You are on page 1of 115

Rhapsody

v.08

User Experience Preliminary Design Document

Feedback please send feedback about this document to: rhapsody_ue@group.apple.com

Contacts Don Lindsay, 4-7164, lindsay@apple.com Tim McCollum, 4-2512, mccollum@apple.com Kurt Piersol, 4-1201, piersol@apple.com Cordell Ratzlaff, 4-9109, cordell@apple.com

Contributors of ideas, suggestions, or sections:


Jose Arcellana, Sue Bartalo, Peter Bierman, Mike Cappella, Pat Coleman, Larry Cornett, Helen Cunningham, Paul Danbold, Josh Fagans, Jeff Glasson, Wade Heninger, Steve Ko, Patricia Lee, Don Lindsay, Wayne Loofburrow, Tim McCollum, Sue McGarry, Susan Michalak, Justin Miller, Per Nielsen, Ly Pham, Kurt Piersol, Cordell Ratzlaff, Jeff Robbin, Arlo Rose, Dave Schroit, Bertrand Serlet, Lynn Shade, Marc Sinykin, Melissa Sleeter, Stan Taylor, Jeff Tycz, Gayle Wiesner

Contents
About this Document ...................................5 Design Overview.........................................6
Key Principles Rhapsody audience The basic system model Some examples The rest of this document

Desktop User Experience.............................18


Basic Desktop Elements Menu Bar Global system menus Tray Desktop/Backdrop Task Monitor

Virtual Desktops..........................................29 Finder Application.................................29


Special Menu Items Extensible New menu Snap Shots Get Info/Inspector Tags Undo Cut, Copy, and Paste of icons Enhanced Clipboard Preferences dialog Finder Views Browse in place Tool bar Status bar The Desktop Selection model Drag modification Multi-line icon names Icon in the titlebar Path in titlebar Progress indicators Notification
Rhapsody User Experience Apple Confidential Page 2 of 115

Desktop Printing The Disk Layout Services menu

The Application Experience ............................39


Visual Experience Windows Menus Standard Panels Printing

Mac OS Integration........................................51
Disk Sharing Blue Box in a Window Full-Screen Switch Dual Boot Other Blue/Yellow Synchronization Issues

Networking UE...............................................63 Configuration and Customization..................64


Preferences Machine Settings Find function Syncing Blue and Yellow Control Panels Installation Model Font Management Printer Management International

Installation......................................................79
Feature Management Booting

Assistance and Help.........................................84


Assistants User Scenarios Access Help Tags Theme-dependent visual design Tool-tip functionality Spring-loaded help-tag key Help Home Page
Rhapsody User Experience Apple Confidential Page 3 of 115

Custom help browser Context-sensitive display of help home page Base-Level Help Third-Party Content Searches Automatic Updating Smart Help

Rhapsody User Notification System................95


Status and Alerts Plug-In Architecture Notifier Specifier Dismissal Icon animation Text banner Spoken alert Other animation System beep

Issues from Initial Design Review...................98 UE Features by Release...................................107


Developer Release Premiere Release Unified Release Unified Release 1.x

Rhapsody User Experience

Apple Confidential

Page 4 of 115

About this document


This document represents the first compilation of the various HI designs from each of Rhapsodys primary functional elements (Finder, Help and Assitance, Networking, OS integration, etc). The intent of this document is to provide a vehicle for review and is not intended to be a corporate edict of design decisions. While each of the sections was written as a result of collaboration with engineering and marketing, this is the first time anyone has seen all the pieces put together. Obviously, there are going to be holes and inconsistencies in this document. In fact, the document was assembled in order to obviate those short-comings. Only preliminary reviews of this document have been conducted, and therefore, many of the design directions described herein are likely to change following wider review. The rest of this document is a description of the key interface elements at a fairly high level. It is by no means complete, and is not intended to give details of each particular interaction, display, and menu item. Instead, it strives to present an overall view that can be comprehended quickly. Detailed UE specifications will be constructed for every application a user will see, as the project moves forward from here. Detailed descriptions of the human interactions will be forthcoming in a set of individual Human Interface Specifications (or HISs). The list of HISs and the people in the HIDC responsible for driving those HISs to completion are as follows: Don Lindsay - Rhapsody Human Interface Design Lead Rhapsody UE engineering Lead - Kurt Piersol These two guys have general responsibility for the design and engineering of the Rhapsody user experience which means they coordinate the activities of the various HIDC and engineering teams and drive UE issues to resolution. In order to do this, they work closely with the engineering teams, marketing, management, and the HIDC component DRIs. The HIDC component DRIs work closely with engineering and marketing to jointly create HI designs and accurately capture those designs in the Human Interface Specs. Finder - Larry Cornett (e.g. Menu Bar, Apple menu, Services menu, Process menu, Activity task manager, Device Tray, Backdrops, File Browsers, International, Control Panels, Preferences, etc.) End User Networking and Desktop/Internet integration - Sue McGarry (e.g. users and groups, personal file sharing, personal web
Rhapsody User Experience Apple Confidential Page 5 of 115

sharing, web browsing, network configuration) Help and Assistance - Jose Arcellana (e.g. Setup & Task assistants, Tool Tips, Data Detectors, Help Browser, Help content) OS Integration - Stan Taylor (e.g. blue/yellow integration, Control panel syncronization, booting, restarting, installation, feature management) Look & Feel - Don Lindsay (e.g. Theme design, AppKit, Global services like Fonts & Color Picker, Application guidelines) User Applications & Developer Tools - Tim McCollum (e.g. TextEdit, Preview, Mail, Grab, Fax, Interface Builder, Project Builder, IconBuilder, WebObjects, EOF) Network Administration - Tim McCollum (e.g. File Server Admin, Web server Admin, Mail Server Admin, DNS, NetInfo, Directory Services) A noteable caveat: no supreme being dropped by to give us the one truth about how the system will operate. The elements presented here will certainly change as details are flushed out. We gleefully anticipate your feedback. A small caveat: Designs which add substantial new functionality and have not previously appeared in the Mac OS or NextStep are labeled Concept. Yet another caveat: All illustrations in this document are early concepts and are not final designs. They are used only to illustrate a specific concept or issue. They do not reflect the final layouts, desktop, or visual design details of Rhapsody.

Design Overview
Rhapsody is designed to be a leap forward in user experience for our customers. It takes advantage of the new infrastructure provided by its OpenStep heritage, and the strong attention to human interface excellence that has characterized its Macintosh heritage. Key Principles
Rhapsody User Experience Apple Confidential Page 6 of 115

The design of the Rhapsody experience uses a few key principles to inform decision making. Rhapsody should be
Simple to understand Simple things should be simple, complex things should be possible. This statement should be at the core of the Rhapsody design. Users should immediately grasp how to do basic things on the system. In addition, users should be able to understand why something isnt working as easily as possible. Another key design goal in Rhapsody is a minimalist approach to the experience. The MacOS, and to some extent OpenStep, does not allow users to simply use the parts of the system they are most interested in. A series of integral, intermingled parts of the experience combine to make the MacOS more complex to use than it needs to be. A more minimal experience is good in two ways. First, it help with the simplicity goal. Secondly, it allows users to scale the complexity of their experience themselves, by adding items they feel comfortable with to the base experience. The less minimal a system is, the less scalable the experience. Extensible The MacOS has long suffered from a long series of inappropriate extension mechanisms. Each one has lowered the stability of the system in the name of tighter integration of features. Rhapsody intends to provide a set of hooks which allow extensions to the user experience that are not dangerous to the stability of the system. The MacOS experience has a very strong case of one size fits all in a world where this is clearly no longer the case. While it behooves Apple to provide a good experience that works well for most people, we should also be attempting to let users replace almost any element of the system with a tailored experience.

Minimalist

Replaceable

Rhapsody User Experience

Apple Confidential

Page 7 of 115

Of course, the system should also perform well and be stable, but these are more than strictly user experience concerns, and in some sense they are so important and pervasive they almost dont need to be mentioned as special areas of focus. Rhapsody audience Eventually, the Rhapsody audience is going to include most personal computer users. However, at the beginning, it is going to include users who are relatively sophisticated and who need powerful solutions. The representative core market for Rhapsody is the publishing, entertainment, and new media (PEN) market. The PEN market, however, is not a monolithic user population. In order to deliver successful OS technology to the PEN market, two broad user categories must be considered. The first group of PEN users can be characterized as Technologists. These users are highly knowledgeable, often have multi-platform experience, and are responsible for administering servers and making/influencing decisions about their companys overall technical purchasing strategy. The second primary user division in the PEN market are Creators and they are the users who create graphics, advertisements, and other content. This user group also includes those people who manage and coordinate the activies of other Creators. Creators tend to use a specific set of apps to get their job done and are often quite efficient at using their apps even though they may know very little about the OS. They tend to understand the computer only in so far as it specifically applies to their job and they greatly value the MacOSs ease of use. Both Technologists and Creators typically work under strict time deadlines. Users in the PEN market are primarily interested in a high performance, highly stable system which possesses Macintoshs ease of use. In addition they also desire an appealing visual appearance and, due to the time-sensitive nature of their business, can tolerate only minor task flow disturbances. We must strive to give them a powerful system that is easy to understand, visually appealing, and familiar. One of the key issues to be addressed is helping users understand what is happening on the much more powerful operating system core that Rhapsody provides. We must help them understand why applications run or fail to run, what is currently going on in the computer, and just what kind of stability they can expect. The basic system model In the MacOS, we suggested to the user that there was a large and
Rhapsody User Experience Apple Confidential Page 8 of 115

complex system and a set of applications. Extensions were added to the system and extended behavior in global ways. Applications did important things, but the system was the context in which a lot of work got done. Users spoke of extending their system, putting the system at the core of the world.
App App

App App System

App App

In Rhapsody, we are changing that model. The core of system is largely invisible, and instead the user sees a collection of applications running atop the core. Users extend the system by running more applications, not by adding to an ever expanding and intrusive system core.
App App App App App App

This is clearly a different model than the current MacOS model. It has some compelling advantages. First of all, it is self scaling. That means that a user chooses the level of complexity he or she wishes to have by running more or different applications. If a user prefers a very simple model, he gets one. If the user like a much more complex and dynamic world, she can have it. The second advantage is that users are clear about where the trouble lies when an application fails. The user will spend less time trying to divine the intricate relationship between the system and various applications and extensions. Its instructive to remember just how many ways to extend the MacOS have sprung up over the years. Desk accessories, applications, extensions, control panels, faceless background applications, QuickTime components, printing extensions, shared libraries, OpenDoc parts, Finder extensions, comm toolbox components, ASLM
Rhapsody User Experience Apple Confidential Page 9 of 115

libraries, chooser devices, XCMDs, OSAXs. A MacOS user has to understand something of the difference between these various kinds of executable to understand why something is not working on his system. With Rhapsody, the typical user will need to understand two kinds of things: applications and bundles. Bundles are ways to extend applications, not the system as a whole.

Some examples
George does illustrations for a living. He doesnt run a web server, he doesnt manage a database, he just runs Illustrator all day. He has a simple desktop, with nothing more than a few folders full of clip art and completed work, a mail client which gives him assignments, and his Illustrator application. Susan is a webmaster who also runs the mailing lists and database programs for the companys intranet web site. She not only runs a mail client, she keeps monitors open on the web site, tracks database usage, and administers all three server programs. Her desktop has a lot of running applications, and is constantly updating her on the status of her charges. She doesnt do much web surfing, she doesnt watch PointCast for stock prices. Phil is a small business manager who runs his world from his calendar program, and uses mail and a special workflow application to give his employees tasks. He does watch PointCast all day on his desktop, and he does like to check on the progress of important jobs. Rhapsody provides a tailored experience for each of these users. George runs mail, the Finder, and Illustrator. Susan runs the Finder, three or four server monitor programs, network browsers, and a Web authoring tool. Phil runs the Finder, a scheduler, PointCast, and mail. Each of them thinks they have an integrated system that gives them tailored results, but none of them had to install special extensions or control panels, faceless background applications, or other MacOS arcana. Rhapsody does this by keeping the basic experience minimal where possible, and by providing developers with the infrastructure to keep applications working together in an apparently integrated fashion.

Rhapsody User Experience

Apple Confidential

Page 10 of 115

A Quick Walk-Through
When a Rhapsody user sits down in front of a machine, they will log in as the first action.

The Rhapsody Login Screen

Some users will have single user machines, but most will share a machine with one or more other people. Each such user will have a desktop of his or her own. A Rhapsody users desktop is virtual, meaning that a users desktop will follow them from machine to machine. Also, multiple users can use the same machine and each have their own personalized desktop environment. An individual user will not have a login screen, but will instead see the desktop as soon as the machine has started, just as OpenStep does today.

Rhapsody User Experience

Apple Confidential

Page 11 of 115

The Rhapsody desktop looks much like a Mac OS desktop, with a few key changes.

The Rhapsody Desktop

As can be seen above, the system has a standard menu bar, and a standard MacOS desktop. However, a new appearance for the process menu shows the currently active application, and a new desktop element called the tray keeps the users home directory visible, along with the trash, the hard disk, and the network. This user has only one hard disk, and only a few items on his desktop. Note also the presence of long file names, requiring multi-line labels on files. Lets assume he wants to take a look at his hard disk. He double clicks on the hard disk icon, and it opens. A standard disk layout would give the user a notion of the files shared by all users of the machine, those specific to individual users, and those which are strongly associated with the Mac OS compatibility software. These items appear in distinct folders. In the illustration below, the user has gone into the users folder and found the home directories of some of the other users of this computer.

Rhapsody User Experience

Apple Confidential

Page 12 of 115

Exploring the Disk

If the user wants to check to see whats running on the computer, he can visit the process menu. This menu also serves as a window management interface. By choosing a window, the user can bring it forward using either the menu or direct clicking. To bring all windows associated with an application forward, the user can choose the application in the process menu. A new class of window, called backdrops, allows users to choose to run the desktop or some other display as the background of his screen.

Rhapsody User Experience

Apple Confidential

Page 13 of 115

The Process Menu

A number of handy access points are available as a part of the Apple menu. Unlike the Mac OS version, this version is more directly customizable, and users will have more control of its appearance and contents.

The Apple Menu

Rhapsody User Experience

Apple Confidential

Page 14 of 115

Rhapsody is a multi-processing system, and users can find out everything thats happening in the task monitor. The Task Monitor is a window which gives the user a complete picture of everything that his system is doing right now. The user can manage these tasks from here as well, canceling them, or pausing them, in order to get more work done. This feature replaces the command period cancel feature of the Mac OS which would be problematic in a multiprocessing environment.

The Task Monitor

Rhapsody User Experience

Apple Confidential

Page 15 of 115

By using the network item from the tray, Rhapsody users also have integrated network access. This item delivers net browsing of a LAN as well as wide area nets, in an extensible way. One access point is the network item on the tray, but network integration is pervasive. The log window, below, for instance, was opened from the Apple menu.

Network Browsing

Rhapsodys Mac OS compatibility will be available in two modes, a full screen mode and a partial screen mode. The full screen mode will be the default experience. A full screen switch is performed by using a command key combination, the process menu, or the special desktop icon. By default the Mac OS environment will start up with two pseudo volumes which are actually shared parts of the Rhapsody file system. One such volume is the Mac OS section of the disk noted above. Another is the users home directory. By default, this will encourage users to put their working documents in the home directory, for use by both Mac OS and Rhapsody applications.

