility until the revenue from product sales is sufficient to cover costs. It includes current assets such as cash, accounts receivable and inventories. When the facility starts producing revenue, this cost item can be covered by the product sales.
Operating Costs Parameters Operating Supplies

This field indicates the cost of miscellaneous items that are required in order to run the plant in terms of cost per period.
Laboratory Charges

This is a cost per period indicating the cost of having product analyzed each period.
Operating Charges

This includes operating supplies and laboratory charges. It is specified as a percentage of the operating labor costs. (If the user specifies a value for either “Operating Supplies” or “Laboratory Charges”, the system will add the two entered values and calculate the percentage of Operating Labor Costs. (This is done for compatibility with earlier releases of the system.)
Plant Overhead

This field specifies charges during production for services, facilities, payroll overhead, etc. This number is specified as a

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percent of operating labor and maintenance costs. This number should not be used for the construction of the facility, only for operation after start-up.
G and A Expenses

This represents general and administrative costs incurred during production such as administrative salaries/expenses, R&D, product distribution and sales costs. The user specifies this number as a percentage of subtotal operating costs.
Facility Operation Parameters Facility Type

This field defines the facility type. The following types are currently available: • • • • • • • Chemical Processing Facility Food Processing Facility Oil Refining Facility Petrochemical Processing Facility Pharmaceutical Facility Pulp and/or Paper Processing Facility Specialty Chemical Processing Facility (A specialty chemical is defined as a chemical which is produced in low quantity and has a usually high price per unit.)

The type of facility affects the number of operators/shift and maintenance costs of facility equipment.
Operating Mode

This refers to the operating mode of the facility. The available options are: • • • • • • • Continuous Processing - 24 Hours/Day Continuous Processing - Less than 24 Hours/Day Batch Processing - 24 Hours/Day Batch Processing - 1 Batch per Shift Batch Processing - More than 1 Batch per Shift Intermittent Processing - 24 Hours/Day Intermittent Processing - Less than 24 Hours/Day

The operating mode of the facility affects the number of operators/shift and maintenance costs of facility equipment.

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Length of Start-up Period

After the facility has been constructed (i.e., gone through engineering, procurement and construction), the plant must go through the owner’s start-up period until it starts producing the product to be sold. This period is referred to as Length of Start-up Period in weeks and is added into the EPC duration.
Operating Hours per Period

This field refers to the number of hours per period that the plant will be operating.
Process Fluids

Process Fluids indicate the types of fluids involved in the process. The selection affects operating and maintenance costs. The selections are: • • • • • • • Operating Unit Costs Liquids Liquids and Gases Liquids and Solids Liquids, Gases, and Solids Gases Gases and Solids Solids

To specify operating unit costs, right-click on Operating Unit Costs in the Project Basis view’s Investment Analysis folder, and then click Edit on the pop-up menu.

Analyzer displays the Operating Unit Costs in the Main Window.

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The Operating Unit Costs file specifies Labor Unit Costs and non-heat transfer Utility Unit Costs. Labor Unit Costs are given for Operators and Supervisors. The total cost of operating labor is calculated by: 1. Determining the total number of operators and supervisors necessary to run the facility for a certain number of hours. 2. Adjusting that number for the number of hours the facility operates per period. 3. Multiplying that number by the respective Labor Unit Costs and adding them together.
Labor Unit Costs Operator

The loaded wage rate paid for operating the facility in terms of the cost per operator per hour. Operator labor includes labor that is associated with operating the facility.
Supervisor

The loaded wage rate paid for supervision in terms of the cost per supervisor per hour. Supervision includes all labor associated with overseeing personnel who operate the facility.
Utility Unit Costs

The non-heat transfer utility unit costs are also specified in this file as “over the fence” costs. Utilities used for process heating and cooling are given in the Utility Specifications File.
Electricity

The unit cost per KWH of electricity used for the facility.

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Potable Water

The potable water unit cost per MMGAL or MB used for the plant.
Fuel

The fuel unit cost per MMBTH or MEGAWH used for the plant.
Instrument Air

The instrument air unit cost per KCF or MB. Raw Material Specifications An investment analysis conducted on any process needs to provide an accurate figure for total project expenditure. Since operating costs are usually a large part of this cost, it is important to accurately account for all raw materials consumed in the process. Analyzer allows you to identify simulator streams as raw materials for the process. The raw material costs will be directly placed in the Project Summary spreadsheet (PROJSUM.ICS) for use in cash flow analyses. To develop raw material specifications: 1. Right-click Raw Materials Specifications in the Project Basis view’s Investment Analysis folder, and then click Edit on the pop-up menu.

The Develop Raw Material Specifications dialog box appears.

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2. In the Option section, click the Create option button. 3. In the Create New Stream section, type a name for the stream. 4. Select the Basis and the Phase for the stream. 5. Click Create. The Raw Material Specifications form appears.

6. The following input information is required in order to estimate the raw material costs during the evaluation of the operating costs for the project: Process Stream (or “none” if userdefined); Rate (do not specify a rate if a process stream is selected); and Cost Per Unit. In addition to the above minimum information, you have to specify certain field values for the raw material fluid program to estimate the raw material rate necessary for the cost estimate.

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If you specify “none” in the Process Stream field, then the value for the Rate field must be specified in the appropriate units. If you specify a process stream, then the program determines the raw material rate in the desired Specification Basis and units. You can specify a maximum of 150 raw material streams. The Raw Material Specifications form contains the following fields: • Description The value you provide in this field will be used to describe the raw material in the Project Summary investment analyses spreadsheet (PROJSUM.ICS). • Specification Basis This field describes the raw material properties from the following list:
Mass, Gas Mass, Liquid Mass, Solid Volume, Gas Volume, Liquid Volume, Solid Energy

Process Stream This field provides a list of fluid streams present in the current project. You can select any stream to represent the raw material. Also, there is a provision in Analyzer for you to provide actual value for the raw material rate if none of the process streams represent the raw materials for the project. In this case, you must specify the field value as “none.”

Rate This field gives the total rate of raw materials consumed for the process in the desired rate units. When a new raw material fluid is specified, Analyzer checks whether enough information has been specified to estimate the raw material cost.

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Rate Units This field describes the flow rate units for the current raw material. The choices available for the field vary with the selection made for Specification Basis and your choice of Base UOM:
Specification Basis Mass, Gas

I-P LB/H KLB/H MLB/H TPH LB/H KLB/H MLB/H TPH LB/H KLB/H MLB/H TPH GPH MMGAL/H CFH KCFH GPH MMGAL/H CFH KCFH GPH MMGAL/H CFH KCFH BTU/H MMBTU/H MEGAW CAL/H

METRIC KG/H MEGAG/H TON/H

Mass, Liquid

KG/H MEGAG/H TON/H KG/H MEGAG/H TON/H M3/H L/S

Mass, Solid

Volume, Gas

Volume, Liquid

M3/H L/S

Volume, Solid

M3/H L/S

Energy

W KW

Unit Cost This field provides the cost value per unit mass, volume or energy used to estimate the raw material cost for the project.

7. When you are done entering raw material specifications, click OK. The new stream appears in the Existing Stream list on the Develop Raw Materials Specifications dialog box. You can

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enter a maximum of 150 raw material streams using this dialog box. When done, click Close. Product Specifications An investment analysis conducted on any process needs to include an accurate figure for the project’s total revenue. In order to do so, it is very important to accurately account for all the products obtained from the process. Analyzer allows you to identify simulation streams as product materials for the process. Once the simulation stream is defined, Analyzer determines the necessary amount of product materials generated based on the information provided in the product material specification file. The product material costs are directly placed in the Project Summary spreadsheet (PROJSUM.ICS) , where they are used for further cashflow analyses. To develop product specifications: 1. Right-click on Product Specifications in the Project Basis view’s Investment Analysis folder, and then click Edit on the pop-up menu.

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The Develop Product Specifications dialog box appears.

2. Mark the Create checkbox in the Options section. 3. Enter a new stream name, select a basis and phase, and click Create. The Product Specifications form appears.

4. The following input information is needed for Analyzer to estimate the product material costs during the evaluation of the operating costs for the project: • Description The value specified in this field is used to describe the product material fluid in the Project Summary investment analyses spreadsheet (PROJSUM.ICS).

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Specification Basis This field describes the product material properties from the following list:
Mass, Gas Mass, Liquid Mass, Solid Volume, Gas Volume, Liquid Volume, Solid Energy

Process Stream This field provides a list of streams present in the current project. You can select any of the streams to represent the product material. Also, there is a provision in Analyzer for the user to provide an actual value for the product material rate if none of the process streams represent the product materials for the project. In this case, the user must specify the field value as “none.”

Rate This field defines the total rate of product materials obtained for the process in the desired rate units. Do not enter a value if you have specified a process stream. When a new product material is specified, Analyzer checks whether the minimum information necessary to estimate the product material cost has been specified.

The following minimum information must be present before Analyzer can proceed with the estimate. • Rate Units This field describes the flow rate units for the current product material. The choices available for the field vary with the selection made for Specification Basis and your choice of Base UOM:
Specification Basis Mass, Gas I-P LB/H KLB/H MLB/H TPH LB/H KLB/H MLB/H TPH METRIC KG/H MEGAG/H TON/H

Mass, Liquid

KG/H MEGAG/H TON/H

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Specification Basis Mass, Solid

I-P LB/H KLB/H MLB/H TPH GPH MMGAL/H CFH KCFH GPH MMGAL/H CFH KCFH GPH MMGAL/H CFH KCFH BTU/H MMBTU/H MEGAW CAL/H

METRIC KG/H MEGAG/H TON/H M3/H L/S

Volume, Gas

Volume, Liquid

M3/H L/S

Volume, Solid

M3/H L/S

Energy

W KW

Unit Cost The field provides the cost value used to estimate the product material cost for the project.

5. When you are done entering product specifications, click OK. The new stream appears in the Existing Stream list on the Develop Product Specifications dialog box. You can enter a maximum of 150 product material streams using this dialog box. When done, click Close.

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Developing Streams
After opening a project, new streams can be developed. You have the option to develop completely new streams or use an existing stream as a base. When an existing stream is used as a base, the new stream can be either copied from the existing stream (Absolute Basis mode) or copied from and linked dynamically to the existing stream (Relative Basis mode). To develop streams, right-click on Streams in the Project Basis view’s main folder (at the bottom), and then click Edit on the pop-up menu.

The Develop Streams dialog box appears.

Viewing or Modifying an Existing Stream

To view or modify an existing stream, select the stream on the Modify tab view. You may need to use the scrollbar(s) to locate a stream if a large number of streams exist in the project. With the desired stream highlighted, click Modify to have the stream information displayed in a specifications form.
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The functions of the six buttons on the Develop Stream specifications form are explained below: Click OK To do this: 1. Perform a check on the information currently present in the Develop Stream specifications form to ensure that all information needed to specify the stream is completed. Analyzer generates error messages indicating missing data. 2. Generate estimates for any specifications not entered. 3. Save the information in the Develop Stream specifications form. The Develop Stream specifications form closes and the Develop Streams dialog box re-appears. Apply Same as clicking OK, but does not exit the Develop Stream specifications form. This allows you to review the estimates and revise the data. Same as clicking Apply, except that if the Primary Fluid Component, the Temperature, and/or the Pressure were changed, then all the physical properties of the stream will be estimated using these new values. Exit the Develop Stream specifications form without making checks and does not save or
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Update

Cancel

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Click Reset

To do this: change any information in the database. Reset the information in the Develop Stream specifications form to the values previously saved into the database. Any changes have been made since opening the form will be lost. Define a stream as a mixture. Opens the Mixture Information dialog box discussed below.

Mixture

Most Develop Stream specifications need no further explanation. Those that do are described below. Primary Fluid Component One of the most important specifications in this form is Primary Fluid Component, which is classifies the chemical components of a stream. The fluid selected here is used as the basis for any properties that are unavailable and need to be estimated to complete the specifications for the stream. The available general fluid classifications are:
Alcohol Aromatic Liquid Halogenated Gas Heavy Hydrocarbon Liquid Hydrocarbon Gas Inorganic Gas Light Hydrocarbon Liquid Medium Hydrocarbon Liquid Miscellaneous Inorganic Liquid Miscellaneous Organic Gas Organic Acid Very Heavy Hydrocarbon Liquid Solid

The following pure components are also available for selection as the Primary Fluid Component of a stream:
Acetic Acid Ammonia Argon Carbon Monoxide Carbon Dioxide Ethane Ethanol Ethyl Benzene Ethylene Glycerol Hydrogen Isopropyl Alcohol Methane Methanol N-Butanol Nitric Acid Nitrogen Oxygen Phosphoric Acid Propane Propanol Propylene Steam Sulfuric Acid Toluene Water

If the Primary Fluid Component is specified, the other needed information will be filled in with default values. This feature is only apparent when no temperature or pressure is entered into the Develop Stream specifications form and the Primary Fluid Component is changed. After changing the Primary Fluid Component, either press Enter or click on another field and the

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default values will be loaded. If either the pressure or temperature value is changed from the default value, clicking OK, Apply, or Update will estimate the properties at the new condition(s). Base Stream The Base Stream field contains the name of the stream on which the displayed stream was based. This cannot be changed. If the name begins with the character “$”, the stream was created using Absolute Basis and the stream name following this character is that of the parent stream. A stream created using Absolute Basis uses the data from the parent stream; however, if the parent steam’s data changes afterward, the Absolute Basis stream is not updated. If the value begins with the character “@”, the stream was created using the Relative Basis and the stream name following this character is that of the parent stream. A stream created using Relative Basis is updated when its parent stream’s data changes. Description Select information from the menu to describe the particular stream. For example, you can indicate the source component of the stream (e.g., From Pump P-103) or tag it with one of the available utility stream names. Mass Flow The Mass Flow fields are used to determine the phase of the stream. For instance, if the stream has only Liquid Mass Flow specified, the stream is totally liquid; therefore, it will have no vapor properties estimated for it. The reverse is true for a case with only a Vapor Mass Flow specified. For cases with both types of flow, all properties will be estimated and the Primary Fluid Component will belong to the phase of the largest mass flow. Note: Analyzer automatically calculates Total Mass Flow from the individual mass flow values. Density The Density fields are required information. Thus, if a particular phase has a mass flow rate specified, then the corresponding density must also be specified. Clicking Update will estimate any required density fields based on the flow rate, except in the case of Solid Mass Density. It is

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recommended that you enter a Liquid Mass Density if one is available. Mixture Specs Dialog Box Clicking Mixture on the Develop Stream specifications form accesses the Mixture Specs dialog box.

After you click Apply, Analyzer normalizes the Fraction values to total a sum of one. The values shown to the right would change into the values shown on the next page.

The mixture information specified in this dialog box is used to estimate properties as a mixture of the specified composition. If no mixture information is present, the stream is assumed to be pure Primary Fluid Component. The fraction information can be entered on either a Mass or Mole Fraction Basis, as specified in the Fraction Basis section. The Cancel and Reset buttons behave in a similar manner as their respective buttons on the Develop Stream specifications form. The OK and Apply buttons also behave in a similar manner as their respective buttons on the Develop Stream specifications form, except the checking is different. Here, a check is made to ensure that the fractions have a total sum of one. If not, the values are normalized to give a total sum of one, as indicated below.

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The check also combines duplicate entries into one entry by combining the two fraction specifications. After the check is done, the components are sorted in order of decreasing fractional amount, as shown above. When you click OK, Analyzer loads into the specifications form the name of the fluid with the highest fraction and the properties of the mixture generated from the contributions of the individual components. Estimation of Utility Usage and Resulting Costs in Analyzer Utility usage estimation is based on the stream information. All the streams that are present in the project are taken into consideration for the estimation of the utility usage for the project. This includes all utility streams, user-defined streams, simulator streams, and pre-map Streams. The Description field on the Develop Stream spreadsheet can be used to designate streams as utilities. If the Description field for a stream exactly matches (exact text characters and spaces) the Description field for any utility resource as given on the Utility Specifications spreadsheet, then that stream is included in the utility usage calculation. If you change the description field of any of the simulator or pre-map streams, then the new description you provided is used for this calculation. Also, stream connectivity information is used to identify the nature of the stream. If the stream is being generated then it is considered to be revenue for the project, and if it is being consumed it is considered an expense. (Note: Streams that are connected at both ends to process equipments are ignored in estimating the utility usage costs. Also, utility streams that have a zero unit cost do not show up in the final report.)

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User-defined streams that are not connected to any equipment (do not show up in the PFD) are considered as input streams, i.e., consumption. System-generated utility streams are included in the utility usage calculation as long as they are connected to equipment. A case where they would be disconnected would be if you manually disconnect these streams or if the equipment to which these streams are connected is deleted. Stream Connectivity Process streams are “connected” to project components in a real way. You can see this in the Process Flow Diagram (PFD) that you can display after loading and mapping simulator blocks. Each stream has a Source end and a Sink end. The Source end connects to an Outlet port on a component and the Sink end to an Inlet as depicted below:

In the PFD view, when you Edit Connectivity (see page 4-49) for the Sink end of a stream and move the cursor over a component, only Inlet port(s) turn green, thereby indicating their availability for making a connection to a Sink end. The same concept also carries into the Interactive Sizing form (see page 6-8). Only streams whose Sink ends are not connected are listed in the pulldown for any Inlet. This explains why the Inlet and Outlet pulldowns will include different streams. Since the connectivity in the PFD and the Interactive Sizing form are two ways of looking at the same information, Analyzer tracks your changes and synchronizes them in both views. Thus, if you change the connectivity in one view, Analyzer automatically changes it in the other view. When you first map and size components, the streams in the simulator will be connected to the project components and the underlying process conditions of those streams are available for

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further use. For example, you may create new streams based on the properties of any stream, connected or not, then use these new streams as Sources/Sinks for connecting new components (you might do this to set up spares). You may also add a New Mapping to an item already mapped and the newly mapped and sized item utilizes the underlying stream properties. Creating A New Stream Streams can be created from scratch or by using a base stream. To create a stream from scratch: 1. Go to the Create tab view on the Develop Streams dialog box. Without selecting a stream from the Base Streams list, click Create. (The Basis selection will not matter.) The Create Stream dialog box appears.

2. Enter a name for the new stream in the Create Stream dialog box. This name must not be the same as any existing streams in the project. Click OK. The Develop Stream specifications form appears.

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See page 3-66 and 3-67 for descriptions of the buttons and fields on this form.

3. Enter values for the new stream. See page 3-71 for descriptions of the different fields. When done, click OK. To create a stream based on an existing stream: 1. At the Create tab view on the Develop Streams dialog box, select the stream to be used as the base.

2. Select the Basis mode. If the Basis mode is Relative, the data from the two streams will be linked so that when the base stream is changed the new stream will inherit these changes. If the Basis mode is Absolute, the data from the base stream is

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copied to the new stream at the time the new stream is created. Changes in a base stream will not affect a new stream created via Absolute basis. 3. Click Create. The Create Stream dialog box appears.

4. Enter a name for the new stream in the Create Stream window. This name must not be the same as any existing streams in the project. Click OK. Analyzer displays the specifications form for the newly created stream. The data is that of the Base Stream. Data appears gray (dimmed) to indicate that it is relative to a referenced Base Stream.

See page 3-66 and 3-67 for descriptions of the buttons and fields on this form.

Even in a Relative Stream, you may override any value with a manual entry. If you do so, the text turns black, indicating that that value is absolute and therefore no longer references a Base Stream.

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5. Make modifications to the data and click OK. Deleting a Stream To delete a stream: 1. At the Delete tab view, select the stream to be deleted. You may need to use the scrollbars to locate a stream if a large number of streams exist in the currently opened project.

Note: only user-added streams and streams added by the Sizing Expert as utilities can be deleted.

Click Delete. A dialog box will appear asking for confirmation of the delete action. 2. Click OK to delete the stream. – or – Click Cancel to retain the stream.

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Specification Libraries
The default specifications are derived from files that you can access, when outside of a project, from the Palette’s Libraries view.

It includes specification files for the following: Basis for Capital Costs Cost Libraries (see Chapter 7, “Developing and Using Cost Libraries”) Design Criteria Investment Parameters Operating Unit Costs Product Specifications Project Component Map Specifications Raw Material Specifications Simulator Units of Measure Mapping Specs Utility Specifications When you create a project scenario, Analyzer selects the specification file to use based upon the selected units of measure basis. However, you can right-click on any of the above Project Basis specification categories in Project Explorer, click Select on the pop-up menu, and select a different file from which to derive the default specifications.

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Customizing Specification Libraries

When no project is open, you can create your own specification files or edit existing files. Then, when in a project, you can select your specification files. For example, if you frequently created project scenarios that used the same design basis, you could create a Basis for Capital Costs specification file with those design basis specifications. Then you could just select this file, instead of entering the specifications every time. If, after making modifications to your libraries, you wish to revert to the original libraries, you can copy or import the copy of the installed libraries provided in the following folder: …\AspenTech\Aspen Icarus 12.2 2003\Program\Sys\Libraries

Creating a File

To create a specification file: 1. With no project open, go to the Libraries tab view in the Palette and expand the desired specification category. 2. Except for Investment Parameters and Project Component Map Specifications, right-click on the units of measure basis folder – Inch-Pound or Metric. For Investment Parameters, right-click on the Investment Parameters folder. For Project Component Map Specifications, right-click on the simulator type folder. On the pop-up menu, click New. The New [Specification Category] dialog box appears.

3. Enter a file name and, if desired, a file description. 4. Click OK. 5. Analyzer creates the file and displays the specifications in a separate window. 6. Edit the specifications just as in a project.

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When you are done, close the specifications window. If a library file is open, you cannot access another library file or open a project. See page 3-84 for instructions on selecting the newly created specification file to use in a project.
Modifying a File

To modify an existing specification file, right-click on it in the Palette (Libraries view) and click Modify on the pop-up menu. You can import specification files from elsewhere on your computer or network. To import a file: 1. In the Palette (Libraries view), expand the library to which you wish to import a file. 2. Except for Investment Parameters and Project Component Map Specifications, right-click on the units of measure basis folder – Inch-Pound or Metric. For Investment Parameters, right-click on the Investment Parameters folder. For Project Component Map Specifications, right-click on the simulator type folder. On the pop-up menu, click Import. 3. In the Select a File for Import dialog box, locate the file and then click Open.

Importing a File

The file is copied to the appropriate sub-folder.

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Duplicating a File

To duplicate a file: 1. In the Palette (Libraries view), right-click on the file you wish to duplicate, and then click Duplicate on the pop-up menu. 2. Enter a file name and description (optional) for the new file.

Click OK. Analyzer creates the file and displays the specifications in a separate window. 4. Edit the specifications just as in a project. When you are done, close the specifications window. If a library file is open, you cannot access another library file or open a project.
Deleting a File

To delete a specification file: In the Palette (Libraries view), right-click on the file to be deleted, and then click Delete on the pop-up menu. Note: You cannot delete files named Default, only modify them.

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Selecting to Use a Different Specification File

After creating a new specification file, you still need to select it in Project Explorer for Analyzer to use its specifications. To select a specification file: 1. In Project Explorer (Project Basis view), right-click on the Project Basis specification category and click Select on the pop-up menu.

Analyzer displays a dialog box listing the files available for the selected category.

2. Select a new file from which to derive default specifications and click OK. Changing File Directory Location If you decide to store specification library files in a directory other than the default, move the default files to the new location and recreate the same sub-folder arrangement. Otherwise, Icarus will generate an error when you point to the new location.

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Loading and Mapping Simulation Data

If the process you wish to evaluate in Analyzer is based on a simulator file report from a process simulator software program, the first step, after creating a project scenario and defining the Design Basis, is to load and map simulation data. Analyzer supports reports from the following simulators: • AspenTech’s Aspen Plus Version 12.1 • Chemstation’s ChemCAD for Windows Version 5.3.2 • Hyprotech’s HYSIM Version STD/C.271 • Hyprotech’s HYSYS Version 2.4.1 • SimSci’s PRO/II with PROVISION Version 5.1

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Preparing Simulation Reports
For Analyzer to load the simulation data, an appropriate ASCII output report needs to be generated from the simulator. Most simulators describe the various steps needed to generate ASCII reports. This section provides additional procedures to generate reports in an Analyzer-compatible format. The procedures provided here start with the default report generation options. If the default report generation options are not in use, it may be necessary to change them back to the default settings for creating an output report for Analyzer. Aspen Plus Report Generation Aspen Plus provides a template containing the property sets that a project needs in order to generate an output report for Analyzer. Note: If you use the template, the following component specification, if entered in AspenPlus, will need to be re-entered in IPE: Block – CCD STAGE EFFICIENCY To use the template, open the project in Aspen Plus and complete the following steps:
Note: If you use the template, the following component specifications, if entered in AspenPlus, will need to be re-entered in IPE: Block - CCD · STAGE EFFICIENCY Block - RADFRAC · PACKING RATE SECTION (s) · REBOILER EXIT PRESSURE · REBOILER EXIT TEMPERATURE · REBOILDER VAPOR FRACTION · REBOILER INLET MOLAR FLOW RATE COOLER AT STAGE (for a RADFRAC block) · FLOW RATE · PHASE · PRESSURE · TEMPERATURE

1. Click Import on the File menu. 2. Navigate to “Program Files\AspenTech\Aspen Icarus 12.2 2003\Program\Load.” (This is the default path; it may differ depending on where you installed Aspen Icarus.) 3. Depending on the simulation units of measure, select the appropriate simulator directory (e.g. Aspen Plus) and then the corresponding template. If you do not use the template, complete the following steps to create the required property sets in Aspen Plus for importing a report into Analyzer: 1. On the Data menu, click Properties. This will open the data browser to the property specifications. 2. In the data browser tree structure, open the folder Prop-Sets located in the Properties folder. 3. Click New to create a new property set. 4. Type a name for the property set or use the default name. Click OK. 5. In the Substream combo box, select All.

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6. Scroll down the list of available properties click those you wish to select. To start the scroll window, click in a physical properties cell: MASSVFRA MASSSFRA MASSFLMX VOLFLMX MASSFLOW TEMP PRES MWMX 7. The specifications for this property set are complete as indicated by the check mark displayed on the tree view of the data browser. 8. Click the Prop-Sets folder. You will see the property set you just created in the object manager and the status should be Input Complete. 9. Create the second property set by once again clicking New. 10. Type a name for the property set or use the default name. Click OK. 11. Click the Qualifiers tab. 12. In the cell labeled “Phase,” select Total. 13. Click the Properties tab. 14. In the Substream listbox, select ALL. KJ/KG-K BTU/LB-R 15. Now click the Units cell corresponding to the CPMX property and pick either of the following units: 16. The specifications for this property set are complete. 17. Click the Prop-Sets folder. The newly created property set will appear in the object manager with an input complete status. 18. Create the final property set needed by Analyzer by clicking New. 19. Type a name for the property set or use the default name. Click OK. 20. Click the Qualifiers tab. 21. In the Phase cell select Vapor. 22. Click the Properties tab.

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23. Select the following properties for this property set: VOLFLMX MASSFLMX KMX MUMX CPMX MWMX 24. Now click the Units cell corresponding to the CPMX property and pick either of the following units: KJ/KG-K BTU/LB-R 25. The creation of property sets is complete. Now these property sets need to be specified for use in the generation of a report. 26. If the Setup folder is not already expanded, expand it by clicking on the plus sign next to the folder symbol. 27. Click Report Options. 28. Click the Stream tab. 29. Click the Property Sets button. 30. Move the three property sets you just created to the Selected property sets box. 31. Click the > button to move them to the Selected property sets box. 32. Click Close. The specifications required for loading an Aspen Plus report file are now complete. You may close the data browser window. After running the simulation, you must create an output report by clicking Export on the File menu. In the Save As dialog box, use the drop-down menu to select Report Files (*.rep) or XML files (*.xml). Type a file name or accept the default value and then click Save. This will create the ASCII report file needed to load into Analyzer with the name given above. Note: The order on any of the tower models must be set to TOPDOWN in order for the tray information to get loaded into Analyzer correctly. This is the default setting. Aspen Plus Utilities If a unit operation block has a utility specified, the utility resource specifications and usage data will be transferred into Analyzer. After loading the simulator data, a preference screen will appear.
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Specify any missing data for the Aspen Plus utilities in order for the Aspen Plus utility to be properly handled. The Aspen Plus utilities will appear as new utility resources. The appropriate project components will use the specified utility resource, based on the Aspen Plus utility used in the simulation.

A message box will appear if utility resources are modified or deleted from the Aspen Plus simulation prior to a reload of data into Analyzer. You can choose to delete the old imported Aspen Plus utility resources in Analyzer, or just add/update existing imported utilities in Aspen Plus. Aspen Plus – Analyzer Simulator link A link from Aspen Plus to Analyzer allows you to load changes into Analyzer when simulation settings are changed in Aspen Plus. To load process simulator data through the Aspen Icarus link into a new Analyzer project scenario: 1. Run the simulation in Aspen Plus 2. From the File menu, click Send To and select Aspen Icarus. When the prompt appears, the Analyzer project name will be designated to be the name of the simulation file from Aspen Plus. Aspen Plus will designate the scenario name. If the scenario name is changed, any future attempts to run the link for the same project will result in a new Analyzer project being created. It is recommended that the scenario name designated by Aspen Plus be left as it is for maximum usability. 3. Click OK. The Project Properties dialog box appears.

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4. Specify the Project Description, Remarks, and the Units of Measure. Click OK. The Input Units of Measure Specifications dialog box appears. 5. Verify the Input Units of Measure Specifications and click OK. The General Project Data dialog box appears. 6. Verify the General Project Data and click OK. Analyzer displays a prompt to load the Simulator Data. 7. Click OK. If the simulation has specified units that are undefined, a prompt will appear to do so. Define all Aspen Plus units with those available in Analyzer. To load process simulator data through the Aspen Icarus link into an existing project scenario: 1. Run the simulation in Aspen Plus 2. From the File menu, click Send To and select Aspen Icarus. Analyzer displays a prompt to load simulator data. 3. Click OK. Since all other project basis settings have been specified, mapping and sizing can be performed at this time.

ChemCAD Report Generation

These instructions apply to both ChemCAD for Windows, Version 5.3.2, and for previous versions of ChemCAD. The specifications are the same for all versions. From the main menu, select Report from the Output menu. In ChemCAD for Windows, just select the Output menu from the menu bar. The following needs to be specified for report options: “Select Streams” Print All Streams: Y NOTE: Check box in ChemCAD for Windows “Select Unit Operations” Print All Unit Operations: Y NOTE: Check box in ChemCAD for Windows “Stream Properties”

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The following stream properties must be selected or de-selected as indicated below: Property OVERALL PROPERTIES Mass flow rate Mole flow rate Temperature Pressure Mole Vap frac Enthalpy Molecular wt. Total act.dens VAPOR PROPERTIES Mass flow rate Mole flow rate Molecular wt. Vap. Act. Dens Vap. Viscosity Vap. Cp Vap. Thrm. Cond Liq. Surf. Tens. LIQUID PROPERTIES Mole flow rate Molecular wt. Liq. act. Dens Liq. Viscosity Liq. Cp Liq. Thrm. Cond. SOLID PROPERTIES* Mass flow rate Molecular wt. Density PSD DISTILLATION OPTIONS Tray profile Tray properties Tray sizing Select X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X De-Select

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Property Packed column sizing TRAY COMPOSITIONS Mass flow rate *

Select X X

De-Select

Solid properties are located on Page 2 of Stream Properties in ChemCAD for Windows.

The component mass flow rates for individual streams must be included in the output report. This is specified by going to the Stream Flowrate/Composition menu under Reports/Output menu. Pick Mass Flowrate. If you wish Analyzer to use tray-sizing information from the simulator, then you must include the appropriate sizing information. This is specified to be included in the output report by going to the Distillation Summaries under the Reports/Output menu and selecting the appropriate sizing section (packed or trayed). After the completion of all these specification, generate the output report by selecting Calculate and Give Results. This should generate an output report. You may rename it if you wish. This is the file to be used as input for Analyzer. HYSIM Report Generation Copy the following .spc files from the ...\Aspen Icarus 12.2 2003\Program\Load\Hysim directory to your HYSIM working directory before generating output inside the simulator. MIXER.SPC TEE.SPC HTXRATE.SPC BALANCE.SPC CALC.SPC MASSBAL.SPC MOLEBAL.SPC For all other operations, use the default .spc files provided by Hyprotech. For HYSIM version 386|C2.12 or earlier, copy the stream format file STRSUM.FMT located in the Aspen Icarus 12.2 2003\Program\Load\Hysim directory to your HYSIM working directory. If you have HYSIM version STD:C2.63 and above, copy the stream format file STRSUM2.FMT located in the Aspen Icarus 12.2 2003\Program\Load\Hysim directory to your HYSIM working directory and rename it STRSUM.FMT. You will have to

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either delete or rename the existing STRSUM.FMT file to perform this. The output report generated from HYSIM should contain operation output (defined as spec_sheet in HYSIM) and the complete stream summary. Both of these outputs must be saved under the same file name. The information gets appended to the file and does not get overwritten. To generate the operation output and stream summary (Required): 1. Load the desired project inside HYSIM (*.sim). operation output stream summary 2. From the main menu, click Print. 3. From the print option, select File and click Enter. 4. Select the same file (file_name) as above and click Enter. 5. Click Print option and click Enter. 6. Select the Stream option and click Enter. 7. Inside the stream option, select Summary and press Enter. 8. The list of streams present in the current project is displayed. Select the <-> option for all the streams to be written in file_name. The above procedure creates the required report (file_name) which can be loaded into Analyzer and used for project evaluation. If sizing operations are performed inside the simulator and you desire the information to be carried over to Analyzer, the following steps must be performed in addition to the above procedure: 1. Load the desired project inside HYSIM (*.sim). sizing summary 2. From the main menu, click Size. 3. Inside the size option, choose the unit operation desired and click Enter. 4. Select the particular equipment (e.g. col-101) and click Enter. 5. Select auto_section or user_section and click Enter. 6. After the sizing calculations are performed, select Print. 7. Select File and click Enter. 8. Select the same file name (file_name) and click Enter. 9. Click Summary and click Enter.

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IMPORTANT NOTES: The operation names and stream names can not contain the following characters: +, -, *, or spaces The ASCII report has to be created in the default units specified by HYSIM for the ENGLISH and the SI modes of operation. You can run a simulation in any simulatorprovided units. However, prior to creating the report file, you must convert the units to the default specifications provided by HYSIM. During the sizing procedure for the column operation, if user_section is chosen, care should be taken to check that the stage numbers are not repeated in the different sections of the same column operation. The following two examples demonstrate the correct and incorrect specifications.
Correct user_section_1 : (start stage) 1 (end stage) 10 user_section_2: (start stage) 11 (end stage) 15 user_section_2 : Incorrect user_section_1 : (start stage) 1 (end stage) 10 (start stage) 3 (end stage) 15

The user_section name should not contain the following characters: +, -, * The report format should be such that the width of the report should be less than or equal to 4 streams wide. This can be accomplished from the format option provided in HYSIM. Stream summary should follow the operation output in the report, i.e. the order should be maintained. HYSYS Report Generation Analyzer’s External Simulation Import Tool imports HYSYS simulator data into Icarus database files, which you can then load into Analyzer. To import HYSYS simulation data for loading into Analyzer: 1. Click External Simulation Import Tool on the Tools menu. The Simulator Link dialog box appears.

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2. Click on the Browse button for the Simulator File field.

Select the process simulator project you created and click Open. 3. Click on the Browse button for the Export File field. The Export File will contain the exported simulation results data from the selected HYSYS project. Do not include any file extensions for this file. The import tool will automatically assign a “d01” extension to this file.

4. Select the location and enter the file name you want to be used to contain the exported data. You can also select an existing file. Click Save.

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5. Click Connect on the Simulator Link dialog box. HYSYS will be automatically started with the selected project. The following figure shows the file Cheplant.hsc in the HYSYS interface.

6. Click Export on the Simulator Link dialog box to start the process of exporting the simulation data from the selected HYSYS project into the Export File. Once finished, you will see five files with the name you gave to the “Export File”. These files contain the exported data. Note that these files should always go together, in case you want to copy them to another location. D:\test\cheplantn.d01 D:\test\cheplantn.d02 D:\test\cheplantn.d03 D:\test\cheplantn.d04 7. Click Disconnect on the Simulator Link dialog box. The tool will close HYSYS. If would like to keep HYSYS running and make changes to your simulation, you can use the “Export Again” button to export the data again into the “Export File”. 8. Exit the import tool. 9. Start Analyzer and create a new project. Select Hyprotech’s HYSYS as the Simulator Type. 10. When selecting the simulator report file, select the “Export File” (the file with the extension .d01) created using the import tool To load, map, and size this project, continue as described in this guide. Icarus database file

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SimSci’s PRO/II with PROVISION Report Generation

Two methods can be used for generating reports from PRO/II with PROVISION. The input keyword file (*.inp) may be altered to include the required print options using keywords for those using PRO/II directly or you may change the print options from within the PROVISION user interface. For either method, the operation names and stream names should not contain the following characters: +, * Note: When specifying sidestrippers, each sidestripper must be identified by a unique four-character name. Currently, sidestrippers are not always identified by their full usergiven names in PRO/II with PROVISION report files. Sometimes, they are identified by only the first four characters of the user-given names. Therefore, to properly load sidestripper information into Analyzer, sidestripper Unit identifiers (UID’s) must be used, which are only four characters long. To prepare the SimSci report in PROVISION: 1. From the Input menu, select Problem Description. Make sure that the Problem Identifier field is not blank; something must be entered. 2. From the Output menu, select Report Format. 3. From the Input menu, select Problem Description. Make sure that the Problem Identifier field is not blank; something must be entered. 4. From Report Format menu, select Miscellaneous Data. 5. Set the Report Width field to 80 Columns (the PROVISION default value). 6. From the Report Format menu, select Stream Properties. 7. Check Molar Flowrate and Weight Fraction. 8. From the Report Format menu select Unit Operations. 9. For each column unit operation: A. From the Unit Operations list, select Column. B. Click the Print Options button while unit is highlighted. C. Select Molecular Weights, Actual Densities, Actual Volumetric Flowrates, and Transport Properties and Flowing Enthalpies and Standard Liquid Densities from their respective column print options window. D. Click OK.

