The Effect of the Fluoride Content of Different Toothpaste Brands to the Oral Bacteria

Alyssa Faye Ancla Group 1 Sec. I – 1L

September 28, 2011

A scientific paper submitted in partial fulfillment of the requirements in General Biology 1 laboratory under Prof. Junaldo Mantiquilla, 1st sem, 2011-2012

1 ABSTRACT The effect of fluoride content of the different toothpaste brands in relation to the oral bacteria was determined by using agar samples. Agar samples are used to investigate how much bacteria will remain right after brushing. This also measures the effectiveness of the different products. A participant is asked to rinse his mouth with only water while four participants are asked to rinse their mouth with the different toothpaste brands. Three trials have been conducted. A sample from the front teeth and on the left and right sides of the mouth was determined by using disinfected swabs. Four different participants are asked to brush their teeth using different brands of toothpaste namely, Colgate, Close-up, Hapee and Unique. Final results have shown that the sample came from the mouth that is not subjected to brushing has the most number of bacterial colonies while on the other hand, the agar with the least bacterial colonies came from Colgate ang Close-up. Thus, the amount of bacteria in the mouth will be reduced after brushing one's teeth with toothpaste, is proven to be true.

INTRODUCTION Our mouth is full of bacteria. Different kinds of bacteria can be found inside our mouth. It is sometimes referred as a jungle of bacteria because it is the dirtiest part of our body since it is where the entry and entrance of food takes place. There are actually 170 different types of bacteria found in our mouth. These bacteria are anaerobic meaning that they can not live in the presence of oxygen (Favot, 2006). But when these bacteria are exposed to oxygen, especially when we inhale, these bacteria hide in places where oxygen can not reach, under plaque and food debris, in the spaces between the teeth and gums, and in the deep crevices of the tongue. According to Perry (1982), harmful bacteria may cause cavity and bad breath, such as streptococcus which is a cavity causing bacteria. It was initially thought to be a harmless bacterium, but later it was found to be harmful for mouth.

2 Oral bacteria can be control through brushing the teeth. Tooth paste companies was have now has developed different ways to prevent the overcrowding of these bad bacteria. Proven by the experts, fluoride can prevent tooth and gum disease. It has also some beneficial effects on the formation of dental enamel and bones. Fluoride ion present in the toothpaste prevents tooth decay in two ways, first it prevents the bacteria in plaque to generate tooth-weakening acids and second, it helps re-mineralize the teeth where tooth-weakening acid has already started. According to Massler (1980), decay can result when an enamel of the outer layer of the tooth, which is composed of mineral crystals that are densely packed, loses minerals and recovered on a daily basis. The process of losing minerals is called demineralization, and it occurs when mouth acids attack the crystals, and dissolve them. The acids are produced through the action of sugar and bacteria in the mouth. When the minerals are lost, the body begins to deposit calcium, fluoride and phosphate in the enamel, in a process called remineralization (Hoyt and Bibby, 1943). When too many minerals are lost and these are not replaced sufficiently, decay can result. As stated by Mazza (1981), fluoride plays an essential role in protecting and strengthening teeth. Most tooth enamel begins with a very high concentration of fluoride in its outer layers, but the fluoride can dissolve over time. So whether ingested through fluoridated beverages or applied topically with toothpaste, rinses or treatments, replenishing fluoride is one of best ways to strengthen tooth enamel and help it resist acids that can lead to cavity production. This study aimed to determine the effect of the fluoride content of different toothpaste brands to oral bacteria. The specific objectives were

3  To determine the efficacy of fluoride content of different toothpastes to kill oral bacteria  To explain further mechanisms such as what fluoride is and what it can to lessen the bacteria in the teeth. This study was conducted on September 21, 2011 at the College of Science and Mathematics located in the University of the Philippines, Mintal, Davao City.

MATERIALS AND METHODS In this experiment, the independent variable is the brand of the tooth paste that will be used namely Colgate, Close-up, Unique and Hapee. On the other hand, the dependent variable is the rate of bacteria growth in the petri dish. This will be determined by measuring the size of the colony of the bacteria with the use of ruler. The constants, or the control variables, are the method of brushing the teeth, the type of toothbrush used, the length of time for which the teeth is brushed, the room temperature and the amount of sunlight There will be 15 petri dishes that will be prepared using agar. Overall, there will be three petri dishes for each volunteer, one for the sample from the front teeth, and two from the left side and the right side. In this experiment, same type of toothbrush and same length of time will be maintained. To start the experiment, a participant will be asked to rinse their mouth for few seconds and to then spit out the water. Samples, using a disinfected swab, will be taken from the front and sides of the teeth of the participant and rolled on the surface of petri dish. It will then be closed and the petri dish will be marked “Before”. The petri dish will be kept and stored upside down in a cool

4 shady place for the bacteria to colonize. Four participants are then asked to brush their teeth using four different brands namely Colgate, Close-up, Unique and Hapee toothpaste, one brand per person. The constants of this experiment will still be observed in this case. After brushing the teeth for 5 minutes, it will be rubbed again over the front and the sides of the teeth of the participant and will be rolled on the surface of the petri dish. The petri dish will be marked “– after”. The petri dishes with agar will be placed in room temperature and will left there for five days. RESULTS AND CONCLUSION Based on Table 1, after 5 days, the sample that is not subjected to brushing has shown bacterial growth. On the first trial, 1mm bacterium has been found. 15mm has been found on trial 2 and 65mm on trial 3. On table 2, the agar sample is subjected to Colgate, trial 1 is negative while trial 2 has 3mm and trial 3 has 4m. On table 3, 4mm of bacteria has been found on trial 1and 3mm on trial 2. Trial 3 has no bacterial growth. On table 4, the agar sample subjected to Unique has 19mm bacterial growth on trial 1, 4mm on trial 2 and 1mm on trial 3. On table 5 the agar sample is subjected to Hapee. 19mm of bacteria has appeared on trial 1. On trial 2, 4mm has appeared and on trial 3, 1 mm has found.