Rhapsody User Experience

Apple Confidential

Page 16 of 115

The Full Screen Mode of Mac OS Compatibility

A less compatible, lower performance option of sharing the screen will also be available. While more confusing visually, it represents a solutions for those users who must closely monitor something in one environment while working in the other.

The Shared Screen Mode of Mac OS Compatibility

Rhapsody User Experience

Apple Confidential

Page 17 of 115

Desktop User Experience


The Rhapsodys Desktop User Experience will be largely based on the familiar interface elements of the Macintosh OS. Rhapsody will carry forward the features introduced in Mac OS 8 (Tempo) while integrating the advanced user interface of OpenStep.

Basic Desktop Elements


Rhapsodys desktop environment is designed to be minimal and extensible. Apple will provide four basic elements which will combine to provide a familiar yet powerful desktop experience. The four core elements are: the menu bar, the desktop or backdrop, the shelf, and the task window. Of the four elements, only the menu bar will not be replaceable.

Menu Bar
The Rhapsody menu system will closely mimic the menu system of the MacOS. The menu bar will run across the entire top of the screen and will be divided into four regions: the Apple menu, the application menu region, the system region, and the Process menu.

Rhapsody User Experience

Apple Confidential

Page 18 of 115

Apple Menu The Apple menu will continue to be a globally-available system menu appearing in the same location as in todays Mac OS. Today the menu is user-configurable, it behaves as a launcher1 , its used for navigation and visibility, and it provides quick access to items of the users choosing. In Rhapsody, there will be some improvements, primarily in advancing the level of customization available to the user. Items found in this menu are items users will want to access in any applications context. These global items allow the user to remain in their current context, meaning they dont have to switch to the Finder to perform an operation; they can activate it from within the current context. Developers should continue to place access points to their applications in this menu if they are needed or useful on a global, system-wide basis.2 Items in the Apple menu should be aliases to file system objects that the user can easily add or remove from the menu without moving the original object. So, items in the menu should have another access point on the HD. For example, some of the current DAs and utilities in the Apple menu should be stored together in the Utilities folder at the root of the hard disk, and aliases to these items would be in the Apple Menu Items folder rather than the original objects. This allows users to remove any alias while still retaining the original objects in an easyto-find location. The user can easily upgrade any Apple-provided application with a more powerful 3rd-party application.

There has been some discussion about allowing the Apple menu to be viewed as a palette but this isnt a design direction at this time. 2 Issue of notification blinking icons can be used for Apple menu items, but items in the Services menu will need to present a notification alert.
1

Rhapsody User Experience

Apple Confidential

Page 19 of 115

Figure 2: Sample Apple menu

Customization Its beneficial to make configuring the Apple menu more obvious to the user. Today the user must find their Apple Menu Items folder in the System Folder not for the faint-hearted in order to populate the menu. In Rhapsody, users will use a control panel application to populate and configure the menu. Moreover, access to the configuration interface will be available in the Apple menu via the Customize... item. Rhapsody will provide support for changing the appearance of the menu by allowing the user to reorder and group/separate items in the menu; a simple but useful amount of customization. In addition, the control panel interface will allow users to add and delete items in the menu. It might still be useful to provide a way to make the user more aware of the Apple Menu Items folder. This may occur as a result of moving the AMI folder out of the System Folder, and into a User
Rhapsody User Experience Apple Confidential Page 20 of 115

Preferences folder3 . This would allow the use of direct manipulation for populating the menu. Theres the possibility that users will be confused by having a folder which contains the items appearing in the Apple menu, and a separate interface for populating and organizing the appearance of the menu. We will have to watch for this in user studies, but it seems that the usefulness of the functionality overrides any potential concerns or objections. Find Opens a modeless dialog with a text entry field that accepts entry of or drags of text or file system objects.

When text is entered the user can search for name or content on any combination of a) the computer b) the local network or c) the Internet. When a file system object is dragged in its contents are indexed and a search for like content can be performed. Additional features A mechanism should be developed allowing an application to present commands or important functions in a hierarchical menu off its menu item. For example, as is provided by Now Utilities today, the bit depths are available in a sub-menu off the Monitors control panel menu item. This would improve our quick access story and enables the user to easily accomplish those frequently-used features without having to open the application. Though considered a secondary feature, command key support should be available for the Apple menu. We should evangelize developers who place their applications in the
This was proposed for Mac OS 8, and though generally accepted as a good direction, was not implemented due to time-constraints.
3

Rhapsody User Experience

Apple Confidential

Page 21 of 115

menubar today including all icon menus located in the right-most system menubar space or those placed in the application menubar space to instead put them in the Apple menu or the Services menu, as appropriate. Using the Apple menu allows the user to control what items they want to appear in the menu for quick access or system-wide availability. Application menu region The Application menu region is owned and controlled by the active application. The standard application menu layout will remain much as it is on MacOS today with a File, Edit, and Help menu. In addition, applications will include a new menu, Services. Services is described in detail in the Application model section of this document. The Help menu is described in the Help and Assistance section of the document. System region The system region is for Apple items only. This region includes the clock and the language menu that gives users access to input methods and keyboard layouts.

Global system menus


Process menu The process menu for Rhapsody is designed to provide a consistent interface with which the user is familiar, while still advancing the features and functionality delivered to the user. In addition, the Rhapsody process menu works similarly to the Mac OS process menu to insure a consistent experience between the yellow and blue worlds.

Rhapsody User Experience

Apple Confidential

Page 22 of 115

The Rhapsody process menu is located in the top right corner of the menu bar, in the same location as the MacOS process menu. The Rhapsody process menu allows the user to show not only the icon of the frontmost application, but also its name. The interface for setting this preference has not yet been designed. One possible interaction is direct manipulation, allowing the user to drag to reveal or occlude the name. At the top of the menu are the menu commands that allow the user to show and hide whole applications and individual windows. The ability to hide an individual window is new in Rhapsody. Selecting the first command, Hide <active application>, will hide all of the windows of the active application. A hidden application and its windows will appear gray in the process menu. Selecting the application will activate the application and show all of the windows. The user may also activate single windows. Selecting a hidden
Rhapsody User Experience Apple Confidential Page 23 of 115

window activates the application but only activates and shows the selected window leaving any other windows still hidden. The Hide <active window> command hides the active window. Command-H is the command key to hide the active window. Option clicking an inactive window will hide the currently active window and activate the selected window. The Show All command will show all hidden applications/windows. ! Issue ! - Must have a system registry of command keys to support global keyboard shortcuts. This is necessary to manage conflicts with applications. The next section of the menu lists the available backdrops. The current backdrop is indicated by a check. The Backdrops menu item is not selectable, only the available backdrops can be selected. Backdrops are explained in more detail below. ! Issue ! - What is the relation and interaction of the backdrops to its application? How do you get backdrops? Does the corresponding application always appear in the application portion of the menu? The following section of the menu shows the currently running Rhapsody applications, as well as their open windows. Dialogs, windoids and tool palettes are not included in this list. The list of windows is indented under the application they belong to. A check is placed next to the active window. The user can switch to any open window simply by selecting it in the menu. If the user selects the application, then all the windows of that application come forward (as they currently do in MacOS). The last section of the menu lists the various applications which may be running in the MacOS compatibility box. If the user selects MacOS then the blue box is brought forward in the state in which it was left. If the user selects a particular application, then the blue box is brought forward with that application frontmost. In the case that the frontmost blue application is in a modal state, the other, non-frontmost, applications in the blue world will be dimmed. This would mean that if the user wanted to switch back to the blue world they would have to address the modal situation before they could switch applications. The final menu item would bring up a window called the Task Monitor, it is described below. ! Issue ! - This document discusses several window management
Rhapsody User Experience Apple Confidential Page 24 of 115

alternatives including the Process Menu, WindowShade, minimize, hiding and pop-ups. Rather than evaluating each of these individual solutions, the overall issue of window management will be reconsidered.

Concept: Tray
Rhapsody will place icons for the users home, the network, all mounted hardware devices, and the Trash on a special window known as the Tray. The Tray is not user configurable, items are pleced on the tray by the system, not the user.

The Tray is a window for four reasons: To separate and differentiate system access points from users documents. To improve access to desktop device icons which can currently be obscured by windows. To keep the basic operation of the system independent of the Desktop/Backdrop.
Apple Confidential Page 25 of 115

Rhapsody User Experience

To improve discoverability of mounted items, like floppies, by putting them in an obvious place. On the MacOS, these are often lost in desktop clutter.

The Tray may interleave with other Finder and application windows. The Tray follows the window layering and ordering model. It is represented in the process menu as a window of the Finder and may be hidden like any other window. ! Issue ! - To allow window behavior, the Tray must have an an active and inactive state. What is the visual appearance of these states? Double clicking an icon on the Tray opens the item into a window in the Finder. Clicking in an exposed area of the Tray brings it forward. Users may drag to any exposed region of the Tray to bring the Tray forward as well. Spring loaded navigation will work for the items on the Tray with the exception of the Trash which does not spring. Dragging an item from the Tray will create an alias. The Tray will dynamically grow to the left when the number of devices exceeds what can fit in a single column. The original items (Home, Network, Trash, etc.) will retain their position and the new items will be added to the left. ! Issue ! - Growing the Tray may cover content on the desktop. Is this an issue since the user can hide the Tray? The interaction of a devices being mounted is the same as Mac OS. The device appears on the Tray but the Tray is not activated. The exception is if the Tray is hidden. In this case the Tray is shown but not activated. The following devices will not appear on the Tray: desktop printers and remote volumes. ! Issue ! - Should the Tray support an auto hide mode?

Desktop/Backdrop
Unlike MacOS, where the desktop or backdrop is managed by the Finder and is always a folder full of icons, the plan is to allow the user to choose one or more applications to own the backdrop. The Finder will be one of these applications, but other applications like web browsers, animation/screen saver packages, clocks, and channel tuners
Rhapsody User Experience Apple Confidential Page 26 of 115

might also own the backdrop. The default backdrop in Rhapsody is the Finder desktop. The backdrop is switched using the Process menu. ! Issue ! - Backdrops other than the Desktop are considered concepts until futher review and design can be completed and the feasability of such a concept from a usabilty perspective can be established.

Task Monitor
The Task Monitor is a single place where users can go to get information about what their computer is currently doing and what, if anything, is tying it up. In addition, the process monitor gives users control over not only the active processes, but also their sub-processes. The Task Monitor is an application that has its own menubar. The The application is quit on close of the Task Monitor window. Since it is an application it is also replaceable.

The main section of the process monitor shows all of the currently running processes on this computer. The user has chosen to disclose three of the processes in order to see their sub-processes. In the Finder
Rhapsody User Experience Apple Confidential Page 27 of 115

process, there are currently two copies going on, and the user can see their progress. Background or faceless applications (i.e. server processes, printer spools, etc.) could be included in this list by checking the Show Background Applications checkbox in the dialog. The user is able to get more detailed information about a process or sub-process by selecting it. The additional information is displayed in the details section below the process list. In there, the user could also choose to pause or stop that sub-process, or in the case of a process which is selected, the user could quit that application. Under the MacOS process are its sub-processes, which in the case of MacOS, are actual applications. The gauges shown there are not progress indicators, but rather indicate how much CPU resources they are using, similar to the File Sharing Monitor. ! Issue ! - The progress bars mean different things. This distinction must be addressed. Will we be able to quit a blue application from yellow? The next section is where the details of the selected item appear. For example if the user had clicked on one of the copies, they might find out what is being copied from where to where, estimated time to completion, etc., similar to what happens in Tempo if the user discloses more information in the copy dialog. When information is presented in this details section, the two buttons on the right become enabled allowing the user to pause or stop this activity. These buttons may change depending on the selection. For example, if the user had selected a process the button may read Quit rather then Stop. The Task Monitor would likely have menu items or buttons in the dialog that provide access to the Log and Schedule. The Log allows the user to view a history of the events which have already taken place, for example Document x finished printing at 11:03 am, or Copy of ReadMe completed at 11:01 am. The Schedule allows the user to view any events which are scheduled to occur in the future, such as Backup of Macintosh HD scheduled to occur at 10:00 pm tonight or Shut Down scheduled to occur at 8:00 pm tonight. In addition, this window will perform the equivalent of the MacOS command-period capability. In a multiprocessing GUI system, a global keyboard based cancel command is dangerous because users may not
Rhapsody User Experience Apple Confidential Page 28 of 115

understand what is being canceled.

Virtual Desktops
Rhapsody will support both local and remote locations for the users home directory. Since the users data, applications, etc. are stored in the home directory, a user can log on and establish their personal desktop on any machine which is properly configured on the network. Stand alone users not connected to a network will not be presented with a log on dialog. The home directory in this case would be local.

Finder Application
The Rhapsody Finder application is an evolution of the 8.0 Finder shipped in Tempo. As such, many of the features from Finder 8.0 will be continued. These include: pop-up windows spring loaded navigation button view per folder view preferences contextual menus cursor feedback clean up and arrange functionality

Along with these recent features, the Finder will adopt as much of the traditional Finder behavior as possible (i.e. aliases, pixel level positioning of icons, translucent dragging, etc.). This document will evolve to cover these behaviors. The following sections covers Finder features that are either new or a significant enhancement over those of Finder 8.0.

Special Menu Items


Some special menu items, such as Shut Down, Empty Trash, and Log Out are currently kept in the File menu of the Finder. The final location of these menu items has not been decided, and may move to more globally available locations such as the Apple or Process menus.

Extensible New menu


The Finder will have an extensible New menu in the File menu. This menu will allow the user to create new file system objects (aliases, application documents, etc.) in the currently active container. The
Rhapsody User Experience Apple Confidential Page 29 of 115

interaction is the same as that of New Folder. The item is created and the name field is opened for edit. The menu is user configurable. The configuration mechanism is TBD. The contents of this menu will be kept in the users home directory allowing it to be reestablished as part of the users virtual desktop.

Concept: Snap Shots


Rhapsody will allow the user to take snap shots of selected folders or devices. Snap shots are objects that catalog the content of the selected item. They allows the user to maintain a light weight image of the item which can be browsed and searched. This is extremely valuable for devices that are off line (i.e. Zip cartridges, CDs, remote directories). The user creates a snap shot by selecting the folder, device, etc. and choosing Make Snap Shot from the File menu. A item is created next to the original. Note: the interaction is the same as the Make Alias command. The snap shot is denoted by a snap shot icon and is named <item name> date (i.e. Project 5/30/97). The date is appended to produce a unique name as well as indicate when the snap shot was taken. Snap shots are not dynamic and only represent the content that was present when the snap shot was taken. The Snap Shot command is also available in the context menu for selected items. Snap shots may be searched and browsed as if they were the real items. For example, a user could browse a snap shot of a Zip cartridge that was not mounted. Only when the user double clicks a document would the system ask to insert the disk in order to open the document. The user may also spring navigate snap shots. For searching, there may be a need to keep snap shots in a special folder that the system knows about. If this is necessary the design should accommodate an easy way to populate the snap shot folder. Design TBD.

Get Info/Inspector
The OpenStep Inspector is far more powerful then the Finders Get Info. It provides a single extensible interface to display information and set preferences (i.e. setting the default application to open a document) for an item. In addition it is not limited to the Finder, other applications can include the command and bring up the dialog in their context.
Rhapsody User Experience Apple Confidential Page 30 of 115

Rhapsody will adopt the multi-pane Inspector dialogs. They will be the main mechanism for which object preferences are set. The menu will reside in the File menu. The contents of the Inspector is TBD. ! Issue ! - Do we additionally support selection driven mode? Should the name remain Get Info? File Sharing... should be integrated into the Inspector. We should also look at hierarchical menu access to the Inspector panes.