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E. Repeat for each remaining COLUMN unit operation in list. F. See the NOTE in the KEYWORD section regarding COLUMN sidestripper’s UID’s. 10. Click Close to finish. Use the default options for remaining unit operations.
Using Keywords

1. For General Print Options, use the following keywords: Print INPUT STREAM RATE WIDTH = ALL = ALL =M = 80

2. For COLUMN operations, use the following keyword: Print PROPTABLES = PART or ALL

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Loading Simulation Data
The following loading procedure translates the specified process simulator report file into Analyzer. To load process simulator data: 1. In Project Explorer, Project Basis view, right-click on Simulator Type in the Process Design folder and then click Edit.

The Select Simulator Type dialog box appears.

2. Select one type from the list and click OK. Analyzer displays a message saying what the new simulator type is.

Click OK.

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3. Right-click on Simulator File Name in the Process Design folder and then click Edit.

The Open dialog box appears, showing all simulator files in the Report folder. You can browse other drives and folders, as well.

4. Select a file and click Open. Note that the List view now displays the pathname of the selected simulator file when you select Simulator File Name in Project Explorer. 5. Click Data. on the toolbar or, from the Run menu, click Load

A confirmation window appears.

Click Yes. Analyzer loads the simulator data.

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When the loading of the data is finished, the Process view of Project Explorer is populated with simulator areas and simulator blocks.

Viewing Data Derived from Simulator

You can right-click on a block and click Modify on the pop-up menu to access simulator-derived data (read-only).

Click Cancel to close.

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Working with Block Flow Diagrams
Analyzer automatically generates a Block Flow Diagram (BFD) from a loaded simulator report. Providing a graphical representation of the process, the BFD displays computational blocks and their connections. The blocks in the diagram correspond to tree items displayed in the Project Explorer’s Process view. Color-coding of the blocks in both the Process view and the BFD agree; mapped items are displayed green and unmapped items are displayed yellow.

Displaying the Block Flow Diagram

To display the Block Flow Diagram: Select Block Flow Diagram from the View menu. The BFD appears in the Main Window.

A block can be moved by clicking on the center of the block and dragging it to the desired location. Doing so will also move the streams connected to the block. If the simulator data is reloaded, Analyzer regenerates the block and stream locations.

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In addition to the blocks displayed in the Process view, the BFD displays streams, direction of stream flows, inlets, and outlets. The commands on the View menu change when the BFD is active. (See “Block Flow Diagram View Menu” on page 4-22 more information.) The Drag & Find Feature There is a quick and easy way to find a block on the BFD. Drag the block from the Project Explorer’s Process view and drop it anywhere in the BFD. The part of the BFD displayed changes so that the block you want to find appears in the upper-left corner of the Main Window.

Drag a block from Project Explorer (Process view) to the BFD

Analyzer finds the block on the diagram

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Accessing Commands in the Block Flow Diagram
Block commands

Right-clicking on blocks in the BFD accesses the same commands available when you right-click on a block in Project Explorer’s Process view.

Clicking Modify accesses simulator-derived data (read-only), as shown on page 4-17. The Map command and Delete Mappings command are explained in the next section, “Mapping Simulator Items to Icarus Project Components,” starting on page 4-23. Alteration of mapping will alter the blocks color based on its status.
5

Stream commands

You can double-click on a stream to access the Develop Stream specifications form. This form is explained on page 3-70. You can use the Zoom In and Zoom Out buttons to increase or decrease the magnification by degrees:

Zooming

You can also select an exact magnification by using the Zoom dialog box. To use the Zoom dialog box: 1. Click Zoom on the View menu The Zoom dialog box appears.

2. Mark the desired magnification, or mark Custom and enter a percentage between 10 and 1,000. 3. Click OK to change magnification and close the dialog box.

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Or click Cancel to close the dialog box without changing magnification. The Zoom dialog box also has two options that affect printing: Fit into one page Mark this box to have Analyzer re-size the BFD to fit onto one page when printed. This automatically selects the next option, What-You-See-Is-What-You-Get, since the screen image will reflect the size required to fit on one printed page. What-You-See-Is-What-You-Get (WYSIWYG) When WYSIWYG is unchecked, zooming in or out will only affect the magnification factor on the screen, while the printer always prints at 100%. However, if WYSIWYG is checked, the magnification factor on the printer will be changed so that the printed image will have the same size as the image appearing on the screen.

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Block Flow Diagram View Menu
The View menu contains some options that are only displayed when the Block Flow Diagram is active.

Toolbar – View or hide the toolbar. See page 2-21 for descriptions of toolbar buttons. Status Bar – View or hide the status bar. See page 2-11 for description of the status bar. Project Explorer - View or hide Project Explorer. See page 2-12 for description of Project Explorer. Palette - View or hide the Palette. See page 2-17 for description of the Palette. Properties Window – View or hide the Properties Window. See page 219 for a description of the Properties Window. Workbook Mode – Turn Workbook Mode on and off. See page 2-13 for an explanation of Workbook Mode. Capital Costs View – Launch Aspen Icarus Reporter. The Project Evaluation needs to have already been run. See Chapter 8, “Evaluating the Project,” for details. Investment Analysis View –Display Investment Analysis spreadsheets. See “Reviewing Investment Analysis” on page 9-77 for instructions. Block Flow Diagram – Display Block Flow Diagram of the loaded simulator data. Process Flow Diagram – Display Process Flow Diagram. This command is not active until you have mapped the simulator items. Streams List – Display a read-only list of all simulator-derived stream properties in a spreadsheet. You can customize some of the features of the spreadsheet (which stream properties to display, whether to display names of the properties, and the display style of the property values) by editing the stream list template file: ...\Aspen Icarus 12.2 2003\Data\ICS\strlist.fil Grid Visible – View or hide grid lines. Snap to Grid – Move blocks in increments corresponding to the grid lines when dragging to new location. Show Page Bounds – View or hide page separation lines. When displayed, you can see where page breaks will be when printing. Ports Visible – View or hide ports in the Process Flow Diagram. Does not apply to Block Flow Diagram. Zoom – Access Zoom tool. See page 4-20.

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Mapping Simulator Items to Icarus Project Components
Mapping is the process of converting each simulator block (i.e., model or unit operation) into one or more Icarus project components. To map simulator items: 1. If you want to map all items, access the Map dialog box by doing one of the following: • • Click − or − From the Run menu, click Map Items. If you want to map a single block or all blocks in an area, rightclick on the block or area in Process view and then click Map on the pop-up menu. on the toolbar.

You can also right-click on a block in the Block Flow Diagram and click Map on the pop-up menu.

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The Map dialog box appears.

If you clicked the Map button on the toolbar or clicked Map Items on the Run menu, only the Map All Items checkbox is available in the Source section. If you selected Map from a pop-up menu, both Map Selected Item(s) – the default choice – and Map All Items is available.

2. Select the desired mapping options. Option Source Map Selected Item(s) Map the selected simulator block or the simulator blocks in the selected simulator area. This option is available only if you selected Map from a pop-up menu. Map all simulator items in the project. Map a block according to the last time it was mapped. This option retains only the type of Icarus project component(s) to which the block was last mapped. Use the Component Map Specs file for the basis. Use the Component Map Specs file for the basis, but override the mapping using specific data in the simulator. For example, if you select this option and a reboiler type is specified in the simulator report, an equivalent reboiler type will be used in the mapping. Description

Map All Items Basis Last Mapping

Default Default and Simulator Data

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Option

Description Further, if the "Preferences>Process>Use Automatic Mapping Selection when Available" was selected, then additional engineering rules of thumb will be used for a selected category of equipments (e.g., pumps, compressors, and heat exchangers) to come up the mapping recommendations. (Note: Currently this mode is active only when blocks are mapped one at a time.) Users are encouraged to review these recommendations and either accept them or select a different equipment type based on their knowledge of their processes and practices.

Options Size Icarus Project Component(s) Size the mapped Icarus project component(s). If you are mapping a single item to a single component that can be sized using the interactive Sizing Expert (see list on page 6-1), the Interactive Sizing form will appear after mapping. Otherwise, Analyzer uses its automatic sizing. Although the Sizing Expert is unavailable when sizing multiple components, you can still use it later (assuming the component is one of those that can be sized interactively). Just right-click on the mapped component and click Re-Size on the pop-up menu. Click OK. The Project Component Map Preview dialog box appears.

See Chapter 6 for instructions on using the Sizing Expert.

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All simulator items are displayed because Map all Items was selected at the previous dialog box. Those components being mapped have asterisks next to them.

If you selected Map Selected Item(s) at the Map dialog box, the Simulator Items list displays just the selected simulator block(s). If you selected Map all Items, the Simulator Items list displays all simulator blocks. The Current Map List displays the components, if any, that are already mapped to the simulator block highlighted on the Simulation List. The Configuration option box is active only for blocks representing column models. (In the sample project, Block B7 represents a column model.) You must use the arrow scroll buttons to see all 10 possible configurations. Selecting a configuration type automatically fills in the Current Map List with the components required for that configuration type. See “Tower Configurations” on page 4-32 for more information. 3. Click New Mapping to map a block highlighted on the Simulator Items list to an Icarus project component. If the simulator block represents a column model that does not yet have all its required mappings, the Select a Suffix dialog box appears, listing the types of components (indicated by suffixes that appear at the end of Item Descriptions on the List view) that still need to be mapped to the block.

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See Tower Configurations on page 4-29 for more information.

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Suffix bottoms split bot exchanger bottoms pump cond cond acc ovhd exchanger overhead split ovhd pump precooler reb reflux pump tower trim other spray cond spray cond exit pump sc tot recycle splitter sc cooler

To indicate bottoms splitter bottoms exchanger bottoms pump condenser for the tower condenser accumulator overhead exchanger overhead splitter overhead pump first heat exchanger in “split” configuration” reboiler for the tower reflux pump main tower second heat exchanger in “split” configuration” user-selectable. Spray condenser Pump for recirculating the spray condenser exit Splitter in Spray Condenser Configuration that generates the total recycle stream Heat exchanger in the Spray Condenser Configuration that cools the entire total recycle stream Trim splitter in Spray Condenser Configuration 2 (page 4-44) Heat exchanger in the Spray Condenser Configuration that cools the entire total recycle stream

sc tot recycle trim splitter sc trim

Select a suffix and click OK.

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The Icarus Project Component Selection dialog box appears.

4. Select a component. The Project Component Map Preview dialog box now displays the component category's item symbol (e.g., AG) and the component type (e.g., DIRECT) in the Current Map List. More component details are displayed in the Icarus Project Component Description section.

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By default, the Component Name field contains the block name. You may want to modify it to be more descriptive and to distinguish the component from others to which the block has also been mapped. This can be as simple as adding a descriptor at the end.

Each component mapped from the block must have a unique name; if another component already has the default component name, Analyzer prompts you to enter a unique name after you select another component. 5. Click OK to complete the mapping. If you selected to size the mapped component(s), Analyzer also performs automatic sizing or, in cases in which a single item is being mapped to a single component for which interactive sizing is available, the Interactive Sizing form appears. See Chapter 6, “Sizing Project Components,” for information on this feature. With the block now mapped, the List view displays the components mapped from the simulator block.

Component Status

You may notice a "?" in the Status column of a project component mapped from the simulator block. This indicates that there are still specifications that need to be entered for the component. To enter the specifications, right-click on the component and click Modify

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Item on the pop-up menu. Entering specifications in the required fields will change the status to OK. Required fields are indicated by color-coding explained on page 5-7, under “Entering Component Specifications”. If you do not enter the specifications and the "?" remains in the Status column, the item will not be included in the project evaluation and will have "0" cost associated with it. It will not cause SCAN messages. Deleting Mappings To delete mappings, right-click on the simulator area or simulator block in Process view and then click Delete on the pop-up menu.

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Tower Configurations
Since a column may be mapped to multiple pieces of equipment, Analyzer requires that you select a tower configuration at the Project Component Map Preview dialog box.

There are 10 possible configurations for selection:

• • • • • • • • • •

Standard – Single Standard – Total Standard – Total w/Circ. Standard – Split Standard – Split Total Standard – Split Total w/Circ. Full – Single Full – Single w.Circ. Full – Split Full – Split w/Circ.
Full configurations include the following equipment not found in standard configurations: overhead pump, overhead product heat exchanger, bottoms product pump, and bottoms product heat exchanger.

"Single" and "Split" refer to the number of overhead condensers, "Split" signifying multiple condensers. "Total" indicates that the reflux pump handles the total outlet liquid flow from the accumulator. In such configurations, the splitting into a reflux and overhead liquid product occurs after the reflux pump. "Circ." indicates that there is a pump between the bottoms splitter and the reboiler giving a forced circulation configuration around the reboiler.
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Tower Configurations (continued)
Based on the tower configuration selected, Analyzer automatically creates a model for each tower block and then maps the model to an Icarus project component. In addition, you can specify how the condenser requirements should be split between the Precooler and the Trim cooler in the Design Criteria File. In the event that subcooling is present, the precooler will completely condense the overhead vapor and the trim cooler will perform the subcooling; the split specification in the Design Criteria file will be ignored when subcooling is present. The following figures display the possible configurations. The default item description suffixes (see page 4-28) are used to identify the configuration parts, each of which is mapped to an Icarus project component.

Standard - Single

CONDENSER (Cond) CONDENSER EXIT OVERHEAD VAPOR EXIT OVERHEAD VAPOR PRODUCT

ACCUMULATOR (Cond Acc)

MAIN TOWER (Tower)

REFLUX

ACCUMULATOR EXIT

WATER

REFLUX PUMP

OVERHEAD SPLIT

OVERHEAD LIQUID PRODUCT

FEED BOTTOMS RETURN

REBOILER (Reb) BOTTOMS EXIT

BOTTOMS SPLIT

BOTTOMS SPLIT EXIT BOTTOMS LIQUID PRODUCT

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Tower Configurations (continued)
Standard – Total
CONDENSER (Cond) CONDENSER EXIT OVERHEAD VAPOR EXIT OVERHEAD VAPOR PRODUCT

ACCUMULATOR (Cond Acc)

MAIN TOWER (Tower)

REFLUX

OVERHEAD SPLIT

REFLUX PUMP EXIT

WATER ACCUMULATOR EXIT

REFLUX PUMP

OVERHEAD LIQUID PRODUCT

FEED BOTTOMS RETURN

REBOILER (Reb) BOTTOMS EXIT

BOTTOMS SPLIT

BOTTOMS SPLIT EXIT BOTTOMS LIQUID PRODUCT

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Tower Configurations (continued)
Standard – Total w/ Circ.
CONDENSER (Cond) CONDENSER EXIT OVERHEAD VAPOR EXIT OVERHEAD VAPOR PRODUCT

ACCUMULATOR (Cond Acc)

MAIN TOWER (Tower)

REFLUX

OVERHEAD SPLIT

REFLUX PUMP EXIT

WATER ACCUMULATOR EXIT

REFLUX PUMP

OVERHEAD LIQUID PRODUCT

FEED BOTTOMS RETURN

REBOILER (Reb) BOTTOMS EXIT CIRCULATION PUMP EXIT BOTTOMS SPLIT EXIT CIRCULATION PUMP (circ pump)

BOTTOMS SPLIT

BOTTOMS LIQUID PRODUCT

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Loading and Mapping Simulation Data • 4-35

Tower Configurations (continued)
Standard – Split

PRECOOLER

TRIM COOLER (Trim) TRIM COOLER EXIT

OVERHEAD VAPOR EXIT

PRECOOLER EXIT

OVERHEAD VAPOR PRODUCT

ACCUMULATOR (Cond Acc)

MAIN TOWER (Tower)

REFLUX

ACCUMULATOR EXIT

WATER

REFLUX PUMP

OVERHEAD SPLIT

OVERHEAD LIQUID PRODUCT

FEED BOTTOMS RETURN

REBOILER (Reb) BOTTOMS EXIT

BOTTOMS SPLIT

BOTTOMS SPLIT EXIT BOTTOMS LIQUID PRODUCT

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Tower Configurations (continued)
Standard – Split Total

PRECOOLER

TRIM COOLER (Trim) TRIM COOLER EXIT

OVERHEAD VAPOR EXIT

PRECOOLER EXIT

OVERHEAD VAPOR PRODUCT

ACCUMULATOR (Cond Acc)

MAIN TOWER (Tower) REFLUX

OVERHEAD SPLIT REFLUX PUMP EXIT

ACCUMULATOR EXIT

WATER

REFLUX PUMP

FEED BOTTOMS RETURN

OVERHEAD LIQUID PRODUCT

REBOILER (Reb) BOTTOMS EXIT

BOTTOMS SPLIT

BOTTOMS SPLIT EXIT BOTTOMS LIQUID PRODUCT

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Tower Configurations (continued)
Standard – Split Total w/ Circ.

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Tower Configurations (continued)
Full – Single
CONDENSER (Cond) CONDENSER EXIT OVERHEAD VAPOR EXIT OVERHEAD VAPOR PRODUCT

ACCUMULATOR (Cond Acc)

MAIN TOWER (Tower)

REFLUX

ACCUMULATOR EXIT

WATER

OVERHEAD PUMP EXIT OVERHEAD LIQUID PRODUCT

REFLUX PUMP

OVERHEAD SPLIT OVERHEAD PRODUCT PUMP (Ovhd pump)

OVERHEAD EXCHANGER (Ovhd exch)

FEED BOTTOMS RETURN

REBOILER (Reb) BOTTOMS EXIT

BOTTOMS SPLIT

BOTTOMS SPLIT EXIT BOTTOMS PUMP EXIT BOTTOMS LIQUID PRODUCT

BOTTOMS PUMP

BOTTOMS EXCHANGER (Bot exch)

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Loading and Mapping Simulation Data • 4-39

Tower Configurations (continued)
Full - Single w/ Circ.
CONDENSER (Cond) CONDENSER EXIT OVERHEAD VAPOR EXIT OVERHEAD VAPOR PRODUCT

ACCUMULATOR (Cond Acc)

MAIN TOWER (Tower)

REFLUX

ACCUMULATOR EXIT

WATER

OVERHEAD PUMP EXIT OVERHEAD LIQUID PRODUCT

REFLUX PUMP

OVERHEAD SPLIT OVERHEAD PRODUCT PUMP (Ovhd pump)

OVERHEAD EXCHANGER (Ovhd exch)

FEED BOTTOMS RETURN

REBOILER (Reb) BOTTOMS EXIT CIRCULATION PUMP EXIT BOTTOMS SPLIT EXIT CIRCULATION PUMP (circ pump)

BOTTOMS SPLIT

BOTTOMS PUMP EXIT

BOTTOMS PUMP

BOTTOMS EXCHANGER (Bot exch)

BOTTOMS LIQUID PRODUCT

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Tower Configurations (continued)
Full – Split
PRECOOLER PRECOOLER EXIT OVERHEAD VAPOR EXIT TRIM COOLER (Trim) TRIM COOLER EXIT OVERHEAD VAPOR PRODUCT

ACCUMULATOR (Cond Acc)

MAIN TOWER (Tower)

REFLUX

ACCUMULATOR EXIT

WATER

OVERHEAD PUMP EXIT OVERHEAD LIQUID PRODUCT

REFLUX PUMP

OVERHEAD SPLIT OVERHEAD PRODUCT PUMP (Ovhd pump)

OVERHEAD EXCHANGER (Ovhd exch)

FEED BOTTOMS RETURN

REBOILER (Reb) BOTTOMS EXIT

BOTTOMS SPLIT

BOTTOMS SPLIT EXIT BOTTOMS PUMP EXIT BOTTOMS LIQUID PRODUCT

BOTTOMS PUMP

BOTTOMS EXCHANGER (Bot exch)

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Loading and Mapping Simulation Data • 4-41

Tower Configurations (continued)
Full – Split w/ Circ.
PRECOOLER PRECOOLER EXIT OVERHEAD VAPOR EXIT TRIM COOLER (Trim)
TRIM COOLER EXIT

OVERHEAD VAPOR PRODUCT

ACCUMULATOR (Cond Acc)

MAIN TOWER (Tower)

REFLUX

ACCUMULATOR EXIT

WATER

OVERHEAD PUMP EXIT OVERHEAD LIQUID PRODUCT

REFLUX PUMP

OVERHEAD SPLIT OVERHEAD PRODUCT PUMP (Ovhd pump)

OVERHEAD EXCHANGER (Ovhd exch)

FEED BOTTOMS RETURN

REBOILER (Reb) BOTTOMS EXIT CIRCULATION PUMP EXIT BOTTOMS SPLIT EXIT CIRCULATION PUMP (circ pump) BOTTOMS PUMP EXIT BOTTOMS LIQUID PRODUCT

BOTTOMS SPLIT

BOTTOMS PUMP

BOTTOMS EXCHANGER (Bot exch)

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Tower Configurations (continued)
Spray Cond Config 1 w/ Circ.

Note: Flow rate of the Spray Cond Total Recycle (SCTR) stream is calculated using Ratio of Recycle to (Ovhdliqprod + Reflux) Flowrates = mSCTR / (mOVH LIQ PROD+ mREFLUX). Ratio of Recycle to (Ovhdliqprod + Reflux) Flowrates is an input specified in the Design Criteria. mSCTR = mass flow rate of the SCTR stream. mOVH LIQ PROD = mass flow rate of the Overhead Liquid Product stream. mREFLUX = mass flow rate of the Reflux stream.
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Loading and Mapping Simulation Data • 4-43

Tower Configurations (continued) Spray Cond Config 2 w/ Circ.

The duty for the “SC COOLER” and “SC TRIM” exchangers are calculated using Ratio of SC Trim Duty to Overall Duty = QSCTRIM / QCONDENSER QCONDENSER = QSCTRIM + QSCCOOLER Where Ratio of SC Trim Duty to Overall Duty is an input specified in the Design Criteria QSCTRIM = “Spray Condenser Cooler” Duty QSCCOOLER = “Spray Condenser Trim” Duty QCONDENSER = Total Overhead Condenser Duty, obtained from Simulator Data Then the temperatures of the streams exiting the Spray Condenser Cooler and Spray Condenser Trim exchangers are calculated using an Q = mCpDeltaT calculation. Flow rate of the streams exiting the SC Tot Recycle Trim Splitter are determined using: SC Trim Splitter Flow Split Ratio = mSCRTSEx1 / mSCCEx mSCCEx = (mSCRTSEx1 + mSCRTSEx2) SC Trim Splitter Flow Split Ratio is an input specified in the Design Criteria mSCCEx = mass flow rate of the “SC Cooler Exit” Stream mSCRTSEx1 = mass flow rate of the “SC Rcy Trim Splitter Ex1” Stream (this is the one that subsequently goes through the SC TRIM exchanger) mSCRTSEx2= mass flow rate of the “SC Rcy Trim Splitter Ex2” Stream

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Specifying Additional Components
Icarus project components can be added to areas mapped from a simulator report. However, these project components must initially be added in a user-added area. You can later rearrange the components in Project Explorer’s Project view, drag components from a user-added area to an area mapped from the simulator report. Follow the instructions for adding a project component on page 54. If the component you add is process equipment, Analyzer adds an icon representing the new equipment item in the upper left-hand corner of the Process Flow Diagram (PFD). The next section, “Working with Process Flow Diagrams,” includes instructions (under “Editing Connectivity” on page 4-49) for connecting an added component to a stream in PFD view.

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Loading and Mapping Simulation Data • 4-45

Working with Process Flow Diagrams
Process Flow Diagrams (PFD) provide graphical representations of Icarus process equipment mapped from simulator blocks and the interconnecting streams. You can edit the layout and connectivity of the mapped items from PFD view. You can also add streams. Analyzer provides intelligent port selection, so that when drawing a stream you see the candidate ports highlighted in green as you move the cursor over them. To access PFD view, click Process Flow Diagram on the View menu.

Use the Drag-and-Find feature to locate any equipment item on the PFD. Drag an equipment item from Project Explorer (Project view) and drop it on the PFD. The icon in the PFD that corresponds to the selected equipment will be positioned in the upper left-hand corner (regardless of magnification).

Editing the Layout

To change the position of an item, use your mouse to drag the item to its new position. Analyzer reroutes any streams connected to the item. To change the route of a stream, click on the stream, then drag the stream to straighten it or to create an elbow-bend. Note that if you eventually select Reroute All Streams from the Run menu, Analyzer chooses the most logical routes for all streams.

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Process Flow Diagram View Menu
The View menu contains some options that are only displayed when the Block Flow Diagram is active.

Toolbar – View or hide the toolbar. See page 2-21 for descriptions of toolbar buttons. Status Bar – View or hide the status bar. See page 2-11 for description of the status bar. Project Explorer - View or hide Project Explorer. See page 2-12 for description of Project Explorer. Palette - View or hide the Palette. See page 2-17 for description of the Palette. Properties Window – View or hide the Properties Window. See page 219 for a description of the Properties Window. Workbook Mode – Turn Workbook Mode on and off. See page 2-13 for an explanation of Workbook Mode. Capital Costs View – Launch Aspen Icarus Reporter. The Project Evaluation needs to have already been run. See Chapter 8, “Evaluating the Project,” for details. Investment Analysis View –Display Investment Analysis spreadsheets. See “Reviewing Investment Analysis” on page 9-77 for instructions. Block Flow Diagram – Display Block Flow Diagram of the loaded simulator data. Process Flow Diagram – Display Process Flow Diagram. This command is not active until you have mapped the simulator items. Streams List – Display a read-only list of all simulator-derived stream properties in a spreadsheet. You can customize some of the features of the spreadsheet (which stream properties to display, whether to display names of the properties, and the display style of the property values) by editing the stream list template file: ...\Aspen Icarus 12.2 2003\Data\ICS\strlist.fil Grid Settings – Access Grid Properties dialog box, where you can set the grid increments and select to view or hide grid lines. Snap to Grid – Move blocks in increments corresponding to the grid lines when dragging to new location. Show Page Bounds – View or hide page separation lines. When displayed, you can see where page breaks will be when printing. Ports Visible – View or hide ports. Zoom – Access Zoom tool. This is the same as in the Block Flow Diagram (see page 4-20). Add Stream – Access the Develop Streams dialog box. See “Adding A Stream,” page 4-50, for details. Draw Disconnected Stream – Access the Disconnected Streams dialog box. See “Drawing Disconnected Streams,” page 4-52, for details. Edit Connectivity – Activate the Edit Connectivity feature. See “Editing Connectivity,” page 4-49, for details.

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Loading and Mapping Simulation Data • 4-47

Setting Grid Properties

You can select to display grids of any increments. In addition, you can select the color of the grids and whether to be in Snap to Grid mode. To set grid properties: 1. Click Grid Settings on the View menu. The Grid Properties dialog appears.

2. Set the Across and Down grid increments in the Increments section. Specify in the Units section whether the specified increments are in inches or centimeters. 3. Mark the Snap to Grid check box to turn on Snap to Grid mode. When you drag a block in this mode, the block’s bounding outline moves in increments corresponding to the grid. 4. Click Color to select a grid color. 5. Finally, in the Visibility section, select whether to show or hide the grid. Click OK to apply the settings.

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Editing Connectivity
Ports Visible button

The Edit Connectivity feature allows you to make changes to the layout of items in the PFD. Since this involves connecting and disconnecting streams to ports, the Ports Visible option should be on, as it is by default. To connect a stream to a different inlet port: 1. Click the Edit Connectivity button on the toolbar: 2. Place the cursor over the end of the stream you wish to connect to a different inlet port. The cursor becomes an arrow. 3. Click on the end of the stream. The cursor now appears as a crosshairs. 4. Move the cursor to another inlet port. When the cursor is in close proximity to a component, the component's available inlet ports display green. 5. Click on the new inlet port.

Connecting a Stream to Different Inlet Port

Connecting an Added Project Component to a Stream

Project components that you add to the project appear in the upper left-hand corner of the PFD and are not connected to any streams. To connect an added project component to a stream: 1. Click the Edit Connectivity button: 2. Place the cursor over the added project component that you wish to insert into an existing stream. The cursor becomes a hand. 3. Click on the component. A bounding outline, representing the component, appears around the cursor. 4. Move the cursor over a stream. Click when you have placed the cursor over the desired stream.

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Loading and Mapping Simulation Data • 4-49

Analyzer disconnects the Sink end of the stream from the inlet port on the current component, then automatically re-connects it to the inlet port on the inserted component. Analyzer also creates a new stream, which appears white and has properties relative to the initial stream. Analyzer connects the Source end of this new stream to the outlet port of the inserted item and the Sink and to the inlet port of the original. The added item can now be sized manually or using the Size Item option, which either automatically sizes the item or, if interactive sizing is available, accesses the Sizing Expert. The Sizing Expert, explained in Chapter 6, will utilize the newly connected streams.

Adding a Stream

From PFD view, you can create a new stream and specify its connectivity. The process of developing streams is explained in detail under “Developing Streams,” page 3-69. To add a stream: 1. Click the Add Stream button on the toolbar: The Develop Streams dialog box appears.

2. In the Base Stream section, select a steam to use as a basis.

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3. In the Basis section, select a Basis Mode: Absolute If the Basis Mode is Absolute, the data from the base stream is copied to the new stream at the time the new stream is created. If the data of the base stream is altered at any time after this point, the data of the new stream remains unchanged. Relative If the Basis Mode is Relative, the new stream’s data is dynamically linked to that of the stream on which it’s based. This means that alterations to the data of the base stream immediately affect the new stream. 4. Click Create. The Create Stream dialog box appears.

5. Type a name in the Stream Name field and click OK. The Develop Streams specifications form appears. 6. Make any desired modifications and click OK. 7. Move the cursor, which appears as a square, to an outlet port. Analyzer provides intelligent port selection, highlighting the candidate ports in green. Click when you have placed the cursor over the desired outlet port. 8. Move the cursor, which now appears as crosshairs, to an inlet port. Click when you have placed the cursor over the desired inlet port.

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Loading and Mapping Simulation Data • 4-51

Drawing a Disconnected Stream

To draw a disconnected stream: 1. Click the Draw Disconnected Stream button on the toolbar: The Disconnected Streams dialog box appears.

2. Select a stream and click OK. 3. Draw the stream as described in the previous instructions for Adding a Stream. Working with Streams Right-clicking on a stream accesses a pop-up menu with the following commands. Select Modify In order to Access the Develop Stream dialog box listing the stream’s specifications, which you can modify. Erase the stream from the screen and store it, so that you can select it when using the Draw Disconnected Stream feature (see above). Reconnect the stream to a new inlet port. Delete the stream.

Disconnect

Reconnect Source Reconnect the stream to a new outlet port. Reconnect Sink Delete

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Defining Project Components

See Icarus Reference for information on individual components.

When developing an Analyzer project, project components can be added in Project view to user-defined areas (areas not mapped from the simulation report). Once added, you may drag them to different areas. Project components are the pieces of the process plant (or mill) that, when linked together, complete a process. Components are categorized as follows: Category Process Equipment Plant Bulks To define Equipment for gas, liquids and solids handling and off-site/packaged systems. Material commodities that service a section of the plant or the whole plant. Plant bulks are divided into categories: Piping, Civil, Steel, Instrumentation, Electrical, Insulation and Paint. Modifications that must be done to the site. Site development items are divided into categories: Demolition, Drainage, Earthwork, Fencing, Landscaping, Roads-Slabs-Paving, Piling and Railroads. Civil structures directly involved in the process or for off-site use. A way to enter special equipment not found in Process Equipment above. Items from a Unit Cost Library. See Chapter 7, “Developing and Using Cost Libraries.” Items from an Equipment Model Library. See Chapter 7, “Developing and

Site Development

Buildings Quoted Equipment Unit Cost Library

Equipment Model Library

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Defining Project Components • 5-1

Using Cost Libraries.”

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Adding an Area
To add an area: 1. In Project Explorer’s Project view, right-click on the Main Project folder.

2. Click Add Area on the pop-up menu. The Area Information dialog box appears.

3. Define the area, including name, type, and dimensions. The Area Type determines how equipment will be installed in the area. See Chapter 36 of Icarus Reference for information. 4. Click OK. Project Explorer now displays the new area.

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Defining Project Components • 5-3

Adding a Project Component
Analyzer provides two methods for adding a project component:
• Drag-and-drop

Drag a component from the Palette to an area on Project Explorer’s Project view and enter an item description. This adds the component to the area without displaying the Component Specifications form; the specifications are left to be entered at your convenience.
• Pop-up menu

Right-click on an area and click Add Project Component from the pop-up menu, then select a component from the Project Component Selection dialog box and enter an item description. This adds the component and also displays the Component Specifications form, where you can complete the component definition right away. Method 1: Dragging a Component from the Palette To add a component using the drag-and-drop method: 1. With the Palette (Components view) and Project Explorer (Project view) displayed, drag a component from the components list to an area on the Project Explorer.

Note: The Recent Items folder in the Components view stores the last 10 project component selections.

To drag: click on the component and hold down the mouse button, Move the cursor until over an area, and release the mouse button.

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The New Component Information dialog box appears.

2. Enter an item description (required) and User Tag Number (optional), then click OK. The component is added. Project Explorer displays a block for the component under the selected area. The List view displays general information. You may notice a question mark (?) in the Status column on the List view. This indicates that there are still specifications that need to be entered for the component. To enter the specifications, follow the instructions under “Entering Component Specifications” on page 5-7. Method 2: Using the Pop-Up Menu To add a component using the pop-up menu: 1. In Project Explorer, Project view, right-click on a nonsimulator area and click Add Project Component on the pop-up menu.

The Project Component Selection dialog box appears.

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Defining Project Components • 5-5

2. Enter the Project Component Name. 3. Highlight the category to which the desired equipment belongs (process equipment, plant bulks, site development, buildings, quoted equipment) and click OK. Analyzer displays a list of sub-categories. Continue to narrow down the selection to a specific component. Then click OK. The component is added to the area. The Component Specifications form is automatically displayed. You can either complete the definition of the equipment item now or later.

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Entering Component Specifications
After adding a component, you still need to enter at least some component specifications to complete the component’s definition. Many component specifications have default values used when no value is entered, but most component specifications require further input. If a component added still has any specifications requiring input, a question mark (?) appears in the status column of the List view for that component. You do not have to enter specifications immediately upon adding a component; you may wish to wait until more information about a project becomes available. As more information about a project becomes available, you may also wish to modify previously entered component specifications. The following instructions apply as well to modifying previously entered specifications. To enter or modify component specifications: 1. If the Component Specifications form is not already displayed in the Main Window, display the form by right-clicking on the component and clicking Modify Item on the pop-up menu. You can right-click on the component in either Project Explorer (Project view) or List view (Area level) Double-clicking on the component will also display the Specifications form.
Color coding Red Border: An entry must be made in the field. All specifications forms have at least one required entry field. Green Borders and Thick Gray Borders: An entry must be made in either the field with the thick gray border or in the two fields with the green borders. The field with the thick gray borders and the fields with the green borders are mutually exclusive. In the form pictured to the right, either the pump size must be selected or the fluid head and liquid flow rate must be entered. The Properties Window notes this in the Description.

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Defining Project Components • 5-7

While on either the component or installation bulks specifications form, you can quickly determine the net effect of all your changes by clicking the Evaluate button and reviewing the resulting report. See page 8-63 for more information.

2. Enter the specifications. Fields with red borders are required. If there’s a combination of two fields with green borders and one with a thick gray border, an entry must be made either in the two fields with the green borders or in the field with the thick gray border. 3. To define installation bulks for the component, click the Options drop-down and select the type of bulks to define.

See “Defining Installation Bulks” on page 5-9 for a complete description of installation bulks. 4. After defining the component and installation bulks, save the specifications form by clicking OK.

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Defining Installation Bulks
Installation bulks are items directly associated with the component being defined and are used to complete the installation of the item, e.g., a foundation for a vessel. The difference between an installation bulk and a plant bulk is that an installation bulk is associated with a component, whereas a plant bulk services the whole plant or mill. Installation bulks may be defined when entering or modifying equipment or plant bulk specifications. Most components are automatically outfitted with installation bulks, so this feature is typically used to adjust, modify, or delete selected bulks. However, because quoted equipment is not automatically outfitted with installation bulks, this feature also serves as the method for defining all installation bulks required for quoted equipment. To access installation bulk specifications: 1. Display the Component Specifications form. 2. Click the down-arrow on the Options button.

