MARBLE

56 Marble

M

arble is a 'minor mineral' as defined in Clause (e) of Section 3 of Mines and Minerals (Development & Regulation) Act, 1957. The term "marble" is derived from the Latin word Murmur which in turn is said to have been coined from Greek word Marmorous meaning shining stone. It is known for its pleasant colours, smooth and uniform texture, moderate hardness, amenability to be quarried into big blocks, smooth & shiny polished surface and silky feel. Marble occupies a unique position among other dimension stones, because of its aesthetic value. In terms of geological definition it is a metamorphosed limestone produced by recrystallisation under condition of thermal and also regional metamorphism. In commercial parlance almost any rocks consisting of calcium and/or magnesium carbonate which can take polish easily more especially unmetamorphosed limestone, are termed as marble. Marble is not a prime export commodity like the dimension stone, granite. Its internal demand has always remained high and most of the production added with recent increase in imports is consumed within the country. Marble is the most preferred stone in India among all dimension stones.

RESOURCES
The occurrences of marble have been reported from many states, viz., Rajasthan, Gujarat, Haryana, Andhra Pradesh, Madhya Pradesh, Jammu & Kashmir, Maharashtra, Sikkim, Uttar Pradesh and West Bengal. Among the above states, marble deposits of economic importance are localised in Rajasthan, Gujarat, Haryana, Andhra Pradesh and also in Madhya Pradesh as per the recent reports. Rajasthan has the distinction of having the best among Indian resources of good quality marble. Out of 32 districts, 20 districts have marble in one or the other form. The important regions of marble occurrences in Rajasthan are: i) Udaipur - Rajsamand - Chittorgarh region; ii) Makrana - Kishangarh region; iii) Banswara - Dungarpur region; iv) Andhi (Jaipur) - Jhiri (Alwar) region; and v) Jaisalmer region. The important deposits of marble in Rajasthan are given in Table - 1.

Table - 1 : Important Deposits of Marble in Rajasthan
Sl.No. i) ii) iii) iv) v) vi) vii) viii) ix) x) xi) xii) xiii) xiv) xv) xvi) xvii) xviii) xix) Name of deposit Agaria, Amet, Kilwa, Morwad, Dharmita, Katre, Parvati Koyal, Morchana, Arana, etc. Makrana, Borawad (White), Chosira Dwagri (Pink), Kumari Kesariaji (Rikhabdeo), Odwas Babarmal (Devimata), Rajnagar Tripura Sundari-Talai-Odabagi-BhimkundVithaldeo, Prithvipura, Paloda, etc. Andhi, Bhainslana, Todi-ka-Bas Jhiri, Sariska, Rajgarh, Badampur, Moti-Dungri, etc. Selwara-Dhanwar-Koteswar Jahazpur, Kekri, Manoharpur, Asind, Banera, Shahpura Kalyanpur-Narwar-Sardhana Patan-Rampura, Kela-Dungari Dagota Umar Sabla, Nandli-dad, Peeth, Manpur, Dachki, etc. Mandal, Deh Pachori Chadi, Moriya Munjasar, etc. Bar-Sendra Sarangwa, Sevari, Kundal Dunkar, Bidasar, Dujara Mooisagar, Amarsagar, Habur, Naripa District Rajsamand Nagaur Udaipur Udaipur Banswara Jaipur Alwar Sirohi Bhilwara Ajmer Sikar Dausa Bundi Dungarpur C h i t t o r g ar h Jodhpur Pali Churu Jaisalmer