Concept: Tags
The labels of the Mac OS Finder are of little use due to the limited number, access, and configuration. Rhapsody will greatly improve this offering nearly limitless extensibility, improved access, and ease of configuration. The number and type of information associated with a tag is extensible in Rhapsody. This meta information is stored in the catalog layer which is accessible to not only the Finder, but all applications. Such an architecture allows for rich and nearly limitless tagging of items that then can be used for searching, tracking, and managing content within the Finder and other applications. Persistence of this information can only be insured on volumes that support storage of meta data (i.e. HFS+). A file transferred to NFS would not retain its tags. Access or the ability to quickly assign tags to an item will improve in Rhapsody. The user may assign a tag to the item via: the hierarchical menu command in the File menu the context menu a pop-up menu in Get Info/Inspector other applications who utilize the common global tags

Configuration of tags will no longer happen in Preferences. Users will add and edit tags via a separate configuration dialog that will be accessed from an Edit... command at the bottom of the tag menu. Third parties will be able to replace our tag interface with their own. It is not yet certain precisely how these tags would appear to the user, but they might be visible during searches and from special affordances for tags.
Rhapsody User Experience Apple Confidential Page 31 of 115

! Issue ! - Should tags be in the File menu or in the Services menu?

Undo
Currently there is no way for the user to recover from mistakes they may make in the Finder. In Rhapsody the Finder will support undo for most all user actions. The Undo command is the first item in the Edit menu. The action to be undone or redone should appear as part of the menu item. The Finder supports only one level of Undo and Redo. The Undo command applies to the last undoable action that was completed by the user. The Redo command undoes the last Undo. The Undo command switches to Redo once an undo is executed. Selecting Redo returns the command to Undo. The keyboard equivalent for both commands is command-Z. Only user actions are undoable.

Specifics of what is and isnt undoable as well as the actions that clear the undo stack is TBD. Also, the initial set of undoable finder actions is likely to be small.

Cut, Copy, and Paste of icons


Cut, Copy, and Paste will be extended in Rhapsody to work for selected icons in the Finder. These commands appear in the traditional Edit menu location. The Cut and Copy commands will be enabled for all icons except those on the Tray. Once the user has selected Cut or Copy the Paste command is enabled. Selecting Paste puts the selected item in the active container. A selection that has been cut or copied is represented in the Clipboard
Apple Confidential Page 32 of 115

Rhapsody User Experience

Cut, Copy, and Paste would be available from the context menu on the selection.

!Issue! The Cut command should probably not be implemented for Finder objects as it will likely lead to inadvertant deletions of Finder objects.

Concept: Enhanced Clipboard


Rhapsody will enhance the power of the clipboard. The new clipboard will support multiple pages to allow a history. Selecting paste only pastes the immediate clipboard selection (much like today). The user would have to open to clipboard to get at past selections. This is important to allow recoverability of data. More crucial if we allow cutting of icons. The clipboard should also support all standard data types and allow drag and drop. Once again the clipboard should be replaceable by a Third party.

Preferences dialog
The Finder global preferences will continue to be accessed via a Preferences... command at the bottom of the Edit menu. It will continue to set: font for views spring loaded navigation rate grid spacing

It will not include Labels since that will be provided by the Tags interface. A new preferences for the Finder will include: global view settings for each view type

Finder Views
The Finder views are the equivalent of the folder windows displayed by the current Finder. Instead of building this functionality into the Finder, these viewers are replaceable elements packaged as Rhapsody bundles. Third parties can write new viewers, and either use them in separate processes or integrate them into the Finder itself. Apple will deliver three distinct viewers for Unified, with more to come as the system evolves.
Rhapsody User Experience Apple Confidential Page 33 of 115

Icon view

The icon view is the standard view most commonly associated with the Macintosh. It shows icons of documents and folder. As with Mac OS, different icon sizes will be presented: small, standard, and large (the large size is new and will be the 48X48 size of the OpenStep icons). The button view is the same as the view that was introduced in Mac OS 8. As with the Mac OS, different button sizes will be presented: small, standard, and large (large again is new). This view presents the folder structure as a tree, with nested levels being presented using the twisty triangles interaction style pioneered by the MacOS Finder. The list can be sorted by any of the columns displayed. However, under Rhapsody, we will add the ability to resize and reorder columns. These settings are on a per folder basis.

Button view

List view

In addition to the Finder views, Rhapsody will deliver a fourth separate viewer which will stand alone from the Finder.
Browser This is the multiple column browser most closely associated with the NextStep interface. It has a shelf and a path display. Unlike current NextStep, it should display icons in the list, allow dragging from the list, and allow rename in place.

Users may choose to use this browser (or another 3rd party browser) instead of the Finder. Configuration is via the inspector where the user can pick the browsing tool of choice. While the default choice for the file browser is likely to be Mac-style file browsing, a setting will be included to allow system admins to choose a different default file browser. !Issue! Will 3rd party file browsers be supported in Unified?

Concept: Browse in place


The Finder will have a global preference to browse in place. When enabled, folders replace the contents of the current window instead of opening a new window. The user will turn the option on via a toggling command in the View menu.

Tool bar
The Finder windows will have the ability to include a tool bar. The tool bar will include controls to navigate the hierarchy. See the section on network browsing for details.
Rhapsody User Experience Apple Confidential Page 34 of 115

The tool bar will also allow fast access to view switching and configuration. Design TBD.

Status bar
The Finder windows will have a dedicated status bar that is separate from the content region of the window. Header info and window state will be displayed in this area. The user may choose to show or hide the status bar on a per window basis. By default the status area will be shown.

The Desktop
It will function nearly identically to the Finders desktop in the Mac OS. The only difference is that the system icons will reside on the Tray instead of the desktop. The file system location of the desktop is in the users home directory. Exact location is TBD

Selection model
The Finder will maintain selections in inactive windows with commands only effecting a selection in the active window. This is different then the Mac OS Finder where there is no inactive selection and that selection can be in an inactive window. The Mac OS model is the source of much user confusion.

Drag modification
Rhapsody will allow the user to modify the default drag behavior by holding down the command and option key on drop. A menu is presented providing alternate drag verbs.

The Finder will continue to support option drag for a copy.

Multi-line icon names


The Rhapsody Finder will be able to display multi-line names for icons. This allows for long names (255 characters for HFS+). This also allows for ordered arrangements in folders.
Rhapsody User Experience Apple Confidential Page 35 of 115

Icon in the titlebar


In Rhapsody all document windows that have an icon in the Finder will also have an icon proxy located next to the name in the titlebar. This icon is draggable and will act as a proxy to the real icon. The same drag & drop rules apply to the proxy including drag modification.

Path in titlebar
In Rhapsody all document windows will have the pop-up path. The pop-up menu is accessed by command clicking on the titlebar. Selecting a location in the path would open that folder.

Progress indicators
The Finder will no longer raise separate progress dialogs when copying, emptying the trash, etc. Instead these tasks and their state will be represented in the Task Monitor. See the section describing the Task Monitor for details.

Notification
The Finder will utilize the notifier mechanism described in the Notification section of this document. See this section for details.

Desktop Printing
In Rhapsody Desktop Printing will not be a part of the Finder as in Finder 8.0. Printing will be a separate application. See the Printing section of this document for details.

The Disk Layout


! Issue ! - This is a very preliminary layout proposal and has not been discussed with all the impacted design or engineering teams. Neither the current MacOS disk layout nor the current OpenStep disk layout will be suitable for Rhapsody. This area is under construction, but several key principles are currently known: Items owned by the users home directory should be segregated from items available to all users of a system. Items which are network based should be segregated from items local to the machine. Items which are primarily associated with the Blue box should be segregated from items primarily associated with the Yellow box.
Apple Confidential Page 36 of 115

Rhapsody User Experience

None of these segregations are going to be strongly enforced, but the disk layout should encourage this sort of segregation by the user, to help the user understand why a given item is available or not available when he is logged in to a particular machine. Even though the layout is not intended to be identical to the MacOS layout, the disk layout should be familiar enough to a Mac user to facilitate easy discovery of installed applications and common locations for documents.

The following is a proposed layout scheme based upon these criteria: Machine name
Root of the file system would be shown as the name of the machine, not /. A symbolic link with the machine name in / which points to / would keep the command line consistent with the GUI presentation. This part of the standard volume would hold the files shared among all users of the system

Shared Applications Library Servers Network File Servers Printers Applications Library Users Users Me Desktop Documents Applications Library Mac OS System Apple Extras Applications Documents

Set up by the network administrator. This entire subtree may not appear on stand-alone machines.

Users folders would be located here. All the local users of this machine would have directories here.

The MacOS part of the disk. This is the place where the installer would put the users existing file tree when Rhapsody is installed over an existing MacOS system, and where it would put the MacOS files by default in a new install.

Rhapsody User Experience

Apple Confidential

Page 37 of 115

The Home (Joe Blow) and Machine (Joes Mac) directories as they might appear in Rhapsody

! Issue ! - The Desktop directory will need to be somewhat protected (e.g. cant be renamed or moved).

Services menu
The Services menu in Rhapsody will consist of context-specific services which a user can apply to the current application, or a selection in the application. This menu is appended to the end of an applications menus, but before the Help menu, to create a visible association between this menu and the other application menus. This furthers the sense that these items are a part of the applications menus and thus only context-specific items should be placed here. Context-specific services are typically other third-party applications or utilities which are useful and applicable to a particular application. However, its also appropriate and most useful for the user if an application places its service-type commands in the Services menu.
Rhapsody User Experience Apple Confidential Page 38 of 115

The contents of the Services menu will vary depending upon the current application, the services the user has installed on their computer, and the services available over the network. Furthermore, the menus offerings will be synchronized with the language of any selection. For example, text services such as dictionaries, thesauruses, and spell checkers would appear in the Services menu for a text selection but only those which support the language of the text.

Figure 1: Sample Services Menu

This menu is not user-configurable, though, if desirable and appropriate, we can consider the ability to enable/disable services, ala OpenStep. ! Issue ! - A strategy/conceptual model of the types of items that should appear in the Services menus, and the context menus, is currently being worked out. ! Issue ! - The service menu can get very large. We will need to provide a user preference which will limit the number of items that can appear in the services menu.

The Application Experience


Visual Experience
Rhapsody will deliver a superior, efficient, engaging and rewarding visual experience to users by exploiting the best display technologies and software architectures offered by Mac the OS and OpenStep. This new advanced look is intended to present Rhapsody as the industrys most advanced operating system. An exceptionally high quality and consistent visual experience will encompass all hardware/software platforms supported by Rhapsody. New and innovative solutions to information presentation may be supported by the Unified release. Developer Release This release is intended to deliver a recognizable face and establish
Rhapsody User Experience Apple Confidential Page 39 of 115

Rhapsody as the heir to the Mac OS. Delivering developer comfort, confidence and security are utmost priorities in this release and this will be achieved by delivering a familiar Mac OS 8 look and feel. Opportunities presented by the OpenStep architecture to enhance the appearance will be considered, time permitting. System-wide adoption of the Mac OS 8 platinum appearance for all OpenStep windows, controls and cursors (see Mac OS Appearance 1.0 HIS or SDK for details on the window & control appearance). 48x48, 32 bit (OpenStep) translation of Mac OS 8 system icons (i.e. Root, Home, Folders, all Media, generic applications, all native file formats). This will also include some OpenStep applications file and toolbar icons. Support for bitmap PICT as a native image format in addition to existing support for TIFF and EPS. Modified gamma tables for Intel hardware, necessary to ensure quality across platforms. Updated OpenStep application NIB (window layout) files based on new Mac OS HI Guidelines. The final number of applications is TBD and priority will be assigned by anticipated developer needs. Continued support for Rhapsody on Windows appearance appkit. Premier Release This release is intended to deliver a common appearance across the entire Rhapsody appkit including support for new window types and controls as required by the HI. All Rhapsody applications will provide a consistent visual experience. Completed translation of developers release appearance onto final suite of window types, controls, cursors and file icons. All Rhapsody applications should be AppKit savvy and adhere to the Mac OS window and dialog layout guidelines. Implementation of system-wide preference suite of all appearance related elements: fonts, accent colors, highlight colors and backdrops. Support for Apple System Palette on 8 bit maximum displays. Implementation of first visual experience support of Blue-Yellow box interaction (i.e. screen swapping, shared files/volumes, etc.). Not part of the software release, but to be delivered in the Premier time frame: Design direction established and Appearance HIS completed for the advanced Rhapsody visual experience.
Rhapsody User Experience Apple Confidential Page 40 of 115

Investigation into using ColorSync to ensure a consistent crossplatform visual experience will be completed. User value investigation of enhanced visual experience elements completed. These may/could include: icon animation, real-time 3D rendering of selected interface elements, file age or layer depth cues and the incorporation of video as an interface element. Unified Release This release delivers the final Rhapsody-specific appearance. Implementation is TBD, but the desired solution is to adopt the Mac OS Appearance Manager strategy. This will allow support for multiple appearances (Themes) which will be shipping on Mac OS in the Rhapsody Unified time frame. All goals listed below assume this strategy. Apple platinum appearance (Premier release) implemented as a Theme under the Rhapsody appearance manager. New Rhapsody specific appearance implemented as a Theme under the Rhapsody appearance manager. Additional Themes derived from the available Mac OS suite. New Themes if time and resources permit. Backdrop (patterns & pictures) support with a suite of backdrops. This is in addition to any active backdrop strategy delivered as part of the Finder UE. Support for real-time generation of document proxies. Consistent cross-platform visual experience strategy should be implemented. Implementation of enhanced visual experience elements as identified in the earlier investigation. Beyond Rhapsody 1.0 In the event that the appearance abstraction provided by an Appearance Manager is not delivered in the Unified release, this will be escalated and remain a priority for follow-on releases. The investigation and implementation of enhanced visual experience elements will also continue.

Windows
Window Controls Rhapsody will have standard controls which are very similar to the MacOS equivalents. There are two reasons for this. First, we want to preserve user muscle memory as much as possible. Secondly, we do
Rhapsody User Experience Apple Confidential Page 41 of 115

not want to disturb user workflow any more than is necessary. Thus, Rhapsody windows will continue to have a close box, a zoom box, and a minimize box. The window close box will behave just as the MacOS does today, with the addition of a document has not been saved indicator in the close box. The window zoom box will also behave exactly like its MacOS counterpart. From an unzoomed state, the zoom box will zoom to an appropriate size based on the specifics of desktop layout. Hitting the zoom box again will return the window to its original unzoomed state. It is not yet clear whether the minimize box should match the MacOS window shade behavior, the NextStep tile behavior, or some combination of the two. Rhapsody windows will be resized from all corners and sides, with some sort of drag from any side affordance to be determined at a later time. They will always be draggable from the titlebar. Scrolling Rhapsody scroll bars are a combination of the current OpenStep and MacOS controls. Like MacOS, they will scroll a single page when the user clicks in the gutter, and they appear to the right of the window. Like OpenStep, the scroll bars have live scrolling and proportional thumbs. The position of the scrolling arrows remains undecided. MacOS places them at opposite ends of the scroll bar, and OpenStep places them together at the end furthest from the window close box. It looks like this is one of those places where a preference may prove useful. By default, the setting will probably mimic MacOS. Window Management Window management in Rhapsody will probably follow the OpenStep model more closely than the MacOS model. Users will be able to choose to bring a single window to the front by clicking on the window. Users will be able to use the process menu to move all windows in a given application to the front, and we may also add a special modifier key on window activation to bring siblings forward. Window Activation
Rhapsody User Experience Apple Confidential Page 42 of 115

Rhapsody will stick with the OpenStep window activation model, which has three states instead of two. A window can be active, with or without the keyboard focus, or be inactive.