3. Click the type of installation bulks you wish to view or define. Analyzer displays the specifications form for the selected installation bulk items. See the subsections that follow for descriptions of the different types of installation bulks. When you are done defining

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Defining Project Components • 5-9

the installation bulk, save your changes in either of two ways, depending on what you intend to do next: If you want to continue modifying this component’s installation bulks or component specifications, click Apply to save the changes. You can now select either Project Component or another type of installation bulks from the Options menu. If you are done making changes to the installation bulks and to the component specifications, click OK to save the changes and close the specifications window. Mat’l / Man-hours Adjustments Using Mat’l/Man-hours Adjustments, you can specify percent adjustments of system calculated values as follows: Category Equipment Setting Piping Civil Steel Instrumentation Electrical Insulation Paint Percent adjustment for Material cost (COA 100-299) Man-hours (COA 100-299) Material costs and/or man-hours (COA 300-399) Material costs and/or man-hours (COA 400-499) Material costs and/or man-hours (COA 500-599) Material costs and/or man-hours (COA 600-699) Material costs and/or man-hours (COA 700-799) Material costs and/or man-hours (COA 800-899) Material costs and/or man-hours. (COA 900-999)

These adjustments compound material and man-hour indexing applied to the same COA’s. User-entered material costs and man-hours (entered using either Quoted Equipment or Mat’l/Man-hours % Additions) are not affected by these adjustments. A special options section at the bottom of this form allows you to specify non-default installations for the item, including demolition (i.e., dismantlement) of the component and its installation bulks.

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For example, to demolish a component item: 1. Click Mat’l/Man-hours Adjustments on the Options menu of the Component Specifications form. 2. Scroll down to the Special Options section and, from the Installation Option scroll list, click DEML.

Selecting the demolition (DEML) option causes the following changes to the component: Material costs are set to zero. Man-hours and labor costs are charged to demolition COAs (e.g., 109, 309, 409, etc.) Piping and civil man-hours are down-adjusted: − Shop fab man-hours are removed from piping man-hours. − Civil formwork/bracing man-hours are removed.

3. Go back through the Mat’l/Man-hour Adjustments form and make the proper adjustments to account for the relative difficulty of demolition versus new build. For example, if you know unsetting the component is 15% easier than initially setting it, then enter 85% in the Setting labor adjustment field. 4. Save your changes in either of two ways, depending on what you intend to do next: If you want to continue modifying this component’s installation bulk or component specifications, click Apply to save the changes to the Mat’l Man-hour Adjustments. You can now select either Project Component or another installation bulk from the Options menu.

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Defining Project Components • 5-11

If you are done making changes to the installation bulks and to the component specifications, click OK to save the changes and close the specifications window. Mat’l / Man-hours Additions Using Mat’l/Man-hours Additions, you can add lump sum material costs and/or man-hours to a specified COA. All additions are reported “as is.” Additions are neither indexed nor adjusted by Mat’l/Man-hours Adjustments. Up to 20 additions may be defined per component. Use Pipe – General Specs to define the rules for developing all installation piping on the selected component. You can use many fields to define general piping specifications, such as: • Material • Pressure • Temperature • Installation - above or below grade • Fluid or electric tracing • Flange class and type • Stress relief • Insulation type • Insulation jacket type • Paint treatment Pipe – Item Details Use Pipe – Item Details to specify individual runs of piping and associated fittings, tracing, paint and insulation. The line is developed using the rules defined in Pipe – General Specs unless they are re-defined with Pipe – Item Details. Up to 40 lines may be defined/adjusted for each component. Note: To reduce the time required to retrieve data when multiple items have been added, select in Preferences to not display all items. If Display P&I Installation Items is unmarked on the Preferences General tab view, selecting Pipe – Item Details will display a dialog box from which you can select the item you wish to edit or select to add a new item. See page 2-31 for instructions on entering Preferences. The component starts with piping depicted in the Piping and Instrumentation Drawings manual. You can also display the

Pipe – General Specs

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component’s piping and instrumentation drawing by clicking the P&ID button on the Component Specifications form. It displays the piping you are adjusting on the Pipe Details Installation Bulk form. You can revise the pipe volumetric model for a component line-byline. Specifications on the Pipe – Item Details Installation Bulk form override the project-, area- and component-level specifications that otherwise determine the design of all lines of pipe. For example, area dimensions determine all lengths of lines generated by volumetric models except those lines for which you enter a specific length.

The Piping Volumetric Model field offers the following options:
“blank” - Specified pipe only, no volume. model

This option should rarely be used. It is a rapid way to discard the complete piping model for this item. However, in addition to discarding all of the automatically generated lines of pipe, this also discards all the associated drains/vents and pipe-associated instrumentation. The system now generates only piping, drains/vents and on-/in-line instrumentation for those lines that you subsequently define. Once you have used this option, the other options below cannot be used because the model is already discarded. If you subsequently re-create a line that the volumetric

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Defining Project Components • 5-13

model would have automatically created, the associated on-/in-line instrumentation is automatically “re-created.”
A - Add line to pipe volumetric model

This option is used to add a new line of pipe to a component. The number of the new line must be higher than any other automatically created or user-defined line. For example, if a component generates lines 1 to 6, then an added line may have the number 7 to 40. The area dimensions will have no effect on the length of these lines. It is not necessary to add line numbers in numeric order; however, they will be generated and reported in numeric order. To associate instrumentation with a new line, specify that a sensor or control element location is this line number. Line 40 is reserved for drains/vents.
C - Change lines on pipe volumetric model

This is a commonly used option. It is used to modify automatically generated lines of pipe; user-specified lines are not changed. The line is generated exactly at it would have been in the absence of your specifications, except for the items which you change. You may use this to change only the metallurgy, diameter or length of a run, or only the valves and fittings (including setting the quantity to 0) or any combination of these.
D - Delete line on pipe volumetric model

This option deletes a single line of automatically generated pipe and its associated drains/vents and instrumentation.
R - Replace line on pipe volumetric model

This option replaces the automatically generated line completely with the exact line that you specify. If you do not define something for this line, you do not get it. For example, if you specify a line of fixed length containing no valves or fittings, then you only get the straight-run of pipe. To make more than one specification for Pipe – Item Details, click the Add button. This adds an item specs column to this form. To delete any unwanted or unused column(s), select any cell in that column (or drag for a range of columns). Then click the Delete button. Incompletely specified columns must be either completed or deleted before saving.

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Duct

Duct installation bulk items specify individual runs of process ductwork and associated fittings and insulation. Up to 5 duct lines may be specified for each component. Use the same methods described for multiple lines of pipe. Civil installation bulk items specify bulk excavation and up to three different foundation types/sizes. The available foundation types are listed in the Icarus Reference. From the specified foundation types and volumes, Analyzer calculates: • Excavation and backfill • Form work (plywood/backup lumber with reuse) • Rebar • Sand mat (or ring wall foundation types only) • Grout • Anchor bolts/embedments

Civil

Steel

The Steel installation bulk specifies the following: • Ladders • Stairs • Platforms In addition, up to three different steel items may be specified.

Instrumentation

Instrument installation bulk items specify individual instrumentation loops or parts of loops with associated sensors, transmitters and signal cabling. Up to 50 loops may be defined for each component. Note: To reduce the time required to retrieve data when multiple instrument items have been added, select in Preferences to not display all items. If Display P&I Installation Items is unmarked on the Preferences General tab view, selecting Instrumentation will display a dialog box from which you can select the item you wish to edit or select to add a new item. See page 2-31 for instructions on accessing and entering Preferences. The component starts with instrumentation depicted in the Piping and Instrumentation Drawings manual. You can also display the

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component’s piping and instrumentation drawing by clicking the P&ID button on the Component Specifications form. It displays the instrumentation you are adjusting on the Instrumentation Installation Bulk form. You can revise the instrument volumetric model for a component loop-by-loop. Specifications entered on the Instrumentation Installation Bulk form override the project-, area- and componentlevel specifications that otherwise determine the design of all instrument loops.

The Instrument Volumetric Model field offers the following options:
“blank” - Specified loop only, no volume. model

This option should rarely be used. It is a rapid way to discard the complete instrument model for this item. The system then generates instrumentation for those loops that you subsequently define. To define new loops, you continue to use this “blank” option for each successive loop. Once you have used this option, the other options below cannot be used because the model is already discarded.
A - Add loop to instr. volume. model

This option is used to add a new loop to a component. The number of the new loop must be higher than any other automatically created or user-defined loop. It is not necessary to add loop numbers in numeric order; however, they will be generated and

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reported in numeric order. For example, if a component generates loops 1 to 6, then an added loop may have the number 7 to 50.
D - Delete loop on instr. volume. model

This option deletes a single loop, including sensor, transmitter, cable, control center connections and final control element.
R - Replace loop on instr. volume. model

This option replaces the automatically generated loop completely with the exact loop that you specify. If you do not define something for this loop, or you selectively delete a part, you do not get it. For example, if you specify a sensor and transmitter only, then you only get the signal generated and sent to the control center.
“+” - Append to previous loop w/same no.

This option is used to append extra sensors or control valves to the immediately preceding, user-defined loop (you must also correctly specify the loop number of the preceding loop). It may not be used to append items to automatically generated loops; to do this, you should first use the replace option to redefine the loop, then use the “+” option. Whether you are appending a sensor or control element, you should make entries for both the sensor and control valve locations. To define more than one adjustment, use the same methods described earlier for Pipe – Item Details (page 5-14).
Instrument Loop Adjustment

On the Instrumentation Installation Bulk form, there are eight Loop Modification fields, which allow you to remove different elements of the instrument loop from the project. Select “-” from the drop-down menu to remove an element. Two of the elements, sensor and control valve, can also be specified as quoted (“Q”) or vendor-provided (“V”) equipment. When either “Q” or “V” is selected, the system includes installation man-hours for the element but not material costs.

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Deleting the process connection removes all of the instrument piping. The indicating signal and control signal runs are reported together, so removing one would decrease the amount of cable and supports by half. The following diagram shows how the eight adjustable loop elements fit into the loop design:

Notes: (A) Junction boxes can be found under PLANT BULKS, INSTRUMENTATION, JUNC-BOX. (B) Multi-core runs can be found under PLANT BULKS, INSTRUMENTATION, ELECTRONIC SIGNAL WIRE. You can specify it with or without the junction box. (C) Control centers can be found under PLANT BULKS, INSTRUMENTATION, MULTIFUNCTION CONTROLLERS (electronic) or PLANT BULKS, INSTRUMENTATION, INSTRUMENT PANEL – ANALOG (pneumatic).

Electrical

The Electrical installation bulk specifies local equipment lighting, control wiring power/cable, and motor starters for up to three different types of electrical loads.

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Insulation

The Insulation installation bulk specifies insulation and fireproofing for component and installation bulk steel. For components, the insulation type, jacket type, thickness and area may be specified. For component and steel fireproofing, type, rating and area may be specified. The Paint installation bulk specifies surface preparation and painting of component and installation bulk steel. Paint for pipe is specified under piping. Entry field specifications include: • Size of area to be painted • Number of prime and final coats • Percent of painted area to be sandblasted • Galvanizing (for steel)

Paint

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Importing Areas and Components
Analyzer allows you to import entire areas or individual components from other project scenarios. By importing a component, you also import all associated installation bulks. To import an area or component: 1. In the Palette’s Projects view, double click on the project scenario from which you wish to import. This displays the project areas in the scenario. Expand an area folder to display the components in it.

2. To import a component: Drag the component to the desired area in Project Explorer, Project view. Analyzer adds the component to the area. To import an area and its components: Drag the area to Main Project in Project Explorer. Analyzer adds the area and its components. To import all the components in an area to an existing area in the current project scenario: Drag the area from the Palette to the desired area in Project Explorer. Analyzer adds the components to the area without creating a new area.

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Importing an Entire Scenario
As well as allowing you to import individual areas or components, Analyzer lets you import an entire scenario using a drag-and-drop operation. This imports all the areas and components in the selected scenario. You can select in Preferences whether to also include installation bulks and/or connected streams (see page 234). By default, installation bulks are included and connected streams are not. To import an entire scenario: 1. Have Project Explorer’s Project view open, since you will drag the scenario there. 2. Click on the scenario in the Palette’s Projects view.

3. Drag the scenario from the Palette to Project Explorer’s Project view. Analyzer displays a confirmation window.
Note: you can only import scenarios that have the same units of measure as the current scenario. If the units of measure are not the same, a dialog box will inform you of this when you try to import.

4. Click yes. The areas and components of the selected scenario are imported.

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Copying Components
The Copy command copies a selected component and all of its associated installation bulks. This is useful if you want to add a component that is similar to an existing item. The item can be copied and modified with less effort than creating a new item. Remember to change the Item Description when copying components to distinguish the copy from the original. To copy and paste a component: 1. Right-click on the component in either Project Explorer or the List view (at area level, so that components are listed), and then click Copy on the pop-up menu. You can also copy multiple components at once: select the desired components on the List view, right-click on one of the components, and click Copy on the pop-up menu. 2. Right-click on the area to which you want to add the component(s) and click Paste on the pop-up menu. The component is added to the area. Note: If the area contains a component with the same name as the one being pasted, Analyzer changes the new component’s name so that “#1#” appears at the beginning. Cut and Paste If you want to delete (cut) a component from one area and add (paste) it in another area, use the same procedure as above, except click Cut instead of Copy on the pop-up menu. You can also move a component from one area to another by dragging it.

Drag and Drop

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Deleting Components
The Delete command removes a component and all associated installation bulks from the project. To delete a component: 1. Right-click on the component in either Project Explorer or the List view and click Delete on the pop-up menu. A confirmation dialog box appears.

Note: You can select in Preferences not to have this prompt appear (see page 2-31). 2. Click Yes to delete the component or click No to retain the component. You can also delete multiple components at one time: select the components on the List view, right-click on one of the components, and click Delete on the pop-up menu. Re-numbering Components After deleting components, you may wish to re-number the remaining components so that the numbering contains no gaps and reflects the order in which components were added. For example, if you add components A, B, C, D, and E in that order, the automatically generated Order Numbers would be 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, respectively. If you then delete components B and C and re-number, components A, D, and E would have Order Numbers 1, 2, 3, respectively. The order in which they were created would still determine the Order Numbers. To re-number components: On the Run menu, click Re-number and then click Project Components on the sub-menu.

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Deleting Areas
The Delete Area command removes the selected area and all of its components. To delete an area: 1. Right-click on the area in Project Explorer and click Delete Area on the pop-up menu. A confirmation dialog box appears.

Note: You can select in Preferences not to have this prompt appear (see page 2-31). 2. Click Yes to delete the area or click No to retain the area. Re-numbering Areas Areas have reference numbers that are internally stored and then used by the Evaluation Engine. They are not visible in the current version of Analyzer. Just as with components, re-numbering is intended to close gaps in the numbering after deletion. To re-number areas: On the Run menu, click Re-number and then click Project Areas on the sub-menu.

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Using the Custom Model Tool
The Custom Model tool allows you to base component specifications on formulas or fixed data stored in Excel. Use the tool to send a component’s specification values, connection stream values, and specified bulk information (pipe-item details, material and man-hour adjustments) to an Aspen-designed Excel workbook, where you can enter new specification values based on your own data or formulas. Then, use the tool to send the new data back to Analyzer. For instance, you could use the Custom Model tool to calculate a pump driver power based on a flow rate and pump head or to calculate project component costs using your own custom method in Excel. The specifications rules remain stored in Excel, so that you can change the specifications in Analyzer and then revert back to the Excel specifications by re-running the tool (if the values are fixed). Once the tool has been used with a project component, Analyzer associates the customized project component with the last Excel spreadsheet used. Running the tool at the project level updates all components for which the tool has already been run (see page 530). The tool provides template files for mixers and pumps, as well as a general template to use as the starting point for creating files for other components. However, for components other than pumps and mixers, you will need to first copy the general template file (or use Save As) and enter the slot names for the component specifications you wish to input, as explained on page 5-29. To use the Custom Model tool on a project component: 1. Before using this tool, you must mark the Activate Custom Model option on the Process tab view in Preferences. See page 2-31 for information on accessing Preferences. 2. In Project Explorer, Project view, right-click on the pump or mixer component that you wish to customize and click Custom Model on the pop-up menu.

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The User Custom Model dialog box appears. It displays the name of the project, scenario, and project component selected for the operation.

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The dialog box also displays available Microsoft Excel (.xls) template files. 3. Select the Excel template file that you have created for the selected project component 4. Click Run. Excel displays the workbook, with tabs for Input, Custom Rules, and Output.

The Input worksheet displays the original Icarus system values from Analyzer. Item information is provided at the top of the worksheet. The item information is from the Component Specifications form. Stream information, if available, is shown toward the bottom. Below the stream information is information on the installation bulks for Material and Man-hour Adjustments and Pipe Item Detail.

The Custom Rules worksheet is provided for storing any data that you may wish to use in the output formulas. Input specs have been placed on the Custom Rules along with sample alterations for the following:
− −

Mixer with three inlet streams and one exit stream. Pump with connection streams, material and man-hour adjustments, and pipe item details.

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The Output worksheet displays the same component specification slots as on the Input worksheet, but on the Output worksheet the values can be customized. The values are in the same column-row position as on the Input worksheet, so that you can easily reference the Input data when entering formulas. The entries on the Output worksheet are sent to Analyzer when you click Apply or OK on the Custom Model tool. The following include customized values based on the sample alterations on the Custom Rules worksheet:
− −

Mixer with three inlet streams and one exit stream. Pump with connection streams, material and man-hour adjustments, and pipe item details.

These customizations have been entered solely for example purposes.

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5. Enter new specifications on the Output worksheet. For example, if you want to double the Input flow rate value provided on Row 10, Column C, enter the following formula:
=Input!C10*2

6. Go to the Custom Model tool and click OK to send the output to Analyzer and close the tool. When you display the specifications form of the component, you will see the values from the Output worksheet. Creating a Template To create a template for a component, open GeneralModelTemplate.xls and save it as another file. The folder in which you store Custom Model files is specified on the Locations tab view in Preferences (APICustomModelDir). The default is:
AspenTech\Aspen Icarus 12.2 2003 SP\Program\API Custom Models

Starting on Row 6, Column B for item information, enter the slot names for the specifications that you wish to have sent from Analyzer when the file is run for a component.

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Slot names for every equipment and plant bulk item are provided in Icarus Technology Object Definitions (API.pdf). For example, to have the tool send Shell Design Temperature to Excel when the file is run for Fixed Tube Heat Exchangers, you would need to enter “CPDesignTemperatureShell”. For connection stream information, enter slot names starting on Row 43, Column B. For material and man-hour adjustments, enter slot names starting on row 70, column B. For the pipe-item details, enter slot names starting on row 101, column B. Running Custom Model Tool at Project-Level for Batch Update The batch update process for the Custom Model can be done one of two ways. The first method is for a batch update of custom model operations performed on project components that are already linked to a custom model template. After using the Custom Model tool for any number of components, you may continue to experiment with different specifications and easily revert back to the custom specifications by running the tool at the project level. Simply right-click on Main Project or Project Area in Project Explorer’s Project view and click Custom Model. If more than one project component has been selected for the custom model (e.g. multi-selection, area selection, project selection), a message box will appear to the user to specify the mode of operation.

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If you click Yes, you will be able to specify a custom model template and all of the selected project components will be processed with the one chosen template. If you click No, only project components with a link to a custom model template will be processed with their associated template.
Note: the output will be based on the values in the Output workbook in Excel. If the Output workbook contains formulas based on input, changes in input since originally running the Custom Model will affect the output when the Custom Model is re-run.

This re-runs all custom models stored in the Custom Model tool.

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Sizing Project Components

Overview
Sizing for Project Components Mapped from Simulator Items Operating conditions for the project components mapped from simulator models are obtained from the information loaded into Analyzer from the simulator report. Any Design Data in the simulator report is also loaded and used during sizing. The information consists of a unit operation model and the streams connected to it. You can size a mapped project component in either of two ways: Right-click on the component in Project Explorer and click Size Item on the pop-up menu. Click the Size button on the Component Specifications form:

Interactive Sizing Expert

For the following components, Analyzer provides the Interactive Sizing form that allows you to adjust sizing specifications. The Interactive Sizing form appears when you size the component.

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Heat Exchangers DHE FIXED-T-S DHE FLOAT-HEAD DHE U-TUBE DRB KETTLE DRB THERMOSIPH DRB U-TUBE Compressors DCP CENTRIF DCP GEN-SERV DGC CENTRIF DGC CENTRIF-IG DGC RECIP-MOTR EGC RECIP-GAS

Pumps DCP ANSI DCP ANSI-PLAST DCP API 610 DCP API 610-IL DCP CANNED DCP TURBINE DCP PULP STOCK DCP NAG DRIVE Vessels DHT HORIZ-DRUM DVT CYLINDER DVT SPHERE DVT SPHEROID DVT STORAGE

If interactive sizing is not available, Analyzer sizes the item automatically using the simulator data. Sizing for Project Components Not Mapped from Simulator Items Project components not mapped from simulator items can be sized if they are connected to streams. See “Creating Streams to Connect to Components” on page 6-4 for instructions on creating inlet and outlet streams. If the component is one of those for which interactive sizing is available (see list on page 6-1), the Interactive Sizing form is displayed during sizing. See “Using the Interactive Sizing Form” on page 6-8 for instructions on connecting a component to streams during sizing. If sizing is not available for a component, the Size option appears as inactive. Resizing Project Components If the process conditions associated with a component change, then use the Re-Size command on the project component pop-up menu to update all equipment sizing information. The Re-Size command will clear all the previous sizing results and then size the equipment based on the current process conditions (those entered by the user and those available from the currently loaded simulator file). Therefore, if the component being re-sized is one of those for which interactive sizing is available, the Interactive Sizing form that appears is blank. If you would like to keep some of your component specifications (i.e., not have them replaced by those calculated by the Sizing Expert), do not use the Re-size command. Instead, use the Size command or the Size button to access the Interactive Sizing form with current specifications retained, rather than cleared. Then, clear all fields except those you want to retain and click OK to execute sizing. Analyzer will re-calculate only the blank fields.

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Creating Streams to Connect to Equipment Items
For most components, the interactive Sizing Expert requires selection of an inlet stream (i.e., a stream carrying fluid to the equipment item) and an outlet stream (i.e., a stream carrying fluid from the equipment item). The set of instructions below show how to create streams to connect to an item. In the example, inlet and outlet streams are created to carry 49 DEF F water to a heat exchanger and an outlet stream is created to carry 200 DEG F water from the heat exchanger. In the example used in the set of instructions following these, a heat exchanger is sized to heat water from 40 DEG F to 200 DEG F, using the streams created in the first examples. To create an inlet stream and an outlet stream: 1. In Project Explorer’s Project Basis view, right-click on Streams and then click Edit.

2. At the Develop Streams dialog box, click on the Create tab. 3. Select User in the Streams tree structure. Leave the Basis as Absolute, since you are creating a completely new process stream.

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Click Create. 4. At the Create Stream dialog box, enter a stream name, such as “Process-IN”.

Click OK. 5. At the Develop Stream specifications form, specify a primary fluid component, temperature, pressure, and liquid mass flow. Example: In the Primary Fluid Component field, click Water. In the Temperature (DEG F) field, enter 40. In the Pressure (PSIA) field, enter 90. In the Liquid Mass Flow (LB/H) field, enter 50,000. 6. Click Apply. Analyzer fills in the rest of the fields in the Liquid Information section. and select

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7. Click OK to return to the Develop Streams dialog box, where you now need to create an outlet stream. 8. Click User in the tree structure. Notice that the inlet stream that you just created is now displayed under User. Select that stream and, in the Basis section, mark Relative; the new outlet stream will be based upon the inlet stream.

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9. At the Create Stream dialog box, enter a stream name, such as “Process-OUT”.

Click OK. The Develop Stream specifications form appears. Specifications that appear gray are the same as those of the base stream. Any modifications made will appear black. 10. Enter an outlet stream temperature that corresponds to temperature to which the heat exchanger will be heating the fluid. In the example below, the temperature has been entered as 200 DEG F and the pressure has been entered as 80 PSIA. The other specifications are the same as those of the base stream.

Click OK to apply the changes and return to the Develop Streams dialog box, which you can now close.

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Using the Interactive Sizing Form
With the necessary streams created, you are ready to perform sizing. To size an equipment item: 1. Add an equipment item for which interactive sizing is available (see list on page 6-1) and display the Component Specifications form. If you are following the example, add a floating head shell and tube exchanger. (See page 5-4 for instructions on adding components.)

It is not necessary to enter any values on the specifications form before starting the Sizing Expert. However, all applicable sizing parameters that are entered in the component specifications form will be carried over automatically to the sizing expert and used in calculations.

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2. Click the Size button. The Interactive Sizing form appears.

In order for the Sizing Expert to run, you must select process fluid streams (one at Inlet and one at Outlet conditions) for at least one side (hot or cold side). Any other data you provide (e.g., Duty, Overall heat transfer coefficient, LMTD, etc.) helps the Expert do its job better, but is not necessary.

3. Click on the Hot Inlet Stream field and then click to access a drop-down list that includes all utility resources and user-created streams.
Note: “fluid” refers to liquid or gas.

If you are heating a fluid, as in the example, select a utility resource to use as the heating source. The tables on the following page provide definitions of the utility resources. To heat a fluid from 40 DEG F to 200 DEG F, as in the example, the utility “Steam @100PSI-Analyzer UTILITY” is appropriate. If you are cooling a fluid, select the stream carrying the fluid to be cooled.

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Utility Resources
If you specify a utility resource as a stream, the Sizing Expert will estimate the actual utility rate required for the heat transfer and use this rate to create utility streams as though they were user-specified. The utility stream names are prefixed by “ICU” and are present under the Utility category in the Develop Streams dialog box. These utility streams differ from utility resources in that they have an actual flow rate whereas a resource is a “reservoir” that can provide utility streams at any required flow rate.

Default Utility Resources Available for I-P Projects
Inlet temperature (DEG F) Steam @100PSI Steam @165PSI Steam @400PSI Low Temp Heating Oil High Temp Heating Oil Refrigerant – Freon 12 Refrigerant – Ethylene Refrigerant – Ethane Refrigerant – Propylene Refrigerant – Propane Cooling Water 327 363 444 600 725 -21 -150 -130 -50 -40 95 Exit temperature (DEG F) 327 363 444 550 675 -21 -150 -130 -50 -40 75 Operating Pressure (PSIA) 100 165 400 25 25 15.5 15.5 15.5 15.5 15.5 50 Utility type Heat source Heat source Heat source Heat source Heat source Heat sink Heat sink Heat sink Heat sink Heat sink Heat sink

Default Utility Resources Available for METRIC Projects
Inlet temperature (DEG C) Steam @2760KPA Steam @1135KPA Steam @690KPA Low Temp Heating Oil High Temp Heating Oil Refrigerant – Freon 12 Refrigerant – Ethylene Refrigerant – Ethane Refrigerant – Propylene Refrigerant – Propane Cooling Water 229.2 184 164 315 385 -29.8 -101 -90 -45 -40 35 Exit temperature (DEG C) 229.2 184 164 287 357 -29.8 -101 -90 -45 -40 24 Operating Pressure (KPA) 2760 1135 690 2523 2523 105 105 105 105 105 105 Utility type Heat source Heat source Heat source Heat source Heat source Heat sink Heat sink Heat sink Heat sink Heat sink Heat sink

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4. Click on the Hot Outlet Stream field and then click to access the drop-down list of utility resources and user-created streams. If you are heating a fluid, select again the utility to use as the heating source. If you are cooling a fluid, select the stream carrying the cooled fluid from the exchanger. 5. Click on the Cold Inlet Stream field and then click to access the drop-down list of utility resources and user-created streams. If you are heating a fluid, select the stream carrying the fluid to be heated. If you are following the example, select the Process-IN stream that you created in the previous set of instructions (see “Creating Streams,” pages 6-4 through 6-7). If you are cooling a fluid, select a heat sink utility to use as a cooling medium. 6. Click on the Cold Outlet Stream field and then click to access the drop-down list of utility resources and user-created streams. If you are heating a fluid, select the stream carrying the heated fluid from the exchanger. If you are following the example, select the Process-OUT stream that you created in the previous set of instructions (see “Creating Streams,” pages 6-4 through 6-7). If you are cooling a fluid, select again the heat sink utility to use as the cooling medium. 7. Click Apply. Analyzer fills in the other fields on the Interactive Sizing form.

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Note: results are not transferred to the Component Specifications form until you click OK and the sizing is successfully completed (i.e., without generating error messages).

8. Click OK. Analyzer provides a message informing you of the overdesign factor.

Click OK to accept this message. The values obtained from Interactive Sizing now appear in the Component Specifications form.

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9. Click OK to save. You can now run an item evaluation and see the values generated by the Sizing Expert in the item report.

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Sizing Requirements, Calculations, and Defaults
Certain types of components have minimum input requirements for sizing. Those requirements are provided in the following sections, along with explanations of how the sizing is calculated for different component types. Air Coolers
Minimum Input Requirements
• •

Inlet Stream Exit Stream

Sizing Procedure

The air cooler thermal and detailed mechanical design equations are given below: For thermal design:
Q = U*A*MTD MTD = f*LMTD

For mechanical design:
A = pi*D_tube*N_tubeRows*N_tubesPerRow* Tube_length

where:
Q = Heat Duty U = Heat transfer coefficient A = Bare tube surface area MTD = Mean Temperature difference LMTD = Log mean temperature difference, based on purely countercurrent flow f = Temperature correction factor N_bays = Number of bays N_tube_rows = Number of tube rows N_tubesPerRow = Number of tubes per row (takes into account the presence of a fan shaft) Tube_length = Length of tubes

The process fluid properties (temperature, pressure, and specific heat capacity) are assumed to be constant throughout the air cooler and are estimated as the mean of the inlet and outlet stream properties. The required heat duty is calculated from the inlet and outlet process stream conditions if it is not specified.

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The process fluid stream temperatures, inlet and exit, are used along with the temperatures specified for the air stream (design criteria specs) to calculate the LMTD. The temperature correction factor is then used to calculate the MTD. If the process fluid temperatures and air temperatures are appropriate, meaning that there is no temperature crossover and the temperature approach at the ends is reasonable, then the surface area required for the given heat duty is estimated using the thermal design equation. The airflow rate needed to realize this heat duty is then calculated using the specified ambient and outlet air conditions. An iterative algorithm has been developed to size the air cooler. The sizing routine calculates the heat duty that can be realized using the specified tube bundle geometry (bay width, number of tube rows, and tube length). It assumes defaults for parameters that are not specified by the user. If the computed heat duty is larger than the heat duty actually required, the iterative procedure terminates. The tube bundle arrangement used represents the specification of the air cooler selected. If the calculated heat duty does not meet the required heat duty then a bigger air cooler is chosen (i.e. parameter values are increased) and the above procedure is repeated. The iterative procedure terminates either when a tube bundle geometry that can meet the heat duty requirements is found, or when even the largest available air cooler does not meet the process requirements. Air-side heat transfer coefficients are calculated using the relations that take into account the tube bundle geometry. The work of Young, Briggs, and Robinson, as summarized in [6] is being used to evaluate the heat transfer and pressure drop of air across the tube bundle. The pressure drop thus calculated is used in estimating the fan power required. The number of fans required is calculated based on the aspect ratio (tube length/bay width). For any aspect ratio of up to 1.5, only one fan is selected.
Defaults

Tube pitch = 2.5 INCHES Tube thickness = 0.125 INCHES Bay width = 4 ft to 20 ft Tube rows = 3 to 6 Maximum Tube length = 3*Bay width Inlet air temperature (from design criteria specs) Outlet air temperature (from design criteria specs)

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Agitated Tanks
Minimum Input Requirements

• •

Inlet stream Exit stream

Sizing Procedure

The capacity of the agitated tank is determined by the following equation:
C = Q * (T_r / 60.0)

where:
C = Capacity , CF Q = Liquid volumetric flowrate, CFH T_r = Liquid residence time, MINUTES

The diameter of the agitated tank is determined using L/D and geometry:
C = (π/4) * D^2 * L

where:
D = Diameter of vessel, FEET L = Fluid height, FEET

Vessel height is obtained by the following:
H = L + h_d

where:
H = Vessel height, FEET h_d = Vapor disengagement height, FEET

Design parameters are based on the current design criteria file if available:
Length/Diameter Ratio: Default = 3 Vapor disengagement height: Default = 1 FEET Agitator type: Default = ANCHOR Driver type: Default = STD Impeller type: Default = T6FB

Operating pressure is obtained from the simulator report. If the report does not have a value, then the pressure of the inlet stream having the maximum value is chosen as the operating pressure.

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The operating pressure is used to obtain the L/D ratio (if user specification is absent).
If P <= 250 PSIA, then L/D = 3 If 250 < P <= 500 PSIA, then L/D = 4

If P > 500 PSIA, then L/D = 5

where:
P = Pressure, PSIA L = Fluid height, FEET D = Diameter of vessel, FEET

The project component must have at least one process stream connected to the inlet and exit. Also, since the sizing procedure is based on the liquid holding period, at least one of the streams should have liquid phase. The design pressure and temperature are based on the operating pressure and temperature as modified by your entries on the Design Criteria specifications form. Compressors
Minimum Input Requirements

• •

Inlet and Exit stream information Driver Power (for Reciprocating Compressors)

Sizing Procedure

The capacity requirement for the compressor is calculated from the inlet stream information. The inlet stream flow rate and density are used to estimate the total volumetric flow rate through the compressor. The compression ratio (exit to inlet pressure) is obtained from the operating pressures of the inlet and exit stream. The compressibility factor (inlet and exit) is based on userspecified information, if available, or estimated by the sizing expert based on the Primary Fluid Component. The Icarus Evaluation Engine estimates the driver power if it is not specified either by the user or in the simulator report. The engine currently uses a mechanical efficiency of 100% to arrive at the brake horsepower. The brake horsepower thus calculated, is compared against a table of available standard motor sizes. If the calculated brake horsepower is not found in the table, then the motor with the next higher horsepower is selected.

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Sizing Project Components • 6-17

When the driver horsepower is available, provided either by the user or a simulator report, the cost engine uses this value. However for pricing the compressor, the table of available standard motor sizes is referred. If the specified horsepower is not found in the table then the price of the motor with the next higher horsepower is used. In the case of simulator inputs, different simulators provide information that may be slightly different. For instance, in the case of Aspen the compressor calculations take into account any mechanical efficiency specified during the simulation run. So the “brake horsepower” reported in the case of Aspen, already takes into account the mechanical efficiency. However other simulators: SimSci (“Actual Work”); HYSIM and HYSYS (“Energy Required”), Chemshare (“Real Work”), ChemCAD ( “Actual Power”); do not account for mechanical efficiency. The user has to keep this in mind and be aware of what has been accounted for in the simulation side when using simulator information as inputs.
Defaults

Minimum inlet pressure for air compressors is 14.696 PSIA Crushers
Minimum Input Requirement

• •

Inlet and Exit stream information Final product size.

Sizing Procedure

The sizing expert estimates the solid flow rate from the inlet stream information. The crushing ratio (feed to product size) is set at 4. Work index is the total energy in KWH/TONS, needed to reduce the feed to a size so that 80% of the product will pass through a 100-micron screen. The sizing expert assumes a default value of 13.81 for the material work index. The total driver power required for the crusher is calculated using material work index and the value of the product size.

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The following equation is used to estimate the driver power:
P = 1.46 (T_m) (W_i) ( 1/(d_p ^ 0.5) - 1/(d_r ^0.5))

where:
P = Driver power, HP T_m = Crusher capacity, TPM W_i = Material work index d_p = Product size, FEET d_r = Feed size, FEET

Defaults

Material Work Index: 13.8 KWh/ton Size Reduction Ratio: 4 Crystallizers
Minimum Information Required

Inlet and Exit Stream information
Additional Information

Final Product size
Sizing Procedure

The sizing program calculates the crystallizer capacity based on the inlet and exit stream information. Default value of 0.83 MM is used as final product size if the user specified value is not available from the simulator report. In addition, the following defaults values are used for the design parameters:
Growth rate = 0.36 MM/H

The following relation determines the residence time in hours for a batch crystallizer:
Residence time = d_p / (3 * R_g)

where:
d_p = Product size, MM R_g = Growth rate, MM/H

Based on the minimum and maximum values for the required fields in the component specification form, the number of additional crystallizers are estimated.
Aspen Decision Analyzer User Guide Sizing Project Components • 6-19

Dryers
Minimum Input Requirement

Inlet and Exit stream information
Sizing Procedure

The sizing program calculates the dryer capacity based on the total evaporation rate for the drying process. For tray and drum dryers, an average depth of 2.25 FEET is used to determine the total dryer requirements. For vacuum and jacketed rotary vacuum dryers, the dryer capacity is determined by obtaining value of the drying time and the average percentage utilization of the dryer capacity. The system defaults are as follows:
Drying time = 0.75 HOUR Average percentage utilization = 25

The number of additional items required for the given drying operation is determined from the Icarus Evaluation Engine (IEE), which analyzes minimum and maximum values for the required fields in the specification form. Dust Collectors
Minimum Input Requirement

Inlet and Exit stream information
Sizing Procedure

The sizing program estimates the vapor volume flowing through the dust collector using the exit stream information available from the simulator report. In case of cyclones, the sizing program assumes a default linear velocity of 150 FPS. The height to width ratio is fixed at 2.5.