56-1

Kachchh and Panchmahal districts. Most important localities are Antri-Beharipur. Bharuch. Indo-Italian and Black Marble. The marble from Rajsamand area is mined extensively. Gujarat has vast resources of marble in Banaskantha. Kandri. The white to greyish-white marbles of Jaipur area are being sold under the trade name Andhi Pista. banded attributes. In Haryana. Kumbharia. The Bhainslana marble is dark-black. Marble of Vadodara district occurs in various shades. thick impersistent bands of white marble occur in massive limestone in Pithoragarh district. Sakaritola.Chinchpura belt.MARBLE The marbles of Rajasthan are in various colours and shades. The marble from these areas is exploited for its off-white. sometimes fossiliferous and blockable deposits occur at Bhulawara. In Mirzapur district of Uttar Pradesh. white. The marble from Banswara is white to off-white dolomitic marble and is soft.. It enjoys the reputation as 'Patiala Marble' with black and white bands. Other deposits in Banaskantha district are Jarivav. huge deposits of marble are available in Semra-Salatua and adjoining areas of Palamu. etc. Of late. fine to medium-grained hard marble having black and white bands. Deolapar. Marble deposits of Maharashtra are of calcitic and dolomitic type which are located in the areas of Katta-Hiwara. Islampur and DhanotaDhancholi. The marble from Babarmal is pink and is marketed as Indian Pink. fine-grained. two marble deposits at Hingha and Geria are of good quality and can yield blocks for limited requirement. Kateswar. Pink marble occurrences are reported from Hesadih area. Zainpur. The Makrana area is famous for pure white crystalline marble. The white marble of Ambaji is known for its amenability to carving. a white marble having green laths of serpentine. The marble of Kadbikhera-Sakaritola is pink calcitic marble while the marble deposits of Mansar and Kandri areas are dolomitic type. viz. Junewani villages in Nagpur district. The yellow marble of Kachchh is thin-bedded. A number of quarries are under operation. onyx. The Ambaji area in Banaskantha district and Chinchpura area in Vadodara district are the main producing centres. Pauni. the world-famous marble rocks 'Bhedaghat' near Jabalpur in Madhya Pradesh have attracted entrepreneurs from Rajasthan. Other varieties found in Makrana area is Albeta. It is used generally for cladding purpose. Bheroj and Khikla. 56-2 . Marble of this area occurs in variegated colours and banded forms. The green marble has various shades of green with white and black network and patches. Marble of Bharuch varies in colour from black to green and red. The internationally acclaimed variety of green marble comes from Rikhabdeo-Kesariaji area. In KattaHiwara. pink and cream. It is a finegrained hard marble having black and white bands. Nangaldurgu. In Jharkhand. Chargaon. It is off-white and greyish-white. Mansar. Adanga. Vadodara. The marble from Bhilwara is white to off-white. In Uttarakhand. 60 km away from Udaipur. Kadbikhera. Dongri Pink. green. marble deposits are located in the district of Mahendragarh. Singhbhum district. ChappraBibipur. the marble is light-pink to grey in colour. The extension of these rocks in between Jabalpur and Katni is being quarried. Chorbaoli.

Kurnool and Anantapur districts. 2507 STD122 2193 Total (A) 4700 Pre-feasibility STD221 STD222 27805 236316 17129 1506688 Remaining resources Indicated STD332 Inferred STD333 Total resources (A+B) 1792638 Total (B) 1787938 346 26 2136 27 83 2083 373 108 4219 27805 - 1393 213052 21870 - 17129 6800 436578 1058661 4650 8193 677435 1080531 21779 8566 677543 1080531 25998 324 2184 - 2193 - 324 4377 - 26571 1234 - 45000 1602 81 189633 - 17129 - 3 83000 5040 19492 404703 57642 928426 2382 6000 3 83000 93740 22328 404703 57723 1118058 2382 6000 3 83000 93740 22328 404703 58047 1122435 2382 6000 56-3 .2. Government of Rajasthan carried out exploration for marble in 2006-07 in Jaisalmer.4).4.6 crore in 2005-06 to 636.7% under 'remaining resources' category. Haryana and Uttrakhand in descending order. coloured. yellow and variegated marbles are reported in Cuddapah. Table . Production of negligible values was reported from Andhra Pradesh. Gradewise. Orissa and Jharkhand together sharing less than 1% in 2006-07 (Table . Chhattisgarh. 38% under off-colour grade and a meagre quantity under white colour grade. EXPLORATION The State Directorate of Mines & Geology. only about 4. IBM has prepared a mineral inventory of marble reserves and resources as per UNFC system as on 1. The total resources of all grades of marble are placed at 1.8 crore in 2006-07.3%) fall under 'reserve' category and about 99. No exploration was reported for marble in 2007-08.4. The available data on marble resources reveals that about 63% resources are in Rajasthan and 23% in Jammu & Kashmir.MARBLE The marbles of Khammam area of Andhra Pradesh are white and green. greyish-black marbles which take good polish and are being exploited by private entrepreneurs. Jodhpur and Nagaur districts. Maharashtra.594. about 62% resources fall under unclassified and not-known grades. The dolomitic marble of Cuddapah. PRODUCTION The total production value of marble increased from Rs.3.2005 which is furnished in Table . purple.7 million tonnes (0. Occurrences of pink. On the basis of available data. Of these. Rajasthan alone accounted for more than 94% output value followed by Madhya Pradesh and Gujarat. The remaining resources are distributed mainly in Gujarat. The details of exploration carried out are given in Table .2005 (By Grades/States) (In ’000 tonnes) Reserves Grade/State Probable STD121 All India : Total By Grades White colour Off-colour Unclassified Not-known By States Andhra Pradesh Chhattisgarh Gujarat Haryana Jammu & Kashmir Maharashtra Rajasthan Sikkim Uttarakhand Figures rounded off.793 million tonnes.2 : Reserves/Resources of Marble as on 1. Kurnool and Anantapur districts is other upcoming resource centre for off-white.