Menus
The Rhapsody menu system will closely mimic the menu system of the MacOS. The menu bar across the top of the screen, with an Apple logo, will be a core part of the experience on Rhapsody. Standard Menu Layout The standard menu layout will remain much as it is on MacOS today, with an Apple menu, a file and edit menu, a help menu, and a process menu. Unlike the current system, though, the process menu will show the name of the current application, and will serve as a window management affordance. Heres the standard menu layout, arranged as a hierarchical list
Apple Menu (see Desktop section for details) File Open Close Save Save as (app specific commands, if any) Page Setup Print Quit Edit Undo Redo Cut Copy Paste Clear Select All Find All Spelling... Check Spelling Show Clipboard Rhapsody User Experience Apple Confidential Page 43 of 115

<App specific menus> Services Help Clock Language Menu Process Menu (on right hand side of menu bar, special appearance)

Standard Panels
Rhapsody will adopt most of the standard application panels that OpenStep provided to its users. This set has several extensions beyond the usual items provided by MacOS. The specific panels are: Font, Color, Open/Save, and Info. Evangelizing application developers to use these panels should help Rhapsody applications look and feel more consistent that MacOS applications do today. Font Panel Rhapsody will provide a font panel which allows users to choose a font family, typeface, and size from a single modeless dialog. Unlike OpenStep today, this panel may also provide a list of favorite settings as draggable font chips which allow a user to drag favorite settings to a selection.

The font panel, current state Rhapsody User Experience Apple Confidential Page 44 of 115

Rhapsodys font panel will need to support some added capabilities. Font management is one such issue. Interaction with locales is another. Further information can be found in the section entitled Font Management in the Configuration and Customization section. Concept: Rhapsody Font Attributes Dialog The designs below illustrate a separate Font Attributes dialog accessed from the Font menu. The Font Attributes menu item is only enabled when the selected text contains a font that has customizable features and/or variations.

Users are able to select predefined variants from the Preset Variants pop-up menu (e.g., Regular, Extra Light). The Features pop-up menu lists all features that can be customized for this font (e.g., fractions, letter case, ligatures, number spacing). The Variations pop-up lists the design axes that can be modified for that font (e.g., weight, width). The slider is used to change the values, which can also be entered directly in the text field to the right of the slider.

Rhapsody User Experience

Apple Confidential

Page 45 of 115

The Sample field is shown by clicking its disclosure triangle. The user is also able to specify the font size for the sample using the Sample Size pop-up menu to make it easier to preview the modifications. Color Panel A similar panel manages color, allowing the user to select various colors for use in application content. This panel also keeps a user created set of favorite colors for easy reuse. Unlike OpenStep, the panel will allow direct setting of the color of the selection from a small set button.

The color panel

Rhapsody User Experience

Apple Confidential

Page 46 of 115

Open/Save Panel Rhapsodys open/save panel will eventually use the same views provided by the Finder to allow users to create, save, and open documents in appropriate folders.

The Open/Save panel, with the OpenStep browser view

Rhapsody User Experience

Apple Confidential

Page 47 of 115

Get Info Most individual settings for selections which are not handled in another panel are handled here. This panel, which was formerly called the inspector under NextStep, is a modeless, selection driven window. Various categories of information are displayed at the top of the window in a pop-up menu. When a category is chosen, the get info window will display a new panel with specific, editable information.

The info panel

Rhapsody User Experience

Apple Confidential

Page 48 of 115

Current examples of inspector panels include file system access control, choosing editors for documents, and examining the aggregate size of directories. We expect the info panel to be extensively used in the Rhapsody interface, to provide a consistent way to find the settings that apply to the current selection.

Printing
The Print Dialog has been modified to allow users to save sets of settings for a printer and choose among them using the Preference Set pop-up menu. Note: These screenshots do not reflect the Platinum appearance.

The standard print dialog (using old MacOS appearance)

Users are able to specify a different printer to print to temporarily, other than one of their favorite printers. They click the Select Temporary Printer button to select this temporary printer from the list of all available printers. They do have the option of adding it to their Favorites list as well.

Rhapsody User Experience

Apple Confidential

Page 49 of 115

The temporary printers

Printing status When a print job is started, the task window displays the status of that particular print job. This is in keeping with the everything about status of long tasks goes here model the task window is supposed to promote. This is quite different from the current MacOS model, where individual printers are independently queried about status. Preference sets Every printer can have one or more preference sets, which contain a group of related settings for a printer. For example, one might create preference sets for final color printing, final grayscale printing, and proof printing in each mode.

Saving a preference set

There is always a "Default" preference set available. This set is created for a chosen printer by the system, and can never be removed.

Choosing a preference set

Rhapsody User Experience

Apple Confidential

Page 50 of 115

Users can add and delete preference sets as needed.

Deleting a preference set

Printer Management
See the section on configuration and customization for details about printer management.

Mac OS Integration
In order to provide a high degree of backward compatibility, Rhapsody will be capable of running in two OS contexts (a Blue context - a.k.a. Mac OS compatibility, and a Yellow context - a.k.a. OpenStep underpinnings with advanced Mac look and feel). Rhapsody will support three methods for switching contexts between MacOS (blue) and Rhapsody (yellow) operations/applications: Blue Box in a Window In this case, the Mac OS appears in a window in the Yellow environment. The Blue environment is essentially a windowed application. Full-Screen switch In this method, the user will see either the Mac OS or Rhapsody but not both at the same time. Both will be running, but only one will have control of the screen at a time. The user can switch between systems and can share data in a number of ways. Dual Boot In this mode, the user will set up and run the Mac OS or Rhapsody. The systems will not run simultaneously. Although even in the
Rhapsody User Experience Apple Confidential Page 51 of 115

dual boot case, if Rhapsody is installed with blue box compatibility then a dual booted Rhapsody will still be capable of full screen and/or blue in a box context switching. Dual boot capability means that users will be able to run a pure version of the MacOS on the same machine without any dependencies on Rhapsody. Users will use a control panel to choose which context switch method will be used. That is, a user can either use full screen or blue in a box, but not both, and that choice will be set via a control panel. (The default context switch method is still being determined via planned user studies. Also, the interactions to enable Dual Boots are also TBD)

Disk Sharing
There are three primary disk sharing models possible in Rhapsody and each model impacts important aspects of the OS integration UE. The three file system representations are:
Shared File System This is the least compatible mode of operation, although it is also the most commonly expected mode of operation. This mode of operation has disk layout concerns (where does the system folder go, where do the Yellow equivalents go), synchronization concerns, and many other subtle problems. Well behaved applications are likely to work, but many extensions and utility applications will fail. This is the only disk sharing model which will allow the Blue box and Yellow box to see each other's files directly (i.e. without an intervening special shared folder)

File System in a File.

In this mode, the entire Blue boot volume is contained in a single file embedded in the yellow file system. This mode is almost as compatible as the third option, Dedicated Partition, but might break applications that for some reason are directly talking to the SCSI hardware to access disks (RAID extensions, for instance). This mode, like the Dedicated Partition mode, has the extra benefit, and complication, of allowing multiple blue environments to run simultaneously.

Dedicated Partition

In this mode, Blue boots from a dedicated disk partition (which will commonly be the whole disk). It is the most compatible mode of operation. Virtually everything that cares about disk hardware is likely to work in this mode.
Apple Confidential Page 52 of 115

Rhapsody User Experience

These models are not mutually exclusive. It will be possible to have mixtures of these on a system. Because each mode has important features, all three modes of operation will need to be enabled. In order to provide all three alternatives, a "MacOS Compatibility" control panel is required, which allows users to pick the startup "volume" for blue (either a file, disk partition, or Yellow Volume). The "Startup Disk" control panel will have to be modified to reflect the different options.

Blue Box in a Window


The Blue box would be represented as would any other application in the Yellow box. In its unopened state, it would be an icon. Launching the "application" would open a window (albeit a special window which might have a special appearance). The user can switch contexts by clicking in the desired environment. Closing the window would shut down the Blue box. The Blue Box window might have the standard window border and title bar of a window in the Yellow box. However, we are investigating a special border for this window to provide an affordance that this is not a typical window (Suggestions include a graphic representation of a monitor). In either case, directly below the windows title bar will be the standard Mac OS (tempo) menu bar. Moving the mouse to the top of the window would move the mouse beyond the menu bar which results in the loss of an important part of the Mac OS user experience (i.e. the ability to fling the cursor to the top of the screen without it missing the menu bar). Within the Blue box window, the behavior would be that of the Mac OS environment. Drag-and-drop cannot be supported at this time between the Blue and Yellow environment, and is therefore only possible within the Blue window and within the Yellow environment, but not between them. (We are also actively investigating ways to make this limitation more palatable by possibly providing animation (and sound effects) to clearly, but gently, indicate the drag boundaries) Switching to and Starting the Blue box in a window The user can invoke the Blue box by anyone of the following methods: Command key combination. If Blue is not currently running, pressing the command key combination should launch Blue and
Apple Confidential Page 53 of 115

Rhapsody User Experience

switch focus. The command-key combination will be displayed in the process menu once Blue is running. Opening a document which starts an application in the other environment. For dedicated partitions or Disk image installations these files would reside in a shared folder. For shared file systems the document or application might appear in any file browser window or on the desktop. Clicking on a iconic representation of the other context which resides on the desktop. If it is currently running users can select Mac OS in the "Process menu" for Rhapsody.

Wherever frequently launched applications or documents might appear (e.g. Apple Menu, Log Window). Once one of these methods has been invoked the user will see an open window in the Rhapsody Finder which contains a partial view of the Mac OS desktop. Icons on the MacOS desktop will be automatically rearranged to fit within the current area of the window. Should the area occupied by desktop icons exceed the current window area, scrollbars will appear which enable the user to scroll around the entire Mac OS desktop. The following figure illustrates the Blue box in a window concept. Reminder: All illustrations in this document are early concepts and are not final designs (especially the ones that follow!). They are used only to better illustrate a specific concept or issue. They do not reflect the final desktop or visual design details of Rhapsody.

Rhapsody User Experience

Apple Confidential

Page 54 of 115

Early Blue Box Concept

If the user clicks outside of the Blue box, or uses the Rhapsody process menu to select some other process, or uses the command key combination for a context switch, the Blue box window will be dimmed as would any other non-active window in the Rhapsody Finder.
Rhapsody User Experience Apple Confidential Page 55 of 115

Working in the Mac OS Window The user experience when working in the Mac OS in a Window will be similar to working with the Mac OS stand alone. However, as of now, there will be the following significant differences. Drag and drop will not work between the Mac OS and Rhapsody. If the user drags within a Mac OS window, the behavior will be nearly the same as usual. However, since the entire Mac OS desktop may not be visible, and scroll bars may be on the window, dragging an object to a border will autoscroll where there is more to be seen. Once the window border has been reached and there is no more to scroll, the ghost of the icon or window being dragged will not move any further. Letting go of the mouse at this point will cancel the drag. This is a heavy duty problem. This makes the Mac OS window act very much like an MDI window. Alternative approaches are being considered. Objects in the Mac OS window will be positioned to fit within the window, if they can. Scroll bars will only be provided if all of the icons cannot fit within the window. Details for layout need to be elaborated. In the case of the Blue box in a Yellow file or dedicated partition, the user will see only Mac OS applications and documents that can be opened with Mac OS applications. The only exception will be documents or applications, if there are any, which can run in either environment and have been placed in a shared folder. For those documents, they will be opened with the Blue application in the Blue shared folder and the Yellow application in the Yellow shared folder. In the case of a shared file system, if the user attempts to open a document in the blue box which can only be opened by a Mac OS application, the document will be opened. which can only be opened by a Rhapsody application, a context switch to Rhapsody will occur and the document will be opened. However, this context switch will occur only after an Easy Open-like dialog appears and the user confirms that she wants the switch to take place. The converse would occur in Rhapsody when the user attempts to open a document which can only be opened with a Mac OS application.
Rhapsody User Experience Apple Confidential Page 56 of 115

which can be opened either by a Mac OS or Rhapsody application, it will be opened by the application in the environment which currently has the context; thus within the Mac OS window, it would be opened by the Mac OS application. Printing will appear to the user as if it is entirely within the Mac OS, although it will essentially be passed through Rhapsody for printing. If the Mac OS crashes, the window will close. The user can then restart the Mac OS in any of the manners indicated above. If the Mac OS freezes, the user can use the task monitor to kill the MacOS process. The use of Control-Command-Power button will restart the computer, not just the Mac OS. This is likely to be a problem at first for Mac OS users.

Clipboard Exchange Clipboard exchange can be used when the Blue file system is an embedded file in Rhapsody, or is in a dedicated partition, or is using a shared file system. In the figure below, an icon appears when a clipboard exchange requires a translation that isnt instantaneous. So a visual indicator of some type will be displayed when a translation is required for the clipboard contents prior to being pasted into the other OS context. Shared Folder/Volume Data exchange can also take place using a shared folder or volume between the Mac OS and Rhapsody. The user can create a folder in a Blue box compatibility set up control panel. Files or applications placed in this folder can be used by either the Mac OS or Rhapsody. The following figure illustrates how the folder might look in the Blue box and in the Yellow box.

Rhapsody User Experience

Apple Confidential

Page 57 of 115

Rhapsody User Experience

Apple Confidential

Page 58 of 115

In the default install, the users home directory will be set up as a shared folder. Shutting Down the Blue Box The Mac OS can be shut down, or quit, in a variety of ways. Click on the close box. In the Special menu, select Quit Mac OS. When the context is Rhapsody, electing to shut down the computer will result in quitting the Mac OS. Unsaved work will be saved. To reinforce the concept of the Mac OS running as another application, and therefore that the user can close the Mac OS window without shutting down the computer, the standard shutdown action should be renamed "Quit" as would be used for other applications. The Quit dialog would need to clearly identify these options and this dialog would be one of the items made available by the Gestalt selector at install time.