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Using the above defaults, the volumetric rate through the separator is obtained using Zenz correlation represented by the following equation:
Q = 2.5 (D ^ 2) V / 16

where:
Q = Vapor volumetric rate, CFS D = Cyclone separator diameter, FEET V = Linear velocity, FPS

In case of baghouse dust collectors, the sizing program uses Nylon as the default filter cloth material to determine the air to media ratio which then determines the diameter of the separator. Air to media ratio is the flow rate of air (at 70 DEG F) in CFM. The default ratio results in a pressure drop of 0.5 INCHES of water when passed through 1 SF of clean fabric. The sizing program uses a default air to media ratio of 10 CFM. The minimum and maximum values of the required field(s) shown in the component specification form are used to determine the number of identical equipment items. Filters
Minimum Input Requirement

• •

Inlet stream Exit stream

Sizing Procedure

The sizing program calculates the total amount of filtration product rate based on the exit stream information. Based on the type of filter selected, the average dimension of the filter equipment is selected and the filter size is then optimized for the given operation such that the dimensions selected for the equipment are within the minimum and maximum values as specified by the knowledgebased engine. In case of batch filtration, a default batch time of 0.25 HOUR is used. In case of plate and frame filters, default value of cake thickness of 0.3 FEET is used. In the case of continuous operation, the cycle time default is 0.08 HOUR. Based on the actual capacity requirement and the maximum and minimum sizes provided by the knowledge-based engine, the number of identical items is determined.

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Sizing Project Components • 6-21

Heat Exchangers

The heat exchanger sizing program estimates the heat transfer area required for the given operating conditions. The model also performs detail estimation of the number of tubes, tube length, and other internal components of the heat exchanger based on either user-defined specifications (from the process simulator report or the design criteria specifications) or system defaults.
Minimum Input Requirements

Inlet and Exit Process Stream Information
Sizing Procedure

The process stream(s) are classified into various categories. The Primary Fluid Component class provided by the user for the process fluid(s) flowing through the heat exchanger is used to estimate the following design parameters: • • • • • Latent heats (vaporization and condensation) Fouling resistance Specific heat capacity of the fluid Liquid film resistance Overall heat transfer coefficient

Duty requirement for the heat exchanger is either directly obtained from the simulator report or estimated based on the inlet and exit process stream information for the process model. In case the fluid undergoes phase change, a boiling point temperature, Tb, is estimated that would lie between the inlet and exit stream temperature. The estimated Tb is then used in the calculation of the sensible and latent heats based on the Primary Fluid Component. The sensible heat of any solids present in the stream is also accounted for in the duty calculation. In estimating the design pressure on shell and tube heat exchangers, the 2/3rd Rule is applied if it has been selected on the Design Criteria specifications form (see page 3-36). If the simulator model only specifies process fluid conditions, the heat exchanger sizing program determines the appropriate utility from the list of utilities provided by the user. This is performed using the Utility Specifications accessed from Project Basis view (see page 3-49). If multiple utilities are available for heat transfer, then the sizing expert uses the utility fluid with a temperature approach closest to the process fluid. This minimizes the heat

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transfer losses. However, a minimum of 1 degree Fahrenheit difference in the final temperature of the process fluid and the utility fluid must exist for the utility fluid to be selected for the process. If an appropriate utility fluid is not available for the heat transfer process, the heat exchanger sizing program will terminate without estimating the heat exchanger size requirements. The mean temperature difference (MTD) is estimated based on the fluid temperature for both the shell and the tube side. It also depends on the flow configuration for shell and tube heat exchangers, which is specified by the number of shell and tube passes. For reasons of compactness of equipment, the paths of both fluids may require several reversals in direction. Mean temperature differences in such cases can be obtained by applying a factor (called the F-factor) to the terminal temperature difference. The logarithmic mean temperature difference (based on purely counter current flow) is multiplied by the F-factor to obtain the mean temperature difference. If the temperatures are not properly entered then appropriate warning messages are displayed. In such cases it recommended that the user check the inlet and outlet temperatures of the shell and tube side streams and verify that they are realistic. The overall heat transfer coefficient is either directly obtained from the simulator report or evaluated based on the shell and tube fluid properties (film resistance, fouling tendency present for the various processes in the system database). The heat exchanger sizing program determines the position of the fluids in the shell and tube heat exchanger. The position depends on both the process and utility fluid class. If duty is provided by the simulator report, then the user can override the value only through interactive sizing. The final heat transfer area is obtained by multiplying the heat transfer area, calculated based on the duty required, with the Heat Exchanger Minimum Overdesign Factor. If the user does not specify an overdesign factor then the default value is used from the design criteria file. If the duty generates a surface area less than minimum required for practical design, the item report will give the appropriate warning message. FLOAT HEAD or U-TUBE heat exchangers have an even number of tube passes. If the user enters an odd number for the number of tube passes for any of these heat exchanger types, then warning messages are generated.

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Sizing Project Components • 6-23

The shell and tube design pressure and temperature are based on the maximum operating conditions of the fluid flowing through the shell and tube respectively. The design criteria menu option allows the user to change them according to individual project requirement.
Heat Exchanger Internals

1. The final heat transfer area is determined by the actual number of tubes chosen for the equipment. The least surface area of the combination of numbered tubes and shells is changed for final design. 2. A default tube length of 20 FEET is used for calculating the number of tubes. 3. System default values for tube diameter, tube thickness, tube pitch and baffle distances are used if user specifications are not available.
General Information

1. The utility requirement is estimated only when the system determines the utility fluid. If both shell and tube side fluid stream information is specified in the simulator report, then the system assumes that both of the fluid streams are process streams and that no utility fluid is expended. 2. Presently, the model defaults are used for determining the material of construction. 3. For shell and tube heat exchangers, if the heat transfer surface area calculated by the sizing program is greater than the largest heat exchanger designed by the design and cost engine, then the heat exchanger is divided into multiple shells with identical configurations. The capital cost estimation is then calculated based on the complete heat exchanger. Note: When mapping a rigorous heat exchanger model (HXRIG) from SimSci, the number of shells in parallel is used to determine the number of shells in Analyzer. For Analyzer, the maximum number of shells in series is 1.

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Double Pipe Heat Exchanger

The sizing expert estimates the total surface area required for the given duty. During the capital cost estimation, detailed design for the heat exchanger is developed based on the values for tube length and number of tubes per shell obtained from the simulator report or from the user.
Fin Tube Heat Exchanger

The sizing program estimates the total surface area required for the given duty. During the Capital Cost estimation, detailed design for the heat exchanger is developed based on the tube length and number of fins per tube obtained either from the simulator report or from the user.
Spiral Plate Heat Exchanger

The sizing program estimates the total surface area required for the given duty. During the Capital Cost estimation, detailed design for the heat exchanger is developed based on the tube length and number of fins per tube obtained either from the simulator report or from the user. Pumps
Minimum Input Requirements

Inlet and Exit stream information
Sizing Procedure

The sizing program calculates the total capacity requirements for the selected pump based on the total flow rate of the inlet fluid stream(s) obtained from the simulator.
Flow Rate/Capacity

Pump flow rate is obtained from the simulator information. If the information does not exist, then pump flow rate is calculated based on the stream flow rates. The stream is assumed to be completely liquid phase and no check is made for presence of vapor phase. The pump flow rate obtained from the simulator information is multiplied by the pump overdesign factor, also referred as the capacity over-design factor, present in the design criteria specification file.

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Sizing Project Components • 6-25

Pump % Efficiency

Pump efficiency is directly obtained from the simulator. If the value is not present in the simulator report, then the default value of 70% is used. The user can modify the pump overdesign factor either by using the Design Criteria specifications form or the size interactive screen. If the over design factor is changed using the design criteria form, then this factor is the one that would be applied to all the pumps in that project. Modifying the over-design factor for a pump using the size interactive interface will alter the factor only for that particular pump. This provides the user a way to change the factor either for all the pumps or specify them individually for each pump. If the user specifies a driver power in the component specification form, then this value is used. If the user does not provide the value, then the cost engine calculates it. The Icarus Evaluation Engine calculates the hydraulic horsepower based on the capacity, viscosity and head, and then uses the pump efficiency to estimate the brake horsepower. The brake horsepower is compared against a set of standard available motor sizes to estimate the pump driver power. If multiple inlet streams are present, the minimum value of pressure is used for determining the operating pressure of the equipment.
Defaults (if they are not obtained from the simulators):

Pump Overdesign

Driver Power

Operating pressure: 14.696 PSIA Operating temperature: 77 DEG F
Calculating Pump Head

The total head developed by the pump is composed of the difference between the static, pressure, and velocity heads. Additionally, friction at the suction and discharge sides would also contribute to some head loss. The pump head is calculated using the following relation:
Head, FEET = h_d – h_s

where:
H = total pump head, FEET h_d = discharge head, FEET h_s = suction head, FEET

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Assumptions: 1. No friction losses at the entrance and exit. 2. No static head on suction and discharge sides. 3. Velocity heads are not included in estimating the suction and discharge heads. Head is estimated in FEET by the following relations:
Head, FEET = (Pressure, PSIA) * (2.31)/(Fluid specific gravity)

The specific gravity of the fluid is based on inlet streams conditions. The discharge pressure for the pump is based on the maximum value for the exit stream(s). The suction pressure is based on the minimum value for the inlet streams(s). Screens
Minimum Input Requirement

• •

Inlet stream information Screen opening size (or average product size)

Sizing Procedure

The sizing program determines the capacity of the screen based on the inlet flow rate estimated from the stream information. The screen opening size is used to determine the final product size. The feed material for the vibrating screen is obtained from design criteria file. The following choices are available: • • • • • • Sand and Gravel Limestone/Crushed Stones Coal Cinders Coke Wood

The material type affects the screen unit capacity which is defined as the amount of solid (in tons per hour) flowing through one square foot of screen cloth based on material, having 6 to 8% moisture, screen cloth having 50% or more open area; 85% screen efficiency. Based on the material selected and the screen opening size, the screen unit capacity is chosen. Further, the sizing program assumes

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Sizing Project Components • 6-27

that five layers of particles are present on the screen. The surface area required for the vibrating screen is obtained. Based on the maximum and minimum values specified by the knowledge base for the screen capacity, additional items required by the operations are determined. Towers
Minimum Input Requirements

• • • •

Stage temperature, pressure, flowrates Number of stages Inlet stream Exit stream

Sizing Procedure

The distillation column sizing module can be used to size the following Icarus process equipment: • • • • • DDT TRAYED DDT PACKED TW TRAYED TW PACKED DC HE TW

The following simulator models can be used to generate the necessary process information required for successfully executing the application: Simulator Aspen Plus HYSIM/HYSYS PRO/II Models used ABSBR, DISTWU, DISTL, RADFRAC COLUMN COLUMN, IO, SURE, CHEMDIST, SHORTCUT

Loading Column Model from Simulator

In Analyzer, the rigorous column unit operations loaded from the simulator report (i.e., COLUMN UNITS model in PRO/II) are

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developed in great detail, including all pieces attached to the main column unit. Typically, the simulator model develops stage information for the main tower and duties for an associated condenser and reboiler. These duties are used along with the specified fluid conditions available from the stage information tables to generate all of the input specifications required for the equipment. Sidestrippers and pumparounds are separated from the main tower if necessary during the loading process after all the relevant information is collected for the models. Once the report is loaded, these units are treated as separate simulator models that can be mapped and sized independently of the main tower design.
Sidestrippers

Sidestrippers attached to tower models are separated from the main tower model during the loading process. Sidestrippers load information from the same tables in the report from which the main tower information is discerned. For example, the typical information loaded for sidestrippers in PRO/II are:
SIDESTRIPPER ABC COLUMN SUMMARY TEMP PRESSURE DEG C KPA ————— ————— ———————— 1/ 10 200.3 600.50 2/ 11 202.2 601.53 TRAY —————— NET FLOW RATES —————— HEATER LIQUID VAPOR FEED PRODUCT DUTIES KG-MOL/HR M*KJ/HR —————— —————— ————— ——————— ——————— 22. 7.8 20.0L 5.0V 8.5V 20.1L

SIDESTRIPPER ABC FROM TRAY ————— —————— —————— ————— FEED ABCDRW LIQUID FEED ABCSTM VAPOR PROD ABCSRVP VAPOR 10 PROD ABCPRD LIQUID 11 TYPE STREAM PHASE TO TRAY ——— 10 11 LIQUID FRAC —————— 1.0000 .0000 FLOW RATES KG-MOL/HR —————————— 23.00 5.55 8.46 20.09 HEAT RATES M*KJ/HR ——————————— 1.3216 .2785 .5325 1.0678

Information is obtained for the sidestrippers in the same manner as for the main tower unit (Refer to information for obtaining process data for main tower unit).
Pumparounds

The inlet and outlet fluid conditions for pumparounds are obtained from the stage information to which the unit is connected. Additionally, the duty associated with each pumparound is loaded

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into the unit. This unit is then separated during the loading process and is treated as an independent simulator model that can be mapped and sized on its own. For example, the information required by pumparound units in PRO/II are obtained from the following part of the column report:
COLUMN SUMMARY ————— NET FLOW TRAY TEMP DEG F ———— ————— . . . 40R 355.9 RATES ————— PRESSURE LIQUID PSIG ———————— —————— HEATER VAPOR FEED PRODUCT LB-MOL/HR ————— ————— ———————

DUTIES MM BTU/HR —————————

33.00

5618.9

4301.4L

94.6551

PUMPAROUNDS TRAY TEMP, FROM TO FROM —— —— —————— 40 40 355.9 DEG F LIQUID FRACTION ——————————— RATES ——————————— TO FROM TO LB-MOL/HR M LB/HR STD BBL/HR ————— —————— ————— ————————— ———————— —————————— 416.1 1.0000 .4108 7273.09 995.238 3569.48

Mapping the Tower Model

Typically, column models in simulators do not include the ancillary equipment attached to the main tower. For example, a tower unit may really consist of the following equipment: • • • • • • • • • • • Main tower Overhead condenser Condenser accumulator Overhead split Reflux pump Overhead pump Overhead product sub-cooler Reboiler Bottoms split Bottoms product pump Bottoms product heat exchanger

Both overhead and bottoms split are process stream splitters and therefore do not represent any project component. In Analyzer, during mapping and sizing process, they are typically mapped as a quoted cost item with zero cost.

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In addition, the equipment design could involve splitting the units into more than one actual piece for reasons of economy. For example, in many applications, condensers are split into a precooler (which is typically an air cooler but also can be any other type of heat exchanger) and a trim cooler (typically a shell and tube heat exchanger). Tower models (such as RADFRAC model in Aspen Plus, COLUMN UNIT in PRO/II and COLUMN in HYSIM/HYSIS) can be mapped into any of the following ten Analyzer configurations: • Standard - Single or Standard - Total - Tower - Condenser - Condenser accumulator - Overhead split - Reflux pump - Bottoms split - Reboiler. • Full - Single - Tower - Condenser - Condenser accumulator - Overhead split - Reflux pump - Overhead pump - Overhead product heat exchanger - Bottoms split - Reboiler - Bottoms product pump - Bottoms product heat exchanger • Standard - Split or Standard – Split Total - Tower - Precooler - Trimcooler - Condenser accumulator - Overhead split - Reflux pump - Bottoms split - Reboiler • Full - Split - Tower - Precooler

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Sizing Project Components • 6-31

-

Trimcooler Condenser accumulator Overhead split Reflux pump Overhead pump Overhead product heat exchanger Bottoms split Reboiler Bottoms product pump Bottoms product heat exchanger

• Standard - Total w/Circ. - Tower - Condenser - Condenser accumulator - Overhead split - Reflux pump - Bottoms split - Reboiler - Circulation pump • Full - Single w/Circ. - Tower - Condenser - Condenser accumulator - Overhead split - Reflux pump - Overhead pump - Overhead product heat exchanger - Bottoms split - Reboiler - Bottoms product pump - Bottoms product heat exchanger - Circulation pump • Standard – Split Total w/Circ. - Tower - Precooler - Trimcooler - Condenser accumulator - Overhead split - Reflux pump - Bottoms split - Reboiler - Circulation pump

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• Full - Split w/Circ. - Tower - Precooler - Trimcooler - Condenser accumulator - Overhead split - Reflux pump - Overhead pump - Overhead product heat exchanger - Bottoms split - Reboiler - Bottoms product pump - Bottoms product heat exchanger - Circulation pump (Note: refer to Tower Configurations in Chapter 4 for detailed flow diagrams) These configurations should be regarded as the “maximum” model with all potentialities satisfied. The components actually developed depend upon the process conditions. For example, if the main tower model does not have a condenser and a reboiler, then only the tower model is mapped. If the overhead product is cooler than the temperature of the fluid from the condenser outlet, then an overhead exchanger is mapped. A bottoms product exchanger is mapped only when the bottoms product stream has a different temperature from the temperature of the bottom stage of the tower. In the case of split models, where the condenser duty is split into precooler and trimcooler duties, the ratio of the duty split is obtained from the Design Criteria Specifications. Also, the overhead vapor stream flowing to the precooler is assumed to be at dew point if the condensation temperature is not provided.

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Loading Tower Input Information

1. From the tower results in the report, the tables consisting of stage temperatures, stage pressures, stage molar vapor flow rates and stage molar liquid flow rates are loaded in the mapping process. For example, in the case of Aspen Plus, the following tables in the RADFRAC block are loaded by Analyzer in the mapping process: Table 1: Stage temperature and Stage Pressures are loaded (Column 1 and 2)
STAGE TEMP. F PRESSURE PSI ENTHALPY BTU/LBMOL LIQUID VAPOR HEAT DUTY BTU/HR

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10

149.27 223.45 227.79 230.39 232.06 233.25 234.18 234.98 235.72 236.74

20.000 22.000 22.100 22.200 22.300 22.400 22.500 22.600 22.700 22.800

-0.12156E+06 -0.11895E+06 -0.11909E+06 -0.11918E+06 -0.11925E+06 -0.11931E+06 -0.11935E+06 -0.11939E+06 -0.11942E+06 -0.11941E+06

-42602. -.23509+08 -87138. -92519. -95701. -97662. -98970. -99924. -0.10068E+06 -0.10135E+06 -0.10196E+06 45802+08

Table 2: Stage molar liquid flowrates and Stage molar vapor flowrates are loaded. (Column 1 and 2)
STAGE FLOW RATE FEED RATE PRODUCT RATE LBMOL/HR LBMOL/HR LBMOL/HR LIQUID VAPOR LIQUID VAPOR MIXED LIQUID VAPOR

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10

1239. 0.2571E+05 0.2586E+05 0.2595E+05 0.2602E+05 0.2606E+05 0.2610E+05 0.2614E+05 0.2617E+05 0.2357E+05

430.0 .57657-01 1669. .24001+05 2140. 2286. 2380. 2444. 2493. 2532. 2568. 2604.

430.0000

.23571+05

2. Inlet and exit streams (and their stage numbers) are loaded in the mapping step.

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For example, in the case of a RADFRAC model for Aspen Plus, the following portion of the report is loaded in Analyzer:
INLETS - 7 OUTLETS - 8 9 STAGE STAGE STAGE 2 1 10

3. When sizing information is present in the report, the mapping program loads all the relevant information present in the sizing sections. For example, in the case of a RADFRAC model for Aspen Plus, the following portion of the sizing report is loaded in Analyzer for every section:
Case : Tray tower sizing section STARTING STAGE NUMBER ENDING STAGE NUMBER TRAY SPECIFICATIONS — — — — — — — — — TRAY TYPE TRAY SPACING 2 29

METER

SIEVE 0.60960

***** SIZING RESULTS @ STAGE WITH MAXIMUM DIAMETER ***** COLUMN DIAMETER METER 4.00228

Case : Packed tower sizing section STARTING STAGE NUMBER ENDING STAGE NUMBER PACKING — — — — PACKING HETP PACKING SPECIFICATIONS — — — — — — — TYPE HEIGHT FT FT 2 9

BERL-SADDLE 2.00000 16.0000

Determining Tower Process Conditions

Operating Temperature The maximum temperature value for all the stages (given by column 1) is used as the operating temperature for the tower. Operating Pressure The maximum pressure value for all the stages (given by column 2) is used as the operating pressure for the tower.

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Minimum Operating Pressure The minimum pressure value for all the stages (given by column 2) is used as the minimum operating pressure for the tower. Design Pressure Maximum value of pressure for all the inlet streams to the tower is compared with the operating pressure. The larger value is used for design pressure of the tower (after applying the user-defined design value from the design criteria file). Design Temperature Maximum value of the temperature for all the inlet streams to the tower is compared with the operating temperature. The larger value is used for the design temperature of the tower (after applying the user-defined design value from the design criteria file). Number of Stages The number of theoretical stages is provided by the number of rows in Table 1. The final number is determined by taking into account condenser and reboiler (if they are provided). Also, the number of stages is affected by whether the reboiler simulated in the report is kettle or thermosiphon. For example, in the case of RADFRAC model for Aspen Plus, consider the following table:
STAGE TEMP. F PRESSURE PSI BTU/LBMOL LIQUID VAPOR HEAT DUTY BTU/HR

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10

149.27 223.45 227.79 230.39 232.06 233.25 234.18 234.98 235.72 236.74

20.000 22.000 22.100 22.200 22.300 22.400 22.500 22.600 22.700 22.800

-0.12156E+06 -0.11895E+06 -0.11909E+06 -0.11918E+06 -0.11925E+06 -0.11931E+06 -0.11935E+06 -0.11939E+06 -0.11942E+06 -0.11941E+06

-42602. -.23509+08 -87138. -92519. -95701. -97662. -98970. -99924. -0.10068E+06 -0.10135E+06 -0.10196E+06 .45802+08

If the reboiler is kettle, then the number of theoretical stages is eight. If the reboiler is thermosiphon (reboiler type is obtained from simulator), then the number of theoretical stages is 9. Liquid Density Density of liquid flowing inside the column is estimated from the density of the inlet streams and the exit streams. If liquid density cannot be obtained from the streams, the density of water is used as default.

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Vapor Density Density of vapor flowing inside the column is estimated from the density of the inlet streams and the exit streams. If vapor density cannot be obtained from the streams, the vapor density is estimated based on gas law. The vapor density is estimated at the minimum operating pressure and operating temperature. Average Molecular Weight of Vapor Inside Tower Average vapor molecular weight is estimated from the inlet and exit streams. The lowest molecular weight of the streams is assigned as the vapor molecular weight. Average Molecular Weight of Liquid Inside Tower Average liquid molecular weight is the maximum molecular weight for the inlet and exit streams.
Sizing Procedure

The sizing procedure varies depending on the type of internals desired and the simulator model used for the operation. The procedure described below gives a description of the actual steps used by the sizing module to estimate the sizes for the different types of trayed and packed towers.
Trayed Tower Sizing

General Procedure (Followed for all tray internals): 1. The type (class) of the fluid in the column is used to estimate some of the properties in designing the tray internals, such as surface tension, foaming tendency, deration factor if they are not specified by the user in the simulation output report or in the design criteria file. 2. You can specify the Overall Column tray efficiency on the Design Criteria specifications form (see page 3-36). If you do not specify a value, then it is estimated using Lockett’s modification of the O’Connell Correlation. This correlation is based on tests on actual plant columns and has been the standard of the industry. The tray

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efficiency is used to calculate the actual number of stages required for the separation.
EOC = 0.492 ( μL α) -0.245

where:
EOC = efficiency, O’Connell Correlation μL = viscosity of liquid, CPOISE α = relative volatility of key components

A default value of 1.5 is used for the relative volatility of key components, which can be modified by the user in the design criteria file. The liquid viscosity is either directly obtained from the report or estimated from the fluid classification. 3. Once the internal height of the column is estimated (based on the actual number of trays), additional height for vapor disengagement and liquid return is based on the user-provided value on the Design Criteria specifications form. 4. In general, the number of stages provided by the simulator report represents the theoretical number of stages. However, if the simulator has used tray efficiency to perform detailed design of the tower, then the number of trays is actual trays. If Analyzer finds that the number of trays is actual, then it uses the value to estimate the height and does not add any additional tray efficiency.
Using Tower Sizing Information

When a simulator report provides sizing information, Analyzer tries to use as much of the information as possible in the final design. When multiple sections are present in the report, the information used by Analyzer depends on the equipment to which the model is mapped. Single Diameter Trayed Tower (TW TRAYED) If multiple sections are present with different diameters and tray spacings, then the largest values of the diameters and tray spacings are used for the actual design of the tower. Double Diameter Trayed Tower (DTT TRAYED) For double diameter trayed tower, the two largest diameters in the sectional report are used in the design. Once the tower is divided into two sections (based on diameter), the value of the tray spacing for each section is based on the stage numbers present in each section. The largest values of tray spacing for each section are used to estimate the tower height.

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For example, for Aspen Plus, assume the following sizing information is obtained from the report after completing the loading process.
Section 1: Diameter = 5 FEET Tray Spacing = 24 INCHES Stages = 2 to 4 Section 2: Diameter = 6 FEET Tray Spacing = 30 INCHES Stages = 5 to 7 Section 3: Diameter = 8 FEET Tray Spacing = 18 INCHES Stages = 8 to 10

The sizing program will design a double diameter tower with the following dimensions:
Top Section Diameter = 6 FEET Top Section Tray spacing = 30 INCHES Top Section Stages = 2 to 7 Bottom Section Diameter = 8 FEET Bottom Section Tray spacing = 18 INCHES Bottom Section Stages = 8 to 10

The program estimates the cross sectional area for each stage. Then, the maximum value is used to design the single diameter tower. In case of double diameter tower, the program estimates the diameter for the bottom section and the top section based on the cross sectional area estimated for each stage.
Sieve Tray Design

The capacity factor, CSB, is evaluated based on the correlation developed for entrainment flooding by Kister and Haas. Jeronimo et. al correlation is used to estimate the clear liquid height in the spray regime. Strictly, the Jeronimo and Swistowski correlation predicts the clear liquid height at the transition from the froth to the spray regime. However, empirical evidence has shown that clear liquid height in the spray regime is much the same as clear liquid height at that transition. The CSB estimated at the flooding point is used to evaluate the flooding vapor velocity. The bubbling area is calculated based on flood velocity, the derating factor and the safety factor. (Column default design is 90% of flood.)
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Downcomer liquid velocity is based on the foaming tendency of the fluid and tray spacing. Foaming tendency can be specified in the design criteria file. The downcomer cross-sectional area is based on the downcomer velocity and the maximum liquid flow inside the tower. The total tower cross-sectional area is calculated by adding the bubbling area and the downcomer area. The diameter of the tower is obtained from the crosssectional area by rounding the area up to the next half foot. The minimum diameter for the tower is 1.5 FEET.

• •

Valve Tray Design

Valve tray sizing is based on the V-type Ballast trays produced by Glitsch. The system factors are estimated based on the fluid classification performed on the fluid flowing through the column. The tray diameter is evaluated for either single pass trays or two pass trays. It is based on 24 INCHES tray spacing and 80% of flood.
Bibliography

1. “Distillation Design”, by Henry Z. Kister. 2. “Applied Process Design For Chemical And Petrochemical Plant”, Volumes 1 and 3, by Ernest E. Ludvig. 3. “Standard Handbook of Engineering Calculations”, by Tyler G. Hicks 4. “Chemical Engineers HandBook”, by Perry and Chilton, 6th Edition.

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Bubble-Cap Tray Design

The allowable vapor velocity and the corresponding diameter for bubble-cap trays have been represented by the “Jersey Critical” formula which corresponds to the work by Souder and Brown for column flooding.

D = 0.0956 Wv / K ρ L ρ v
D Wv =
ρL ρv
= = = Diameter, FEET

(

)

12

vapor flow rate, LB/H liquid density, LB/CF vapor density, LB/CF

The factor K depends on the tray spacing as follows:
Tray Spacing, INCHES K 18 3.4 24 4.2 30 4.7 30+ 5.0

Packed Tower Design

Packed tower design is accomplished for both random and structured packings. The various types of packings supported by the system are described in the Icarus Reference. Kister and Gill flood point correlation is used to estimate pressure drop at the flood point as a function of packing factor alone.
ΔΡFL = .155 (Fp0.7)

where:
ΔΡFL = Pressure drop at flood point Fp = Packing factor

Note: The user can provide the value for packing factor in the design criteria menu option. The system defaults are used for each of the different types of packings if the user provided value is not present. Once this pressure drop is known, the flood velocity is calculated using the latest version of GPDC (Generalized Pressure Drop Correlation) charts for both random and structured packings.

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HETP Prediction

HETP value can be provided by the user in the design criteria option. If the value is not specified, rules of thumb prediction reported in literature are used to predict the packed tower efficiency. For random packing columns, the following rules are used for estimating HETP (FEET):
HETP dp HETP > DT = = 1.5 dp Packing diameter, INCHES for DT < 2 FEET

For estimating the structured packing efficiency, the following rule of thumb is used:
HETP, INCHES ap = 1200 /ap + 4 = Packing surface area per unit volume, SF/CF

System Defaults

The following system default values may be modified in the design criteria file and component specification form:
Trayed Tower Defaults Tray Type Tray Spacing Flooding Factor Foaming Tendency Packed Tower Defaults Packing Type Packing Material Specific area per unit volume for the packing General Defaults Top vapor disengagement height Bottom sump height = = = = Sieve 24 inches 80 % Moderate

= = =

Random 1.0PPR 0.75 SF/CF

= =

4 FEET 6 FEET

SimSci’s SHORTCUT Column Operation

In case of SHORTCUT column operation, the simulator provides only the minimum reflux ratio for the distillation process. To design the tower, the ratio of the operating reflux ratio and minimum reflux ratio has to be provided. The system uses the default value of 2.0 for the ratio. The ratio can be changed from the design criteria file. If the simulator report does not contain information (number of trays) for the operating reflux ratio, the tower sizing program returns to the system without performing sizing for the tower.

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Vessels
Horizontal Vessels

The following graphic shows a typical horizontal vessel.

The following design variables are specified by the user in the design criteria file for horizontal vessels:
Residence Time Process Vessel Height to Diameter Ratio Minimum Vessel Diameter Vapor/Liquid Separator Sizing Method Average Liquid Particle Diameter Design factor multiplier for disengagement velocity Separation Factor Vapor area /cross sectional area Separation Factor Multiplier Minimum Boot Length (used in Horizontal Vessel Design) Minimum Boot diameter Boot Leg Liquid Velocity

Design Requirements

The maximum number of exit streams is three; two of the streams can be liquid.

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Calculating Diameter

Vessel diameter is based on the maximum allowable vapor velocity inside the separator, to reduce the liquid entrainment in the vapor. The following two methods are available in Analyzer (chosen from the design criteria file) to obtain vapor velocity. 1. Liquid Entrainment Method 2. Particle size separation method.
Calculating Vapor Velocity

Liquid Entrainment Method The maximum allowable vapor velocity, to reduce liquid entrainment is obtained as a function of liquid and vapor density and the Separation Factor, which itself is a polynomial function of vapor and liquid density and vapor and liquid flowrates. The polynomial equation was based on 5% of liquid entrained in the vapor and is valid for the range (defined below) of 0.006 to 5.0. Analyzer allows you to override the computed value of Separation Factor.
W X k_v K v_m = = = = = l_mfr/v_mfr * sqrt (v_rho/l_rho) ln (SF) EXP(A + BX + CX^2 + DX^3 + EX^4) k_v * k_vm K * sqrt ((l_rho - v_rho)/v_rho)

where:
l_mfr v_mfr l_rho v_rho K SF k_v k_vm A B C D E = = = = = = = = = = = = = Light Liquid Mass Flow rate Vapor Mass Flow rate Light Liquid Density Vapor Density System Factor Separation Factor Polynomial Function of SF Separation Factor Multiplier -1.877478097 -0.8145804597 -0.1870744085 -0.0145228667 -0.0010148518

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The above relation for Separation Factor is valid for a “W”(SF) between 0.006 and 5.0. If “W” falls outside the range, the sizing program gives a warning message and the limiting value of W is used to estimate Separation Factor. For example, if calculated value of W is 0.001, then the value used in the correlation is 0.006. If the calculated value of W is 10.0, then the value used in the correlation is 6.0. Particle Size Separation Method This method estimates the disengagement velocity of liquid bubble in the vapor space. The maximum allowable vapor velocity is determined as a percentage of the disengagement velocity. Liquid drops falling in gases appear to be spherical up to a Reynolds number of 100. Large drops (greater than 0.3125 INCHES) will deform, with a resulting increase in drag, and in some cases shatter. For estimating vapor velocity, the liquid bubbles are assumed to remain in spherical shape. The terminal settling velocity can be obtained for different flow conditions. For laminar flow (K < 3),
v = g * (rho_l - rho_v) *(dp^ 2)/ (18.0 * mu_v)

and for turbulent region,
v = 1.74 (g * dp * (rho_l - rho_v) / rho_v)^0.5

where:
K v g rho_l rho_v dp mu_v = = = = = = = dp * (g * rho_v * (rho_l - rho_v)/ (mu_v^2) )^0.33 disengagement velocity gravitational constant liquid density vapor density liquid bubble diameter gas viscosity (assumed to be 0.05 LB/FT/H)

The design velocity is then estimated by the following equation:
v_m = v*f

where:
v_m f v = disengagement velocity = design factor multiplier for disengagement velocity = disengagement

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Calculating vessel cross-sectional area

Vapor cross sectional area is estimated based on the vapor velocity and the vapor volumetric flow. The vapor cross sectional area is divided by the ratio of vapor area/cross sectional area to get the total required cross sectional area.
v_csa = v_vol/v_m t_csa = v_csa/r_vc

where:
v_csa v_vol r_vc t_csa = Vapor area = Vapor volumetric flow = Vapor area/cross sectional area = Vessel cross sectional area

Estimate Vessel diameter based on vapor flow:
D_v = sqrt ((t_csa * 4) /π)

where:
D_v π = Vessel Diameter based on vapor flow = 3.14

Estimate vessel diameter based on liquid holdup volume and user specified value of L/D ratio. The maximum value of diameter calculated using vapor velocity and liquid holdup is used for final design.
Calculating Length

Vessel liquid holdup volume is obtained based on the light liquid flowrate and the residence time. The vessel length is then calculated as given below:
l_vol L = l_vfr * r_t = (l_vol * 4) / (π * D^2 * (1 - r_vc))

where:
L = Length

l_vol = Liquid holdup volume l_vfr r_t r_vc = Light liquid volumetric flowrate = Residence time = Vapor area/Cross-sectional area

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Checking L/D Ratio

For all liquid vessels L/D is calculated as follows:
If If 250 If < P <= 250 PSIA, then L/D= 3 P <= 500 PSIA, then L/D = 4 P > 500 PSIA, then L/D= 5

After estimating the length (L) and diameter (D) of the vessel, the ratio of L/D is compared with the value specified by the user in the design criteria file for “Process Vessel Height to Diameter Ratio”.
Estimating Boot Dimensions

Boot dimensions will be estimated only if the exit streams contain a heavier liquid phase. Boot diameter is based on the heavier liquid phase volume and boot liquid velocity.
Boot volume (bt_vol) = hl_vfr * r_t

Boot cross section area (bt_csa) = bt_vol / hl_vel

Boot diameter (d) = sqrt (4.0 * bt_csa /π)

Boot length (l) = (bt_vol * 4)/(π * d^2)

where:
hl_vfr hl_vel l d = heavy liquid volumetric flow rate = heavy liquid velocity = boot length = boot diameter

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Vertical Vessels

The following graphic shows a typical vertical vessel.

The following design variables are specified on the Design Criteria specifications form:
Residence Time Process Vessel Height to Diameter Ratio Minimum Vessel Diameter Vapor/Liquid Separator Sizing Method Average liquid particle diameter Design factor multiplier for disengagement velocity

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Separation Factor Minimum Disengagement Height Minimum height above the mist eliminator Height of Mist Eliminator

Vessel diameter is calculated in the same manner as for horizontal vessels. The default value of Separation Factor Multiplier is available in the Design Criteria specifications.
Calculating Vessel Height

Vessel liquid holdup volume is based on the light liquid flowrate and the residence time. The liquid height in the vessel is then calculated and the additional height is added to obtain the overall vessel height.
l_vol l_ht h = = = l_vfr * r_t (l_vol * 4) / (π * D^2) LLLTap_ht + l_ht+ HLLTap_ht + d_ht + me_ht + mea_ht

where:
l_vol l_vfr r_t l_ht LLLTap_ht = liquid holdup volume = light liquid volumetric flowrate = residence time = liquid height based on residence time = minimum height between low liquid level tap and tangent line (design criteria)

ddHLLTap_ht = height between inlet nozzle and high liquid level tap (design criteria) d_ht me_ht mea_ht = disengagement height = mist eliminator height = Height above the mist eliminator

If the calculated l_ht is less than the minimum height between the taps, specified in the design criteria, then the minimum height is used.
Checking L/D ratio

For all liquid After estimating the height (H) and diameter (D) of the vessel, the ratio of H/D is compared with the value specified by the user in the design criteria file for “Process Vessel Height to Diameter Ratio.”

