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Evaluating Mathematics Learning 5

Introduction Knowledge or basic skills can be evaluated by designing items that call for a particular learning. Some suggested formats are completion or multiple choices. Matching exercises and true-false questions are also used. Testing for understanding may likewise be presented in these formats with the addition of proofs and discussions. Problem solving ability can be necessarily requires the students to synthesize some previous learning. In general, problem solving goals are evaluated with problems, proofs and discussions and students asked to show their work.

Evaluation Procedures Evaluation happens even as teachers watch and listen, thus gathering observations and useful information regarding their attitudes, beliefs and feelings. Evaluation procedures may be classified into the following:

1. Testing Procedures
a. b. c. d. e. f. Individual and groups tests Informal and standardized tests Oral, essay, and objective tests Speed, power, and mastery tests Verbal, nonverbal, and performance tests Readiness and diagnostic tests

2. Nontesting Procedures
a. b. c. d. e. Interview such as teacher-pupil interview Questionnaires Anecdotal Records Sociometric Devices Ranking and Rating Procedures

Type of Tests for Evaluation Purposes 1. Achievement tests include simple quizzes on the work during a single period to full-scale examinations. 2. Diagnostic tests attempt to locate of misunderstanding or areas where teaching has not taken place to enable suitable remedial instructions to be given. 3. Inventory tests are often referred to as pre-and post-tests and are used to determine the improvement of the students. They are given before and after the course of instruction. 4. Individual tests require careful questioning and observation of the reaction of an individual and needs an expert to administer. 5. Speed tests are tests wherein a student is required to complete as many tests or problems in a predetermined time. 6. Power tests require a student to do as many problems or tasks out of set of increasing difficulty. 7. Sociometric tests which test sociability of students require them to select or identify their classmates whom they like very much. Evaluating Student Performance Students achievements could be based on: a.) work on assignments outside class, b.) class participation, c.) attitudes and effort, and d.) extra credit work. 1. Students need practice in solving problems and completing exercises related to the subject matter. Sometimes teachers assign more problems and exercises than students can do in class. They become aware of students who have spent efforts in doing their assignments. This information is obtained when their papers are graded or from quizzes and class discussions. Their grades are based on amount of effort, quality and of individual work. 2. Another factor considered in evaluating student performance is the contributions they make to the academic activities in the classroom. They must exercise good judgment in rewarding class participation. They should neither ignore students contributions nor should they tally points for every questions, answer or comments that students make. They can reinforce student engagements in discussions by some nonverbal gestures such as a smile or nod, by some complements after the class as well as by taking students participation into account in preparing formal assessments.

3. A teacher may consider the attitude and efforts of student in evaluating performance. Students attitude is often inferred from attendance, punctuality, willingness to work on assignments, care of materials and conduct. Making them aware that their attitude and efforts contribute towards their grades may induce them to exhibit desirable classroom behavior. 4. Sometimes students get interested in doing extra credit work, knowing that it may influence the teachers assessment of their performance. Such extra credit work may be obtained from problems solved that are announced, some form the textbooks while others may arise from classrooms discussion. Others may do extra credit work by constructing models and other instructional aids. Individual Interviews with Students

This is one of the most effective ways of determining the difficulties of a student. An interview while solving mathematics problems could reveal the manner how problems are approached and the necessary computations carried out. It is likewise a way by which misconceptions held by them can be remedied rather than a group instruction. A students permanent record may include, in addition to achievement tests scores, mental ability scores, interviews and anecdotal records. Student Performance as Indicator of Teacher Performance 1. In addition to considering test scores in assessing students progress, they can also be used in evaluating teachers performance. If test scores show that the students are making satisfactory academic progress, it can be inferred that the teachers performance is likewise satisfactory. Parents, administrators and other teachers who are pleased with students marks on tests are likely to view the teacher as effective. On the other hand; if performance is unsatisfactory, then it would be wise to reflect on the teachers teaching methodologies as well as other factors contributing to such a situation which are under the teachers control. Some of these are a.) Validity of the tests, b.)The selection of subject matter and c.) The determination of teaching strategies. If the test does not measure what they are intended to measure, this may be resolved by more careful analysis in constructing tests. When tests reflect what a teacher has taught and test scores are considered in the light of conditions under which teaching has occurred, student achievement can be one indicator of a teachers effectiveness.
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2. The classroom environment can also be an indicator of teacher performance. A teacher can ascertain the classroom atmosphere by determining whether the students are punctual, prepared for the class and willing to work or whether they are tardy and unprepared. The amount of praise, encouragement, acceptance, hostility and sarcasm in a classroom indicate the climate that characterizes social interaction. 3. In addition to examining students academic progress and social behavior, it is appropriate to analyze the teaching strategies employed. It might be difficult to judge ones own teaching behavior; therefore, judgments may be secured from a knowledgeable observer.

4. Another way is to videotape or audiotape a lesson and analyze the teachers behavior. Part of a teachers evaluation must consider the appropriateness of behavior relative to the knowledge being taught and the method of instruction being used.