Set up and Control Panels Control panel information will need to include: Specifying the start up location (system file, Mac OS file in Rhapsody, dedicated partition) for the Mac OS and how it is to be seen (Blue box in a window or context switching a.k.a. full screen). Specifying shared folders/volumes between Mac OS and Rhapsody.
Rhapsody User Experience Apple Confidential Page 59 of 115

Full-Screen Switch
The Full-screen switching approach provides a user experience which is, in many ways, much like that of using a PC Compatibility card for Macintosh and DOS or Windows. In the context switching approach, either the Blue box or the Yellow box will be "active". That is, either the Yellow environment or the Blue environment, occupies the entire screen with its own look-and-feel. In this model, the user can switch between contexts. As with the Mac OS in a window model, the disk sharing model will determine whether or not the user needs a shared file or volume between the two environments and a mechanism for exchanging data via the clipboard. Invoking the Mac OS in Full Screen Each context (blue or yellow) can be made available from the other through user interactions that changes the context. The context change will be initiated by any one of the following: Command key combination. If Blue is not currently running, pressing the command key combination should launch Blue and switch focus. The command-key combination will be displayed in the process menu once Blue is running. Opening a document which starts an application in the other environment. For dedicated partitions or Disk image installations these files would reside in a shared folder For shared file systems the document or application might appear in any file browser window or on the desktop Clicking on a iconic representation of the other context which resides on the desktop. If it is currently running users can select Mac OS in the "Process menu" for Rhapsody, Wherever frequently launched applications or documents might appear (e.g. Apple Menu, Log Window) In the case of the Blue box in a Yellow file or dedicated partition, the user will see only Mac OS applications and documents that can be opened with Mac OS applications. The only exception will be
Apple Confidential Page 60 of 115

Rhapsody User Experience

documents or applications, if there are any, which can run in either environment and have been placed in a shared folder. For those documents, they will be opened with the Blue application in the Blue shared folder and the Yellow application in the Yellow shared folder. In the case of a shared file system, if the user attempts to open a document from within the MacOS context which can only be opened by a Mac OS application, the document will be opened. which can only be opened by a Rhapsody application, a context switch to Rhapsody will occur and the document will be opened. However, this context switch will occur only after an Easy Open-like dialog appears and the user confirms that she wants the switch to take place. The converse would occur in Rhapsody when the user attempts to open a document which can only be opened with a Mac OS application. which can be opened either by a Mac OS or Rhapsody application, it will be opened by the application in the environment which currently has the context; thus within the Mac OS context, it would be opened by the Mac OS application. Printing will appear to the user as if it is entirely within the Mac OS, although it will essentially be passed through Rhapsody for printing. If the Mac OS crashes, the Mac OS will close and the user will be placed in the Rhapsody context. The user can then restart the Mac OS in any of the manners indicated above. If the Mac OS freezes, the user will be able to use the command key combination to switch back to yellow and then use the process menu to shut down the frozen Mac OS session. The use of ControlCommand-Power button will restart the computer, not just the Mac OS. This is likely to be a problem at first for Mac OS users.

Clipboard Exchange Same as for the in a box case. Shared Folder/Volume Same as for the in a box case.
Rhapsody User Experience Apple Confidential Page 61 of 115

Shutting Down the Mac OS Same as for the in a box case. Set Up and Control Panels Same as for the in a box case.

Dual Boot
The specific UE design details for this section are still to be determined, however, several UE requirements for Dual Booting are relatively straight forward. A mechanism has to be provided to allow the user to select whether or not they wish to start up the Mac OS or Rhapsody. Rhapsody may or may not have a Blue box. That is, it may or may not have installed support for running Blue applications in the compatibility mode. Dual Boot is required for the user to start the Mac OS as a stand-alone version. This would require a control panel in both the Mac OS and Rhapsody to specify startup options in which a user should be able to select among several start-up alternatives. Select which system to boot up on restart. Have last system started up be the default for restart. Interrupt start up to specify which system should be started. In the simple form of the Dual Boot approach, the user cannot see Blue files from Yellow or vice versa. Allowing users to see executables in one environment which cannot be run in that environment would make for a poor user experience in a Dual Boot approach.

Other Blue/Yellow Synchronization Issues


Network Addresses - Blue and Yellow will share an IP address and the networking preferences for Blue will be read only. That is, if the user goes to the Blue IP control panel none of the fields will be modifiable and the user will be given the option to switch contexts and open the yellow IP control panel. AppleTalk stacks, however, will be separate in blue and yellow. Extensions - Blue extensions will not affect Yellow applications in general. Preference Syncing
Apple Confidential Page 62 of 115

Rhapsody User Experience

Synchronize preferences for ColorSync, Dates, Times, etc.. The international capabilities are sufficiently different that a direct synchronization of preferences is impractical. After all, Yellow can activate languages on an application, rather than a system wide, basis. File extension mapping - Internet Config, Easy Open, and Yellow all have tables mapping applications to filename extensions. These lists should be in sync in theory. In practice, that implies some sort of merging of the blue and yellow application sets into a single list for preference purposes.

Printing Yellow Print management will almost certainly be handled in a distinct app, but Blue's is integrated into the Finder for good HI reasons. This almost certainly implies independent print queues for Yellow and Blue, unless we alter Blue printing significantly. Preferences are unlikely to make sense, and start/stop queues will be hard to synchronize. Yellow Print options, including print to fax and preview PostScript, will be unavailable to Blue. Settings will not synchronize between these worlds.

Fonts - We are going to need to have a single font list for both Blue and Yellow. The size of some Asian fonts precludes replication. This implies that both systems can handle the same set of font technologies. In general, filename extensions will be hidden from the user. Some file system formats that are readable by Rhapsody, however, do not provide for long extensionless filenames. In these cases, users will see file extension names. If they copy a file from an HFS (or HFS+) volume to an NFS volume, however, a file extension will be added to the filename which is based upon the files type and creator information.

Networking
Many of the technical and architectural isssues surrounding networking in Rhapsody were still being worked out as of the writing of this document. Therefore, the UE for networking will not be covered in this document, but will instead be covered in separate document. For questions about
Rhapsody User Experience Apple Confidential Page 63 of 115

networking UE concerns please contact Kurt Piersol, Don Lindsay, Sue McGarry, or Tim McCollum.

Configuration and Customization


Preferences
Consolidate into groups under shared headings Mac System 8.0 has consolidated some control panels under the new Appearance CP, File Sharing CP, and Desktop Pictures CP. The control panel model for Rhapsody will continue this trend toward consolidation. Additionally, the inconsistencies in the way that panel switching is implemented in Tempo (icon buttons on some panels, folder tabs on others, popups on still others) will be fixed. Desktop access to preferences, however, will be very similar to that of todays MacOS. Entry Point from OS The picture below shows the entry point for Rhapsody control panels (renamed User Preferences for preferences linked to users and user accounts, Machine Settings for machine-specific settings) as in current Mac OS, under the Apple menu. This model could change depending upon the final design of the Rhapsody Finder.

Note that, as today, the User Preferences menu item cascades to a list of individual panels. The first item is Find which opens the Find dialog (as described in Part II below). Items between the two separator lines are Apple-produced preferences apps which aggregate individual
Rhapsody User Experience Apple Confidential Page 64 of 115

panels based on code bundles. There are five aggregate apps shown here in alphabetical order. The Plug-Ins item is for third party utilities, of which there will be very few. See Installation Model below. ! Issue ! - This proposal for separating groups of control panels into functional groups and into Apple provided v 3rd Party Plug-ins is not yet decided. The usability of this approach over the current Control Panels model is not yet established. Appearance settings will include perceptual and device-related settings (colors, desktop, sounds, monitors, menus, mouse & keyboard items) on separate panels within the Appearance Preferences dialog. This means that users will not have to search through so many CPs to find the setting they want. The examples shown below are preliminary designs based on the following goals: Expand the System 8.0 Appearance CP to hold more items Include items from System 8.0 General Controls panel Consolidate desktop-related stuff inside Appearance CP. Consolidate color-related stuff inside Appearance CP.

Still needed are consistency checks against existing OpenStep preferences: Font, color, menus, mouse, keyboard, sound, display in Preferences.app. Dock & shelf settings in Finder Manager Prefs. Color depth and resolution from configure.app

Rhapsody User Experience

Apple Confidential

Page 65 of 115

File Manager functions in System 8.0 are distributed over a mixture of


Rhapsody User Experience Apple Confidential Page 66 of 115

control panels, File menu dialogs, and System 8.0s new Finder Preferences in the Edit menu and View Options in the Views menu. In Rhapsody there will be new file management opportunities and constraints inherited from OpenStep. File-related settings should brought closer together in the UI (e.g., just one for global file management, and just one for selected file management). File management has not yet been completely specified and so details on file-related control panels are not available. Additional contacts: Tim McCollum, Per Nielsen. Keyboard & Mouse settings consolidate settings from System 8.0 keyboard, mouse, and general controls CPs. A preliminary design is shown below.

Login-Logout actions in the MacOS world will mostly become userspecific settings in Rhapsody, which move with the user account from machine to machine. They are provisionally called login and logout as they will only take effect when logging in, not when booting and shutting down the machine. Some machine-specific startup and shutdown items may remain (e.g., run network server), and these will live in the Machine Settings world. File Sharing in Tempo has added dragging files into control panels, and we will move to this method for setting Startup and Shutdown items. Getting the users out of the System folder is an important goal and in fact, most users will not have access to a System folder in the Rhapsody yellow box. Design pictures not yet available. Time & Locale will be a consolidation of the System 8.0 Date & Time
Rhapsody User Experience Apple Confidential Page 67 of 115

CP, OpenStep's date/time preference panel, and System 8.0 Map CP. In Rhapsody, date and time are actually machine-dependent, but they will be presented via an interface that allows them to act like user-specific settings. This panel will also be accessible from the desktop clock. Machine Settings In Rhapsody there will be a distinction between hardware and software which has not existed in the MacOS world. Rhapsody inherits a network architecture from OpenStep which allows users to access their individual desktop from different machines on the network, and allows single machines to serve multiple users. Because there is no longer a 1:1 relationship between users and machines, a distinction is made between settings that apply to the machine control versus those which apply to users. Second, there will also probably be distinctions between kinds of users on a particular machine, such that some are allowed to touch hardware settings while others are not. Third, Rhapsody will be cross-platform so it is possible that a Rhapsody network will contain both power PC machines and Intel machines, and the hardware setup will be different on the two platforms. Finally, as in the current MacOS world, network configuration will be hardware based. In principle it is possible to have these distinctions and yet not reveal them in the user interface. In such a model, the machine and user settings would be intermixed within dialogs and/or menus. However, there is value to be gained from making the distinction obvious, so that users understand the new Rhapsody model. The User Preferences item was described above. The Machine Settings item is shown below.

Rhapsody User Experience

Apple Confidential

Page 68 of 115

Administration will include all functions (mostly inherited from OpenStep) which are not covered elsewhere, and including creating and configuring new users, passwording, login screen features, and other super-user functions. Detailed specification not yet available. Network configuration will open a monolithic application with tight integration between settings plus error checking, Help, and an Apply/Revert method for committing settings. This app will fold in everything necessary from current OpenStep networking settings (including, but not limited to, Simple Network Starter and User Manager). See Network Configuration section. A Find function for finding individual settings quickly As an antidote to potential pitfalls of consolidation (see Footnote 1), there will be a Find command which allows users to search for settings by keyword. Find in the control panels submenu will open a search dialog window. The user may enter one or more keywords, and find returns a scrolling list of settings that match the keyword. Double-clicking an entry in the list opens the corresponding xxxpref.app with the appropriate panel selected. Multiple selection in the list box would not be allowed.

Rhapsody User Experience

Apple Confidential

Page 69 of 115

The alphabetical listing will have type-select, which means it can be searched relatively quickly. Keywords make the query even more discriminating. Syncing Blue and Yellow Control Panels In general blue and yellow control panels are to be kept separate, but there are a few known exceptions (e.g. IP address). We are currently investigating how many of the settings must be kept in sync. Given that we know certain CPs must be in sync and others are highly desireable to be in sync (e.g. keyboard, mouse, monitors), we are attempting to design a general method for informing users when Blue and Yellow CPs will be synced and in other highly desireable cases give users the opportunity to push a CPs setting over to the other OS context. Installation Model The Rhapsody preferences architecture will be based on code bundles which are semi-autonomous, and may be viewed and launched separately in the file system and embedded into frameworks (e.g., HTML framework) and other preference panels. The current OpenStep preferences.app converts separate code bundles and associated icons into panels that are selectable by a scrolling icon list in the Preferences window. With the OpenStep open as folder command, it is possible to view preferences.app as a folder with its associated bundles listed separately. Double-clicking a bundle opens the Preferences window with the appropriate panel selected. Moreover, preferences may be added and deleted by dragging bundles into and out of the view as folder view. This very powerful (and cool) model will be used for Rhapsody
Rhapsody User Experience Apple Confidential Page 70 of 115

Preferences/CPs. Grouping of CPs will be accomplished by using separate preferences apps (e.g., netpref.app, filepref.app, loginoutpref.app, timepref.app, appearpref.app). In most cases, the end user will not be able to drag-install/delete bundles (it requires root login and is an expert user function), but the installer will be able to put bundles in the right places. In most cases, third parties will not be able to install system preferences and extensions as in todays OS. Utilities will run as applications and will have preferences that may be set as for any application. In cases where a third party or a non-system Apple product does need to modify system preferences, then the code bundle will be installed into one of the existing preference application/folders. If the bundle replaces existing system preferences then it will go into one of the CP categories. If not, it will go into the Plug-In preferences application.

Font Management
The following designs illustrate what the Font panel might look like with simple font management controls integrated with the panel. The Font Set pop-up menu for selecting a font set filters the list of fonts displayed in the list boxes below. A default "All Fonts" set ,which cannot be modified or deleted, that lists all known fonts will always be available. Users would be able to create multiple font sets based on their needs (e.g., organizing fonts by projects, by type, by foundry). Fonts could also live in multiple sets. Users should be able to easily access the tool that manages their font sets from a point in the UI where they most frequently see and use sets. Therefore, an Edit Sets button is included which launches the font set editing application.

The Sample field is revealed and can be resized by dragging a splitter


Rhapsody User Experience Apple Confidential Page 71 of 115

control.

We would like to have basic font management support in the Premiere release. Apple would most likely provide a very simple font management tool (see the example in the figure below), but this is more of a third-party opportunity. Users could plug in their favorite font management tool (e.g., ATM, Suitcase), which would also provide additional features and functionality (e.g., damaged-font diagnostics, font substitution).

Rhapsody User Experience

Apple Confidential

Page 72 of 115

Printer Management
Rhapsody will manage printer configuration using an application called the Printer Manager. This application manages the list of printers available in the printing dialog. (See the Application Experience section called Printing for more details.) Running the Print Manager The most likely access point for the Printer Manager is the Apple Menu through a "Printers" menu item. The Printers window has two tabs: Favorite Printers and All Printers. The Favorite printers are somewhat equivalent to the user's desktop printers in the Mac OS. They show up in the Printer pop-up menu in the Print dialog. The user may also be able to drag them to the desktop to create an alias for their desktop printers. The default printer's name is bold and set using the Set Default button. To create a new printer, the users select the "New Printer" menu item under the File menu.
Note: Faxes would be another menu item in the Apple Menu. This would open a window very similar to the Printers window, which would allow users to setup and manage fax devices.

Favorite printers

The list of all available printers is shown on the All Printers panel. The Domain pop-up menu filters the list of known printers by Domain. The View pop-up menu filters the list by view filters which are used to specify any number of printer attributes (e.g., IP address, name, type, capabilities). In the example below, the user has selected the Color view filter to show just the printers with color capability in this domain. There is always an "All Printers" item which uses no filter and shows all available printers.

Rhapsody User Experience

Apple Confidential

Page 73 of 115

Users can edit the available view filters or create new ones.

Configuring views of the set of printers

Rhapsody User Experience

Apple Confidential

Page 74 of 115

Filtering example

Another filtering example

Getting Information about Specific Printers Users can double click a printer or click the Open Details button to open a separate information window for the selected printer. This allows comparisons between printers and dragging between queues. The figure below shows the queue for the printer.

A printer queue Rhapsody User Experience Apple Confidential Page 75 of 115

The Info tab is pressed and displays the information for the printer.

Printer info panel

Adding Printers This particular part of the experience is still a matter of some controversy. Its clear that we need a standard way to configure printers that works for both Intel and PowerPC hardware, for both local and network devices. This particular feature is still being designed at this time.