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Developing and Using Cost Libraries

The Libraries view on the Palette arranges libraries in a tree-structure. Most of the libraries listed access project specifications (explained in Chapter 3). The Cost Libraries are unique, however, in that they comprise collections of particular cost items that you can add as project components. The cost libraries are customizable; you can add items to the libraries provided, as well as add your own libraries. Analyzer includes two types of cost libraries: Equipment Model Library (EML) and Unit Cost Library (UCL). Each library type may include one or more library files, which in turn may contain one or more library items, each representing a particular type of cost item. Equipment Model Library (EML) The EML is intended to store custom equipment items, for which you create component specification forms. In a project, you can add an item from the EML as a component and fill out the form that you earlier created. The library can store a generic equipment item that comes in discrete sizes, such as an extruder, or an equipment item that follows a continuous cost-capacity relationship such as linear, semi-log or log-log. Unit Cost Library (UCL) The UCL is intended to store and retrieve direct costs and installation man-hours, which are based on a simple unit of measure (e.g., the cost of a material item or installation man-hours per unit of area, per unit of length, per item, etc.). Costs can also be stored in a library for indirect items such as project management man-hours per month, crane rental (plant hire) on a daily, weekly, monthly basis, etc. For one-of-a-kind cost items not worth storing in a library, the unit cost library may be used to create a dummy item for recall and modification in a project. The dummy item is stored in the library

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with as little data as possible. This can be retrieved and modified in as much detail as required whenever you need a one-time cost added into a project.

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Developing and Using an Equipment Model Library (EML)
Creating an EML The instructions in this sub-section show you how to create an EML. The instructions in the sub-sections that follow this one, which show you how to add an item to an EML and then add the item to a project, use a single example that can be added either to an Inch-Pound EML that you created or to one of the two Inch-Pound EML’s provided. To create an EML: 1. With no project open, go to the Palette’s Libraries tab view. Expand Cost Libraries in the tree-structure, and then expand Equipment Model Library. The libraries are divided into Inch-Pound and Metric. To create a library for use in projects with an Inch-Pound units of measure basis, as in the example used in these instructions, right-click on InchPound and click New on the pop-up menu.

The New Equipment Model Library dialog box appears.

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2. Enter a file name (required) for the EML and a brief description (optional), then click OK. An empty Library dialog box appears.

You can now add items to the new library. Adding an Item to an EML The instructions below for defining and using an EML item follow a single example from item creation through the addition of the item to a project. Using the example provided will define the item in such a way that it automatically generates a foundation and/or electrical power supply bulks. To add an item to an EML: 1. If you just added a library, the Library dialog box is displayed, and you may skip to Step 2. If not, follow these steps: a. Go to the Palette’s Libraries tab view. b. Expand Cost Libraries, Equipment Libraries, and either Inch-Pound or Metric. (If following the example provided, select Inch-Pound.) c. Right-click on the library to which you want to add an item, and then click Modify on the pop-up menu. 2. Click Add on the Library dialog box. 3. Enter a Reference ID for the item in the Add Item dialog box. The one- to six-character alphanumeric Reference ID uniquely identifies the library item being added. The ID is used to sort and search for library items. The first character must be a letter.

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Click OK. 4. Enter the descriptive data for the item in the Develop Equipment Model Library form. If you are following the example, enter the data exactly as shown below. Be sure to correctly enter the sizing parameters, CAPFLOW and PWRDRVR; Analyzer knows to use GPM (or L/S for METRIC) and HP, respectively, for these parameters.

Sizing method: the data is in the form of either a continuous curve (linear, log-log or semi-log) or a set of discrete tabular values. When an equipment model library item is retrieved into a project, the specified size for the project component is used to develop the appropriate cost, man-hours and weight from the library data.

4. Click OK to save your specifications. The new item appears on the Library dialog box, which you may now close.

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Adding an EML Item to a Project Scenario

To add an EML item to a project scenario: 1. Open the project to which you want to add the EML item. For the purposes of this example, you can use either an existing or newly created US/I-P based project. 2. In Project Explorer (Project view), right-click on the area in which to add the EML item, and then click Add Project Component on the pop-up menu. 3. On the Icarus Project Component Selection dialog box, specify a project component name for the item.

Select Equipment Model Library and click OK. 4. At the Select an Equipment Model Library File dialog box, select the EML to which you added the item and Click OK.

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5. At the Select an Equipment Model Library Item dialog box, select the item you added and click OK.

6. Enter your specifications for the item at the Component Specifications form, as shown below. Note that the Size parameters CAPFLOW and PWRDRVR are included on the form.

Click OK to apply and save the specifications. The item will now be included in project evaluations.

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Developing and Using a Unit Cost Library (UCL)
The instructions below use as an example a library of asbestos abatement (ASBABT) costs and man-hours. This example has been selected because environmental remediation data is difficult to model, since costs and man-hours tend to vary greatly based on site conditions and project types. Items of a unique and/or variable nature are ideal for storing in a UCL. The instructions take this example through the following stages: library creation, adding items to the library, adding a library item to a project as a component, and forming an assembly in the project out of multiple UCL items. Creating a Unit Cost Library To create a unit cost library: 1. With no project open, go to the Palette’s Libraries tab view. Expand Cost Libraries in the tree-structure, and then expand Unit Cost Library. The libraries are divided into Inch-Pound and Metric. To create a library for use in projects with an Inch-Pound units of measure basis, as in the ASBABT example used in these instructions, right-click on Inch-Pound and click New on the pop-up menu. 2. In the New Unit Cost Library dialog box, enter a file name (required) for the UCL and a brief description (optional).

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Click OK to create the new UCL. An empty Library dialog box appears.

You can now add items to the new UCL. Adding an Item to a UCL To add items to a UCL: 1. If you just added a library, the Library dialog box is displayed, and you may skip to Step 2. If not, follow these steps: a. Go to the Palette’s Libraries tab view. b. Expand Cost Libraries, Unit Cost Libraries, and either Inch-Pound or Metric. c. Right-click on the library to which you want to add an item, and then click Modify on the pop-up menu. 2. Click Add on the Library dialog box. 3. Enter a Reference ID for the item in the Add Item dialog box. The one- to six-character alphanumeric Reference ID uniquely identifies the library item being added. The ID is used to sort and search for library items. The first character must be a letter.

Click OK.

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4. In the Develop Unit Cost Library form, enter information for the new item.

Note: Costs for the item will be allocated to the specified Code of Account (COA). See Icarus Reference Chapter 34 for COA definitions.

Analyzer uses the Material Cost Per Unit and Labor Cost Per Unit to cost the item in an estimate. If Labor Hours Per Unit is specified and Labor Cost Per Unit is left blank, Analyzer will calculate the labor cost using the project wage rates at the time of the estimate. The Unit of Measure can be designated for “each” or by any appropriate unit (i.e., “1000 SF” ). Be sure to sufficiently describe the item so that you know what the unit costs include when the item is retrieved at some future date. The quantity is entered when the library item is retrieved into a project. The Date and Source are for your reference and are not transferred into an estimate. When done entering specifications for the item, click OK.

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5. To add a set of items as in the ASBABT example, repeat the process (Steps 2-4) to add the following items in addition to the one shown in the previous graphic.
Reference Code of No. Item Description Account AAB200 AAB201 AAB202 AAB300 AAB301 Polyethylene Sheeting Duct Tape ( 300’ roll ) Adhesive Spray (60’ / can) Decontamination Shower Neg Air Pressure System Lighting Fixture Removal 800 800 800 800 800 Labor Unit of Mat’l Cost Cost Per Unit Measure Per Unit .021 3.50 6.00 300.00 300.00 2 2 .004 SF ROLL CAN EACH EACH Date of quotation 04APR01 04APR01 04APR01 04APR01 04APR01

AAB400

800

.01

EACH

04APR01

After the above are added, the Library dialog box will appear as shown below.

6. When done adding items to the UCL, click close on the Library dialog box.

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Adding a UCL Item to a Project Scenario

To add a single UCL item to a project scenario: 1. Open the project to which you want to add the UCL item. To add an item from the ASBABT library developed as an example in the previous instructions, you can open either an existing or newly created US/I-P based project. 2. In Project Explorer (Project view), right-click on the area in which to add the UCL item, and then click Add Project Component on the pop-up menu. 3. On the Icarus Project Component Selection dialog box, specify a project component name for the item.

Select Unit Cost Library and click OK. 4. At the Select a Unit Cost Library File dialog box, select the UCL to which you added the item and click OK.

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5. At the Select a Unit Cost Library Item dialog box, select the item you added and click OK.

6. On the Component Specifications form, click the Option drop-down button and select Unit Cost Items.

Analyzer retrieves the unit cost data you set up in Libraries.

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7. You can now enter the quantity data and modify any of the retrieved data. 8. Click OK to save the specifications and close the form. Creating an Assembly of UCL Items This section shows how to add several items from the library to form an assembly. In the example, the items from the ASBABT library are added to form an Asbestos Abatement Area Preparation Assembly. To create an assembly of UCL items in a project: 1. In Project Explorer (Project view), right-click on the area in which to add the UCL item, and then click Add Project Component on the pop-up menu. 2. On the Icarus Project Component Selection dialog box, enter as the project component name a description of the assembly.

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Select Unit Cost Library and click OK. 3. At the Select a Unit Cost Library File dialog box, select the UCL containing the first item to add to the assembly and click OK.

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4. At the Select a Unit Cost Library Item dialog box, select the first item to add to the assembly and click OK.

5. On the Component Specifications form, click the Option drop-down button and select Unit Cost Items.

6. Click Add.

7. At the Select a Unit Cost Library File dialog box, select the UCL containing the next item to add to the assembly and click OK.

8. At the Select a Unit Cost Library Item dialog box, select the next item to add to the assembly and click OK.

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9. Repeat the process of adding items until the form contains columns for all the items in the assembly.

10. After entering quantities for the items click OK. The assembly is listed as one project component on the Project Explorer (Project view) and the List view. You can now run an evaluation on the item (see page 9-103 for instructions). An Item Report would summarize total costs and man-hours, as well as list each assembly item’s costs and man-hours.

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Working with Cost Libraries
Equipment model and unit cost libraries share the functions described in this section. Copying a Library Item When adding a library item similar to one that already exists, it is easier to copy the existing library item and modify the necessary specifications. To copy a library item: 1. Highlight a library item in the Library dialog box and click Copy. 2. Enter a Reference ID for the new item. The one- to six-character alphanumeric Reference ID uniquely identifies the library item being added. The ID is used to sort and search for library items. The first character must be a letter. Click OK. Analyzer adds the new item with all the same data as the original — only the Reference ID has changed. Deleting a Library Item When a library item is no longer useful, it can be removed from the library file. To delete a library item: 1. Highlight a library item in the Library dialog box and click Delete. A dialog box appears to confirm the delete. 2. Click Yes to delete the selected library item. Or click No to retain the library item in the library file. Escalating Library Costs Library items contain costs which change over time due to inflation. Escalating library costs bring the library costs up to date. To escalate library costs: 1. Click Escalate on the Library dialog box. The Escalate Costs dialog box appears.

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2. Enter the escalation specifications. New Base Date: The date of escalation or the date at which the prices are current. Material Escalation: Amount by which to escalate material costs. Labor Escalation: Amount by which to escalate labor costs. Since equipment model libraries only include man-hours, not labor costs, this field only appears when escalating unit cost libraries. 3. Click OK to escalate all of the library items in the library file. Importing a Cost Library You can import UCL files, which have the extension “.LIB”, and EML files, which have the extension “.EML”, from elsewhere on your computer or network. To import a cost library: 1. In the Palette (Libraries view), right-click on the appropriate Units of Measure basis (Inch-Pound or Metric), and then click Import on the pop-up menu.

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Developing and Using Cost Libraries • 7-19

2. In the Select a File for Import window, locate the file and then click Open.

The file is now included in the Palette and its items can be added as Analyzer project components. Duplicating a Cost Library To duplicate a cost library: 1. In the Palette (Libraries view), right-click on the library you wish to duplicate, and then click Duplicate on the pop-up menu. 2. Enter a file name and description (optional) for the new library.

Analyzer displays the Library dialog box for the new Library, which contains the same items as the original. You can add, modify, or delete the items without affecting the original.

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Aspen Decision Analyzer User Guide

Deleting a Cost Library

To delete a cost library: In the Palette (Libraries view), right-click on the library to be deleted, and then click Delete on the pop-up menu.

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Changing Plant Capacity and Location

Analyzer allows you to evaluate alternate plant capacities and locations. When you change plant capacity, Analyzer re-sizes each project component to a desired plant capacity. Unique expert system rules, based on engineering principles, provide the basis for revising the size of every project component in the process facility that is implicated in stream flows, as well as the size of other plant facility components in the plant layout, including process and utility components inside battery limits (ISBL) and outside battery limits (OSBL), associated installation bulks, piping, cable runs, buildings, structures, pipe racks, and site improvements.

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Changing Plant Capacity and Location • 8-1

Changing Plant Capacity
Changing the production capacity affects not only every stream flow, but the size, and in some cases, the number of project components. Decision Analyzer’s Analyzer Scale-up Module (ASM) automatically examines each element of a project, applies a set of scale-up rules unique to that element and recreates the entire plant description according to the new production capacity. ASM contains hundreds of rules for each of the hundreds of Aspen Icarus project components. Rules are based on engineering principles for elements that are directly linked to production capacity. For other elements that are footprint oriented such as building and structures, rules based on heuristics are applied. When the scaled project is evaluated, design quantities that are developed for the newly sized components are designed to meet the needs of a project. Further, revisions to P&IDs and similar user adjustments contained in the baseline project are also treated in the same way. The idea is to design a scaled project as it is intended to be built. This methodology eliminates the need for applying a factor to the baseline plant cost to scale it up or down. Given a new capacity, ASM recreates the entire plant. The ASM process is automatic and rapid. ASM revises sizes of components to meet a revised capacity and the project evaluation engines do the difficult, time-consuming evaluation work. Users find ASM performs its re-sizing operation results to be similar to engineering design methods with the added benefit of much reduced time and resources. Further, equal confidence can be applied to evaluation results before and after using ASM as rules are discipline-based and the before and after evaluation processes are identical. To change plant capacity: 1. Open your baseline project and save it under a new scenario name that reflects the new capacity. This will ensure that your baseline project remains intact, separate and apart from your about-to-be scaled project. 2. On the Run menu, click Decision Analyzer or click the “A” button on the toolbar.

The Decision Analyzer dialog box appears.

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3. Mark the Change Plant Capacity by (5-600%) check box. 4. Enter the desired percentage adjustment or select it using the Up/Down arrow buttons. For example, if you need to revise the capacity by a value beyond 600% to 700%, scale your project twice. For this, the Evaluate Project check box should be cleared. Then you can split the desired 700% into two parts: first use 350%, and on completion, scale it again at 350%. 5. Click OK to initiate the Analyzer Scale-up Module. 6. Upon completion, save the scaled project.

Analyzer Scale-Up Module (ASM)
How ASM Works Scale-up of a project to a new production capacity is a two-step process. 1. The Aspen Scale-up Module is invoked. The ASM processor (a) analyzes each specification in your project (b) applies the appropriate scale-up rule (c) revises the specification to a new value (d) moves on to the next specification

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You can follow the progress of this phase by noting the item names in the display at the bottom of your screen. 2. The project is evaluated. This phase performs the designs, develops quantities, hours, costs, etc., and prepares the basic set of reports for your project at the new capacity. On completion of this step, you can proceed to prepare special reports and perform other analyses on your newly scaled project. Save the project after the scale-up operation. Scale-Up Rule Set Analyzer contains rules for hundreds of components and cost elements that are based on (a) engineering design principles for scale-up of all process equipment, stream flows, etc and (b) heuristics for plant items that are based on footprint and plot plan. The current rule set in some instances modifies the number of items rather than change sizes, as in the simple example of trees along a fence line, where the number of trees would be revised rather than the size of each tree. In the current rule set, there is no automatic provision for increasing the number of project components. It is possible that on extreme capacity scale-ups, sizes of certain equipment or bulk items may surpass a system limiting value. In this case, an error condition would be issued. The user would then examine the scaled model for the particular item(s) and revise the size and number of out-of-range items accordingly, as an item in an error condition would be excluded from the estimate. ASM rules apply to the following types of project information: • • Area specs: distances, dimensions, cost per unit weight Project Component specs: specific rules based on item type and specification, typically size dimension, capacity, power and occasionally number of items

Limiting Conditions

Scale-up Candidates

Note: Several “sanitary” process equipment items associated with batch food processing will not be scaled. • Installation specs: quoted costs, hours and numeric specs for piping, duct, civil, steel, electrical, insulation, paint. Text-based sizes such as pipe schedule, wire size, etc. are symbolic and are not scaled. Project Component Quoted Cost: While ASM has rules for quoted cost, the ASM rule may not be the best for your type of item. Here, it’s better to apply a % Adjustment to the system’s estimated cost in an amount that will bring
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8-4 • Changing Plant Capacity and Location

the estimated cost up to your quoted value. Then, on scaling, the new reported cost will be calculated by applying your % Adjustment to the estimated cost. Based on the scaled sizes. • • • Scale-Up for Configuration Analysis Quoted hours: based on item type Quoted weight: based on item type Stream flow rate: scaled to the new capacity

Often, sections of a proposed facility may be required to consist of parallel trains, joining up to meet downstream units. Situations such as these are best handled by creating models of these sections at a standard capacity and then scaling desired sections to say 50% capacity. You would then import the various sections into an overall model, with multiple trains being imported as many times as required. The resulting model would then be evaluated for capital investment and process economics.

Analyzer Relocation Module (ARM)
The Analyzer Relocation Module enables you to evaluate the impact of worldwide location on capital cost and a variety of other econometrics. Specifically, you can “relocate” a project from one basis to any one of 89 worldwide locations. You can choose to retain the location of your engineering workforce or choose any one of 89 worldwide locations. When you need to evaluate a project that you might engineer and/or construct in a different city or country location, ARM will quickly and automatically revise your project parameters with those contained in its location knowledge base. The ARM knowledge base includes key location-dependent data and rules to properly convert your project from its starting basis to your selected location(s) using location dependent values for design parameters, engineering and construction work forces, cost of materials, and engineering, material and construction indirects. You can use ARM in combination with the Analyzer Scale-up Module (ASM) and Analyzer Economics Module (AEM) all in the same run or separately from the other modules. • Baseline project: initial case, before executing ARM. • Relocated project: after ARM processing of the baseline project. • Relocation: a process of evaluating an initially formulated project (baseline project) to a new location (relocated project).

Relocation Terminology

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• •

Locations: a general location, characterized by a city and country name, which is used to represent a particular EPC function. The function may or may not be physically sited in that city. Engineering location: city and country name used to characterize the engineering workforce assigned to the project. Plant location: city and country name used to characterize the plant site.

Workflow

The figure below shows the general work process. ARM specs, contained in the ARM rule set are applied to the user’s model. A description of the elements in the table is provided in the section following the Workflow.

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How the Analyzer Plant Relocation Module (ARM) Works

Baseline Reports For Base Engineering and Plant Location Analyzer Project Relocation Module (ARM)

Relocation Reports For New Engineering and Plant Location

Baseline Project

Relocated Project

ARM Specs
Project Specs

Construction Hours

Construction Rates

Material Quantities Materials Indirects Materials Contingency

Engineering Hours

Engineering Rates

Construction Indirects Construction Contingency Construction Fee Construction Cost

Engineering Indirects Engineering Contingency Engineering Cost

Material Cost

Project Contingency

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1

Since ARM processing is automatic it is wise to first save your base project under a new scenario name in advance of running ARM. Use a scenario name that refers to the planned new capacity. This will ensure that your baseline project remains intact for further evaluations. 2 On the Run menu, click Decision Analyzer or click the “A” button on the button bar: Figure 1. Button Bar

This will display the Decision Analyzer dialog box, Figure 2. Note: ARM shares space with ASM and AEM and Evaluate Project on the four-part Decision Analyzer dialog box. 3 4 5 6 Mark the checkbox Change Plant Location to. Select the Plant Location from its pull-down list. Select the Engineering Location from its pull-down list. Use the remaining check boxes to select options to • Enable escalation for Aspen Kbase projects. • Retain your defined construction start date and duration. If unchecked, a new date will be developed on relocation.

Note that the last line on the Decision Analyzer dialog box displays three pieces of information: • plant location • currency name • currency symbol, in parentheses This information is a reminder to users of the Analyzer Economics Module (AEM) who are interested in reporting costs in currency different from the plant location currency. For this, two entry slots are provided for an exchange rate and symbol. If AEM is not invoked, values so entered will not affect the reporting aspects of relocation aspects. In Figure 2, the user elected to run AEM. This would take place immediately after ARM completed the relocation process, described as follows. Figure 2. Decision Analyzer Dialog Box – Illustration for a plant to be engineered in Rotterdam and constructed in Singapore. The currency of the plant location is displayed in the last wire-frame.
8-8 • Changing Plant Capacity and Location Aspen Decision Analyzer User Guide

Relocating the Project

7. Once having completed the choices, click OK to run the project. If you choose CANCEL, all choices will be ignored and control will return to the explorer view. With your OK, Decision Analyzer’s relocation module will automatically convert your base location project to the selected engineering and plant location. Your project will then contain the results of the relocation, which you can review and modify. To do this, select the Project Basis view and click on the desired basis category. Open the associated form, review the data and modify, as you desire. When pleased with the results, SAVE the project, making sure that it is saved under a scenario name that describes the relocation and most important, that your baseline project is not disturbed by the SAVE. You can then evaluate the project and review the results. A final SAVE will save the results.

ARM Knowledge Base

The ARM knowledge base consists of approximately ten thousand location-specific data values plus rules that govern the way the location data will be applied to your baseline project. The ARM

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Changing Plant Capacity and Location • 8-9

knowledge base is derived from a variety of qualified sources including: • Aspen Richardson international construction data: raw data from this source (also used to prepare the Aspen Richardson International Cost Factor Manual) were analyzed and mapped into Icarus technology formats for use in ARM • Proprietary sources • Practicing professionals, EPC and owner customers and associates • Surveys • Technical publications that specialize in international construction costs • Government sources: seismic, climate data and other location data • Financial sources: exchange rates, etc. • Aspen Icarus models: to blend and fill in sparse data areas
Five Bodies of Data

The ARM knowledge base consists of five bodies of data: • • • • • Location specs Project specs Engineering specs Construction specs Material Cost specs

Highlights of each component follow.
Location Specs

ARM is formulated for 89 locations in 33 currencies. Locations listed below include the four Icarus country base locations. The locations are similar to those in the Aspen Richardson International Cost Factor Manual list. Locations are organized and sorted by continental region, country and city. For Canadian and US locations, names include state, province or territory. Conventional short forms of country and city names are used for simplicity. • Regions - The number of locations for each region is listed in Table 1. • City Locations outside the US are listed in Table 2 • US locations are listed in Table 3.

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TABLE 1. List of Locations in Each Region
Africa Asia Australia Canada Central America Europe Middle East South America United States All Locations Non-US Locations 3 15 3 6 2 12 6 5 37 89 52

TABLE 2. List of Non-US Locations

Region Africa

Asia

Australia

Central America Canada

City, Country El Hassania, Morocco Ibadan, Nigeria Johannesburg, South Africa Beijing, China Guangzhou, China Shanghai, China Bhopal, India Mumbai (Bombay), India Jakarta, Indonesia Kobe, Japan Tokyo, Japan Kuantan, Malaysia Manila, Philippines Singapore, Singapore Seoul, South Korea Taipei, Taiwan Samutprakam, Thailand Binh Duong, Vietnam Melbourne, Australia Perth, Australia Sydney, Australia Guatemala City, Guatemala Mexico City, Mexico Calgary, Canada Montreal, Canada Toronto, Canada Vancouver, Canada Windsor, Canada

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Europe

Middle East

South America

Winnipeg, Canada Brussels, Belgium Paris, France Frankfurt, Germany Dublin, Ireland Milan, Italy Amsterdam, Netherlands Rotterdam, Netherlands Warsaw, Poland Moscow, Russia Barcelona, Spain London, United Kingdom Manchester, United Kingdom Cairo, Egypt Kuwait City, Kuwait Dammam, Saudi Arabia Jeddah, Saudi Arabia Gebze, Turkey Abu Dhabi, UAE Buenos Aires, Argentina Rio de Janeiro, Brazil Medellin, Colombia Lima, Peru Caracas, Venezuela

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TABLE 3. List of US City Locations

Anchorage, AK Atlanta, GA Baltimore, MD Boston, MA Cape Girardeau, MO Cayey, PR Charlotte, NC Chicago, IL Cincinnati, OH Dallas, TX Denver, CO Fairbanks, AK Green Bay, WI Houston, TX Huntsville, AL Indianapolis, IN Kansas City, MO Knoxville, TN Las Vegas, NV Los Angeles, CA Louisville, KY New Orleans, LA New York, NY Newark, NJ Oakland, CA Philadelphia, PA Phoenix, AZ Portland, ME Portland, OR Sacramento, CA San Francisco, CA Seattle, WA
Sherman, TX Spartanburg, SC St Louis, MO Syracuse, NY Wilkes-Barre, PA

Project Data

The ARM knowledge base contains a comprehensive set of values for project level data. These should be considered as a starting point in the evaluation of a project. Concerned users should replace the ARM knowledge base values in their relocated project with more representative values obtained from company surveys of the intended site.
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Currency: Exchange rate (FEX), as of the first day of the basis year, with exchange rate and currency units scaled to meet Icarus currency formats. Scaled currency units are provided at three levels: 3-character symbol, 8-character name and 24-character description. Values are listed in Table 4. Currency: 33 currencies are defined; some ARM locations share the same currency Exchange rate, for each location. The ARM knowledge base works with exchange rates relative to the currency of each of the four country bases (US, UK, JP, EU). The currency table contains the rates as of the listed date. Exchange rates are scaled in size to conform with Icarus exchange rate formats (0.01 to 99.9 in value) Scaled currency symbols, names and descriptions are defined to conform to Icarus format; these contain symbols such as K to represent thousands and M to represent millions of scaled currency units, as indicated in Table 4.

TABLE 4. List of Currencies
Country Exchange Rate Per USD (1 Jan 2004) 2.9504 1.3301 2.903 1.297 8.2867 2.8039 6.2289 0.7952 8.228 45.69 8.4477 0.1074 0.2949 3.8172 11.227 8.841 0.13701 3.5578 55.74 3.7296 29.25 Currency Symbol P A$ R C$ R K-P PDE EUR Q R K-R K-Y DK R P D K-N NS P Z RBL Currency Name Currency Description

Argentina Australia Brazil Canada China Colombia Egypt European Union Guatemala India Indonesia Japan Kuwait Malaysia Mexico Morocco Nigeria Peru Philippines Poland Russia

Peso-A Dollar-A Real Dollar-C Renmimbi K Peso Pound-E Euro Quetzal Rupee K Rupiah K Yen Dinar Ringgit Peso-MX Dirham-M K Naira NuevoSol Peso-P Zloty Rouble

Argentine Peso Australian Dollar Brazilian Real Canadian Dollar Chinese Yuan Renmimbi K Colombian Peso Egyptian Pound Euro Guatemalan Quetzal Indian Rupee K Indonesian Rupiah K Japanese Yen Kuwaiti Dinar Malaysian Ringgit Mexican Peso Moroccan Dirham K Nigerian Naira Peruvian Nuevo Sol Philippine Peso Polish Zloty Russian Rouble

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Saudi Arabia Singapore South Africa South Korea Taiwan Thailand Turkey United Arab Emirate United Kingdom United States Venezuela Vietnam

3.7504 1.7019 6.7161 1.1939 34.02 39.709 1.427436 3.6732 0.5601 1 1.5995 16.156

R S$ ZAR K-W T$ B M-L D PDS USD K-B K-D

Riyal Dollar-S Rand K Won Dollar-T Baht M Lira Dirham-U Pound-UK DollarUS K Boliv K Dong

Saudi Riyal Singapore Dollar South African Rand K South-Korean Won Taiwan Dollar Thai Baht M Turkish Lira Utd. Arab Emir. Dirham British Pound US Dollar K Venezuelan Bolivar K Vietnamese Dong

• •

Equipment: design code (ASME, BS5500, DIN, JIS depending upon the plant location) Civil and Steel: seismic acceleration, soil, footing depth, low/high ambient temperatures, wind velocity, hand excavation Electrical: power supply frequency Equipment Rental: a “Construction Technology Level” (CTL) parameter (L, M, and H) is assigned to each location. Locations assigned as H-level draw from the entire system slate of equipment rental items. S-level locations select from a smaller slate than M-level locations. Use of gin poles vs. heavy cranes: each location is assigned a value for the heavy lift option

• •

Engineering Work Force

The ARM knowledge base contains a comprehensive set of engineering workforce values, which should be considered as a starting point in the evaluation of a project. Concerned users should replace the ARM knowledge base values in their relocated project with more representative values obtained from company surveys of the intended site. The following are provided by ARM for each engineering work force location: • Hourly rates for each of 77 disciplines in the engineering workforce slate. Hourly rates are provided in the currency of the engineering location. During the processing of a project, these rates are converted, for consistent cost reporting, to the currency of the plant location using the exchange rate ratio: Discipline Rate in Plant Location Currency =

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Changing Plant Capacity and Location • 8-15

Discipline Rate in the Engineering Location Currency x Plant Location Exchange Rate / Engineering Location Exchange Rate

Engineering workforce productivity – one value is provided for each engineering location, relative to the engineering productivity at the country base location Engineering Indirect Costs – values are provided for each location for each of the eight phases of engineering: • • • Expense rates Payroll burdens Office indirects

The eight phases of engineering are: • Basic Engineering • Detail Engineering • Procurement • Engineering Management • Home Office Construction Services • Field Office Supervision • Construction Management • Start-up, Commissioning Engineering confidence level, associated with the sources of the ARM knowledge base data, used to compute a value of engineering contingency. Engineering contingency is computed as the root-mean square value of the user engineering contingency and engineering confidence level. For example, if the user contingency before relocation UC =18% and the ARM location confidence value LC = 10%, then the computed contingency after relocation is = √ (UC2 + LC2) = √ (182+102 ) = 20.6%

Construction

The ARM knowledge base contains a comprehensive set of construction workforce values, which should be considered as a starting point in the evaluation of a project. Concerned users should replace the ARM knowledge base values in their relocated project with more representative values obtained from company surveys of the intended site.

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The following are provided by ARM for each construction work force location:

Field Craft rates – hourly rates (“nearly all-in”) for each of 28 field crafts in the construction work force slate and a foreman differential for each location. By “nearly all-in”, we mean that each craft rate is a unique composite of the following rate contributions:

Craft Worker Base Hourly Wage Rate • Health, Welfare, Pension • Fringe Benefits • Hourly Indirect Rate for: • Temporary Construction • Consumables and Small Tools • FICA Unemployment Workers Compensation Insurance • Multi-level construction Craft rates in the ARM knowledge base do not include indirect construction costs for the following categories as these would be determined during project evaluation: Construction Equipment Rental, including Fuel, Oil, Lubrication, Maintenance (FOLM) Field Supervision Contractor Home Office Costs

Construction workforce productivity – one value is provided for each plant location, relative to the construction productivity at the country base location Field indirect costs, including construction equipment rental (see Project Data, below), field supervision, home office costs Work week: hours, number of shifts, overtime Construction equipment rental: slate of items (see Project Data, below) Extent of hand excavation vs. machine excavation Construction confidence level, associated with the sources of the ARM knowledge base data, used to compute a value of construction contingency. Contingency is computed as the root-mean square value of the user construction contingency and construction confidence level. For example, if the user contingency before relocation UC

• • • •

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Changing Plant Capacity and Location • 8-17

=18% and the ARM location confidence value LC = 10%, then the computed contingency after relocation is = √ (UC2 + LC2) = √ (182+102 ) = 20.6%
Material Costs

Location Indexing The ARM knowledge base contains a set of location indexes which will adjust country base material costs to the plant location. Two sets are provided. The first deals with equipment costs. The second applies to bulk materials. Use of the supplied location indexes should be considered as a starting point in the evaluation of a project. Concerned users should replace the ARM knowledge base values in their relocated project with more representative values obtained from company surveys of the intended site. The location indexes make use of Aspen Richardson values for the average split of local vs. imported materials. Costs of local and imported materials are figured by applying location values for freight, taxes, VAT, and other expenses. Location indexes are stored for each of the four country bases and are used to characterize material costs by account code (100 to 299 for equipment, 300 to 999 for bulk materials.) Unit cost of rebar, ready-mix concrete, in the currency of the plant location Material cost confidence level, associated with the sources of the ARM knowledge base data, used to compute a value of material cost contingency. Contingency is computed as the root-mean square value of the user material contingency and material cost confidence level. For example, if the user contingency before relocation UC =18% and the ARM location confidence value LC = 10%, then the computed contingency after relocation is = √ (UC2 + LC2) = √ (182+102 ) = 20.6%

• •

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Evaluating the Project

Running a Project Evaluation
After all process simulator data has been properly mapped and defined, you are ready to run a project evaluation. The project evaluation produces capital costs, operating costs and investment analysis reports. If any Project Basis or component specifications are modified, the evaluation process must be re-run. To run a project evaluation: 1. Click – or – On the Run menu, click Evaluate Project. on the toolbar.

2. The dialog box shows the default Capital Costs report file name, Cap_Rep.ccp. This is the report reviewed in Icarus Editor. If you wish for it to have a different name, enter the file name in the Report File field.

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Click OK.

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You can select in Preferences to skip the scan for errors (see page 2-30).

If you are using the default Preferences, Analyzer scans the project specifications for errors and/or inconsistencies and any found are listed in the Scan Messages window.

There are four types of messages: Scan Message WARNing ERROR Description/Importance Level Design can be produced, but you are alerted to problems. A design or cost cannot be produced for an item. The entire item that is in ERROR will be excluded from the estimate. Rare instance for extreme problems. The estimate will not be developed INFOrmational For your information.

FATAL

You have the option to continue or stop the evaluation process (except in the case of FATAL errors, which stop the evaluation process). When the project evaluation is done, Analyzer lists all errors found in the capital cost evaluation for your reference.

You can select in Preferences not to have Analyzer automatically display the Investment Analysis (see page 2-30).

If you are using the default Preferences, Analyzer automatically displays the Investment Analysis spreadsheets in the Main Window when the evaluation is complete. See “Reviewing Investment Analysis” on page 9-77 for a description of these spreadsheets.

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Evaluating the Project • 9-21

Reviewing and Revising Process Economics in the Analyzer Economics Module
The Analyzer Economics Module (AEM) includes an interactive economic evaluation workbook, that allows you to review economic, scheduling, and manufacturing premises and see the impact of revisions to those premises. It displays in Excel key economic information over the project timeline to help you evaluate projected operations and the return on investment. Loading the Analyzer Economics Module (AEM) To initiate an economic scenario, first load the AEM. To load AEM: 1. On the Run menu, click Decision Analyzer. 2. On the Decision Analyzer dialog box, mark the Develop Detailed Process Economics Reports check box. 3. Enter the desired reporting currency symbol to use for the reporting of all costs. 4. If the plant location currency is different from the currency used on the reports, enter the exchange rate as the ratio of Report Currency/Plant Location Currency.

5. Click OK.

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In Excel, two workbook files open: SPECS and RESULTS. Overview of Workbooks In addition to showing you the economic analysis of the current project basis, the workbooks allow you to instantly see the impact that revisions to the basis will have on economic measurements. For example, you can revise the required working capital percentage on the Project Input worksheet in SPECS and, as a result, the Cash Flow bar chart on the Figures worksheet in RESULTS will change to reflect this revision. This is explained in detail in the “Revising Premises” section, page 9-33. The SPECS workbook consists of the following worksheets, which you can navigate by clicking the sheet tabs at the bottom of the workbook window:
Guide

SPECS Workbook

The Guide provides you with an online reminder of helpful information, which you may refer to during an interactive scenario session:
• • • • • •

Purpose of Aspen Decision Analyzer's Economics Module (AEM) and what AEM does. The three classes of information from which AEM works. The two workbooks for new scenario premises. Details on the worksheets containing input. Details on the worksheets containing results. Strategy - how to use this module effectively for evaluating business and economic options.

Control Panel

The Control Panel allows you to revise high-level stream premises. It features spinner controls and reset buttons, enabling you to change unit prices and instantaneously see the resulting economic metrics and graphed results.

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Evaluating the Project • 9-23

Key economic metrics displayed include: graphs of net present value (NPV) and annual production revenue, payout date, Internal Rate of Return (IRR), NPV over project lifetime, gross, operating and net revenue margins.
Decision Center

The Decision Center is AEM's navigator. It enables you to move quickly across all of AEM's user-interactive worksheets, all of which are included in horizontal format. To view all the worksheets in a vertical format, use the DC_V worksheet. Both the horizontal and vertical formats enable you to quickly locate high level and lower level categories and the ultimate worksheet locations. Important error messages are displayed on the Decision Center header. An NPV graph displays the current state of the scenario including high-level error messages with pointers to error locations.
DC_V

This worksheet contains the same content as the Decision Center worksheet in a vertical format.