’000) 2004-05 State Unit Quantity India Jharkhand Andhra Pradesh Gujarat Madhya Pradesh Rajasthan Orissa tonne tonne tonne tonne tonne cu m 1 999 346398 195876 7548075 3814 Value 5780012 106 659 312587 244845 5221400 415 1020 735931 200528 7332561 Quantity Value 5945341 695 490042 277234 5177370 * 686 251792 258881 6815437 * Quantity Value 6367955 * 548 167654 235928 5963825 * 2005-06 2006-07 (p) Source: State Governments. Occurrences of serpentine marble noted.4 : Production of Marble.000 3. * Data awaited from state governments.3 : Details of Exploration Activities for Marble by DMG. 56-4 . 1 : 2 . Rajasthan.km area between villages Bedu-Bedu Kalon identified. Rajasthan Raikon ki Dhani. Stone No. Jaisalmer Jodhpur 10 3 20 - Dolomitic marble deosit spread in about 4 sq. 2004-05 to 2006-07 (By States) (Value in Rs.000 Chapara of Tahsil Hadnu 50 - Table .) Remarks & Reserves/Resources estimated DMG. 0 0 0 NE of Bairon ki Dhani.MARBLE Table .0 Yellow marble bed of varying dimension noted. North of Pithla N/V Bedu Suwap of 1:10. 55.000 Tehsil Osiyan 1:2. 2006-07 Agency/ State/Mineral/ District Location/ Area/ Block Mapping Scale Area (sq km) Sampling (No. Nagaur N/V Gumpaliya 1:50.