International
Language Menu The Rhapsody Language menu will be an evolution of the Mac OS Keyboard menu. This menu will provide the same basic functions present in the Keyboard menu (e.g., allowing users to switch between writing systems, keyboard layouts, and IMs), but will also provide users with additional functionality and control over the menu. In addition, centering the design around the concept of languages, rather than scripts, provides users with a simpler menu and interaction model. The Language menu will be a part of the standard menu layout and allows users to essentially switch between languages to enter multilingual text. Items that appear in the Language menu are localebased language names by default (e.g. U.S. English, Spanish, Korean), but can be renamed by the user.4
4

Note: The icons used in the figure below to represent the locales were intentionally designed as place holders only. Rhapsody User Experience Apple Confidential Page 76 of 115

When alternative Input Methods (IMs) are installed (e.g., pen, speech), selecting an item in the Language menu represents a selection of the keyboard, speech, and pen IMs specified for that language as well. The menu items are configured using a Language Menu control panel (invoked by the Configure Menu item) that allows users to specify the languages that they want to display in the menu and the IMs and keyboard layouts that they want to use for each language. The control panel also lets users specify their preferences for synchronization and automatic language tagging. Tagging text with a language ensures that the text is handled and dealt with appropriately (e.g., for spell-checking, sorting, and various text services). Users will also be able to explicitly set the language tag for a run of text using a separate dialog which will most likely be accessed from a Font or Style menu.

Language menu with Japanese selected, which loads the Kotoeri IM (icon to the left).

Input Methods Rhapsody removes the 2-byte IM limitation of the Mac OS and should allow multiple IMs to be loaded simultaneously, one for each input device modality (i.e., keyboard, pen, and speech).Technically, every language will use an IM in Rhapsody, but the IMs that we typically refer to allow the use of a standard keyboard to generate complex characters by converting keyboard input into ideographic or other complex representations. For example, the languages Chinese, Japanese, and Korean have thousands of characters in their writing systems and require an input method to convert the phonetic, radicalbased, or code-based keyboard input into Kanji (i.e., Chinese characters). The user experience for Rhapsody IMs will be very similar to the experience on the Mac OS today. The user will select a language in the Language menu (e.g., Japanese) which loads the IM that she has specified to use for that language (e.g. Kotoeri). The options menu for
Rhapsody User Experience Apple Confidential Page 77 of 115

that IM (i.e., Pencil menu) then appears to the left of the Language menu (see the figure below). It is critical to place the Language menu at the right side of the menu bar with the appropriate IM menus to its left in order to maintain a familiar access point for our installed base of users for several reasons. First, again, we want to preserve the user muscle memory. Second, text entry is such an integral part of computer usage that radically changing these familiar elements would be damaging to the workflow of our users. Finally, users need constant visual feedback about their current text entry mode (e.g., IM and mode) that is in a consistent location which gives them quick, easy access to the IMs options (e.g., mode switches, dictionary, palettes). We will also maintain the familiar keyboard equivalent (command-Space bar) for rotating through the menu items in the Language menu.

Input Methods options menu (i.e., Pencil menu)

Rhapsody User Experience

Apple Confidential

Page 78 of 115

Installation
This section of the document is notably sketchy, because the engineering model of how this will work is not yet ready. This section is more a place holder than an attempt to describe the systems behavior. Installation on Rhapsody should be very similar to the current MacOS experience, with an important addition: receipts. Receipts are a standard way to list the files which should be de-installed when the user wants to remove something from his system. Since there are few shared elements between Rhapsody applications, uninstalling should be a better experience on Rhapsody than it has been on the MacOS. Install Installation should be almost exactly like it appears on the MacOS today. A user double clicks to start an installer, and gets a series of instructions and progress indicators, eventually leading to a completed installation. The OpenStep OS currently distinguishes between installation and upgrading. Rhapsody will remove this distinction. Deinstall The user would open a receipt file when he wished to de-install the named item. A system resident utility will then remove the listed files from the system. This system does not count references to a given file, so the installer should never leave de-installation instructions for files that might be shared by several applications. After unified, we may wish to revisit the reference counting problem and come up with a more complete solution.

Feature Management

Rhapsody presents an opportunity to provide an outstanding DSUV, as there is no desktop OS which provides full feature management. Much of what is described here for Feature Management depends on the existence of receipts. Receipts are created/modified by installers and support many of the goals for the installation user experience. The following tasks should be achievable in Rhapsody. The actual design of the user interaction is not yet available, but it is envisioned as an application that is a permanent part of the system. As such, it would

Rhapsody User Experience

Apple Confidential

Page 79 of 115

be the user's interface to the system's features. This is a high level description of tasks that often present problems to users. These problems are often addressed by partial and imperfect third party products. They all have to do with managing what features are on a system, are enabled, and allow system administrators to create and distribute system configurations where needed. Identify what's on my system A user should be able to identify, in a one-stop location, what is on the system. Drawing from a database where installed products and features are cataloged, the user should be able to identify at any time the following information for products and features. Name Version Vendor Size on HD Where installed from (what CD, LAN, URL, etc.) With progressive disclosure, the user should also be able to identify: What the product does What files are part of the product where all files installed with the product (and, ideally, created by the product) are located What these files do or are for (this could include file types) Date of creation for each file Date of last modification for each file Other attributes which would help a user understand what is on the system Ideally the feature manager providing this function would cut across
Rhapsody User Experience Apple Confidential Page 80 of 115

yellow and blue boxes. However, it would be useful to identify those files which are for the blue box only. And it would be useful to identify dependencies. As a trivial example, information for the Extensions Manager extension and control panel would identify them as belonging to the blue box. Install/remove products or features A user should be able to perform the following tasks from this same one-stop location. Install products or features which are available from previous installations. This includes the case where the user has installed products from some medium, but left some products or features uninstalled. The user should see those products or features in a list and be directed, if the user elects to install the product or feature, to the medium from which it can be installed. As an example, if the user has installed products or features from a CD-ROM, but left some uninstalled, appropriate information would be provided that would allow a user to know what the uninstalled products/features are, what they do, and allow the user to elect to install them, directing the user to the specific CD-ROM. Search accessible media for products or features to install. If a user observes that some desired function is not installed, the feature management would allow the user to search various media, such as servers or the internet, for products to provide the missing function. Uninstall products or features. At any time, should be able to identify dependencies between products, features, and files (code fragments, whatever). Depends on relationship, that is, a particular product or feature needs some other product's file(s) to run Is depended on relationship, that is, the product or file is needed by some other particular file(s) or products to run. Managing Start up/Shut down Again, from the same one-stop location for feature/system management, the user should be able to identify what needs to be done when the system starts up and what needs to be done when the system shuts down. Much of this is in the Extensions Manager 4.x series for the Mac OS (although there is no need to create extensions per se for Rhapsody). A similar concept of having user selectable configurations
Rhapsody User Experience Apple Confidential Page 81 of 115

of start up and shut down actions is desirable. Managing Configurations The user needs to be able to manage configurations. The idea here is that the user has access to system configuration and to creating sets of configurations that can be selected. The configurations would include: Access points for all system set-up/configuration (e.g., a control panel, when shown, can be brought up by double clicking on its entry in the configuration's list). The ability to set up configuration sets The ability to select a configuration set The ability to export configurations to other users. Active Feature Manager The ability of the Feature Manger to support the tasks above will certainly involve Rhapsodys ability to create and maintain receipts as part of the normal install process. However, the Feature Manager should be active. It should actively enter into the database of receipts to determine information about any software being installed. When it cannot find the appropriate information, a design direction to be explored is to prompt the user for some minimum information. A user, installing a spell checker from the internet, could be prompted to enter what the name and purpose of the software is, given that the installer does not. Feature Manager can enter data which make some assumptions depending on where the installer puts the files. If it puts files in a "System Folder," it can store appropriate data to that effect. The goal is that the user, when exploring what is on the system or uninstalling or identifying dependencies, is given as much information as can be known about the files on the system. Blue Box Coverage What has been described so far should be a defining part of feature management for Rhapsody, specifically, the Yellow Box. In the ideal world, Blue Box products and features would be covered fully in a single Feature Manager. For Rhapsody, however, the Blue Box world will not share in the full power of the Feature Manager. However, given that the file system allows the Yellow Box Feature Manager to see the Blue Box files, then the task of identifying Blue Box Mac OS products and features that are on the system might be
Rhapsody User Experience Apple Confidential Page 82 of 115

integrated into the Yellow Box Feature Manager. If there are functions which cannot be performed on the Blue Box products, they should simply not be available. The Blue Box part of feature management would specifically add the following: Evolved Extensions Manager (renamed) to allow startup configuration. It would cover: Control Panels Extensions Shared Libraries, where this makes sense Control Strip Modules Startup Items Shutdown Items additional items to be enabled/disabled at startup Configuration management (based on Location Manager) for setting up and managing configuration sets.

Booting (TBD)
Dual boot

Rhapsody User Experience

Apple Confidential

Page 83 of 115

Splash, start up info Logins Logout v ShutDown v Power Off Standalone Boot UE v Networked Boot UE CHRP issues?

Help and Assistance


Overview
The Rhapsody help and assistance system has four major components: Help tags, which integrate the functionalities of Mac-style balloons and Wintel-style tool tips. an HTML-based help content delivery system, scaled from base-level read-only help to (later) interactive, smart help that includes coachmarking, context checking, and Do-It-For-Me automated task execution (dependent on Rhapsody script system) tips and shortcuts, possibly also HTML-based assistants, which are small, special-purpose application programs that bring together disparate user interfaces to computer tasks in support of user goals Only a base-level version of the HTML-based content delivery system is planned for the premiere release. Help tags and one assistant (a setup assistant, in all likelihood) are planned for the unified release. All other features are planned for postunified.

User Scenarios
User Scenario 1: You Are New You are a new user (new to the Macintosh, new to Rhapsody), and you want to find out how to get started with your new computer. You go through the materials that came in the box with your computer. Among them you might find some mention of the help system, available by pulling down the Help menu, which is always present in the menu bar at the top of the screen. Whether or not there will be a Help Desk/Info Center icon on the desktop is TBD. If the Help Desk/Info Center icon is on the desktop, there is mention of that, as well.
Rhapsody User Experience Apple Confidential Page 84 of 115

If for any reason you do not go through the in-box materials (and still manage to get your computer up and running), you are confronted, at the end of the startup sequence, with the choice of going through the tutorial or using the setup assistant. If you go through the tutorial, it includes information on the help system and how to use it to get information on what you can use the computer for and how to find instructions. The tutorial also includes a link to the help access window. If you go through the setup assistant, you are introduced to one component of the help system (assistants), which (if you go through the Internet setup part of the assistant) leads you to browse the Internet as well as the help system. If you skip the tutorial and the setup assistant, you are confronted with the desktop, the icons, the menu bar, maybe the shelf. Where to start? If there is a Help Desk/Info Center icon on the desktop, you click and then double-click that, and discover the help system. Otherwise, you click and then double-click the startup disk icon and start poking around among the files represented in the Rhapsody Finder. Finally, you start pulling down menus, get to the Help menu, choose Help on the menu, and find the help system (the help access window opens). User Scenario 2: You Have a Goal in Mind You have used your computer for a while for many of the usual tasks (writing letters, putting together a phone list, drawing diagrams and charts), and one day you decide to try to use your computer for editing a home video. Way to go. You pull down the Help menu and choose the Help item. The help access window appears. The help access window is provided by a custom help browser application program. The help access window offers three ways to browse all available help content. The default view is Search (the others are Contents and Index). In the Search view, you enter a keyword or two. As you type, the relevant help topics start appearing in the scrolling list below as they are found. This functionality uses the same Rhapsody Find service (relevance-ranked, full-content based) that finds files based on keywords, attributes, etc., but Search Help limits its search to available help sites. The system looks through the local disks and local-network servers automatically (the latter if you are connected to a network).
Rhapsody User Experience Apple Confidential Page 85 of 115

TBD: An option in the Search view that lets you indicate whether you want the system to search the Internet as well as the local resources. Because the help system looks for all available help sites, you are likely to find what you are looking for in order to do what you want. The application program that you might need does not have to open, in front, or even installed. A high-level search for video editing would yield hits for links to a local help site for Adobe Premiere, because you have it installed. If Adobe Premiere were not installed, you would have found out about it from (perhaps) the Internet search, with hits from the Adobe site. The results of the search are listed by order of relevance and availability (a help site for an installed application program is listed ahead of a link to a program that is not installed). You click a link to the video editing basics page on the Adobe Premiere help site. When you get to the Adobe Premiere help site, the help system detects that the application program has not been launched, and a dialog box is displayed asking if you want to open Adobe Premiere. You click OK, the application program is launched, and you proceed with using the help site and the application program to find out how to edit a home video. User Scenario 3: You Need Help You have been using QuarkXPress for a couple of years, and you are using it now to lay out and design a new edition of The Joy of Cooking. You have just created a graphics frame and pasted in an illustration of different cookies. You have forgotten how to both have the text wrap itself along the cookie curves in the illustration and to link the graphics frame to the top of the paragraph. The graphics frame is the current selection when you decide to go for help. You pull down the Help menu and choose the Help item. Because, as you go for help, a QuarkXPress document is the frontmost window and the graphics frame is the current selection in that window, the help access window opens in the Search view with the appropriate keyword already entered as a search string (graphics frames) with the relevant hits already appearing in the scrolling list. You get the same result if you are in the object info dialog box of the selected graphics frame and click the help button.
Rhapsody User Experience Apple Confidential Page 86 of 115

If the help topic that you think you need is not listed, you can do another search or switch to the contents view. The application program and the help system work together to automatically load search terms and do a search based on the context when you go for help. If it is not possible to do this (because the context is not well-enough defined, or no keywords are assigned to the context), you are shown the QuarkXPress help table of contents. If for some reason another window altogether (say, because of an inadvertent click, a Mathematica window) is frontmost when you go for help, you can switch from the Mathematica help search view to the QuarkXPress help contents view, or enter a more relevant search string in the search view. User Scenario 4: You Are Browsing for Help You have been using your computer for a while, and one day you wonder if you can use it to listen to the noon news on the local allnews station. You pull down the Help menu and choose the Help item. The help access window appears. The most efficient way to proceed is to use the Search view (see user scenario 2), but you are in a browsing mood. You switch to the contents view and start disclosing and hiding the different available help content sites. You look over the contents of each site and see if there are any links to likely help pages that could answer your question. Finally, you notice a help topic on a radio-TV tuner on the Rhapsody help site, under Rhapsody Extras. You go to the topic and find out how to listen to the noon news on your computer. User Scenario 5: You Need Advanced Technical Info STILL TO COME -Sophisticated user (probably a programmer) accessing help from within an app (such as the development environment) to read indepth conceptual and reference information.

Rhapsody User Experience

Apple Confidential

Page 87 of 115

Access

Help menu The help menu is a persistent, system-wide that appears as last (rightmost) item on the menu bar (among the application menus starting from File menu to the right of the Apple menu). It has a short default list of items; items can be appended by applications and other components when appropriate. TBD: Whether we should have an additional menu item(s) for Tips and Shortcuts (and maybe Tutorials). The Help item opens the one-stop shop for all available help content. (See Help Access Window below.) Access through the help menu is context-sensitive to the extent (at minimum) that the help system is aware of the application users are in and present the help content for that application in the default view. TBD: Whether there is a Help Desk/Info Center/Help icon at the tray/desktop level. Help button Improved context-sensitive access to the help system is available through buttons in dialog boxes, menu commands, and automatic launching (of assistants, for example) when appropriate. This access method is more context sensitive than the help menu because the context can be better defined and therefore users can be presented with the most likely relevant subset of help content in the default view. No help mode Modal context-sensitive access is not part of this proposal. Modal context-sensitive access involves entering a help mode by pressing Command-? or the help key (or using some other invocation method) to get a question-mark cursor, which users would then position over
Rhapsody User Experience Apple Confidential Page 88 of 115

an object and then click to see a help tag for that object. Requiring users to enter a help mode in order to get help runs counter to key design goal of expanding on the Macintosh help systems strengths, which include staying out of the way of users being able to complete the task at hand, integrating the accessing of help information with users work flow. The decision to not have a help mode is being reconsidered.