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Input Worksheets

The two input worksheets are for user-interactive revisions to premises. They define your economic scenario. Revisions are immediately reflected in the Status, Statements, EPC, and Figures worksheets. See page 9-33 for information on revising economic premises.
Project Input

In the Project Input worksheet, you can revise the schedule, time periods, capital investment, cost of capital investment, phase durations, capital cost parameters, manufacturing cost parameters, operating labor and maintenance cost parameters, general investment parameters, and escalation. The following is an excerpt:

Stream Input

In the Stream Input worksheet, you can revise the stream factor to determine the impact of turndown, turnarounds or a proposed expansion; split production into a domestic and export stream with their associated unit prices; revise prices of by-products, raw materials, and utilities. An important aspect of the Stream Input worksheet is the use of periodically changing values of stream factor, unit costs and percent to export. This feature will enable you to study the impact of market cycles and identify economic threats and opportunities related to production over the life of the project.
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Status Worksheet

View the Status worksheet for a quick summary of which values on the input worksheets have been revised, need correction, or are incomplete.

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The Status worksheet also displays a panel board graph of Net Present Value (NPV) and summary status report of project and stream input conditions and major economic indicators to help guide the analyst.
Capture Worksheet

The Capture worksheet and its initiating buttons enables you to review and capture highlights of up to 50 economic scenarios. A set of buttons is provided to initiate the capture of current scenario highlights in advance of working on the next scenario.
RESULTS Workbook

The RESULTS workbook consists of six worksheets, which you can navigate by clicking the sheet tabs at the bottom of the workbook window. The following is an overview of the worksheets.
EPC Worksheet

The EPC worksheet provides before and after information regarding the engineering, procurement and construction aspects of your project. The term “before” refers to the state of your project
Aspen Decision Analyzer User Guide Evaluating the Project • 9-27

based on your initial premises, prior to interactively changing from one scenario to another in Analyzer’s Economic Module. The EPC workbook provides costs in both the currency of the plant location and a user-defined “reporting currency. For example, if your project were modeled using the European Union country base (EU, currency in Euro) and you wished to see costs reported in Euro for a project relocated to Mexico (reporting currency in k-Peso), you could define the reporting currency to be Euro and enter the desired exchange rate between the Euro and k-Peso. You would define the reporting currency and exchange rate along with the relocation country, at Run time. The EPC worksheet would report plant location costs in both Euro and k-Peso. This worksheet currently provides the only connection between costs in the country base currency and plant location currency. The EPC worksheet provides the following information:

EPC results based on the initial premises (before the scenario) o Status of stream data o Exchange rate used to compute plant location costs in the country base currency o Summary costs, man-hours in both plant location and country base currencies o EPC start and end dates o Breakouts of costs and man-hour for direct materials, engineering and construction and project indirects.

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EPC scenario results and key economic measures o Economic measures: NPV, IRR, payout time, average annual production over the life of the project o Summary and detailed cost and man-hour information resulting from changes during the interactive session.

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Project Basis

The Project Basis worksheet provides project name, project description, simulator type, capital cost evaluation and parameters, time periods, construction schedule, manufacturing cost parameters, operating labor and maintenance cost parameters, general investment parameters, escalation, cost summary, and EPC details based on your initial economic premises. The following is an excerpt:

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Design Basis

The Design Basis worksheet provides summary-level presentations of income, product revenue, manufacturing costs, margins, raw material costs, utility costs, and earnings based on your initial economic premises. The following is an excerpt:

Statements Worksheet

The Statements worksheet, like the EPC, Status and Figures worksheets, shows results of changes made in the Input worksheets.
• • • •

Timeline of events (dates, periods). Payout time, IRR, NPV. Present values for individually selected production periods. Period-to-period statements with a display of results for a selectable production period: income-expense statement, summary cash flow statement, capital expenditures statement, margins, and NPV graph.

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The following is an excerpt:

Figures Worksheet

The Figures worksheet, like the EPC, Status and Statements worksheets, shows results of changes made in the Input worksheets.

Flows, by Calendar Period: Net and Cumulative Cash Flow, Margins, Gross and Operating and Net Income as a % of Revenue, Product Revenues: Domestic and Export. Production: Domestic and Export. Distributions, for a selected Production Period: Product Revenues, Manufacturing Costs, Operating Costs, Fixed Charges.

• •

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The following is an example of one of the distribution graphs on the Figures worksheet:

Revising Premises
Note: Revisions made in the workbook have no impact on the actual project basis

The premises on which an economic scenario is based can be modified on the Project Input and Stream Input worksheets. The results of modifications are immediately reflected on the Status, Statements, and Figures worksheets.

To revise premises: 1. Select either the Project Input or Stream Input worksheet. 2. Go to the Select field of the item you wish to change. Pressing TAB moves the cursor to the next field, while pressing CLEAR+TAB moves the cursor to the previous field. You can also use the mouse and arrow keys.

The Select field can contain one of the following symbols (not case-sensitive): Enter B To denote Use of base value.

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R P

Use of revised value. Use of period-to-period values on the Stream Input worksheet.

For example, changing the symbol from “B” to “R” acts as a toggle between the base and revised value. In the event a symbol is not entered, the base value will be used. As this is an exercise in revising premises, enter “R” (or “r”) in the Select field. 3. Go to the input field and enter the new value. For percentage values, simply enter the percentage value. If 0.2% is to be entered, enter 0.2. If 50% is required, enter 50. If a negative value is required, for example to indicate construction is to begin 0.5 periods early, enter a negatively signed value, –0.5. As you make revisions, notes and other messages are provided to assure data integrity. Each line item of data entry has at least one status “flag.” Informational and other messages are provided to guide you in preparing a consistent set of premises.

Revised value of 10.00% will be used. Flag field displays “?” and Status of Revision field displays “FIX!” because “r” has been entered without a revised value Base value will be used

As soon as you move from the revised field, the revision is reflected in the Status, EPC, Statements, and Figures worksheets. Note: Viewing the workbooks in a split screen arrangement allows you to instantly see the results of modifications. To do so, click Arrange on the Window menu, select Horizontal, and click OK. You will likely need to adjust the zoom to about 50%. Keep ECOSYS.xls minimized. For example, if you revise the required working capital percentage on the Project Input worksheet (shown in window at the top of the split screen pictured below), the Cash Flow bar chart on the Figures worksheet (shown in the lower window) will change.

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Color Coding

• Base Values: green • • • •
background, black text. Revised Values: blue background, black text. Status Values: yellow background, red text. Text Notes: blue text. Error Messages: yellow background, red text and flag symbols. Dates of key events: blue background, red text.

Saving AEM Workbook

To save changes to AEM worksheets, it is recommended that you save all workbooks by closing Excel and answering Yes when prompted to save. Saving the worksheets individually has been found to result in an error when re-launching AEM. The AEM workbooks organize economic premises into two main categories: project and stream input. This section describes the concepts behind the various parameters. As described previously, base values are listed to the right of the item category. The Select field and Enter Revised Base Value field enable alternate studies. First, enter either an “R” (not case-sensitive) in the Select field to revise the base value. Then enter a revised value in the Enter Revised Base Value field. You can then enter a “B” (not case-sensitive) in the Select field to switch between revised and base value. The Value Used field shows the current status of your selection. The following provides additional information about the individual parameters.
Scenario Reporting

Discussion of Economic Premises
Project Input

Title and date data: will be displayed in the headers of the various worksheets and in the footer of the Status worksheet.

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Currency for Scenario Reporting: every cost value in the Economic Analysis workbook will be in the Reporting Currency and converted from the plant location currency by the designated exchange rate. Plant Location Currency: costs in country base location currency are developed by the Icarus Evaluation Engine (IEE) and are revised by Analyzer’s Relocation Module (ARM). Costs in the plant location currency are reported only in the EPC worksheet if the user elects a reporting currency. Reporting Currency: this currency is defined upon entering the Analyzer’s interactive Economics Module along with an exchange rate relative to the plant location currency. The exchange rate may be changed, within limits, in the Project Input worksheet. This will enable a user to trend a project over a period of time, should exchange rates vary from the initial premise. Costs in the reporting currency are reported in all worksheets. Exchange rate: number of currency units of Reporting Currency per unit of Plant Location Currency. The exchange rate may be modified in the Project Input worksheet to reflect a more current or anticipated future value. Reporting of Cash flows: in millions of reporting currency units.

Schedule

A timeline is established with a calendar start date to enable the study of economic cycles and report the timing of events. A base calendar start date is automatically generated to accommodate the base start date of engineering. However, as new premises are added, the lead-time between start of calendar and start of engineering may be too short to accommodate other efforts such as studies and changes to the fixed capital investment. Or, you may wish to base your reporting calendar on a calendar year basis or your company’s fiscal year. Once you select the start date of the reporting calendar, you might wish to review your initial premise for the start date of engineering. The engineering start date may be modified as well as the calendar start date. Messages are provided in this section for lead-time, pre-planning time and float to help you to establish timing of other events (see next section on Capital Investment).

Start Date of the Reporting Calendar: defines (a) the project timeline, (b) enables the escalation to the start date of the calendar of costs entering the workbook from Analyzer that are

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founded on the “System Cost Base Date”, and (c) enables the dating of tasks and events, including: o Strategic planning and decision engineering o Contractor’s engineering and procurement o Construction delay/early start of construction o Plant Start-up o Start of Production o Payout o End of production, salvage of fixed capital investment (FCI), return of working capital, salvage of catalyst and chemicals, etc.
• •

Start Date of Engineering. Status of the calendar: lead time, planning time, float time and other helpful status messages.

Time Period
• •

Period: the designated period is a year. Only yearly periods can be accommodated with this release. Hours per period: determines stream factor, stream flows per period. Your initial premise may be revised in the Stream Input worksheet.

Capital Investment
• • •

Decision Engineering Studies: duration is developed from the cost entry and placed on the timeline. Owner’s Engineering: duration is developed from the cost entry and placed on the timeline. Increment/Decrement to FCI (fixed capital investment, also known as total installed cost, total project cost) at the System Base Date: enables studies of FCI such as the trade-off between inside and outside battery limits (ISBL/OSBL), plant capacity (with associated change in stream factor – see Stream Input), and impact of FCI changes during engineering on process economics, etc. Consider two uses of this feature (1) to determine the impact on IRR and NPV of a 10% increase in capital cost and (2) making a utility stream by adding more capital and setting the utility stream cost to zero. A change here will impact the phase duration of engineering, procurement and construction as well as their expenditures along the timeline. In

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the AEM workbooks, FCI undergoes a number of adjustments from the time it is evaluated by the Icarus Evaluation Engine (IEE), as follows and as reported in the EPC worksheet: o Initial evaluation in Analyzer performed by applying design and cost specifications to the list of project components for the specified production capacity of the process facility and plant location. o In the AEM workbooks: Currency revision of FCI from the Plant Location Currency to the Reporting Currency, using exchange rate first established during Plant Relocation and then under Scenario Reporting in AEM. Escalation from “System Base Date” to the Start Date of the Calendar. Percentage Increment/Decrement adjustment (this section). Escalation of engineering, materials, construction to the period of expenditure as determined by the duration of each phase, progress of each phase duration, and position along the timeline.

Start-up costs: included as a capital expense, range of typical values: 8% to 10% of FCI.

Phase Durations
• •

Duration of EPC Phase: base value, from Analyzer (CPMbased planning schedule). Delay or Early Start of Construction: enables study of impact of delay prior to start of construction or early start. The planning schedule includes early start. Analyzer splits construction from EPC duration to enable delays to be studied. A negative delay value results in an early start. As phase durations are revised, so too are dates of key events along the timeline. As stream flows and expenditures are moved along the entire time line by changes in phase durations (or other revisions), they will be evaluated for escalation or unit costs/prices that are assigned to each period.

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Capital Cost Parameters

Working Capital, as a percentage of fixed capital investment (FCI). The range of typical values is 10% to 25% of FCI (10% to 20% of the total investment, i.e. the sum of FCI and working capital), but you can enter any percentage. A range of typical values is provided for guidance. Catalyst and Chemicals: for the initial charge, as a percentage of FCI and salvage value at the end of production. Patents and Royalties, as an initial fee and/or fee, escalated for each period of production and figured on the production for each period. Land: range of typical values: 1% to 2% of FCI.

• •

Manufacturing Cost Parameters

Operating Charges: if no base value is provided, Analyzer will estimate and report a cost value based on Plant Operating Labor. It will split operating charges into costs for Operating Supplies and Laboratory Charges, which values may be revised individually as a percentage of Operating Labor. Range of typical values o Operating Supplies: 10% to 20% of Maintenance o Laboratory Charges: 10% to 20% of Operating Labor

Note: typical ranges do not define limits on user entry.

Operating Labor and Maintenance Costs

Number of Shifts: base value determined by project components, type of facility, etc. might be revised, especially if Increment/Decrement is made to FCI. Operator: number of operators and hourly rate may be revised from the base value; Total Operating Labor Cost is displayed. Supervision: Number of Supervisors and hourly rate may be revised; Total Supervision Cost is displayed. Maintenance: Cost/period is displayed and is reported as a percentage of FCI, which % may be revised; range of typical values: 2% to 10% of FCI.

• • •

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General Investment Parameters

Base values for the following items come from your system input and may be revised in AEM:
• • • • •

Tax Rate. Interest Rate: used in calculating net present values and payout time. Economic Life of Project: defines the time for depreciation and should be the same as production life. Salvage Value, as a fraction of the initial capital cost. This value is recovered at the end of the project life. Depreciation Method: select from Straight Lines, sum of the Digits, Double Declining (Balance).

Escalation

Base values of the following items come from your system input and may be revised.

Project Capital Evaluation, a single value is expanded in AEM for individual treatment of expenditures along the calendar timeline for: o Engineering o Materials o Construction

Product Escalation: individually for domestic and export product; period-to-period price/cost values take priority over escalation. By-products: period-to-period price/cost values for an individual by-product take priority over escalation for that byproduct. Raw Materials: period-to-period price/cost values for an individual raw material take priority over escalation for that raw material. Utilities: period-to-period price/cost values for an individual utility take priority over escalation for that utility. General: for remaining categories.

• •

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Stream Input

This worksheet allows you to revise base values (assigned or default) for product, by-product, raw material and utility streams. Either a single value, applicable to every period (subject to escalation if a cost), or a period-to-period value (not subject to escalation) may be assigned. Indicate use of base (“B”), revised (“R”) for a single value for all periods, or individual period-toperiod values (“P”). Symbols are not case-sensitive.
Phases Along the Project Timeline

The following resulting values guide other input specifications.
• • • •

Phase. Phase duration. Start date. Fraction of a period devoted to each phase along the calendar timeline, which includes the following: o Start date of each period. o Year: displayed with each section to maintain integrity of period-to-period input data. o Calendar Periods: Period (year) from the start of basic engineering. o Periods of Operation – year from start-up.

Start-up, Payout, Shutdown dates.

Production Operations

Stream Factor, to study the impact of turndown and expansion.
Production

Price of domestic and export product and percentage of production devoted to export product. The production capacity is reported for reference.
By-Products

Price of each by-product. By-product rates are reported for the designated production capacity. The current version is limited to reporting 25 by-products.

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Raw Materials

Price of each raw material. Consumption of each raw material is reported for designated production capacity. The current version is limited to reporting 25 raw materials.
Utilities

Price of each utility; for ISBL/OSBL studies, consider revising an ISBL utility stream cost in lieu of its production by an OSBL unit and revision of the FCI (Project Input>Capital Investment>Increment/Decrement to FCI) to account for the OSBL unit’s FCI – Consumption of each utility is reported for designated production capacity.

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Reviewing Results in Aspen Icarus Reporter
Accessing Aspen Reporter To access Aspen Icarus Reporter: 1. Click – or – Click Capital Costs View on the View menu. The Select Report Type To View dialog box appears. on the toolbar.

2. Keep Interactive Reports marked and click OK. The Reporter imports and loads the reports from Analyzer.

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After the reports are loaded, the Aspen Icarus Reporter window appears.

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Aspen Icarus Reporter Menu Bar
File Menu
Import Data – Import project reports. See page 9-67 for instructions. Run Report – Run selected report. See pages 9-46 (Standard reports), 9-60 (Excel reports), and 9-54 (HTML reports) for instructions. Open Workbook – Open the last Excel workbook created. See page 963 for instructions. Create User Database – Export SQL database. See page 9-68 for instructions. Exit – Close Aspen Icarus Reporter.

Trend Menu
Add Trend Data to Database – Add the trend data from the project reports currently loaded in Aspen Icarus Reporter to the trending database. See page 9-64 for instructions. Create New Trend in Excel – Export trending database to Excel. See page 9-65 for instructions. View Existing Trend Data – Open the trending data workbook in Excel. See “Data Trending,” pages 9-64 through 9-66, for instructions Clear All Saved Trends – Clear the trending database. See page 9-64 for instructions.

Which Report Mode?

There are four report modes: Standard reports, HTML reports, Management reports, and Excel reports. All but Management reports present Capital Costs and Design and Basis reports. Management reports contains snapshots of project data frequently requested by project management. Standard, HTML, and Excel reports do not just present the same data in different applications. Because of the differing capabilities of the applications, data is presented differently in each. The choice of mode may depend upon what you wish to do with the data at a particular time.

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Standard Reports

With Standard reports selected in the Report Mode section, the Reports section displays a tree-structure grouping of standard reports. Open the necessary category and sub-category folders and click on a report to display a brief description of that report in the Description section.

Report Descriptions

Aspen Icarus Reporter displays a description of the selected report.

See page 9-50 for descriptions of all Standard reports.
Opening a Report

Not all of the reports contain each of the features described in this guide. For example, the Contents view only appears on reports with multiple sections. In order to see all the features described, select the Contractor – COA Summary report located in the following folder: Capital Cost Reports\Direct Costs\COA Summaries

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To open the selected report: Click the Run Report button. – or – On the File menu, click Run Report. – or – Double-click on the report. The report window appears.

Navigating

If there are multiple sections, a tree-structure Contents view appears on the left side of the window, allowing you to jump to a section simply by clicking the section in the Contents. The arrow buttons on the toolbar allow you to page through the report: Next Page Last Page Previous Page First Page

Since the last page of a report usually contains the totals, clicking the Last Page button is a convenient way to access them.

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Magnification

To change the magnification level, click in the Magnification box and select the desired level from the menu. You can also click directly in the Magnification box (without clicking ) and then zoom in and out using the up and down arrow keys on your keyboard. When viewing the report at large magnification, you may wish to hide the Contents view by clicking the Toggle Group Tree button. This makes more room for the report. If the cursor changes into a magnifying glass icon when placed over a cost section’s title or totals, you can double-click to open a separate tab window containing only that cost section. For example, under Civil in the Contractor – COA Summaries report, the cursor changes into a magnifying glass when placed over the Concrete cost section’s title or totals.

Toggle Group Tree button

Segregating a Cost Section

Under Civil in the Contractor – COA Summaries report, the cursor changes into a magnifying glass when placed over the Equipment cost section’s title.

Double-clicking on this cost section’s titles or totals opens a separate tab window.

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Here, the Equipment cost section is displayed in a separate tab window, where it can be viewed and printed apart from the rest of the report.

Searching

To search the report: 1. Click on the toolbar.

2. Enter the text string for which you want to search and click Find Next. The next instance of the text string is framed in red.
Printing

To print the report: 1. Click on the toolbar.

The Print dialog box appears.

2. Make any desired changes to the default settings and click OK.

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List of Standard Reports
Capital Cost Reports Project Summaries Key Quantity Basis Project summary (direct and indirect costs). Direct costs presented with key quantities at a sub-account level. Indirect costs presented at a summary level. Account Basis Project summary (direct and indirect costs). Direct costs presented at an account level. Indirect costs presented at a summary level. Direct Costs Cost/Quantity Roll-ups Overall Total direct cost (TDC) summary. Direct costs presented with key quantities at a subaccount level. Overall – COA Group Total direct cost (TDC) summary by Code of Account group. Direct costs presented with key quantities at a sub-account level. Component (Maxiblock) Total direct cost (TDC) summary by component / source. Direct costs presented with key quantities at a sub-account level. Costs by Class Total direct cost (TDC) summary by classification. Direct costs presented at an account level. COA Summaries Overall – COA Summary Total direct cost (TDC) summary by Code of Account. Direct costs presented with key quantities at a sub-account level. Contractor – COA Summary Total direct cost (TDC) summary by Code of Account by contractor. Direct costs presented with key quantities at a sub-account level. Report Group – COA Summary Total direct cost (TDC) summary by Code of Account by report group. Direct costs presented with key quantities at a sub-account level. Area – COA Summary Total direct cost (TDC) summary by Code of Account by area. Direct costs presented with key quantities at a sub-account level.
- continued -

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List of Standard Reports (continued)
Item Summaries Overall – Item Summary Total direct cost (TDC) summary. Direct costs presented with key quantities at an item/commodity level. Contractor – Item Summary Total direct cost (TDC) summary by contractor. Direct costs presented with key quantities at an item/commodity level. Report Group – Item Summary Total direct cost (TDC) summary by report group. Direct costs presented with key quantities at an item/commodity level. Area – Item Summary Total direct cost (TDC) summary by area. Direct costs presented with key quantities at an item/commodity level. Component – Item Summary Total direct cost (TDC) summary by component. Direct costs presented with key quantities at an item/commodity level. Installation Details Overall – Installation Details Total direct cost (TDC) details. Direct costs presented with key quantities per component and function/location. Contractor – Installation Details Total direct cost (TDC) details by contractor. Direct costs presented with key quantities per component and function/location. Report Group – Installation Details Total direct cost (TDC) details by report group. Direct costs presented with key quantities per component and function/location. Area – Installation Details Total direct cost (TDC) details by area. Direct costs presented with key quantities per component and function/location. Indirect Costs Project Indirect Summary Project indirect costs. Indirect costs presented at an intermediate Code of Account level. Contractor Indirect Summary Project indirect costs by contractor. Indirect costs presented at an intermediate Code of Account level.
- continued -

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List of Standard Reports (continued)
Design and Basis Reports Project Design and Cost Basis Project design and cost basis (Icarus project level specifications) Area Design and Cost Basis Area design and cost basis (Icarus area level specifications) Component General Design Data Sorted by Name General design data for Icarus designed equipment and other components - sorted by name. Sorted by Tag No. General design data for Icarus designed equipment and other components - sorted by tag. Design Data Sheets Sorted by Name Design data sheets for Icarus designed equipment and other components - sorted by name. Sorted by Tag No. Design data sheets for Icarus designed equipment and other components - sorted by tag. Discipline Electrical Motor/Driver List Listing of equipment motors and other drivers with individual and summarized HP (KW) requirements. Other Reports Project Component Listings Summary Key Quantities Project key quantity listing at a sub-account level. Costs and/or man-hours not presented. Key Quantities Project key quantity listing at a Code of Account level separated by material. Costs and/or man-hours not presented. Sorted by Installed Cost (Descending) This report presents a listing of all project components (or source) and related information sorted in descending order of direct installed costs.
- continued -

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List of Standard Reports (continued)
Other Reports (continued) Project (continued) Equipment Listings Sorted by Installed Cost (Descending) This report presents a listing of all project equipment and related information sorted in descending order of direct installed costs. Sorted by Name This report presents a listing of all project equipment and related information sorted by name. Sorted by Classification This report presents a listing of all project equipment and related information sorted by equipment classification. Sorted by Tag No. This report presents a listing of all project equipment and related information sorted by tag number. Component Summary Key Quantities Component key quantity listing at a Code of Account level separated by material. Costs and/or man-hours not presented. Key Quantities Component key quantity listing at a Code of Account level separated by material. Details are further separated by location/function. Costs and/or man-hours not presented. Discipline Piping Line List A line list report that provides quantity and design information by piping line. Equipment Material of Construction Unit Cost This report presents a listing of all project equipment unit costs per weight unit sorted in descending order. Graphical Reports Project Direct Costs Graphical presentation of project direct cost totals. Report Group and Contractor Graphical presentation of report group and contractor direct costs. Equipment Account Graphical presentation of relationships in the equipment account.

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HTML Reports

With HTML reports selected in the Report Mode section, the Reports section displays a tree-structure grouping of HTML reports. Open the necessary category and sub-category folders and click on a report to display a brief description of that report in the Description section.

Report Descriptions

Opening an HTML Report

To open the selected report: 1. Do one of the following: Click the Run Report button. – or – On the File menu, click Run Report. – or – Double-click on the report.

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A status window tells you when the export is complete and asks if you would like to view the report now.

2. Click Yes. Your browser displays the report.

Generating the report as an .htm file allows the report to be sent via e-mail.

Management Reports

With Management Reports selected in the Report Mode section, the Reports section displays a tree-structure grouping of Management reports. These reports are intended to serve as snapshots of the project scenario. To open a Management report: Select the report and do one of the following: Click the Run Report button. – or – On the File menu, click Run Report. – or – Double-click on the report.

Opening a Management Report

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The Management Reports Viewer displays the report. Pictured below is the Detailed Weight Information report, one of the Piping reports in the Discipline folder.

Other reports, like the Equipment Cost (Total Cost) report shown below, show simply a bottom-line total.

Exporting Management Reports to Excel

You can export Management reports to Excel. This is particularly useful for when you want to be able to e-mail the report. To export a Management report to Excel: 1. Click Export to Excel on the Viewer’s File menu. 2. Reporter searches for the last Excel workbook to which you exported a report. If no existing workbook is found, Reporter asks you to specify a worksheet name (see step 3) and creates a workbook – either DefaultWB.xls in the Reporter output folder (if this is your first export to Excel since last rebooting) or a workbook with the file and path name of the

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last workbook to which you exported since starting your computer. If an existing workbook is found, the Export to Excel Workbook dialog box appears, asking if you want to overwrite the existing workbook, append the report to the existing workbook, or create a new workbook.

Select Overwrite existing workbook Append to existing workbook Create new workbook

To do this Reset the existing workbook with the selected report as the only worksheet; any previously created worksheets will be cleared. Add the report as another worksheet in the existing workbook; previously created worksheets will be retained. Specify a new workbook in which the selected report will appear as a worksheet.

Marking Create new workbook expands the dialog box to let you select a folder and enter a file name.

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Note: Do not enter a file extension or period when entering a new workbook name.

Make your selection and click OK. 3. Enter a name for the worksheet.

Click OK. The Export Status dialog box informs you when the export is done and asks if you would like to open the workbook now.

4. Click Yes to open the workbook.

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Excel displays the report.

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Excel Reports
Report Descriptions

With Excel reports selected in the Report Mode section, the Reports section displays a tree-structure grouping of Excel reports. Open the necessary category and sub-category folders and click on a report to display a brief description of that report in the Description section.

Aspen Icarus Reporter displays a description of the selected Excel report.

Opening an Excel Report

To open a report: 1. Mark the checkbox next to the desired report.

You can mark multiple report checkboxes to open multiple reports. Marking a folder’s checkbox will open all of the reports in the folder. 2. Click the Run Report button or click Run Report from the File menu.

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3. Reporter searches for the last Excel workbook to which you exported a report. If no existing workbook is found and this is your first export to Excel during this session, Reporter creates DefaultWB.xls in the Reporter output folder: ...Aspen Icarus 12.2 2003\ic_cache\Reporter\Output If no existing workbook is found, but you have exported from Reporter to Excel since you last started you computer (to a file that’s since been moved or deleted), Reporter creates a workbook with the file and path name of the last workbook to which you exported. If an existing workbook is found, the Export to Excel Workbook dialog box appears, asking if you want to overwrite the existing workbook, append the report to the existing DefaultWB.xls workbook, or create a new workbook.

Select Overwrite existing workbook Append to existing workbook Create new workbook

To do this Reset the existing workbook with the selected report as the only worksheet; any previously created worksheets will be cleared. Add the report as another worksheet in the existing workbook; previously created worksheets will be retained. Specify a new workbook in which the selected report will appear as a worksheet.

Marking Create new workbook expands the dialog box to let you enter a workbook path and name.

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Note: Do not enter a file extension or period when entering a new workbook name.

After you make your selection and click OK, Excel opens a workbook displaying the report.

Exporting the report to an .xls file allows it to be sent in an e-mail.

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AutoFilter

Several of the larger Excel reports generated by Analyzer take advantage of the AutoFilter feature in Excel. In order to view a report that includes AutoFilter, open the following report: Capital Cost Reports\Direct Costs\Item Summaries\Combined When AutoFilter is available, clicking next to a column displays a list of all the different entries made in the column. Selecting an entry displays only rows that contain that entry in the column. For example, selecting “105 – Misc. Item Allowance” in the COA Description column of the Item Summary Combined report would display only accounts with Code of Account (COA) 105. Selecting Top Ten displays only items that contain one of the top ten most frequent entries. Selecting Blanks (from the bottom of the list) displays only rows that contain a blank cell in the column, while selecting NonBlanks displays only rows that contain a value in the column.

Opening Workbook Without Running Report

To view the last workbook created without running a new report, click Open Workbook on the File menu.

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Data Trending

Data Trending facilitates comparison of scenarios by allowing you to review capital cost summaries of different scenarios in a single Excel workbook. If, for example, you created three different scenarios for a project, you could use the Data Trending feature to display the direct costs of each on one spreadsheet, with a separate row for each scenario. Since you only wish to compare certain scenarios, the first step is usually to clear the database used to populate the Excel trending workbook. To clear the trending database: 1. Click Clear All Saved Trends on the Trend menu. A confirmation dialog box appears.

Clearing Trending Database

2. Click Yes to confirm clearing of the data. The Trending Data Update dialog box tells when this is done.

3. Click OK.
Adding Trend Data to Database

The next step is to add trend data to the database. To add the current project reports’ trend data to the database: 1. Click Add Trend Data to Database on the Trend menu. The Trending Data Update dialog box tells you when Reporter has finished adding the trend data.

2. Click OK.

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You will need to add the trend data from the project reports of the other scenarios you are comparing. For each of the other scenarios, open the reports in Reporter and complete the Adding Trend Data to Database instructions above. Using Reporter’s import function, you can open the other scenarios’ reports in Reporter without opening the scenarios in Analyzer. See page 9-67 for instructions.
Creating a New Trend in Excel

After you have added the trend data from the Capital Cost reports of the scenarios you are comparing, you are ready to create a new trend in Excel. To create a new trend in Excel: 1. On the Trend menu, click Create New Trend in Excel. The Export to Excel Trending Workbook dialog box gives you the choice of either appending the trend data to the existing file or creating a new file.

2. Make you selection and click OK. The Export Trend Data into Excel dialog box appears. By default, all six capital cost categories are marked.

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3. Unmark any categories you wish to exclude from the workbook and click OK. The Export Status window tells you when the export is complete and asks if you would like to open the trending workbook now.

4. Click Yes. Excel displays the trending workbook containing a spreadsheet for each of the capital cost categories. Each set of trend data entered into the trending database is displayed on a separate row. (The workbooks for any categories excluded at the Export Trend Data into Excel dialog box are blank).

After having created the trending workbook, you can access it from Reporter by clicking View Existing Trend Data on the View menu.

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Importing Data into Aspen Icarus Reporter

When you have a project scenario open in Analyzer and select Capital Costs (Interactive) from Analyzer, Reporter automatically imports that project scenario’s Capital Cost reports as it opens. However, once you’re at the Aspen Icarus Reporter window, you can import a project scenario’s Capital Cost reports without having the project scenario open in Analyzer. To import a Capital Cost report: 1. Click Import Data from the File menu. The Import Selection dialog box appears.

2. Use the browse tree to locate the project scenario folder, which should be at: …Archives_Analyzer\[Project]\[Project Scenario] After clicking the project scenario folder, PROJID should appear in the File set to import section. 3. Select PROJID and click Import. Reporter imports the data. When complete, the selected scenario’s reports can be run from Reporter.

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Creating a User Database
Icarus Reference, Chapter 35, “Database Relations”, defines the Icarus Database Relations and the different attributes under each.

You can export the Icarus SQL Database, listing the Relation attributes used by the Icarus Evaluation Engine (IEE), to a Microsoft Access Database (.mdb) file. To create a user database: 1. Click Create User Database on the File menu. Reporter searches for the last .mdb file it created. If the file is not found or if this is your first database creation, the Create User Database dialog box appears with only one Export Option: Create New Workbook. The lower part of the dialog box provides fields for selecting a path and filename. However, if the last created file is found, the Export Options also include Overwrite Existing Workbook. This option is marked by default, so the lower part of the dialog box is not visible until you mark the Create New Workbook checkbox.

2. Select a folder, enter a database name, and then click OK. Reporter creates the .mdb file. To review and work with the database, start Microsoft Access and open the .mdb file.

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Reviewing Results in Icarus Editor
Icarus Editor is a fully OLE-compliant, Multiple Document Interface (MDI) text editor program. It displays Analyzer’s evaluation reports file (.ccp), which provides estimates of capital costs across the Engineer-Procure-Construct (EPC) period. Accessing To display results in Icarus Editor: 1. Click
You can also run the evaluation reports from the Decision Analyzer dialog box, accessed by clicking Decision Analyzer on the Run menu. There, mark the Develop EPC Reports in File check box and specify a file name. Using the Decision Analyzer dialog box, you can select to have Detailed Process Economic Reports run at the same time.

on the toolbar.

– or – On the View menu, click Capital Costs View. 2. On the Select Report Type To View dialog box, mark the Evaluation Reports checkbox and click OK.

Icarus Editor opens displaying the reports.

Click on the toolbar to turn the Contents view on and off (or click Contents on the View menu).

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The right-hand pane contains the report and the left-hand pane contains a tree-structure Contents view that lets you jump to sections of the report. Printing a Single Section The Contents view also allows you to print a single section, rather than the entire report. To do so, right-click on a section and click the Print button that appears.

Icarus Editor Toolbar

New – open a new document in the Document View Open – open an existing document Save – save current document to disk File Properties – view selected properties of current document Print – print the current document Print Preview – print preview the current document Page Setup – specify how the current document will be printed Cut – cut selected text to windows clipboard Copy – copy selected text to windows clipboard Paste – paste contents of windows clipboard into insertion location Bold – bold selected text Italic – italicize selected text Underline – underline selected text Select Font – specify font for selected text Find (Ctrl+F) – find any text string within the current document Preferences – set and save your preferences Toggle Contents – turn OFF/ON the Contents View

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Cascade – display multiple documents cascaded Tile Horizontal – display multiple documents tiled horizontally Tile Vertical – display multiple documents tiled vertically Help Contents – display on-line help Report Sections
Title Page

The Title Page shows the following:

Estimate Base: financial quarter from which the cost basis is derived and date Icarus Evaluation Engine (IEE) was produced Run Date: date and time the project evaluation was run Currency symbol used throughout the report Telephone numbers to call for technical support
(IEE: 29.0)

• • •

Aspen Analyzer Version: 3.0 Estimate Base: 1st Quarter 2000 May 25, 2001 Run Date: 10JUL01-17:52:02

Aspen Analyzer is a Product of: Aspen Technology/ICARUS Office 600 Jefferson Plaza 5th Floor Rockville, MD 20852-1150 U.S.A. Telephone: 301-795-6800 Fax: 301-795-6801

* * * * * * * * *

* * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * Throughout this report * the Symbol "USD" * represents U.S. DOLLARS * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * *

In the United Kingdom: AspenTech Limited Birkdale House, The Links Birchwood Warrington WA3 7RB United Kingdom Telephone: +44-192-584-4400 Fax: +44-192-584-4444 Web: http://www.aspentech.com Support: support@aspentech.com _

In Japan: AspenTech Japan Co., Ltd. Atlas Building 5 Ichibancho Chiyoda-Ku, Tokyo 102 Japan Telephone: +81-3-3262-1710 Fax: +81-3-3264-5425

Contract Structure Table of Contents

The Contract Structure section provides names of contractors and reporting arrangement. The Table of Contents lists section names and the page number on which each starts. The number of sections may vary depending on the number of Report Groups. If the project contains only one, then there will be only a single summary. If more than one, there will be a separate summary for each, plus a summary for the total project.

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Project Summary

The Project Summary provides an overview of project costs.

Project Data Sheet

The Project Data Sheet lists items with separate columns showing user-entered values and system default values.

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Total Manpower Schedule

The Total Manpower Schedule shows construction manpower loading based on the CPM Construction Schedule.

Ways to influence this schedule include: Adjusting productivities, shifts per day, length of the workweek using the General Rates specifications form and the Craft Rates specifications form. These forms are accessed in Project Basis view under Project Basis\Basis for Capital Costs\Construction Workforce. Indexing man-hours either at the Project level (Project Basis\Basis for Capital Costs\Indexing) or at the Area level. The number of MEN PER DAY for each vertical bar is generated by summing the labor assigned to all the work items that fall within the period represented by that bar in the bar chart.

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Cash Flow Summary

The Cash Flow Summary shows total capital cost spent.

This bar chart schedule assumes that the DESIGN ENG’G AND PROCUREMENT monies are already spent at the start of construction the curve is not truly tied to the CPM schedule. During construction, capital is then spent for material, direct field labor, equipment rental and subcontract work, Home and Field Office, Start-up, etc., as the cost is incurred. By the end of construction, the TOTAL,AMOUNT given in the Project Summary is indicated here. Operating costs, such as start-up utilities, raw materials, initial catalyst charges, etc., are not included.

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Project Schedule Data Sheet

The Project Schedule Data Sheet lists the fabrication and ship times for equipment items by class and provides bar charts of the following: General Schedule: Balanced display of Basic and Detail Engineering, Procurement and Construction (EPC). Engineering Schedule: Details for Basic and Detail Engineering and Procurement; summary for Construction. Construction Schedule: Details for Construction- others summarized. Contracts Schedule: Schedule for contractor(s). When a single contractor is performing all work, this schedule shows no new information.