In marble tile plant. Rajsamand. But in general. there are about 22 processing units located at Ahmedabad. mined out minerals are obtained in small-size fractions whereas in dimension stone mining. Udaipur. the slabs are sold as it is but in case of tiles.000 million sq ft In Gujarat. air-jacks. large-size intact blocks without minor cracks or damages are extracted. trimmed and cut to size. The blocks cut this way are of exact sizes with minimum losses. circular saws are used.hammers. line drilling machines are used for drilling holes in a predetermined line. In the semi-mechanised operation. The block thus freed from the in situ rock is either pulled by chains or pulley system or is pushed by driving logs. Presently. it is 3. slim drills. jack. the marble is exposed at suitable places. The first stage of processing involves cutting the blocks into 2 to 3 cm thick slabs by using gang saws. Ambaji and Vadodara. At this stage. Ajmer. The remaining operation is more or less similar to manual mining except for lifting and pulling where cranes. Jaipur.MARBLE MINING AND PROCESSING Mining of marble or. The various stages in mining marbles are as follows: The first and foremost work in a quarry is removal of overburden which may be present in the form of soil. pneumatic pillows. In conventional mining method. they are polished using various pneumatically-operated or other polishing machines. to overcome these problems. There are a number of gang saws and many automatic tiling plants that are in operation. etc. garden furniture. a line of shallow holes is made and by driving in wedges with feathers by continuous hammering. line polishers. Once the block is cut. art collectors from world over seem to demand hand-carved articles produced especially in Makrana. 56-5 . rubbles and weathered material. a key block is marked for removal or for quarry front cut. winches. for that matter. Marble mining in India is quite old and has been perfected by trial and error method for extracting larger blocks by manual means. diamond wire saw. The craftsmen have developed their art using manual means and simple tools. etc. the wastage is high and the size of the blocks recovered is small and seldom free from defects. a fracture is developed along the already drilled holes. the quarry front cut is made by using slim drill machines. The capacity for marble slab production in the State is around 1.000 million sq ft per annum and for polished tiles. semi-mechanised and mechanised means. After the block is toppled. pillars. Abu Road and Kishangarh. The lifting and loading of blocks are done by Derrick cranes and using various types of loaders. the weathered zone is removed by drilling holes by jack-hammers and slim drill machines. For cutting. it is toppled with the help of hydrobags. Advent of advanced mining machinery and improved methods of cutting & mining have largely transformed the marble mining methods and have led to increased production. Processing of marble is done in two stages. it is necessary to study the joint or fracture pattern in order to ascertain recovery of large-size block. and the block is made free from all the sides. After removal of overburden and capping. it is again cut and dressed for getting a parallel-piped shape. majority of mines adopt the semi-mechanised method of mining. wire saws and circular saws. Important processing centres in the State are Makrana. However. buffed and chamfered using different types of machines before being sold. The slim drill machines and quarry masters are used to drill holes through which diamond wire saw is passed and the block is cut by continuous motion of the diamond wire saw. In manual operation. mining of marble is done by manual. etc. floral and other design by expert craftsmen. Presently. such as. It is then removed using heavy earth-moving machinery. any dimension stone is different from conventional mining practices. diamond belt saw machines and chain saw machines. Alwar. The removal of overburden is generally carried out with heavy earthmoving machinery. Nathdwara. the required thickness of tiles is 10 or 12 mm. Stone Fairs are regularly organised in Rajasthan to promote stone artifacts produced and to provide the necessary impetus to sculptors and craftsmen. But in the above mentioned processes. such as excavators. In some cases. India has a rich tradition of processing stones and carving jalis. are used. After studying the topography and keeping in view the further development of quarry. dozers. Congruent with this trend. Rajasthan has about 95% processing capacity in the country. These holes are charged with light explosives and under controlled blasting methods the over burden material is loosened out. In general. tippers and loaders. quarry master.

ii) Panther Marble. Such type of marble is found in Kupwara district in Jammu and Kashmir. has been termed as Verde Antique. 7. Churu district. vii) Onyx: It is a dense crystalline form of lime carbonate deposited usually from cold water solutions. viii) Travertine Marbles: It is a variety of limestone regarded as a product of chemical precipitation from hot springs. the lustre and translucency increases to an extent that it starts resembling with onyx.brown to pink. This marble is mostly used for panelling. It is used for making decorative articles. Kesariyaji and Dungarpur belong to this category. Marbles of Banswara in Rajasthan and Chhota Udaipur in Gujarat belong to this category. 8. The pink marble of Babarmal and Indo-Italian variety from Alwar belong to this category. chiefly carbonates of calcium and magnesium. v) Limestone: Several varieties of limestone are being exploited and used as marble. The depositional history has left exotic patterns which when cut into thin slabs and polished become translucent. Katra & Sirohi and Golden-yellow Marble of Jaisalmer belong to this category. Rikhabdeo. v) Black Zebra Marble. it may vary from grey to white to any colour. Rajasthan. 4. The main advantage of this marble is availability of exotic colours & patterns and its low maintenance cost. Yellow marble from Jaisalmer. The important new types other than the ones classified by BIS are given below : 1. 5. Blue marble from Desuri in Pali district. Chittaurgarh district. The marbles have also been classified by their genesis and chemical composition as under : i) Calcite Marble: It is a crystalline variety of limestone containing not more than 5% magnesium carbonate. BIS has classified marble into 10 different groups vide IS-1130-1969 (reaffirmed in 2003) on the basis of colour. These are i) Plain White Marble. iii) Dolomite Marble: It is a crystalline variety of dolomite containing in excess of 20% magnesium carbonate as dolomite molecules. Rajasthan. This type requires frequent maintenance in the form of polishing as they are non-metamorphosed and hence are softer in nature. ii) Dolomitic Marble: It is a crystalline variety of limestone containing not less than 5% or more than 20% magnesium carbonates as dolomite molecules. Rajasthan. Chocolote-brown or wood-finish marble from Mandaldeh. Most of the green marbles from Gogunda. It is generally transparent to translucent and shows a characteristic variegated colour layering due to mode of deposition. Rajasthan.5. 2. Parrot green marble from Jhilo in Sikar district. It has variegated colours and textures. The darker variety of this marble. In addition. Rajasthan. many new varieties of marble have been brought into the folds of classification especially after opening of new mining areas. Purple marble from Tripura Sundari in Banswara district. Black Marble of Bhainslana. vii) Pink Adanga Marble. 3. It is difficult to cut and polish this type of marble but once polished. Pista marble (amphibolite variety) from AndhiJhiri belt. The Oolitic limestone of UK. it gives a pleasant look.2002) for conservation. and even figurative light. Colour and designwise. iv) Plain Black Marble. and x) Brown Marble. Jaipur. iii) WhiteVeined Marble. 6. ix) Grey Marble. 2002 (notified on 15. It is available in several colours and designs. Alwar and Dausa districts. POLICY The Central Government has brought forth Marble Development and Conservation Rules. systematic development and scientific mining of marble with a purpose to provide a uniform framework that would be applicable 56-6 . Chocolate-brown and English teak wood marble from Jodhpur district. Rajasthan. It has various shades of green varying from parrot-green to dark-green and is known for having varying degrees of veinlet intensities of other minerals. vi) Green Marble. which is so dark-green that it looks like black. Rajasthan. shade and pattern. iv) Siliceous Limestone: It is a limestone containing high silica with smooth appearance due to fine-grained texture. vi) Serpentine or Green Marble: This marble is characterised mainly by the presence of a large amount of serpentine mineral.MARBLE CLASSIFICATION A variety of marbles are produced and marketed under various trade names. As the whiteness increases. viii) Pink Marble. Brown green and golden ultramafics from Dunkar.