Theme-dependent visual design


Certain graphic elements of the help and assistance system are themedependent, including help tags, the help icon used in help buttons, and (later, if we decide to head this way) the anthropomorphic or other representation of assistants.

Help Tags
Help tags are designed both to replace System 7 balloons and to provide tool-tip functionality. Compared with balloons, help tags (graphically speaking) are smaller, with less white space around text, and use the Espy font (or replacement thereof) for text content. The text can be left-justified, right-justified, or centered, and it can be in different styles (bold or italic, for example). We will need to come up with another name for these tags if we call the new labels in the Finder app tags. Help tags can change appearance according to theme. In the default theme, they are rectangular with square corners and a drop shadow, and the cartouche is tighter and closer to an arrow compared with a balloons cartouche. TBD: Replace cartouche with bold tapered line or arrow? Tool-tip functionality Help tags can be forced into an orientation relative to the object they are describing (always immediately below or to the right, for example) and can be made to be displayed automatically when the pointer hovers inside an object for a specified amount of time (to mimic tool tip functionality). Applications can set whether or not the tags are displayed automatically, but the delay before auto-display is a system-wide user
Rhapsody User Experience Apple Confidential Page 89 of 115

preference that users set and apps cannot override. This way, users can get tool-tip functionality using the help tags, and if they dont want to see the tags, they can set the delay to some amount (based on their own hovering habits) that will result in the tags never, or rarely, being displayed. Spring-loaded help-tag key Help tags appear when the pointer is over an object while a specific key (the so-called helium key) is held down, and and they disappear when the key is released. TBD: Whether Control key should be the helium key. Integration with contextual menu modifier key Under help preferences (or as specified by app), we can show label only (tool tip) or label and more text (full balloon). If setting is label only, then first item in contextual menu is Tell me more..., which shows full balloon (assuming we use the Control key as the helium key). ISSUE: Contextual menu vs pop-up menus invoked by other button mouse click.

Help Access Window


Usability testing of the Mac OS help system has consistently shown that users do not know where to go for help, and when they do find the help menu (the discoverability of the help menu is a separate issue that is has been addressed with changes in the Tempo release), they are unsure about which menu item to choose. Partly to address this known usability problem, the help access window offers one-stop shopping for help. It offers three ways to go through the available help content. 1. a Search view (the default), which enables users to get relevant-ranked results based on keyword searches of available help content (using VTwin technology). Hits associated with authored index terms and the frontmost windows application get a relatively higher relevance value. 2. a Contents view, which is an authored or a dynamically compiled list of available help topics (shown hierarchically in a list, with disclosure triangles) for the frontmost windows application (already showing when users switch to this view) as well as all other available help
Rhapsody User Experience Apple Confidential Page 90 of 115

content. 3. an Index view, which is an authored or a dynamically compiled list of available help topics indexed by keyword for the frontmost windows application (already showing when users switch to this view) as well as all other available help content.

The hierarchical list used to present available help files is similar to Finder list views, with resizable columns for relevance rank, title, description, source or location (local or Internet), and kind (instructions, conceptual information, Do-It-For-Me automatic task execution). The list can be sorted by the selected column head, as in the
Rhapsody User Experience Apple Confidential Page 91 of 115

Finder. The help access window is a document window (modeless, resizable) in its own layer. Clicking a topic in the help access window brings up another window that displays the content for the selected topic. TBD: Whether the content window belongs to the same help browser application as the help access window, or if it should be associated with the appropriate application (which will be desirable when delivering procedural instructions or Do-It-For-Me task execution). Custom help browser The help access window is provided by a custom help-browser application that has a simple bookmarks/favorites feature and a log/history through the help menu. The help browser is separate from what may be users preferred Web browser. We would lose any synergy between Web browsing and help browsing, but we would also lose some confusion. (Of course, if users surf the net with their help browser or look for help content in Navigator, they'll get the synergy but, presumably, not the confusion -because they went out of their way to use one browser for the other's content.) Context-sensitive display of help access window When users choose the Help item under the help menu, the help access window appears with the Search view already selected. If the user context is definable enough that an appropriate search string can be passed into the access window, the application should do so. Base-Level Help As a default, help content might be described as manuals on line, with hypertext links (in text and as buttons) for navigation. Users browse through this default content in the help access window's content frame or in a new browser window. If developers decide to provide smart help or more active assistance as an added value to users (see Smart Help below), they can offer this functionality through a button in the content frame as an alternative to browsing base-level help content.
Rhapsody User Experience Apple Confidential Page 92 of 115

Third-Party Content Applications with help content compatible with the Rhapsody help system register their help content with the help access window so that their help content appears in the help-site navigation frame. Buttons that enable different ways to browse through the third-party help content appear in the content-views navigation frame. The content itself appears in the help content frame. We will have to provide HTML authoring guidelines to third-party developers to make sure that links can be established between the help access windows navigation frames and the third-party help content.

Searches
Users can use the search facility to search only the available (installed) help content or to extend their search to local or remote servers. The search facility in the help system uses the same technology (V-Twin) used by similar functionality in other parts of the system.

Automatic Updating
Help content is updated automatically using Marimba or other push technology or through a virtual-server scheme by which each Rhapsody machine acts as a server itself and updates specific local files from an actual server. Local links to help content on a local server or on the Internet will, of course, give users access to the most up-to-date content. We will have to provide guidelines regarding what content to keep locally (on the end-users machine) and which to store on a server, and when to have users browse over content over a live connection and when to do a transparent download of updated content. For help content that is entirely server-based (with links from the users local machine), updates happen on the server and users always get the most up-to-date help information whenever they access that help content. In this case, the updates will not have to be pushed to the local machine assuming the links have been made at the client end. Establishing the links will involve some pushing at the outset.

Smart Help
Smart Help is a catch-all term for the Rhapsody implementation of the most popular and most useful features of the Mac OS help system, specifically: coachmarking, context-checking, and script-based
Rhapsody User Experience Apple Confidential Page 93 of 115

automatic execution of computer tasks (Do It For Me). These features are offered through a button or other control in the help content frame. Users would select a help topic then choose to read about it (in which case they stay in the current browser and the help content is displayed in the help content frame) or (when available) have themselves guided through a procedure and have as much of it done for them as possible. Users get smart help by clicking a link that represents a new URL type, which could accommodate complex do-it-for-me routines as well as the execution of simple steps in user tasks. Smart-help content window When users choose the smart-help option, the help access window closes and another custom browser window appears. This second custom browser is optimized for browsing over smaller chunks of content and has basic navigation controls built in (previous, next, and Help Home). It also floats in its own (system) layer in front of the frontmost application window layer. Coachmarking, context checking, and Do-It-For-Me take place as users browse through the smart-help content. TBD: When (and which) smart-help features will be available. Also, when (or whether) we can introduce Read Aloud (text-to-speech), cued advance (speech recognition), auto advance (context checking).

Assistants
In principle, assistants attempt to present an abstraction layer between user goals and computer tasks, and they conduct interviews to get required information from users. They are not deconstructed dialog boxes (which early wizards tended to be) and they are not the only way to get certain things done on the computer. Assistants can be invoked directly (by opening the assistant program) or offered through menu items or dialog boxes when appropriate. Triggers Rhapsody assistants gain a scheduling functionality that enables them to execute tasks based on a specified condition (such as time) or event (such as the arrival of mail), rather than immediately. Adding this functionality will mean implementing a trigger conditions for
Rhapsody User Experience Apple Confidential Page 94 of 115

scriptable tasks as a system service that can be used by any program.

Off-the-Shelf Authoring
No custom tools are planned. Templates and the like are the most we are planning to provide; the development tools are assumed to be offthe-shelf, third-party authoring tools (HTML authoring tools such as BBEdit, and Java application development environments).

Rhapsody User Notification System


The Rhapsody User Notification System is a system service that enables developers (as defaults within applications) and users (to the degree of customization allowed within an application) to specify how users want to be notified when certain events occur in an application or in the system. The degree of noteworthiness, or potential noteworthiness, of such events -- whether they warrant a status message or an alert message -- will need to have been anticipated and designed for by us and by developers.

User Scenarios STILL TO COME


Printing Network download Crash or other alert in background process TBD: Notification from other box (alert in Blue while user is in Yellow)?

Status and Alerts


The notification system recognizes two types of notices: status messages and alert messages. Both types are recorded in the log. Status messages are those notices that do not require a response from users. They appear and then disappear (in other words, they dismiss themselves). Users can retrieve them by checking the log. Alert messages are those notices that do require some response from users. Alerts appear and keep appearing until users bring the process or
Rhapsody User Experience Apple Confidential Page 95 of 115

object that generated the alert to the front and then dismiss it. Unless the alert message is about a system-wide (Yellow or Blue) or machine failure (Ye Olde Bombe), users do not have to address and dismiss an alert until they bring the offending process or object to the front. (Users will still have to be notified of system-wide or machine failure through a modal dialog box.) The notification system arbitrates the order in which messages of both types appear, how long status messages appear before they disappear, and how often alert messages appear and reappear until users dismiss them. Users can override these system defaults if an application program or a notification plug-in enables it. We will need to issue specific guidelines to developers on which types of events to associate with status messages and which to associate with alerts.

Plug-In Architecture
The notification system has a plug-in architecture that allows us as well as third-party developers to provide notification modules. Each module offers a way for users to be notified of noteworthy events in applications and in the system.

Notifier Specifier
Users are presented with a standard interface to the notification system, called the notifier specifier, when they want to associate a type of notification with a particular event. The notifier specifier can appear as a window, a dialog box, or a pane in a more complex dialog box or window. It consists of a pop-up menu where you choose the notification module you want used and an area below the pop-up where you can set additional controls for the chosen module. TBD: The final design of the notifier specifier, especially use of pop-up menu vs. something else. The notifier specifier is also used (in a control panel?) to set system defaults for notification. Depending on the content of the notification, some defaults cannot be changed by users (modal alert dialog boxes may still be required for a small subset of types of message content).
Rhapsody User Experience Apple Confidential Page 96 of 115

TBD: Whether the notification system should be a portal between the Blue and Yellow boxes. Should users be able to get notices about Blue processes while they are in Yellow?

Dismissal
Each notification module should be designed so that the way to dismiss an alert message is clear and unmistakable. The notification system supports a default method for dismissing an alert once the it has been brought to the front (pressing Return or Enter is the likely candidate). Status messages do not have to be dismissed.

Retrieval
All notices become part of the log and are retrievable from the log.

In-Box Plug-ins
TBD: Which of the in-box plug-ins to use system defaults.

Icon animation
Carried forward from Mac OS, this plug-in animates the icon representing an object or process. The icon can be in the menu bar (as part of the process menu), the shelf, or some other window or other container on the screen. Bringing the process or object to the front (through the process menu or by opening the icon) brings the notice to the front.

Text banner
The text banner plug-in scrolls or flashes the current message across the bottom of the screen (visually speaking, directly under the shelf). If the log is accessible through the shelf, this plug-in might enable users to open the log from the text banner.

Spoken alert
This plug-in uses text-to-speech to speak the text of the current message. Like the aural alert, this plug-in needs to work with at least one other plug-in.

Other animation
Animation that takes place inside a small window that can be docked or left open, especially when combined with a text message in the same window, could serve as notification.
Rhapsody User Experience Apple Confidential Page 97 of 115

System beep not a plug-in


Carried forward from Mac OS, the system beep is not appropriate as a plug-in because it does not scale well to handle status messages or recurring alerts. Basically, it is used appropriately as a way to clue users to the fact that they are trying to do something that cannot be done at that time or under those conditions. Users will need to get some other type of notification in order to find out why.

Issues Resulting from the Initial Design Review


( conducted on 6/12/97 and 6/13/97) Original issues are in black; Review results are in Red; Progress made since the review is in blue Progress feedback dialogs - should the progress indicators only exist in the process monitor?
Three primary alternatives Destination icon indicates status (fills up) no progress indication outside process monitor system notifies user when operation finishes Needs owner to be assigned Notification Services owner also needs to be assigned

Are we incorrectly diminishing the role of direct manipulation (v application interfaces) to accomplish configuration and other tasks
Drag and drop is the best way to manage lists of items Designers should insure that they are not creating a new drag and drop semantic and that, when possible, typical Mac-like drag and drop behaviors should exist even if a new application interface for that action also exists.

A strategy/conceptual model of the types of items that should appear


Rhapsody User Experience Apple Confidential Page 98 of 115

in the Services menus, and the context menus, is currently being worked out. Should tags be in the File menu or in the Services menu?
Conceptual model/criteria for including items in the Service Menus is an open issue and should be added to the UE issues database (Finder DRI to resolve) Design direction for Context menus is for it to include most frequently used items rather than everything in the services menu

Get Info/Inspectors
Do we additionally support selection driven mode? Should the name remain Get Info? File Sharing... should be integrated into the Inspector. We should also look at hierarchical menu access to the Inspector panes. Will we have multiple GetInfo/Inspector panels Current design strategy is to have 2 mechanisms: a more powerful and complete Get Info on steroids and a Next-like Inspector mechanism

Backdrops other than the Desktop are considered concepts until futher review and design can be completed and the feasability of such a concept from a usabilty perspective can be established.
What is the relation and interaction of the backdrops to its application? How do you get backdrops? Does the corresponding application always appear in the application portion of the menu? This is seen as a big UE investigation and design effort. Its necessity needs to be evaluated in light of the other UE work
Rhapsody User Experience Apple Confidential Page 99 of 115

that must be done for Unified Is this a must have for Unified? Current thinking is that the Backdrop is a plug-in and might be set by a mechanism similar to desktop patterns The interaction for bringing the backdrop forward so that controls/links on the backdrop can be activated is problematic We do not want to repeat the mistakes of MicroSofts active desktop UE Since the design review a discussion with marketing has taken place and the decision is to provide a minimal backdrop capability that 3rd parties can plug into. This minimal backdrop capability means that the Apple desktop will be switched out such that items which reside on the desktop will not, by default, appear on top of the 3rd party backdrop. Desktop items will still be available from the users home directory in the desktop folder. Also, 3rd parties may choose to create backdrops apps that are sophisticated enough to also display desktop items on top of their backdrops.

Consistency between Finds


A consistent, scalable Find HI guideline and layout should be designed and evangelized for developers cmd-f should be a standard key combo for Find the function should be named Find not Search Who should own this?

A complete browser strategy is yet to be composed. That is, in addition to network browsing, one will use a browser to to view help panels which are written in HTML and potentially use a network browser to view folders on ones disk. In some cases this will need to be a full-fledged browser while in others minimal functionality will be required. The default browser and who will supply it (Apple or a third party) is TBD. (? any upadate to this ?)
an html display engine/framework is being developed
Rhapsody User Experience Apple Confidential Page 100 of 115

it will be pluggable and replaceable by third parties plumbing is there but we still dont know who will make or deliver the hot tub (default browser)

Do we need a standard architecture for all the managers


font manager, feature manger, print manager, etc. No, but we should devise a standard management interaction semantic for common management actions (e.g. when to apply a change etc.)