Contract Summary Summaries By Report Group List of Equipment and Bulk Material By Area

The Contract Summary breaks costs down by contractor. Summaries By Report Group provides the direct material and labor costs and man-hours by report group for all areas reporting to that group. For each Area, the Equipment and Bulk Material List is divided into three sections. First there is the Component List, followed by the Area Bulk Report, and finally the Area Data Sheet. Following the last Area of each Report Group, there are two more reports the Report Group Summary and the Report Group Equipment Summary. Appendix A contains the Design Data Sheets for those items which are heavily designed by the system- fewer items will have Design Data Sheets than are listed in the Component List, above, which lists all user-added components. Since the Design Data Sheet details the design on which the cost and installation labor is based, it is especially useful during calibration of the system’s material

Appendix A- Design Data Sheets

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costs and man-hours. It helps you compare your benchmark item to Icarus’ on an “apples-to-apples” basis.
Appendix B- Detailed Bulk Material and Field Manpower Listing Appendix C- Bulk Material and Field Manpower Summary- by Report Group Appendix D –Bulk Material and Field Manpower Summary Total Project Appendix E – Direct Material and Manpower Summary by Major Account - Total Project

Appendix B lists the design and cost details for every component, whether system-generated or user-added. The results are reported in the sequence that the items appear in the Area tree diagram. Appendix C consists of one summary of the material and manpower man-hours and cost for all direct costs in the project. There is one report per Report Group; if there is only one Report Group, then this report is eliminated. It is replaced by the project bill of material (see Appendix D description below). Appendix D is a project bill of material (BOM). The format summaries total direct costs for all accounts. Due to the fact that the numbers are large, this is the best source of material costs and man-hours for calibration. Appendix E lists the Icarus default units of measure as well as any user modifications.

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Reviewing Investment Analysis
If you are using the default Preferences, Analyzer automatically displays the four Investment Analysis spreadsheets in the Main Window after you run a project evaluation. You can set Preferences so that Analyzer does not automatically display the spreadsheets, in which case you would have to select to view them as described below. Viewing Investment Analysis To view the Investment Analysis: Click – or – Click Investment Analysis View on the View menu. Use the tabs at the bottom of the window to move among the four spreadsheets. Equipment Summary The Equipment Summary (EQUIP.ICS) contains a list of project components used in the analysis. on the toolbar.

For each component, the summary contains the following information: Area Name: The name of the operational unit area. Component Name: The name of the project component.
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Component Type: The type symbol for the component. Total Direct Cost: The total direct material and labor costs associated with the project component (including installation bulks), in the project currency. Project Summary Project Summary (PROJSUM.ICS) contains a project summary for the capital costs (equipment plus bulks) and schedule. This worksheet also includes operating unit costs (labor wage rates and utility unit costs), utility flow/use rates (steam/water flow rates, etc.) and operating and maintenance costs.

Project Summary Input Data

The following information on the Project Summary spreadsheet is user-entered, except where noted: Project Information Project Name Project Description Analysis Date and Time Simulator Type Simulator Version Analyzer project name Brief description of Analyzer project, from Project Properties The date and time this analysis was performed The name of the process simulator from which process data was imported The version of the process simulator

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Simulator Report File Simulator Report Date Economic Analysis Type Analyzer Version Project Directory Scenario Name Scenario Description

The name of the process simulator report file Date and time of the process simulator report file The name of the Icarus system used for the evaluation Version number for Analyzer system Directory path for the current Analyzer project Name of the current scenario (if applicable) Description of the current scenario, from Project Title in General Project Data

Capital Cost Evaluation Basis Date Country Units of Measure Currency (Cost) Symbol Currency Conversion Rate Date of capital costs/schedule analysis Country basis for the capital costs/schedule analysis Units of Measure for analysis System currency symbol which depends on the selected country basis Conversion factor between user-selected currency to the currency used by the system internally for the selected Country basis. For example, if the US country basis is selected, the internal system currency is US Dollars. Therefore, all numbers will be reported in US Dollars. However, if a currency conversion rate of 1.5 is specified, all internal values will be multiplied by 1.5 and then reported The capital costs basis date of the system. The Adjusted Total Project Cost represents the calculated capital cost of the project (calculated at this base date) escalated to the Start Date of Engineering.

System Cost Base Date

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Project Type Design code Prepared By Plant Location Time Difference Between System Cost Base Date and Start Date for Engineering User Currency Name User Currency Description User Currency Symbol

Project type identified in the standard basis specs Selected design code for equipment Identifier for the preparer of the process evaluator Location of the plant Number of days between the date of the system’s Cost Base data (e.g., first quarter, 2000) and the project’s start date for basic engineering. User assigned name for the currency User assigned description of the currency User assigned symbol of the currency. This is the symbol used for reporting the cost results in the reports.

Descriptions for the following parameters are provided in more detail under Investment Parameter specifications (page 3-54). Time Period Period Description Operating Hours per Period Number of Weeks per Period Number of Periods for Analysis Duration of time Number of hours in specified period Number of weeks in specified period

Set to 20 periods for investment analysis

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Schedule Start Date for Engineering Duration of EPC Phase Length of Startup Period Duration of Construction Phase Completion Date for Construction The beginning date for EPC (engineering, procurement, and construction) The calculated EPC duration in weeks Number of weeks scheduled for start-up beyond the end of the EPC phase The calculated construction duration in weeks The calendar date for the end of EPC

Capital Costs Parameter Working Capital Percentage Percentage of total capital expense per period required to operate the facility until the revenue from product sales is sufficient to cover costs.

Operating Costs Parameters Operating Supplies Laboratory Charges User Entered Operating Charges (as percentage) Indicates the lump-sum cost of operating supplies. Indicates the lump-sum cost of laboratory charges. Indicates the user-entered value for total operating charges.

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Operating Charges (Percent of Operating Labor Costs)

Includes operating supplies and laboratory charges. If the user enters a lump-sum value for either “Operating Supplies” or “Laboratory Charges”, the addition of the two values will override the “User Entered Operating Charges” Consists of charges during production for services, facilities, payroll overhead, etc.

Plant Overhead (Percent of Operating Labor and Maintenance Costs) G and A Expenses (Percent of Subtotal Operating Costs)

General and administrative costs incurred during production such as administrative salaries/ expenses, R&D, product distribution and sales costs.

General Investment Parameters Tax Rate Desired Rate of Return Economic Life of Project Salvage Value (Fraction of Initial Capital Cost) Depreciation Method The percent per period of earnings that must be paid to the government. Indicates the desired (i.e., user- entered) return rate, in percent per period, for the investment. Indicates the length of time in terms of periods over which capital costs will be depreciated. The expected value of an asset at the end of its usable life for the company. The difference between an asset’s cost and its salvage value is the amount to be depreciated over the asset’s usable life. There are four depreciation methods allowed in Analyzer: Straight Line, Sum of the Digits, Double Declining (Balance), Accelerated Cost Recovery System (ACRS). See “Investment Parameters” in Chapter 3 for a detailed definition of each depreciation method.

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Escalation Project Capital Escalation Rate at which project capital expenses may increase expressed in percent per period. If the addition of Engineer-Procure-Construct (EPC) period and start-up period is greater than one whole period, Project Capital Escalation is used to escalate the capital expenses for periods beyond the first period. Rate at which the sales revenue from products of the facility are to be escalated (increased) in terms of percent per period. Rate at which the raw material costs of the facility are to be escalated (increased) in terms of percent per period. Rate at which the operating and maintenance costs of the facility are to be escalated (increased) in terms of Escalation percent per period. The operating labor costs include operators per shift and supervisory costs. User-entered percentages reflecting the anticipated utility price increase each period.

Products Escalation Raw Material Escalation Operating and Maintenance Labor

Utilities Escalation

Project Summary Output Data

The following OUTPUT data is generated by Analyzer : Project Results Summary Total Project Capital Cost The total capital cost investment needed for the project. If the calculated EPC period is more than a year, the capital costs expenditure will be spread out over the length of the EPC period. The total raw material cost of the facility ex pressed in terms of cost per period. The total product sales of the facility expressed in terms of cost per period.

Total Raw Materials Cost Total Products Sales

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Total Operating and Maintenance Labor Cost

The operating labor (including operators/shift and supervisors/shift) and maintenance labor costs in terms of cost per period. The maintenance cost includes maintenance labor and supplies. The total utilities usage cost expressed in cost per period. The total of raw material, operating labor, maintenance, operating charges, plant overhead and G and A expenses. Includes operators per shift and supervisors per shift costs. Maintenance cost of the equipment including labor and materials. Includes operating supplies and laboratory charges. Consists of charges during production for services, facilities, payroll overhead, etc. Subtotal cost of raw materials, operating labor, utilities, maintenance, operating charges, and plant overhead. General and administrative costs incurred during production. This is calculated as a percentage of the Subtotal Operating Costs.

Total Utilities Cost Total Operating Cost Operating Labor Cost Maintenance Cost Operating Charges Plant Overhead Subtotal Operating Cost G and A Cost

The costs listed under Project Results Summary are broken down into individual elements under Project Capital Summary: Project Capital Summary Purchased Equipment The total material cost of process equipment and quoted equipment cost items. Material cost is accounted for in the codes of account 100 - 299. The total construction labor cost for setting equipment in place.

Equipment Setting

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Piping Civil Steel Instrumentation Electrical Insulation Paint

The cost reported for each of these items indicates the total material and construction labor cost calculated for the category. The above cost items may have originated from two sources: 1. Installation Bulks (please refer to Icarus Reference). 2. User: The user can add project components that create cost items in these categories. The project components may be in the following categories: Plant bulks, Site development and Buildings. This item is the total of the following costs: design, engineering, and procurement costs; material charges (freight and taxes); and construction field indirect costs (fringe benefits, burdens, consumables/small tools, insurance, equipment rental, field services, field office construction supervision, and plant start-up). The total cost of subcontracted work. This cost item is normally zero in Analyzer. General and administrative costs associated with engineering, materials, and construction work. The total cost of contract fees for engineering, material, construction, any subcontracted work. The total capital costs escalation amount. This cost item is normally zero in Analyzer. The additional costs required to bring this project to completion. In Analyzer, this cost item is automatically calculated based on the project type and process complexity. The total project capital cost of the plant calculated by the Icarus Capital Costs Engine as of the “System Cost Base Date”.

Other

Subcontracts G and A Overheads Contract Fee

Escalation Contingencies

Total Project Cost

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Adjusted Total Capital Cost

Indicates the Total Project Cost (described above) adjusted to the Start of Basic Engineering. The Total Project Cost is escalated (using the Project Capital Escalation Parameter) from the system Cost Base date to the start date of basic engineering.

Raw Material Costs and Product Sales Raw Materials Cost per Hour Total Raw Materials Cost Products Sales per Hour Total Products Sales Main Product Name Total raw material usage cost per hour specified in the Raw Material Specifications file. Total cost of raw materials per period. This number is generated by multiplying Raw Total produced product sales expressed in cost per hour. Total product sales per period. This number is generated by multiplying Products Sales per Hour by Operating Hours per Period. The main product of the plant is considered to be the product which produces the largest sales figure per period. This field contains the description of the main product (assigned by the user). The production rate of the main product. The unit cost rate of the main product. The production basis (or unit of measure) of Production Basis the main product (LB, GALLONS, etc.). The production rate of the main product per period . The total sales figure of the main product per period.

Main Product Rate Main Product Unit Cost Main Product

Main Product Rate per Period Main Product Sales

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By-product Sales

The total sales figure per period of the byproducts (i.e., products other than the main product of the plant).

Operating Labor and Maintenance Costs
Operating Labor

Operators per Shift Unit Cost Total Operating Labor Cost
Maintenance

The number of operators per shift per hour necessary to operate the plant. The wage rate for each operator expressed in cost per operator per shift. Total operating labor cost obtained by multiplying number of operators per shift by the unit cost and by Operating Hours per Period.

Cost/8000 Hours Total Maintenanc e Cost
Supervision

The cost of maintaining the facility equipment for 8000 hours of operation of the facility. The total maintenance cost of the facility per period.

Supervisors per Shift Unit Cost Total Supervision Cost

The number of supervisors per shift per hour necessary to oversee personnel who operate the facility. The wage rate for each supervisor expressed in cost per supervisors per shift. Total supervising labor cost obtained by multiplying number of supervisors per shift by the unit cost and by Operating Hours per Period.

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Utilities Costs The utility cost breakdown is given below for electricity, potable water, fuel and instrument air as well as user defined process utilities such as steam. The description of each utility includes: Rate Unit Cost Total Cost The rate of use of the utility in terms of amount per hour. The unit cost of the utility in cost per amount. The total cost of the utility in cost per period.

Cashflow

Cashflow (CASHFLOW.ICS) calculates the Net Present Value (NPV), Internal Rate of Return (IRR), Profitability Index (PI), payback period, etc.

The spreadsheet displays the cashflow information shown by period. The beginning part of the spreadsheet contains data/results carried over from the Project Summary (PROJSUM.ICS) spreadsheet.

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Item TW T DTEPC DT WORKP OPCHG CAPT RAWT PRODT OPMT UTILT ROR AF TAXR IF ECONLIFE SALVAL DEPMETH ESCAP ESPROD ESRAW ESLAB ESUT START PODE POD DESRET END
Aspen Decision Analyzer User Guide

Description Number of Weeks per Period Number of Periods for Analysis Duration of EPC Phase Duration of EPC Phase and Startup Working Capital Percentage Operating Charges Total Project Cost Total Raw Material Cost Total Product Sales Total Operating Labor and Maintenance Cost Total Utilities Cost Desired Rate of Return/Interest Rate ROR Annuity Factor Tax Rate ROR Interest Factor Economic Life of Project Salvage Value (Percent of Initial Capital Cost) Depreciation Method Project Capital Escalation Products Escalation Raw Material Escalation Operating and Maintenance Labor Escalation Utilities Escalation Start Period for Plant Startup Desired Payout Period (excluding EPC and Startup Phases). Reserved for future use. Desired Payout Period: Reserved for future use. Desired Return on Project for Sales Forecasting: Reserved for future use. End Period for Economic Life of Project.
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PLANTOVH Plant Overhead

DEPMETHN Depreciation Method Id

GA DTEP OP MT Sales

G and A Expenses. Duration of EP Phase before Start of Construction. Total Operating Labor Cost. Total Maintenance Cost.

A number will appear in this category only after the time allotted for all prior phases (engineering, procurement, construction and startup phases) has expired. SP (Products Sales) The total products sales value per period calculated in PROJSUM.ICS.

Reserved for future use. SPF (Forecasted Sales Annuity Factor) SF (Forecasted Sales) Reserved for future use.

S (Total Sales) Indicates the amount received per period from sold products. This number is either SP or SF.

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Expenses Includes both capital and operating expenditures per period listed below. CAP (Capital Indicates, by period, total funds spent prior to startup. Costs) Unescalated Cumulative Capital Cost: Indicates the total capital costs spent through the current period. This is based on the Total Project Capital Cost in PROJSUM.ICS. Capital Cost: Indicates, by period, the amount of initial, non-variable costs associated with the project. This number is based on the Total Project Capital Cost found in PROJSUM.ICS. Cumulative Capital Cost: Indicates capital expenditures through period n. For example, the number in period 4 represents the total capital expenditures beginning in period 1 and ending in period 4. Working: Indicates the amount required to operate the facility before the revenue from product sales is sufficient to cover costs. Working Capital is a lump-sum amount which takes effect during the start-up period. It is escalated at rate equal to the Project Capital Escalation rate. OP (Operating Costs) Indicates, by period, the total expenditure on the following items necessary to keep the facility operating: Raw Materials, Operating Labor Cost, Maintenance Cost, Utilities, Operating Charges, Plant Overhead, Subtotal Operating Costs, and G and A Costs. This number is the Total Operating Cost imported from PROJSUM.ICS and entered in this field after capital expenditures cease.

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(R)Revenue Indicates, by period, the amount of money available after capital and operating expenses have been paid. This number is obtained by subtracting Capital Costs and Operating Costs from Sales. DEP Indicates the amount by which the value of the capital cost decreases each period. The Total Project Capital Cost is depreciated, via the chosen depreciation method, over the useful Economic Life of the facility. The Straight Line Method assumes that the item will depreciate by a constant amount over its Economic life. When the Sum of the Years Method is used, the depreciation expense decreases during each year of the project’s useful life. When the Double Declining Balance Method is used, the project is depreciated in geometric increments. The Accelerated Cost Recovery System assumes that the project begins operating in the second half of the first year, rather than in the beginning of the first year. Indicates the funds available after all expenses have been paid. This number is obtained by subtracting the Depreciation and the Interest Expenses from the Revenue. Indicates amount owed to the government. This number is obtained by multiplying the tax rate by Earnings Before Taxes. Indicates the funds available after taxes have been paid. This number is obtained by subtracting the Taxes from the Earnings Before Taxes. Indicates total cash available from project. This number is computed by adding the Depreciation Expense to the Net Earnings. Since the depreciation expense is a non-cash expense (no cash actually leaves the facility in order to pay the depreciation expense) adding the depreciation to the net earnings gives the total cash flow obtained from the project. Inclusion of the Depreciation Expenses reduces the amount of taxable income. Specifies the total expenses of the project including capital, operating, and any interest expense. Sums the Sales received through period n and indicates what the Sales would be if they had been received in the current period. For example, the

E

TAX

NE

TED

TEX FVI

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value in period 4 is what the sales in periods 1-4 would have been if all of these funds had been received in period 4. PVI Indicates the current worth of all the cash received through period n. For example, the number in period 4 represents the value that the sales generated in periods 1 through 4 would be if those sales were received in the first period. This number is obtained by summing all of sales from prior time periods adding this amount to sales in the current time period. Using the specified interest rate, this total is then discounted back to the first time period. If the user enters a number for PODE, this number indicates the current worth of all of the cash paid through period n. Indicates the current worth of all of the cash paid through period n. For example, the number in period 4 represents the value that the expenses paid in periods 1 through 4 would be if those expenses were paid in the first period. This number is obtained by summing all of the outflows (Capital Costs, Operating Costs, Interest Expense) from prior time periods and adding this amount to the outflows in the current period. Using the specified interest rate, this total is then discounted back to the first time period . Represents PVOS or PVOP depending on whether or not you entered a desired payout period. If you entered a desired payout period, the basis for the cash outflow calculation is the Forecasted Sales. Otherwise, the basis is Product Sales. Indicates the present worth of the Total Earnings received in the current period. For example, the number in period 4 represents the value that the Total Earnings generated in period 4 discounted back to the first time period. Indicates the current worth of all the Net Earnings received through period n. For example, the number in period 4 represents the value that the Net Earnings generated in periods 1 through 4 if those earnings were received in the first period. This number is obtained by summing all of the Net
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PVOS

PVOP

PVO

PV

Final results are shown below: NPV

Aspen Decision Analyzer User Guide

Earnings from prior time periods and adding this amount to the Net Earnings in the current time period. Using the specified interest rate, this total is then discounted back to the first time period. The sign of this value determines the analysis result. If, in a certain period, the sign of the net present value is negative, then the proposed investment appears not to be profitable, thus far. For example, if the sign of the net preset value is negative in period 3, then the project does not appear to be profitable during periods 1, 2, and 3. However, if the sign is positive, then the project appears to be profitable, from period 3 onward. If the net present value equals zero, then the project does not incur any losses or gains (break-even point). IRR Is the rate at which the present value of all cash flows is zero. It is also known as the Discounted Cash-Flow Rate of Return. This value is calculated at the “End Period for Economic Life of Project” (i.e., “Economic Life of Project” and considering the length of EPC and Startup Period). At the “End Period for Economic Life of Project”, it is assumed the salvage value of the plant and the working capital are recouped. IRR is the after-tax interest rate at which the organization can borrow funds and break even at the end of the project life. Indicates the profitability of the project. The internal rate of return is the interest rate which equates the present value of a project’s expected cash inflows to the present value of the project’s expected costs (or outflows). The internal rate of return for each period is calculated by dividing the Present Value of Cumulative Inflows by the Present Value of Cumulative Outflows and raising this to a power and multiplied by 100. Two criteria are critical in evaluating the internal rate of return. First, if the sign of the rate of return is negative, the project appears not to be profitable. If the sign is positive, then the project appears to be profitable. If the rate of return equals zero then the project incurs no losses or gains (break-even point). In addition, if the rate of return is greater than the rate which could be obtained from other opportunities (i.e., investing in a bank), then the project probably should be undertaken.

MIRR

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Aspen Decision Analyzer User Guide

NRR

Indicates the profitability of the project. The net rate of return for each period is calculated by dividing the Net Present Value by the Present Value of Cumulative Outflows and then multiplying the result by 100. Represents the expected number of years required to recover the original investment in the project. This row will indicate the length of time that the facility needs to operate in order to recover the initial capital investment (total capital cost plus working capital). If a number is entered for the Desired Payout Period, the spreadsheet will determine the amount of Sales necessary to meet this desired payout. Measures a project’s contribution to the firm’s net income. This number is the ratio of the project’s Average Annual Expected Net Income to its Average Investment. For example, the Average Annual Expected Net Income for the fourth period is determined by summing net earnings from periods 1 through 4 and divided by 4. The Average Investment is determined by finding the Salvage Value, and adding this number to the Total Project Cost and dividing this total by 2. If the accounting rate of return is greater than one, then this is an indication that the project might be a profitable undertaking. If the sign is negative, then the project does not appear to be profitable. If this number equals zero then the project incurs no losses or gains (break-even point). The profitability index shows the relative profitability of any project; it shows the present value of the benefits relative to the present value of the costs. For each period, this number is computed by dividing the Present Value of the Cumulative Cash Inflows by the Present Value of the Cumulative Cash Outflows. If the profitability index is greater than one, then the project appears to be profitable. If this index is less than one, then the project appears not to be profitable. If this number equals zero then the project incurs no losses or gains (break-even point).

PO

ARR

PI

Aspen Decision Analyzer User Guide

Evaluating the Project • 9-95

Analysis Analysis results are shown by period. “( - )” indicates the project in the current period appears unprofitable, while “0” indicates breakeven status. Depreciation Calculations This section presents details on the calculation of depreciation.

Executive Summary

Executive Summary (EXECSUM.ICS) contains a project summary intended to be reviewed by executives and other business decision makers.

It contains the following information: PROJECT NAME CAPACITY PLANT LOCATION BRIEF DESCRIPTION Analyzer project name Capacity of plant for major product Location of plant Brief description of project, from Project Properties

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Aspen Decision Analyzer User Guide

SCHEDULE Start Date for Engineering Duration of EPC Phase Completion Date for Construction The beginning date for EPC (engineering, procurement, and construction) The calculated EPC duration in weeks The calendar date for the end of EPC

Length of Start-up Number of weeks scheduled for start-up beyond the end of the EPC phase Period INVESTMENT Currency Conversion Conversion factor between user-selected currency to the currency used by the system internally for the selected Country basis. For example, if the US country basis is selected, the internal system currency is US Dollars. Therefore, all numbers will be reported in US Dollars. However, if a currency conversion rate of 1.5 is specified, all internal values will be multiplied by 1.5 and then reported The total capital cost investment needed for the project. If the calculated EPC period is more than a year, the capital costs expenditure will be spread out over the length of the EPC period The total of raw material, operating labor, maintenance, operating charges, plant overhead and G and A expenses The total raw material cost of the facility expressed in terms of cost per year

Total Project Capital

Total Operating Cost Total Raw Materials Cost

Total Utilities Cost The total utilities usage cost expressed in terms of cost per year Total Product Sales Desired Rate of Return The total product sales of the facility expressed in terms of cost per year Desired rate of return expressed in terms of percent per year.

Aspen Decision Analyzer User Guide

Evaluating the Project • 9-97

PROJECT INFORMATION Simulator Type Version Report File Report Date Economic Analysis Type Version System Cost Base Date The name of the process simulator from which process data was imported The version of the process simulator The file name of the process simulator report file Date and time of the process simulator report file The name of the Icarus system used for the evaluation Version number of the Icarus system. The capital costs basis date of the system. The Adjusted Total Project Cost represents the calculated capital cost of the project (calculated at this base date) escalated to the Start Date of Engineering. Directory path for the current Analyzer project Date investment analysis was run. Country basis for the capital costs/schedule analysis Project type identified in General Specs Selected design code for equipment Identifier for the preparer of the process evaluator

Project Directory Analysis Date Country basis Project Type Design code Prepared By

9-98 • Evaluating the Project

Aspen Decision Analyzer User Guide

Using the Reporting Assistant

The Reporting Assistant feature allows you to create your own customized report spreadsheets, combining information from all other Icarus generated spreadsheets. To develop a customized spreadsheet file and template: 1. On the Tools menu, click Options and then Reporting Assistant. The Reporting Assistant Options dialog box appears.

2. On the Report File tab view, click New. 3. In the Save As dialog box, type a name for the report file that will contain your customized spreadsheet. For example, type “Custom” as shown below.

Click Save. 4. Switch to the Report Templates tab view.

Aspen Decision Analyzer User Guide

Evaluating the Project • 9-99

5. In the Template Files section, click New. 6. In the Save As dialog box, type a name for the template file (e.g., “summary”) and click Save.
This example creates a reporting template for future use called “Summary.tra”

7. In the Template Entries section, click New Entry. In the Column Label field, enter a label (e.g., “Project Name”) for the first column on your custom report spreadsheet. The Display Column box should automatically display “1”. 8. The Entry Definition section defines the data to be entered in the above column. Select a file name in the Source box, then enter the column and row of the source data. For example, in the figure below, the contents of Column C, Row 8 of Project.ics has been specified to appear in the customized report spreadsheet’s Project Name column.

9-100 • Evaluating the Project

Aspen Decision Analyzer User Guide

9. Follow the same procedure (steps 7 - 8) to add more entries. You can use a variety of sources. For example, adding the following entries will result in a report template that uses all three of the previously discussed .ics files as sources.
Column Label Project Name Start Date for Engineering Tax Rate Purchased Equipment Cost Total Project Cost Total Maintenance Cost Completion Date for Construction Display Column 1 2 3 4 5 Source projsum.ics projsum.ics projsum.ics projsum.ics cashflow.ics Source Column C C C C C Source Row 8 61 112 172 14

6

cashflow.ics

C

40

7

execsum.ics

B

17

10. When all the template entries are added, return to the Report File tab view. To the right of the Template File field, click Browse. 11. Select the newly created template file (e.g., Summary.tra) and click Open. 12. Click OK to exit the Reporting Assistant Options dialog box.
Generating the Custom Report

To generate a report developed in Reporting Assistant: 1. Run a project evaluation.
Evaluating the Project • 9-101

Aspen Decision Analyzer User Guide

2. On the Run menu, click Add Entry for Reporting Assistant. Analyzer generates the report based upon the template created in the Reporting Assistant. The data that was entered under List of Entries on the Reporting Assistant Options dialog box appears as columns in the spreadsheet.

Every time Add Entry for Reporting Assistant is selected, the latest data is entered on the bottom row of the report. This way, you can compare results.

9-102 • Evaluating the Project

Aspen Decision Analyzer User Guide

Item Evaluation
Analyzer allows you to run an evaluation on a single component and view an Item Report. The type of Item Report displayed can be selected in Preferences (see page 2-32). To run an item evaluation and display the Item Report: 1. Right-click on the component in either Project Explorer or the List view, and then click Evaluate Item on the pop-up menu. Analyzer runs the item evaluation. 2. Right-click on the component and click Item Report on the pop-up menu. You can also click the Evaluate button on the Component Specifications form to run the item evaluation and display the Item Report.
If the evaluation has already been run, you only have to select Item Report.

Analyzer displays the Item Report in the Main Window.

You can include multiple components in the Item Report: on the List view (area level), select the desired components, right-click on one of the components, and click Item Report on the pop-up window. The resulting Item Report lists individually the summary data (cost or sizing) for each selected component.

Aspen Decision Analyzer User Guide

Evaluating the Project • 9-103

Automatic Item Evaluation

You can have Analyzer automatically run an item evaluation whenever you click OK or Apply on a Component Specifications form. To turn automatic item evaluation on and off: 1. On the Tools menu, point to Options. 2. On the Options sub-menu, a check appears next to Automatic Item Evaluation when the feature is turned on. Clicking Automatic Item Evaluation turns the feature on and off.

9-104 • Evaluating the Project

Aspen Decision Analyzer User Guide

Aspen Decision Analyzer User Guide

Evaluating the Project • 9-105

Index

.

.D01 file extension, Icarus Object files 3-81 .EML file extension, importing cost libraries 7-18 .UCL file extension, importing cost libraries 7-18
2

2/3 rule 3-38, 6-21
A

About command Help menu 2-24 Accelerated Cost Recovery System (ACRS) depreciation methods, investment parameters 3-55 Account Basis report descriptions 9-39 ACRS See Accelerated Cost Recovery System (ACRS) Activate Custom Model option Preferences 2-33 Add Area command 5-2 Add button Pipe Details form 5-13 Wage Rate Info form 3-21 Add Project Component command 5-3 Add Stream command Process Flow Diagrams (PFD) 4-49 Add Trend Data to Database command Trend menu, Aspen Icarus Reporter 9-53 AdminDir

location, Preferences 2-34 AEM See Analyzer Economics Module (AEM) Agitated tanks sizing 6-15 Air coolers design criteria specifications 3-38 sizing 6-13–6-14 Air supply instrumentation loop 5-17 All Crafts Percent of Base General Wage Rates 3-19 Allow Docking command 2-19 Analyze Economics discussion of economic premises 9-24–931 Analyzer 2.0B importing from 2-6–2-7 Analyzer Economics Module (AEM) 9-11– 9-31 error when re-launching 9-24 loading 9-11 RESULTS workbook 9-16–9-22 revising premises 9-22–9-23 saving workbooks 9-24 SPECS workbook 9-12–9-16 Analyzer Plant Relocation Module (ARM) 8-5–8-8 Analyzer Scale-Up Module (ASM) 8-2–8-4 Anchor bolts civil installation bulk 5-14 Apply 2/3 Rule for Design Pressure Design Criteria 3-38 Apply button

Aspen Decision Analyzer User Guide

Index • I-1

Develop Stream specifications form 3-69 Installation Bulks form 5-9 Mat'l Man-hour Adjustments form 5-10 Area icons 2-11 List view display of items 2-14 Area Information dialog box 5-2 Area type 5-2 Areas adding 5-2 deleting 5-23 importing 5-19 mapping 4-23 pop-up menu 5-3 re-numbering 5-23 simulator 4-17, 4-24, 4-30, 4-44 ARM See Analyzer Plant Relocation Module (ARM) ASM See Analyzer Scale-Up Module (ASM) Aspen Icarus Reporter Data trending 9-53 Excel reports 9-44–9-52 HTML reports 9-43–9-44 importing data 9-56 Management reports 9-44–9-48 menu bar 9-34 report mode 9-34 standard reports 9-35–9-42 Aspen Plus link to IPE 4-5 map specs 3-31 models used for tower sizing 6-27 simulator report preparation 4-2–4-6 template 4-2 tower input information 6-33, 6-38 AspenTech Aspen Plus simulator program 3-31, 6-27, 6-33 contacting 1-9–1-11 Online Support Center 1-8 Auto Filter 9-52 Automatic Item Evaluation checked command Tools menu 2-24, 9-93 Automatic task backup 2-32

B

Backup options Preferences 2-32 Base Design Value Analyzer Economics Module (AEM) 922, 9-23 Base stream 3-71 BaseCase, default scenario name 2-3 Basis Map dialog box 4-24 Basis for Capital Costs construction workforce 3-18 indexing 3-22 input units of measure 3-5 introduction 3-5 libraries 3-79 output (reports) units of measure customization 3-7 selecting defaults 3-79 BFD See Block Flow Diagram (BFD) BinCacheDir location, Preferences 2-34 Block Flow Diagram (BFD) 4-18–4-20 Bottom sump height towers, design criteria 3-39 Buildings 5-1 By-products escalation 9-29 Stream Input worksheet 9-30
C

Cached project information 2-27 Cancel button Develop Stream specifications form 3-69 Capacity changing 8-1, 8-2 Capital Cost errors 9-10 Capital cost parameters Project Input worksheet 9-28 Capital Cost Reports 9-39 Capital Costs reports 2-31 Capital Costs View View menu 2-23, 4-22, 4-46 Capital investment Project Input worksheet 9-26
Aspen Decision Analyzer User Guide

I-2 • Index

Capture worksheet Analyzer Economics Module (AEM) 9-16 Cascade command Window menu 2-12, 2-24 Cash Flow Summary reports, Icarus Editor 9-63 Cash flows Project Input worksheet 9-25 Cashflow spreadsheet 9-77–9-85 CASHFLOW.ICS Cashflow spreadsheet 9-77–9-85 ChemCAD map specs 3-32 simulator report preparation 4-6–4-8 Chemstation 3-32, 4-6–4-8 Civil installation bulk 5-14 material costs and man-hours 5-9 Clear All Saved Trends command Trend menu, Aspen Icarus Reporter 9-53 ClipboardDir location, Preferences 2-34 Close command File menu 2-22 COA See Code of Account (COA) COADir location, Preferences 2-34 Code of Account (COA) allocating UCL item costs to 7-9 report descriptions 9-39 Cold Inlet Stream field 6-10 Cold Outlet Stream field 6-10 Color coding Analyzer Economics Module (AEM) 9-66 Component Specifications form 5-7 Component Listings report descriptions 9-41 Component Map Information 4-28, 4-31 Component Name 4-29 Component Specifications form accessing 5-6 color coding 5-6, 5-7 Options button 5-7, 5-8 P&ID button 5-12, 5-15 Component Status 4-29 Components See Project components

Components view Palette 2-16, 2-17 ComponentsDir location, Preferences 2-34 Compressors design criteria specifications 3-37 sizing 6-1, 6-16 Computer name scenario information 2-8 Configuration options mapping 4-26, 4-31 Construction workforce 3-18 Construction schedule Project Schedule Data Sheet 9-64 Contingencies General Specs 3-9, 3-10 Project Summary spreadsheet (PROJSUM.ICS) 9-74 Contingency Percent field General Specs 3-10 Contractor reports 9-39, 9-40, 9-42, 9-64 Control centers instrumentation loop 5-17 Control Panel worksheet Analyzer Economics Module (AEM) 9-12 Control signal instrumentation loop 5-17 Control valve instrumentation loop 5-16–5-17 Copy command project components 5-21 Cost libraries deleting 7-20 duplicating 7-19 Equipment Model Library (EML) 7-2–7-6 importing 7-18 introduction 7-1 Unit Cost Library (UCL) 7-7–7-16 Cost/Quantity Roll-ups report descriptions 9-39 Costs Design Basis worksheet 9-20 distribution graph, Figures worksheet 9-21 EPC worksheet 9-17

Aspen Decision Analyzer User Guide

Index • I-3

Project Summary report, Icarus Editor 961 Standard Reports, Aspen Icarus Reporter 9-39–9-38 total direct cost, Equipment Summary (EQUIP.ICS) 9-67 total project cost, Cashflow spreadsheet (CASHFLOW.ICS) 9-78 Country Base 2-4 Craft code 3-22 Craft Rates 3-21 Create New Trend in Excel command Trend menu, Aspen Icarus Reporter 9-54 Create Stream dialog box 3-75, 3-77, 6-4, 66 Create tab view Develop Streams dialog box 3-75 Create User Database command File menu, Aspen Icarus Reporter 9-34, 957 Create User Database dialog box Aspen Icarus Reporter 9-57 Creating project scenarios 2-2 streams 3-68–3-78, 4-49–4-50 Crushers sizing 6-17 Crystallizers sizing 6-18 Currency Analyzer Economics Module (AEM) 911, 9-16 Analyzer Relocation Module (ARM) 8-2, 8-3 General Project Data 2-4–2-5, 3-3 Currency Conversion Rate General Project Data 2-5, 3-3 Project Summary spreadsheet (PROJSUM.ICS) 9-68 Currency Name General Project Data 2-4 Currency Symbol General Project Data 2-4 Icarus Editor 9-60 Project Summary spreadsheet (PROJSUM.ICS) 9-68

Custom Model instructions 5-24–5-28 Preferences 2-33 Custom Tasks command Tools menu 2-24 Cut command project components 5-21 Cyclone inlet linear velocity design criteria specifications 3-48
D

Data trending Aspen Icarus Reporter 9-53 DC_V worksheet Analyzer Economics Module (AEM) 9-13 Decision Analyzer command Run menu 2-22, 8-2, 8-5, 9-11, 9-58 Decision Analyzer dialog box 8-2, 8-5, 9-11, 9-58 Decision Center worksheet Analyzer Economics Module (AEM) 9-13 Delete button Pipe Details form 5-13 Delete Mappings command 4-30 Deleting areas 5-23 components 5-22 mappings 4-30 projects and project scenarios 2-26 Density Develop Stream specifications form 3-71 Depreciation method Cashflow spreadsheet (CASHFLOW.ICS) 9-78, 9-81, 9-85 investment parameters, project basis 3-54 Project Input worksheet 9-29 Project Summary spreadsheet (PROJSUM.ICS) 9-71 Design and Basis Reports 9-41 Design Criteria libraries 3-79 selecting defaults 3-79 Design Criteria specifications 3-35 Design Data Sheets report descriptions 9-41 Design pressure