On the other hand. Further. As per the export-import policy announced for the years 2004-09 and the Foreign Trade Policy as amended with effect from 1st April 2008. The other nonconventional uses of marble are in toothpaste. is quantitatively less with funeral art accounting for the largest percentage. etc. strength and resistance to fire and erosion. statues. such as carved figures. The tiles in sizes ranging from 10 x 10 cm to 60 x 60 cm are used for floors. slabs and tiles) IS:1130-1969 (reaffirmed in 2003) are summarised as under: i) Classification: Marble shall be classified as white and coloured categories. 40 x 40 cm. value is US$ 2. Normally. 2515. Different marble varieties are used basically as both interior and exterior vertical wall cladding and flooring. flower vases and many other pieces of art. lavatory tops. stairs. The slabs are also used for interior and outer facings. In interior Moisture absorption after 24 hours immersion in cold water Hardness Specific gravity 0. 6802. iv) Physical properties: The physical properties of blocks. fireplace facing & hearth. The facility is not available on marble products processed/manufactured in Nepal using imported marble. table tops. Their use as structural elements (masonry). jalis. 20 x 20 cm. however. the minimum area of the lease to be granted should not be less than 4 hectares and should not exceed 50 hectares. monuments and sculptures. The tiles shall be supplied preferably in sizes of 10 x 10 cm. allowed only through Port of Kolkata on conditions applicable under ISFTA. Import of restricted marble and travertine items from Sri Lanka under India-Sri Lanka Free Trade Agreement (ISFTA) is. widths 30 to 100 cm and thicknesses from 20 to 150 mm. Its utility value lies in its beauty. no lease is to be granted unless there is an approved mining plan. the minimum and maximum periods for grant of a marble lease are 20 years and 30 years. iii) Sizes: Marble blocks shall be supplied in lengths ranging from 30 to 250 cm. No. etc. Marble has its application in interior & exterior wall cladding. 30 x 30 cm.i. Mohs' scale IS : 1122-1974 v) Workmanship: The edge of slabs and tiles shall be true. travertine and alabaster can be imported freely under heading No. agricultural lime. 1) Characteristic Requirement Method of Test IS : 1124-1974 USES AND SPECIFICATIONS Marble is used widely in buildings. 2.700 and above per cu m except in case of import of marble products from Nepal.f. respectively. the imports of crude or roughly-trimmed marble & travertine. 56-7 . application such as for floors. residential & commercial counter tops. the exemption is applicable only on imports which have been processed/manufactured out of marble mined in Nepal. handrails and balustrade for staircases. marble is used in the form of 20 mm thick cut-to-size slabs. kitchen platforms. Indian standards for marbles (blocks. The finishes shall be sand and/or abrasivefinish. as given under : Physical Properties of Marble Sl. blocks. table tops. widths 30 to 100 cm and thicknesses 30 to 100 cm.5 min. interior & exterior paving. whiting. statues and novelty items. The selected marble blocks free from cracks and other inclusions are used for making artifacts. 50 x 50 cm and 60 x 60 cm with thickness ranging from 18 to 24 mm in the same piece. fire places. 6802 under ISFTA through Kolkata Port subject to conditions.MARBLE throughout the country. epitaphs. slabs and tiles shall conform to the requirements. As per these rules. slabs and ecaussine & other calcareous monumental or building stone are restricted while imports of alabaster are freely allowed under heading No. provided the c.4% max. ii) General requirements : Marble shall be free from foreign inclusions and prominent cracks. The slabs shall be supplied in lengths ranging from 70 to 250 cm. Marble items can also be imported from Sri Lanka under heading No. honed-finish or polished-finish. Other sizes as agreed upon by supplier and purchaser may also be supplied. dadoes and for skirting in thickness ranging from 10 to 20 mm. worked monumental blocks/tiles of marble. etc. by weight 2) 3) 3 min. paint. However. graves.