Apple Menu defaults/will there be any permanent items here (e.g. choose printer)
It appears desireable for some items here to be persistent or at least easily recoverable The exact list and mechanism for accomplishing this is TBD

What is our Browse in Place strategy


We want to do it in addition to our current multiple windows approach will have a global setting which can be over-rided by holding down the option key this means it will be possible for the same folder to be viewed in more than one widow at a time (is there a synchronization issue here?)

Process Menu
Contents and functions of the Process menu Process menu and Task monitor terminology should be in sync (they should both be labeled the same; the process menu is already called the Application Menu in MacOS. We should probably stay with Application Menu) Backdrops will not show up in the process menu.
Rhapsody User Experience Apple Confidential Page 101 of 115

What about background processes? Can we provide the ability for users to re-arrange the priority of currently running processes. Should the Blue Process menu/monitor show Yellow processes and vice versa? Two competing design directions 1) Our users are often application centric in their thinking and the blue apps should be shown in order to prevent them from having to think about whether a particular app is in blue or yellow 2)The conceptual model is that there are 2 separate computers in there. Showing blue apps here confuses that model and the users ability to predict when an action will affect only one OS context.

Process/Task Monitor
Contents and functions of the Task Monitor The progress bars mean different things. This distinction must be addressed. Will we be able to quit a blue application from yellow? Many of these issues were addressed in the About the computer functionality for Maxwell. This work will be revisited to determine its applicability to the Process Monitor UE The same widget type should not be used to convey different kinds of information (e.g. time to completion, current system resources) All the types and amount of info to be displayed in the monitor is still TBD Should the Process Monitor live in the Process Menu or should it be in About this Computer Should hide windows be included or should hide only work at the application level?
Rhapsody User Experience Apple Confidential Page 102 of 115

Seems to be several mechanisms already in place for managing individual windows (window shade, minimize behavior, pop-up windows) so the ability to hide individual windows seems to be a lower priority feature.

The Tray
How to expand it /resize it Can it be slid off the screen (will there be an affordance left?) necessity for a tray is partially driven by the inclusion of backdrops Should the trash can be in the tray or treated differently (e.g. in its own always available window)

Contol Panels Strategy


The proposal for separating groups of control panels into functional groups and into Apple provided v 3rd Party Plug-ins is not yet decided. The usability of this approach over the current Control Panels model is not yet established. Design direction appears to be that 3rd party apps should not be separated from Apple supplied apps. Concept will be tested with users. Hierarchical approach General direction is to provide groupings of control panels, however, the number and contents of the groups is TBD Extensibility of Control Panel apps Do the preferences/cp apps have to live on the network or should they live locally What happens if the net or a server goes down, will people no longer have access to their preferences/control panels default should be that the preferences apps reside on each machine and the settings also reside in the
Rhapsody User Experience Apple Confidential Page 103 of 115

NetInfo database so that when a user logs in from another machine, they still get their individual settings. Distinction between Hardware and User settings Does this separation need to be exposed at the highest level in the Apple menu? Synchronization strategy TBD User selectable syncronization /Synchronization manager? TBD

Very preliminary Disk layout proposal and has not been discussed with all the impacted design or engineering teams.
Printer should probably not be in Network folder due to the fact that there may be a local printer connected to the network Shared folder terminology needs to be changed (a common/communal connotation as oppossed to a file Sharing connotation was discussed) This layout also highlighted the problem of users being able to easily determine which apps they have access to.

Feature Management strategy


are feature sets a separate interface? TBD

Resolve terminology issue with Shared Folders


Shared directory in Disk layout - will be renamed FileSharing type of shared folders - shared term will apply only to this type of sharing Blue/Yellow shared folders for data/application sharing -will be renamed

Univerasl Users and Groups database and how it will be utilized by Networking, fileharing, help, a universal directory, and other
Rhapsody User Experience Apple Confidential Page 104 of 115

facilities (brief status update )


meeting notes from 1st meeting will be distributed to, and discussed with, engineering general direction is to have a central store, utilizing the NetInfo database. Applications which use a users personal UG directory will be able to filter out the inappropriate records (e.g. File Share app would only show those users with passwords, Mail app would only show those users with email addresses, etc.). Individual users will be able to Read from the master/corporate UG database stored centrally to the net, but will not be able to write to it simply by adding someone to their personal UG database. Only admins can edit the corporate UG db.

Is the two computer model still a viable UE metaphor?


We now know of several important places where it breaks down including the Control Panels, Process menu/monitor, and the case of a shared file system Would it be better to move to a design direction which conveys that yellow owns blue or blue is imbedded within yellow.

What is the UE when the network goes down?


Many of the customers in the PEN market must continue to work when even when central services like a server or the network go down. In their highly time sensitive environments they must continue to have use of their machine/preferences and apps. What must be done in order to insure that they will be able to do this (e.g. they have their own machine in their office and the net goes down, will they still have their primary productivity apps, system preferences, etc) Will this be the default installation

Do we need to add a System Admin HIS/UERD


File server Print Server Mail server
Rhapsody User Experience Apple Confidential Page 105 of 115

Web server DNS? User account setup NetInfo database setup installation default location of preferences, apps etc.

Must have a system registry of command keys to support global keyboard shortcuts. This is necessary to manage conflicts with applications. Logs/History
Resolve terminology between History and Log Will the various logs have a common database/engine or not Different UEs will need to use different terms guidelines need to be established for when to use which term all logs and histories are expected to use the same database and filter it according to the log/historys particular need

Resolve terminology issues between tags/labels and balloon/tooltips


Menu bar division Need input from engineering to determine who will own the Services and Help menus Preferred design direction is for the Finder to own them and for apps to subscribe to them but not replace them.

Other issues that did not get addressed in the Review


Further details on Window behavior Updated ViDs for Open/Save dialogs and Inspector
Rhapsody User Experience Apple Confidential Page 106 of 115

Drag modifier behavior Standard menu layout in document is incorrect Language menu is missing Refine Connect to... Font access in Blue v. Yellow is a very different user experience

UE Features by Release
Developer Release
Finder What ever we can make happen that makes the developer release as close to Tempo UE as possible (Menu bar at the top of the screen, Desktop, etc) Visual Design System-wide adoption of the Mac OS 8 platinum appearance for all OpenStep windows, controls and cursors (see Mac OS Appearance 1.0 HIS or SDK for details on the window & control appearance). 48x48, 32 bit (OpenStep) translation of Mac OS 8 system icons (i.e. Root, Home, Folders, all Media, generic applications, all native file formats). This will also include some OpenStep applications file and toolbar icons. Support for bitmap PICT as a native image format in addition to existing support for TIFF and EPS. Modified gamma tables for Intel hardware, necessary to ensure quality across platforms. Updated OpenStep application NIB (window layout) files based on new Mac OS HI Guidelines. The final number of applications is TBD and priority will be assigned by anticipated developer needs. Continued support for Rhapsody on Windows appearance appkit. OS Integration Nothing in plan Networking Control Panels Complete CP/Preference HI spec for distribution to developers, including:
Rhapsody User Experience Apple Confidential Page 107 of 115

Recommended size of CPs Guidelines for third-party adding/grouping Installation model CP exit model (when do settings take effect?) Machine-specific versus user-specific settings Blue/Yellow interactions of CPs

Individual control panels broken out of OpenStep prefs.app and implemented as bundles Font Management No change from current OpenStep font system except minor appearance changes. Printing No change from current OpenStep printing manager. Installation No change from current OpenStep font system except minor appearance changes. Input Methods UE Provide support for basic Japanese text entry using NS Canna public domain input method. Help and Assistance ProjectBuilder as developer on-line documentation delivery system, with added support for displaying HTML. No on-line documentation delivery for third-party application programs. No on-line documentation for Rhapsody end users. On-line documentation converted to HTML, assuming we can get item 1 above. PDF support

Premiere Release
Rhapsody User Experience Apple Confidential Page 108 of 115

Finder TBD All UE features are being sized and prioritized. Guiding principle is that Unified should be an evolution from Premier rather than a Revolution. Visual Design Completed translation of developers release appearance onto final suite of window types, controls, cursors and file icons. All Rhapsody applications should be AppKit savvy and adhere to the Mac OS window and dialog layout guidelines. Implementation of system-wide preference suite of all appearance related elements: fonts, accent colors, highlight colors and backdrops. Support for Apple System Palette on 8 bit maximum displays. Implementation of first visual experience support of Blue-Yellow box interaction (i.e. screen swapping, shared files/volumes, etc.). Design direction established and Appearance HIS completed for the advanced Rhapsody visual experience. Investigation into using ColorSync to ensure a consistent crossplatform visual experience will be completed. User value investigation of enhanced visual experience elements completed. These may/could include: icon animation, real-time 3D rendering of selected interface elements, file age or layer depth cues and the incorporation of video as an interface element. OS Integration correct cross-box application launching UE Installation: Provide installation options with Rhapsody for installing the Mac OS as a file, in a separate partition or some other volume (easy), or as part of an installation whose file structure allows users to see all files, but can be configured to share documents initially Mac OS Setup control panel in Rhapsody: A control panel will have to be included with the Mac OS for Rhapsody, located in Rhapsody, which allows the following to be configured: Select a file or volume from which to start up Mac OS Select which of two experiences will be presented Mac OS in a window within Rhapsody Mac OS as a separate context (default) Select a folder or volume to be shared between environments Assigning Cmd-Tab for context switching (subject to change depending on what breaks because Cmd-Tab is used by applications)
Rhapsody User Experience Apple Confidential Page 109 of 115

Defaults are yet to be determined; but will likely include a default file system, user experience, shared folder, and Mac OS HD layout Modified "Shutdown" dialog: Provide a modified dialog for quitting the Mac OS and restarting the Mac OS Modify Mac OS menu: Several changes are needed for the Mac OS menu in Rhapsody: Quit Mac OS to replace Shutdown in Special menu Switch to Rhapsody menu choice in Special menu (with key equivalent) indicated Mac OS application: A Mac OS application with icon is needed for Rhapsody. Cross-Context Process menu with keyboard equivalent for switching between OS contexts. Mac OS freeze recovery: Implement Cmd-Tab (see above) so that it always works, even when Mac OS does not otherwise take keystrokes or mouse events (freezes). New alert for unsupported Mac OS apps: For whatever apps that cannot run in the compatibility box, a general system alert is needed. Trap for incompatible extensions: For extensions which touch hardware or are otherwise incompatible with Mac OS on Rhapsody, prevent them from being loaded and alert user where needed. Networking TCP/IP config cp Web sharing app - ?Apache - roll into Prem. file sharing HI File Sharing HI AppleTalk config cp AppleTalk printers app Networking APIs Consolidated Network Config Config assistants Remote admin Open and Save Starting point: MacOS Nav Services Write or re-design e-mail app Intelligent search app Network access points Internet menu items Notification services Push technology Universal Address book/Directory services
Rhapsody User Experience Apple Confidential Page 110 of 115

File transfer HIS Log-in dialogs Control Panels Grouping applications complete Individual bundles complete Blue/Yellow sync mechanism design complete Localization control panel Keyboard layout selection removed from this CP and moved to Language menu CP. Font Management New font panel available and fully implemented, but no font set management features. Printing New printing experience described above should be available. New printing dialog implemented without preference sets. Input Methods UE Provide Apples Kotoeri IM and have a user experience similar to using Kotoeri on Mac OS today (e.g., Pencil menu, palettes, keyboard equivalents). International Text UE (i.e., Language tagging)

Language tagging UI to allow users to set the language attribute of a text run (most likely accessed from a Styles menu/panel). Allow users to view the extent of a language run (i.e., show tagging).
Multilingual Text Entry UE (i.e., Language menu)

Provide Language menu that allows users to switch language/text input modes (e.g., Japanese, French, U.S. English). Provide menu for Input Methods options (similar to Mac OS Pencil menu). Provide Language menu control panel for selecting the keyboard layout
Rhapsody User Experience Apple Confidential Page 111 of 115

and/or input method(s) to use for a language for text entry.


Installation Integrated Install/Upgrade application. Feature Manager Help and Assistance HTML-based Help home page viewed in custom help browser. a dynamically compiled master list of all available help sites ( for installed applications, system software, etc.), a top-level table of contents or index view of selected help site a search function that uses the Find system service to search all available help. Custom browser is optimized for help viewing, with fewer controls and smaller overhead than third-party browsers

Unified Release
Finder TBD All UE features are being sized and prioritized. Guiding principle is that Unified should be an evolution from Premier rather than a Revolution. Visual Design Apple platinum appearance (Premier release) implemented as a Theme under the Rhapsody appearance manager. New Rhapsody specific appearance implemented as a Theme under the Rhapsody appearance manager. Additional Themes derived from the available Mac OS suite. New Themes if time and resources permit. Backdrop (patterns & pictures) support with a suite of backdrops. This is in addition to any active backdrop strategy delivered as part of the Finder UE. Support for real-time generation of document proxies. Consistent cross-platform visual experience strategy should be implemented. Implementation of enhanced visual experience elements as identified in the earlier investigation. OS Integration Shared Fonts Folder(s)
Rhapsody User Experience Apple Confidential Page 112 of 115

Mouse speed control in Rhapsody: For the UE of the Mac OS in a window, provide mouse retardation on the top border of the Mac OS window so that the Mac OS menu bar UE can be substantially supported (UE is close to moving mouse to top of window to get menu bar) Networking TBD Control Panels Find function complete Blue/Yellow Sync mechanism Input Methods UE Support for all of Kotoeri IMs features. Date & Time control panel Support for selecting preferred date and time formats. Text control panel Support for selecting preferred sorting orders. Consolidate text-related settings (e.g., sorting order, insertion point appearance, special text appearance settings such as Arabic ligatures, and possibly number formats). Numbers control panel Support for selecting preferred number formats. Font Management Font set management should be available. Share font files between Blue and Yellow. Provide support for GX typography in Yellow. Printing Preference sets for printers. Incremental improvements. Provide security (i.e., access control) and accounting. International Text UE (i.e., Language tagging)

Provide support for more than one type of tag format (e.g., RTF, HTML, ISO)
Rhapsody User Experience Apple Confidential Page 113 of 115

Installation Attempt to solve the reference count problem using Finders catalog layer. Help and Assistance Fully functional find-by-content and dynamic contents compiling and indexing Help Tags Authoring templates Beyond-the-Intranet links A mostly completed solution for guide-me and do-it-for-me help. Condition-based triggers for task execution Notification Services Status and Alerts Plug-In Architecture Notifier Specifier Dismissal Retrieval In-Box Plug-ins Icon animation Text banner Spoken alert Other animation System beep not a plug-in

Post-Unified
Drag and drop support: Provide drag and drop support from Mac OS windows on Rhapsody to Rhapsody and its other windows. Eliminate Blue Finder: Provide code to intercept all Mac OS Finder interactions from apps so that apps simply run in a Rhapsody window. Date & Time control panel Support for non-Gregorian calendars. Input Methods UE Support for alternative IMs (e.g., pen, speech). Multilingual Text Entry UE (i.e., Language menu) Support for selecting alternative IMs such as pen and speech
Rhapsody User Experience Apple Confidential Page 114 of 115

Help and Assistance New URL types to launch guide-me or do-it-for-me help Context checking Coachmarking Scripting Complete suite of authoring tools. New HTML tags to bring some of AppleGuides features to Rhapsody Complete set of Assistants (TBD) Triggers and notifiers

Rhapsody User Experience

Apple Confidential

Page 115 of 115