I-4 • Index

Aspen Decision Analyzer User Guide

applying 2/3 rule for 3-38 design criteria specifications 3-35 Design temperature design criteria specifications 3-36 tower sizing 6-35 Desired rate of return Cashflow spreadsheet (CASHFLOW.ICS) 9-78 Executive Summary spreadsheet (EXECSUM.ICS) 9-86 investment parameters, project basis 3-54 Project Summary (PROJSUM.ICS) spreadsheet 9-71 Detailed Process Economics reports 9-66 Develop EPC Reports in File Decision Analyzer dialog box 9-58 Develop Equipment Library Model form 7-4 Develop Product Specifications dialog box 3-65 Develop Raw Material Specifications dialog box 3-61 Develop Schedule command Run menu 2-22 Develop Stream specifications form 3-69, 64, 6-6 Develop Streams dialog box 3-75, 3-76, 6-3, 6-5 Develop Utiltiy Specifications dialog box 349 Direct costs capital cost reports 9-39 graphical reports 9-42 Directories project, locations - Preferences 2-34–2-36 Disconnect command streams 4-51 Disconnected Streams dialog box 4-51 Discounted Cash-Flow Rate of Return See Internal Rate of Return (IRR) Display results after evaluation Preferences 2-31 Docking 2-19 Documentation 1-8 Domestic freight project location's affect on 3-12 relocation's affect on 8-8

Draw Disconnected Stream feature 4-51 Dryers sizing 6-19 Duct installation bulk 5-14 Dust collectors sizing 6-19
E

Economic Analysis workbook discussion of economic premises 9-24–931 Economic Life of Project investment parameters, project basis 3-54 Economic premises discussion of 9-24–9-31 ECOSYS.xls 9-12, 9-23 Edit Connectivity feature Process Flow Diagrams (PFD) 4-48 Electrical installation bulk 5-17 material costs and man-hours 5-9 reports, discipline 9-41 unit cost per KWH 3-59 Electricity operating unit costs specifications 3-59 E-mail reports 9-44, 9-45, 9-51 technical support 1-9–1-11 EML See Equipment Model Library (EML) Engineering schedule Project Schedule Data Sheet 9-64 Engineer-Procure-Construct (EPC) period Cashflow spreadsheet (CASHFLOW.ICS) 9-78 investment parameters, project basis 3-55 Project Summary spreadsheet (PROJSUM.ICS) 9-70 relationship to length of start-up period 358 reports, Icarus Editor 9-58–9-65 EPC See Engineer-Procure-Construct (EPC) period EPC Phase Project Input worksheet 9-27 EQUIP.ICS investment analysis spreadsheets 9-66

Aspen Decision Analyzer User Guide

Index • I-5

Equipment adding 5-3 design allowance 3-13 reports, discipline 9-42 rotating spares 3-13, 8-8 Equipment Account graphical reports 9-42 Equipment Listings report descriptions 9-42 Equipment Model Library (EML) adding an item to 7-3 adding EML item as a component 7-5 creating 7-2 definition 7-1 EMLDir, location 2-34 Equipment Summary investment analysis spreadsheets 9-66 ERROR message 9-10 Escalate command Library dialog box 7-17 Escalate Costs dialog box 7-18 Escalation Cashflow spreadsheet (CASHFLOW.ICS) 9-78 cost libraries 7-17 investment parameters, project basis 3-55 Project Basis worksheet, Analyzer Economics Module (AEM) 9-19 Project Input worksheet 9-29 Project Summary spreadsheet (PROJSUM.ICS) 9-72 Estimate Class 3-3 Estimate Date 3-4 EU country base 2-4–2-5 Euro currency, General Project Data 2-5 Evaluate button Component Specifications form 5-7, 9-92 Evaluate Item command 9-92 Evaluate Project command Run menu 2-22, 9-9 Evaluation item 9-92 Preferences 2-31 project 9-9 Evaluation Engine 6-25, 9-57

Excavation and backfill civil installation bulk 5-14 Excel Analyzer Economics Module (AEM) 911–9-31 Excel Custom Model files 5-24–5-28 Excel reports Auto Filter 9-52 descriptions 9-49 opening 9-49 Exchange rate See Also Currency Conversion Rate Analyzer Economics Module (AEM) 917, 9-25 EXECSUM.ICS 9-85–9-87 Executive Summary spreadsheet 9-85–9-87 Exit command Analyzer File menu 2-22–2-24 Export to Excel Trending Report dialog box Aspen Icarus Reporter 9-54 Export to Excel Workbook dialog box Aspen Icarus Reporter 9-46, 9-50 Export to Icarus 2000 command File menu 2-22 Export Trend Data into Excel dialog box Aspen Icarus Reporter 9-54 External Simulation Import Tool command Tool menu 2-24, 4-10
F

Facility Type investment parameters, project basis 3-57 FATAL message 9-10 Fax numbers technical support 1-9–1-11 Figures worksheet Analyzer Economics Module (AEM) 9-21 File menu Analyzer menu bar 2-22 Aspen Icarus Reporter menu bar 9-34 Filters sizing 6-20 Fit into one page Zoom dialog box 4-21 Float in Main Window command 2-19 Flow rate units

I-6 • Index

Aspen Decision Analyzer User Guide

product specifications 3-66 Fluid classes utility streams 3-50 Foaming tendency trayed towers, design criteria 3-41 Foreman wage rate general wage rates 3-21 Form work civil installation bulk 5-14 Fraction basis 3-72 Freeze Content button Properties Window 2-18 Freight General Specs 3-10 Fuel operating unit costs specifications 3-60 Furnace fractional efficiency heat exchanger design criteria 3-38
G

Green borders Component Specifications form 5-7 Grid Settings command View menu, PFD 4-46, 4-47 Grids viewing in Block Flow Diagram (BFD) 422 viewing in Process Flow Diagram (PFD) 4-47 Grids Visible command View menu, BFD 4-22 Grout civil installation bulk 5-14
H

G and A expenses Cashflow spreadsheet (CASHFLOW.ICS) 9-79 investment parameters, project basis 3-57 Project Summary spreadsheet (PROJSUM.ICS) 9-71, 9-73 Galvanizing (for steel) paint installation bulk 5-18 General and administrative costs Cashflow spreadsheet (CASHFLOW.ICS) 9-79 investment parameters, project basis 3-57 Project Summary spreadsheet (PROJSUM.ICS) 9-71, 9-73 General Design Data report descriptions 9-41 General investment parameters Project Input worksheet 9-29 General Project Data creating a new project scenario 2-4 project specifications 3-3 General Specs Basis for Capital Costs 3-9–3-18 General wage rates 3-18 Gray borders Component Specifications form 5-7

Heat exchangers design criteria specifications 3-38 mean temperature difference (MTD) 6-22 minimum overdesign factor 6-22 sizing 6-1–6-12, 6-21–6-24 utility specifications 3-48 Help menu 2-24 Helper wage rate general wage rates 3-20 HETP (height equivalent of a theoretical plate) packed towers, design criteria 3-40 Hot Inlet Stream field 6-8 Hot Outlet Stream field 6-10 HTML reports descriptions 9-43 Item Report 2-31 opening 9-43, 9-44 Hyprotech 3-33, 4-8–4-12 HYSIM map specs 3-33 models used for tower sizing 6-27 simulator report preparation 4-8–4-10 HYSYS map specs 3-33 models used for tower sizing 6-27
I

Icarus Editor printing report 9-59 printing report section 9-59
Index • I-7

Aspen Decision Analyzer User Guide

reviewing results 9-58–9-65 toolbar 9-59 Tools menu 2-24 Icarus Evaluation Engine (IEE) 6-25, 9-57 Icarus interface 2-10–2-20 Icarus Object files 3-81 Icarus Project Component Selection dialog box 4-28, 7-5, 7-11, 7-13 IEE See Icarus Evaluation Engine (IEE) Import command File menu 2-22 Libraries view, Palette 3-81, 7-18 Import Connected Streams option Preferences 2-33 Import Data command File menu, Aspen Icarus Reporter 9-34 File menu, Aspen Icarus Reporter 9-56 Import Installation Bulks option Preferences 2-33 Import Selection dialog box Aspen Icarus Reporter 9-56 Importing areas 5-19 components 5-19 project from previous version 2-6–2-7 scenarios 5-20 specification files 3-81 Inch-Pound (IP), units of measure 2-3, 3-80, 3-81 Incomplete items 2-14 Indexing Project Basis specifications 3-22 Indicating signal instrumentation loop 5-17 Indirect costs general wage rates 3-19 Project Summary spreadsheet (PROJSUM.ICS) 9-74 reports 9-40, 9-74 Unit Cost Library (UCL) 7-1 Indirects general wage rages 3-19 INFOmational message 9-10 Input units of measure specifications 2-3 Installation bulks accessing 5-8

civil 5-14 duct 5-14 electrical 5-17 instrumentation 5-14 insulation 5-18 introduction 5-8 material man-hour additions 5-11 paint 5-18 pipe details 5-11 pipe spec 5-11 Preferences 2-32 steel 5-14 Installation Details report descriptions 9-40 Instrument volumetric model 5-14–5-16 Instrumentation installation bulk 5-14 loop adjustments 5-16–5-17 material costs and man-hours 5-9 Insulation installation bulk 5-18 material costs 5-9 Interactive sizing 6-1–6-12 Interactive Sizing form 4-25, 4-29, 6-8, 6-10 Interest rate Project Input worksheet 9-29 Interface layout 2-10–2-20 Save Window States option 2-31 Internal Rate of Return (IRR) Cashflow spreadsheet (CASHFLOW.ICS) 9-77, 9-83 Statements worksheet 9-20 Status worksheet 9-16 Intrument air operating unit costs specifications 3-60 Investment Analysis project specifications 3-53–3-67 Investment Analysis View command View menu 2-23, 9-66 Investment Parameters libraries 3-79 project specifications 3-53 selecting defaults 3-79 IP, units of measure 2-3, 3-80, 3-81 IPE 5.0/5.1 importing from 2-6–2-7

I-8 • Index

Aspen Decision Analyzer User Guide

IRR See Internal Rate of Return (IRR) Item evaluation 9-92 automatic 9-93 Item Report instructions for running 9-92 Preferences 2-31 Item Report command 9-92 Item Summaries report descriptions 9-40
J

Job Number field 3-4 JP country base 2-4–2-5 Junction boxes instrumentation loop 5-17
K

KbaseLog.txt Preferences, Logging 2-36 Key Quantities report descriptions 9-41, 9-42 Key Quantity Basis report descriptions 9-39 Kister, Henry Z. 6-38, 6-39, 6-40 K-YEN (KY) currency, General Project Data 2-5
L

Labor cost per unit Unit Cost Library (UCL) 7-9 Labor hours per unit Unit Cost Library (UCL) 7-9 Labor Unit Costs operating unit cost specifications 3-59 Laboratory charges investment parameters, project basis 3-56 Project Input worksheet 9-28 Project Summary spreadsheet (PROJSUM.ICS) 9-70, 9-71 Ladders, steel - installation bulks 5-14 Length of Start-up Period investment parameters, project basis 3-58 Libraries Basis for Capital Costs 3-5, 3-79 cost libraries 6-48–7-20

Design Criteria 3-79 Equipment Model Library (EML) 7-2 moving to another directory 3-83 Project Component Map Specifications 379 specification libraries 3-79–3-82 Unit Cost Library (UCL) 7-7 Utility Specifications 3-79 view 2-16 Line List report descriptions 9-42 Liquid entrainment method 3-45 Liquid Mass Density Developing Stream specifications form 372 List view description 2-14 mapped components 4-29 simulator file name 4-16 Status column 4-29, 5-4 Load Data button toolbar 2-20 Load Data command 4-16 Loaded wage rates operating unit cost specifications 3-59 Locations plant relocation 8-1, 8-5–8-8 Preferences 2-34 project, General Specs 3-10 Logging Preferences 2-36 Loops instrumentation installation bulks 5-14 modifications 5-16–5-17
M

Magnification Block Flow Diagram (BFD) 4-20–4-21 Main Window display options 2-19 interface, default position 2-10 printing 2-22 understanding 2-12–2-13 Management reports 9-44–9-48 Man-hour indexing 3-22 Manpower Productivity Expert (MPE)

Aspen Decision Analyzer User Guide

Index • I-9

Tools menu 2-24 Manufacturing cost parameters Project Input worksheet 9-28 Map All Items option Map dialog box 4-24 Map command pop-up menu 4-23 Map dialog box 4-24 Map Items button toolbar 2-20, 4-23 Map Items command Run menu 2-22, 4-23 Map Selected Item(s) option Map dialog box 4-24 Mapping simulator data instructions 4-23–4-30 Mapping simulator models units of measure mapping specs 3-26–329 unsupported models 2-33 Mass flow Develop Stream specifications form 3-71 Material and man-hour additions 5-11 adjustments 5-9 Material and man-hour adjustments installation bulks 5-26 Material and man-hour indexing 3-22 Material cost per unit Unit Cost Library (UCL) 7-9 Material costs indexing 3-22 Material Index Info form 3-23 Material streams product specifications 3-64 Maxiblock report descriptions 9-39 Menu bar Analyzer 2-10, 2-22–2-24 Aspen Icarus Reporter 9-34 Metric, units of measure 2-3, 3-80, 3-81 Microsoft Access Database (.mdb) file 9-57 Mixture button Develop Stream specifications form 3-70 Mixture Specs developing streams 3-72

Modify command simulator block 4-17 streams 4-51 Modify tab view Develop Streams dialog box 3-68 Motor/Driver List report descriptions 9-41 Multi-core runs instrumentation loop 5-17 MUSE design criteria specifications 3-37
N

Net Present Value (NPV) Cashflow spreadsheet (CASHFLOW.ICS) 9-82 Statements worksheet 9-20 Status worksheet 9-16 Net Rate of Return (NRR) Cashflow spreadsheet (CASHFLOW.ICS) 9-84 New command File menu 2-2, 2-6, 2-22 New Component Information dialog box 5-4 New Project button toolbar 2-2, 2-20 NPV See Net Present Value (NPV) NRR See Net Rate of Return (NRR) Number of Periods for Analysis investment parameters, project basis 3-54 Number of shifts general wage rates 3-19 Project Input worksheet 9-28 Number of Weeks per Period investment parameters, project basis 3-54
O

OK button Develop Stream specifications form 3-69 Installation Bulks form 2-32, 5-9 Mat'l Man-hour Adjustments form 5-11 Online Technical Support Center 1-8 Open button toolbar 2-8, 2-20 Open command File menu 2-8, 2-22
Aspen Decision Analyzer User Guide

I-10 • Index

Palette Projects view 2-9 Open Existing Project dialog box 2-8 Open Workbook command File menu, Aspen Icarus Reporter 9-34, 952 Opening an existing project 2-8 Operating and Maintenance Labor Escalation Cashflow spreadsheet (CASHFLOW.ICS) 9-78 investment parameters, project basis 3-56 Project Summary spreadsheet (PROJSUM.ICS) 9-72 Operating charges Cashflow spreadsheet (CASHFLOW.ICS) 9-78 investment parameters, project basis 3-56 Project Input worksheet 9-28 Project Summary spreadsheet (PROJSUM.ICS) 9-73 Operating costs Cashflow spreadsheet (CASHFLOW.ICS) 9-80 Executive Summary spreadsheet 9-86 Figures worksheet 9-21 operating unit cost specifications, project basis 3-58–3-60 product specifications, project basis 3-65 Project Summary spreadsheet (PROJSUM.ICS) 9-70, 9-73 raw material specifications, project basis 3-61 Operating hours per period investment parameters, project basis 3-58 Project Summary spreadsheet (PROJSUM.ICS) 9-69 total operating labor cost calculation 9-76 total product sales calculation 9-75 total supervision cost calculation 9-76 Operating labor and maintenance Project Input worksheet 9-28 Operating mode investment parameters, project basis 3-57 Operating supplies investment parameters, project basis 3-56 Project Input worksheet 9-28

Project Summary spreadsheet (PROJSUM.ICS) 9-70, 9-71 Operating temperature tower sizing 6-34, 6-35 Operating Unit Costs libraries 3-79 project basis specifications 3-58–3-60 selecting defaults 3-79 Options button Component Specifications form 5-7, 5-8 Options menu Component Specifications form 2-32 Options sub-menu Tools menu 2-24 Order Number 5-22 Overall column efficiency design criteria specifications 3-43 sizing procedures 6-36 Overdesign factor heat exchangers 3-38, 6-11, 6-22 pumps 3-37, 6-24, 6-25 sizing message 6-11 Overtime hours,general wage rates 3-20 rate, general wage rates 3-20 Overwrite Project Backups option 2-31, 2-32
P

P and I Design Level General Specs 3-11 P&ID button 5-11, 5-14 Packed towers design criteria specifications 3-39 Paint material costs 5-9 Palette Components view 2-16, 2-17, 5-3 cost libraries 7-2–7-20 deleting a project from 2-26 description 2-16–2-17 Docking and undocking 2-19 dragging components from 5-3 floating in Main Window 2-19 hide/display 2-17 interface, default position 2-10

Aspen Decision Analyzer User Guide

Index • I-11

Libraries view 2-16, 3-79–3-82, 7-2–7-20 opening projects 2-9 Projects view 2-9, 2-16, 2-17, 2-26, 2-28, 2-34 Recent Items folder 5-3 specification libraries 3-79 unlocking projects from 2-28 View menu 2-23, 4-22, 4-46 parity exchange rate plant relocation 8-8, 8-2, 8-4–8-5 Parity exchange rate plant relocation 8-5 Paste command project components 5-21 Patents and royalties Project Input worksheet 9-28 Period Description investment parameters, project basis 3-54 Phase durations Project Input worksheet 9-27 Phases Stream Input worksheet 9-30 Pile types 3-14 Pipe Details installation bulk 5-11 Pipe Spec installation bulk 5-11 Pipe volumetric model 5-12–5-13 Piping installation bulks 5-11–5-13 material costs and man-hours 5-9 reports, discipline 9-42 volumetric model 5-12 Piping and Instrumentation Drawings (P&ID) manual 5-11, 5-14 Plant bulks 5-1 Plant capacity changing 8-1, 8-2 Plant location changing 8-1, 8-5–8-8 Plant overhead Cashflow spreadsheet (CASHFLOW.ICS) 9-78 investment parameters, project basis 3-56 Project Summary spreadsheet (PROJSUM.ICS) 9-71, 9-73 Platforms, steel - installation bulks 5-14 Ports Visible button

toolbar 2-21, 4-48 Ports Visible command View menu, PFD 4-46 Potable water operating unit costs specifications 3-60 utilities costs, Project Summary spreadsheet (PROJSUM.ICS) 9-77 Pounds (PS) currency, General Project Data 2-5 Preferences accessing 2-30 Backup tab view 2-32 buttons 2-30 description 2-30 General tab view 2-30 introduction 2-30 Locations tab view 2-34–2-36 Logging tab view 2-36 Process tab view 2-33 prompts 2-30 saving window states 2-31 Tools menu 2-24 Prepared By field General Project Data 3-4 Pressure vessel design code General Specs 3-11 Primary fluid component 3-70, 3-72, 6-4, 616 Print command Analyzer File menu 2-22 Print Preview command File menu 2-22 Print Setup command File menu 2-22 Printing Aspen Icarus Reporter 9-38 Block Flow Diagrams (BFD) 4-21 forms and reports in Main Window 2-22 Icarus Editor 9-59 Pro/II R/R minimum 3-39 PRO/II map specs 3-34 models used for tower sizing 6-27 simulator report preparation 4-13–4-14 Problem description

I-12 • Index

Aspen Decision Analyzer User Guide

SimSci report preparation 4-13 Process Complexity General Specs 3-9, 3-10 Process connection intrumentation loop 5-17 Process Control contingency affected by 3-13 General Specs 3-10 Process Description contingency affected by 3-13 equipment design allowance affected by 3-13 General Specs 3-9, 3-10 Process Design specifications 3-26–3-52 Process equipment 5-1 Process Flow Diagrams (PFD) 4-45–4-51 Process Fluids investment parameters, project basis 3-58 Process options Preferences 2-33 Process Stream field product specifications 3-66 raw material specifications 3-62 Process vessel height to diameter ratio design criteria specifications 3-44 Product escalation Project Input worksheet 9-29 Product Specifications libraries 3-79 project specifications, Investment Analysis 3-64 selecting defaults 3-79 Production Stream Input worksheet 9-30 Production operations Stream Input worksheet 9-30 Productivity adjustment, general wage rates 3-19 craft wage rate 3-22 fixed rate for all crafts, general wage rates 3-20 percent of base, general wage rates 3-20 Products Escalation Cashflow spreadsheet (CASHFLOW.ICS) 9-78 investment parameters, project basis 3-56

Project Summary spreadsheet (PROJSUM.ICS) 9-72 Profitability Index (PI) 9-84 Project areas See Areas Project Basis Basis for Capital Costs 3-5–3-22 default specifications 3-79 General Project Data 3-3 introduction 3-1 Project Properties 3-2 specification libraries 3-79 Project Basis view 2-11 Project Basis worksheet Analyzer Economics Module (AEM) 9-19 Project Capital Escalation Cashflow spreadsheet (CASHFLOW.ICS) 9-78 investment parameters, project basis 3-55 Project Summary spreadsheet (PROJSUM.ICS) 9-72 Project capital evaluation Project Input worksheet 9-29 Project Component Map Preview dialog box 4-25, 4-28, 4-31 Project Component Map Specifications dialog box 3-29 libraries 3-79 process design 3-29–3-34 selecting defaults 3-79 Project components adding 5-3 component specifications 5-6 connecting to stream 4-48 copying 5-21 deleting 5-22 Equipment Model Library (EML) items 75 importing 5-19 installation bulks 5-8 re-numbering 5-22 reports 9-39–9-38 Unit Cost Library (UCL) item 7-11 Project Data Sheet reports, Icarus Editor 9-61 Project Description Project Properties 2-3, 3-2

Aspen Decision Analyzer User Guide

Index • I-13

Project Summary spreadsheet (PROJSUM.ICS) 9-67 Project Direct Costs graphical reports 9-42 Project directories alternate directories 2-34 copying 2-29 default, setting 2-35 Project evaluation Preferences 2-31 running 9-9 scan for errors 2-31, 9-10 Project Explorer 2-11 Docking and undocking 2-19 floating in Main Window 2-19 interface, default position 2-10 relation to Palette 2-16 View menu 2-23, 4-22, 4-46 Project in use - message 2-28 Project Input worksheet Analyzer Economics Module (AEM) 914, 9-22–9-23 Analyzer Economics Module (AEM) 924–9-29 Project Location domestic freight cost affected by 3-12 equipment rotating spares cost affected by 3-13 General Specs 3-10 ocean freight cost affected by 3-12 Project Name Project Summary spreadsheet (PROJSUM.ICS) 9-67 Project Name field creating a new project 2-2 Project Properties creating a new project 2-3 editing 3-2 Project scenarios creating new 2-2 deleting 2-26 importing 5-20 opening existing 2-8 salvaging 2-27 saving 2-25 unlocking 2-28

Project Schedule Data Sheet reports, Icarus Editor 9-64 Project Summary reports, Icarus Editor 9-61 spreadsheet, reviewing investment analysis 9-67–9-77 Project Title 3-3, 9-68 Project Type contingency affected by 3-13 Executive Summary spreadsheet 9-87 General Specs 3-10 power distribution affected by 3-15 Project Summary spreadsheet (PROJSUM.ICS) 9-69 Project view 2-11 Projects copying 2-29 creating 2-2–2-5, 2-2 deleting 2-26 opening existing 2-8 view 2-16, 2-17 PROJSUM.ICS spreadsheet description 9-67–9-77 specifications 3-62, 3-64, 3-65 Prompts Preferences 2-30 Properties Window description 2-18 Docking and undocking 2-19 floating in Main Window 2-19 Freeze Content button 2-18 interface, default position 2-10 relationship to specifications form 2-18, 5-6 View menu 2-23, 4-22, 4-46 PROVISION simulator report preparation 4-13–4-14 Pump overdesign factor design criteria specifications 3-37 pump sizing 6-24, 6-25 Pumps design criteria specifications 3-37 sizing 6-1, 6-24–6-26
Q

Quoted cost item

I-14 • Index

Aspen Decision Analyzer User Guide

mapping unsupported models to 2-33 Quoted equipment 5-1, 5-8
R

Rate field product specifications 3-66 raw material specifications 3-62 Rate Units field product specifications 3-66 raw material specifications 3-63 Raw Material Costs Executive Summary spreadsheet 9-86 Project Summary spreadsheet (PROJSUM.ICS) 9-72, 9-75 specifying rate and unit costs 3-60 Raw Material Escalation Cashflow spreadsheet (CASHFLOW.ICS) 9-78 investment parameters, project basis 3-56 Project Summary spreadsheet (PROJSUM.ICS) 9-72 Raw Material Specifications libraries 3-79 project specifications, Investment Analysis 3-60 selecting defaults 3-79 Raw materials escalation 9-29 Stream Input worksheet 9-31 Rebar civil installation bulk 5-14 Recent Items folder 5-3 Reconnect Sink command stream, Process Flow Diagrams (PFD) 451 Reconnect Source command streams, Process Flow Diagram (PFD) 451 Red borders Component Specifications form 5-7 Refrigerant 6-9 Relation attributes 9-57 Relocating confidence level 8-6–8-8 construction wage rate 8-6 countries 8-9

currency/exchange rates 8-9–8-5 engineering wage rate 8-6 how relocation works 8-7–8-8 instructions 8-5–8-6 introduction 1-3 rule set 8-9 Remarks field project properties 2-3, 3-2 Rental requirements data affected by General Specs 3-11 Re-number command Run menu 2-22, 5-22, 5-23 Re-numbering areas 5-23 project components 5-22 Report files Reporting Assistant 9-88 Report Group and Contractor graphical reports 9-42 Report templates Reporting Assistant 9-88 Reporter See Aspen Icarus Reporter Reporting Assistant 9-88–9-91 Reports Analyzer Economics Module (AEM) 9-66 customizing 9-88–9-91 data trending 9-53–9-55 EPC reports 9-58–9-65 Excel 9-66, 9-44–9-52 HTML 9-43–9-44 Item report 9-92 Management reports 9-44 producing 9-11, 9-32, 9-58, 9-92 Standard reports 9-35–9-42 Reroute All Streams command Run menu 4-45 Reset button Develop Stream specifications form 3-70 Residence time design criteria specifications 3-41, 3-43, 3-44 sizing vessels 6-48 Re-Size command project component pop-up menu 4-25, 6-2 RESULTS workbook

Aspen Decision Analyzer User Guide

Index • I-15

Analyzer Economics Module (AEM) 916–9-22 Royalties See Patents and royalties, Project Input worksheet Run menu 2-22 Run Report command File menu, Aspen Icarus Reporter 9-34
S

Sales Cashflow spreadsheet (CASHFLOW.ICS) 9-78, 9-79 G&A expenses, investment parameters 357 Project Summary spreadsheet (PROJSUM.ICS) 9-72, 9-75 revenue escalation, investment parameters 3-56 Salvage Project As dialog box 2-27 Salvage Value investment parameters, project basis 3-54 Project Input worksheet 9-29 Project Summary (PROJSUM.ICS) 9-71 Salvaging project scenarios 2-27 Save As command File menu 2-22, 2-25 Save button toolbar 2-20, 2-25 Save command File menu 2-22, 2-25 Save Project As dialog box 2-25 Save Window States checkbox Preferences 2-31 Saving cached information 2-27 project scenarios 2-25 window states 2-31 Scan for Errors before evaluation Preferences 2-31 Scan for Errors command Run menu 2-22 Scan Messages 9-10 Scenario Description Project Summary spreadsheet (PROJSUM.ICS) 9-68 Scenario Name field

creating a new project 2-2 importing project scenario 2-6 Scenario reporting Project Input worksheet 9-24 Scenarios creating 2-2–2-5 importing 5-20 opening existing 2-8–2-9 Schedule Project Input worksheet 9-25 Project Schedule Data Sheet 9-64 Screens design criteria specifications 3-47 sizing 6-26 Select a Suffix dialog box 4-27 Select command Project Basis pop-up menu 3-83 Select Import Type dialog box 2-7 Select Simulator Type dialog box 4-15 Sensor instrumentation loop 5-16–5-17 Separation factor design criteria specifications 3-45 Show Page Bounds View menu, BFD 4-22 View menu, PFD 4-46 Signal cabling, instrumentation - installation bulks 5-14 SimSci's Pro/II with PROVISION R/R minimum 3-39 SimSci's PRO/II with PROVISION map specs 3-34 models used for tower sizing 6-27 simulator report preparation 4-13–4-14 Simulator data loading 4-14–4-17 mapping 4-23–4-30 unsupported models 2-33 Simulator File Name process design specifications 4-16 Simulator reports Aspen Plus 4-2–4-6 ChemCAD 4-6–4-8 HYSIM 4-8–4-10 HYSYS 4-10 loading 4-14–4-17

I-16 • Index

Aspen Decision Analyzer User Guide

preparing 4-2–4-14 PRO/II 4-13–4-14 selecting 4-16 supported reports 4-1 Simulator Type Executive Summary spreadsheet 9-87 process design specifications 4-15 Project Summary spreadsheet (PROJSUM.ICS) 9-67 Simulator Units of Measure Mapping Specs libraries 3-79 process design specifications 3-26–3-29 selecting defaults 3-79 Single Component Summary Report Preferences 2-31 Site development 5-1 Size button 6-1, 6-8 Size Icarus Project Component(s) options Map dialog box 4-25 Size Item option 4-49, 6-1 Sizing parameters 3-35, 3-38, 3-40, 3-41, 3-44, 3-46 project components 6-1–6-12 Sizing Expert 3-48, 4-25, 4-49, 6-1–6-12 Sizing Method field Equipment Model Library (EML) 7-4 Snap to Grid checkbox Grid properties 4-47 Snap to Grid command View menu, BFD 4-22 View menu, PFD 4-46 Soil conditions General Specs 3-11 pile type determined by 3-14 Solid Mass Density Developing Stream specifications form 371 Solids handling information design criteria specifications 3-47 Source Map dialog box 4-24 Specification Basis field product specifications 3-66 Rate Units options impacted by 3-63, 3-66 raw material specifications 3-62

Specification files creating 3-80 deleting 3-82 duplicating 3-82 importing 3-81 introduction 3-79 modifying 3-81 moving to another directory 3-83 selecting 3-83 Specification libraries customizing 3-80–3-82 introduction 3-79 moving to another directory 3-83 SPECS workbook Analyzer Economics Module (AEM) 912–9-16 Spray condenser tower configurations 4-42, 4-43 Spreadsheets Cashflow (CASHFLOW.ICS) 9-77–9-85 customizing 9-88–9-91 Equipment Summary (EQUIP.ICS) 9-66– 9-67 Executive Summary (EXECSUM.ICS) 985–9-87 Project Summary (PROJSUM.ICS) 9-67– 9-77 viewing investment analysis 9-66 SQL database exporting to Microsoft Access 9-57 Stairs, steel - installation bulks 5-14 Standard Basis file, selecting 3-83 input file 3-9 input file 3-3 Standard reports descriptions 9-35, 9-39–9-38 navigating 9-36 opening 9-35 printing 9-38 searching 9-38 Start date, basic engineering General Specs 3-11 Starting program 2-1 Start-up period, length investment parameters, project basis 3-58

Aspen Decision Analyzer User Guide

Index • I-17

Statements worksheet Analyzer Economics Module (AEM) 9-20 Status bar 2-10 View menu 2-23, 4-22, 4-46 Status column List view 4-29, 5-4 Status worksheet Analyzer Economics Module (AEM) 9-16 Steam utility 6-9 Steel installation bulk 5-14 material costs and man-hours 5-9 Stream Input worksheet Analyzer Economics Module (AEM) 930–9-31 Analyzer Economics Module (AEM) 922–9-23 Analyzer Economics Module (AEM) 9-14 Streams absolute basis 3-76, 4-50 basis mode 3-76, 4-50 connecting to equipment during sizing 67–6-12 connectivity, Process Flow Diagram (PFD) 4-48 creating from PFD 4-49–4-50 creating from Project Explorer 3-68–3-78 creating to connect to equipment for sizing 6-3–6-6 deleting 3-78, 4-51 material 3-64 modifying 3-68 process 3-66 product specifications 3-64 relative basis 3-76, 4-50 Streams List command View menu, PFD 4-46 Suffixes mapping 4-26, 4-27 Supervision costs, Project Input worksheet 9-28 costs, Project Summary spreadsheet (PROJSUM.ICS) 9-76 loaded wage rate, operating unit cost specifications 3-59

number of supervisors per shift, Project Summary spreadsheet (PROJSUM.ICS) 9-76 operating unit cost specifications 3-59 schedule-dependent costs, general specs 3-16 wage rate, Project Summary spreadsheet (PROJSUM.ICS) 9-76 System administration files locations, Preferences 2-34 System cost base data Project Summary (PROJSUM.ICS) 9-68
T

Tax Rate Cashflow spreadsheet (CASHFLOW.ICS) 9-78 investment parameters, project basis 3-54 Project Summary spreadsheet (PROJSUM.ICS) 9-71 Taxes General Specs 3-10 Project Location's affect on 3-12 Technical support online 1-8 phone and e-mail 1-9–1-11 Template files Reporting Assistant 9-89 Tile command Window menu 2-12, 2-24 Time period Project Input worksheet 9-26 Timed backup 2-32 Toolbar buttons 2-20 description 2-20 docking 2-20 interface, default position 2-10 View menu 2-23, 4-22, 4-46 Tools menu 2-24 Total Manpower Schedule reports, Icarus Editor 9-62 Total project cost Cashflow spreadsheet (CASHFLOW.ICS) 9-78 Tower configurations

I-18 • Index

Aspen Decision Analyzer User Guide

mapping simulator items 4-26, 4-31–4-41, 6-29–6-32 sizing procedures 6-27–6-41 Transducers instrumentation loop 5-17 Transmitters, instrumentation - installation bulks 5-14 Trayed towers design criteria specifications 3-41 sizing procedures 6-36 Trend menu, Aspen Icarus Reporter 9-34, 953, 9-54 Trending database reports 9-53–9-55
U

UCL See Unit Cost Library (UCL) UK country base 2-4–2-5 Unique Project Backup options 2-32 Unit Cost field product specifications 3-67 raw material specifications 3-63 Unit Cost Library (UCL) adding an item to 7-8 adding UCL item to a project 7-11 creating 7-7 definition 7-1 Units of measure input customization 2-3, 3-5 output (reports) customization 3-7 project properties 2-3 Project Summary spreadsheet (PROJSUM.ICS) 9-68 scenario information 2-8 Unit Cost Library (UCL) 7-9 Units of Measure Specification dialog box 3-27 Unlock command 2-28 Unsupported simulator models Preferences 2-33 Update button Develop Stream specifications form 3-69 US country base 2-4–2-5 User Custom Model 5-24–5-28 User name scenario information 2-8 Utilities

costs 3-48–3-52, 9-77, 9-86 escalation 3-56, 9-29, 9-72, 9-78 estimation of usage 3-73 list of availiable utility resources 6-9 operating unit costs 3-59 Stream Input worksheet 9-31 Utilities Escalation Cashflow spreadsheet (CASHFLOW.ICS) 9-78 investment parameters, project basis 3-56 Project Input worksheet 9-29 Project Summary spreadsheet (PROJSUM.ICS) 9-72 Utility Specifications libraries 3-79 project specifications 3-48 selecting defaults 3-79 Utility stream creating 3-48 modifying 3-48 Utility Unit Costs operating unit costs specifications (non-heat transfer utilities) 3-59 utility specifications (heat transfer utilities) 3-51
V

Vapor disengagement height towers, design criteria 3-39 Version scenario information 2-8 Vessel design code, General Specs 3-11 design criteria specifications 3-45–3-47 diameter, General Specs 3-11 height to diameter ratio 3-44 sizing 6-1, 6-42–6-48 View Existing Trend Data command Trend menu, Aspen Icarus Reporter 9-34, 9-55 View menu 2-23, 4-22, 4-46
W

WARNing message 9-10 Web site technical support 1-8
Index • I-19

Aspen Decision Analyzer User Guide

What-You-See-Is-What-You-Get Zoom dialog box 4-21 Window menu 2-24 Window states, saving 2-31 Workbook mode understanding 2-12–2-13 View menu 2-23, 4-22, 4-46 Workforce reference base General Wage Rates 3-19 Working capital Cashflow spreadsheet (CASHFLOW.ICS) 9-80 Project Input worksheet 9-28 Working capital percentage Cashflow spreadsheet (CASHFLOW.ICS) 9-78 investment parameters, project basis 3-56 Project Input worksheet 9-23 Project Summary spreadsheet (PROJSUM.ICS) 9-70 WYSIWYG Zoom dialog box 4-21
Y

Yen currency, General Project Data 2-5
Z

Zenz correlation dust collector sizing 6-20 Zoom Aspen Icarus Reporter 9-37 Block Flow Diagram (BFD) 4-20–4-21 toolbar 2-21

I-20 • Index

Aspen Decision Analyzer User Guide

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