Table 1. The appearance of bacteria in mm after 5 days in the agar labeled as “without brushing” Trial (without brushing) After 5 days (mm) 1 1 2 15 3 65

5 Table 2. The appearance of bacteria in mm after 5 days in the agar labeled as “with Colgate” Trial (without brushing) After 5 days (mm) 1 None 2 3 3 4

Table 3. The appearance of bacteria in mm after 5 days in the agar labeled as “with Close Up. Trial (without brushing) After 5 days (mm) 1 4 2 3 3 none

Table 4. The appearance of bacteria in mm after 5 days in the agar labeled as “with Unique” Trial (without brushing) After 5 days (mm) 1 19 2 4 3 1

Table 5. The appearance of bacteria in mm after 5 days in the agar labeled as “with Hapee” Trial (without brushing) After 5 days (mm) 1 10 2 4 3 1

The bar graph is in figure 1 shows the growth of agar samples after 5 days. The results have proved that fluoride can affect the bacterial growth. In this experiment, the agar sample taken from the mouth which is subjected to no fluoride has the highest bacterial growth. This graph shows that in terms of effectiveness, Colgate and Close Up are the best choice. According to the results, the lowest recorded bacterial growth of these two brands after 5 days is 3mm.

6

70 60 50 the 40 bacterial growth 30 (mm) 20 10 0 without brushing with Colgate with Close Up with Unique agar samples with Hapee

Trial 1 Trial 2 Trial 3

Figure 1. A bar graph showing growth of agar samples after 5 days.

Based on the figure 1, the agar sample that is not subjected to fluoride and brushing has the highest bacterial growth which is 65mm. This proves and shows that bacteria, in the absence of fluoride, will grow faster. Colgate and Close Up, having the lowest bacterial growth recorded, have the highest fluoride concentration. Whereas, Unique has is the lowest among the four brands since it has the most number of bacterial colonies (see figure 5).

7

Figure 2. A picture shows the bacterial growth of agar labeled as “Before”.

Figure 3. A picture shows the bacterial growth of agar labeled as “with Colgate-after”.

Figure 4. A picture shows the bacterial growth of agar labeled as “with Close Up-after”.

8

Figuar 5. A picture shows the bacterial growth of agar labeled as “with Unique-after”.

Figure 6. A picture shows the bacterial growth of agar labeled as “with Hapee-after”.

Fluoride can affect the bacterial growth. Without the usage fluoride, bacteria will grow rapidly. Since the concentration of fluoride and the rate of growth of the bacteria is directly proportional to each other in which the higher the concentration, the greater the reduction in cavities. In figure 2, a picture of the bacterial colonies taken from the agar which is not subjected to brushing. The bacteria found in the agar have more colonies.. As we see, the figure 3, the agar taken from a mouth brushed with Colgate and 4, the agar taken from the mouth brushed with Close up, are the cleanest among them all.

9 These results proved that fluoride can lessen the growth of bacteria in out mouth. Therefore, the amount of bacteria in the mouth will be reduced after brushing one's teeth with toothpaste. SUMMARY AND DISCUSSIONS The effect of the fluoride to the growth of bacteria was determined. The experiment was done by assigning different brands of toothpaste to different volunteers. There are 15 petri dishes in all. To do the first set up, a volunteer was then asked to rinse his mouth with water and samples were taken from the different parts of his mouth. The samples that were taken using a swab were then rolled on the surface of the petri dish. This was done three times. Four volunteers are then asked to brush their teeth using the assigned tooth paste brand for 5 minutes. Samples are again taken using a swab from the front and sides of the mouth and are rolled on the surface of the petri dish. The constants of this study are the length of the brushing time, type of toothbrush and method of brushing. The petri dish will be kept in a cool and shady place for the bacteria to inhabit Results have shown that the agar that is not subjected to brushing and only water has the highest degree of the bacterial colonies. On the other hand, the agar that has been subjected to fluoride has fewer bacteria. Among the four brands of tooth paste, namely, Colgate, Close –up, Unique and Hapee, the most effective brand of toothbrush is Colgate and Close-up since compare to the other brands; it has the least bacterial colonies.

10 LITERATURE CITED Favot, Christa. 2006. “What is Living in my Mouth? Biofilms, Carbohydrate, and Acid Blasts.” The Naked Scientists. p. 165. Hoyt, W.& Bibby, G. 1943. Use of sodium fluoride for desensitizing dentin. Journal of American Dental Association, 30:1372. Massler, M. 1980. Geriatric dentistry: root caries in elderly. Journal of Prosthetic Dentistry.p 105 Mazza, J. 1981. Clinical and antimicrobial effect of stannous fluoride on periodontitis. Journal of Clinical Periodontology, p.198-203. Perry, D.A. 1982. Fluorides and Periodontal Disease: A review of the Literature. Journal of the Western Society of Periodontology, p.30

Sign up to vote on this title
UsefulNot useful