Turkey. India. T h e T I FA C ( Te c h n o l o g y I n f o r m a t i o n Forecasting and Assessment Council) in collaboration with Regional Research Laboratories and Central Building Research Institute ( CBRI ). 3) After drying. the finer fraction of slurry becomes airborne and causes serious air pollution which is not only detrimental to human beings but also to vegetation and machinery. Main suppliers of marble were Italy (37%). mined out pits disturbing local flora & fauna and water table of the area. have found many uses of slurry by developing masonry cement.264 tonnes in 2007-08 from 290. When this slurry dries up. This marble slurry is being dumped by the processing plants at the nearest site available or in the notified areas marked for dumping near the plants.e. tiles. Roorkee.5 to 7).158 tonnes in 2007-08 from 212. degradation and removal of top soil.522 tonnes in the previous year. Spain. Exports were mainly to China (13%). 2) Areas with dumped slurry cannot support vegetation.022 tonnes shared 65% imports while the remaining 35% imports were of other marbles.8 to 10). Imports of dressed marble at 193. The processing waste of marble cutting plants comes out in the form of 'Marble Slurry'. FOREIGN TRADE Exports Exports of marble increased to 311. Recently. exports of dressed marble at 247. Greece. Brazil and Portugal.140 tonnes constituted 79% while exports of other marbles at 64. Imports Imports of marble increased to 297. WORLD REVIEW Resources of natural stones are substantial in the world and almost every country produces dimension stones. utilisation of smaller blocks in tiling plant has created a new way for judicious utilisation of the mineral resource. In addition. distempers. Italy.based plane/fibre-reinforced boards and blocks. cellular concrete. are China. followed by Turkey (22%). Oman and China (7% each) and Sri Lanka (6%) (Tables .112 tonnes in the previous year. The major environmental problems due to marble slurry are listed below: 1) The slurry when dumped on open land affects adversely the productivity of the land as it reduces the porosity and prevents ground water recharge. gypsum plaster. The environmental degradation during mining of marble is akin to any opencast mining activities. unsized blocks and rubbles generated from mining of blocks and from overburden when dumped unsystematically pose serious hazards. 56-8 . Hong Kong (12%) Egypt (11%).MARBLE ENVIRONMENT The environmental degradation of the land due to marble mining is much less than the environmental degradation caused by the waste from marble processing plants. i. Out of total marble exported in 2007-08. Major exporting countries of marble in the world.124 tonnes accounted for remaining exports. USA and Nepal (7% each) and Italy (6%) (Tables . the rejected blocks. it leads to serious environmental pollution.

6 : Exports of Marble (Dresssed) (By Countries) 2006-07 Country Qty. (t) All Countries USA UK Belgium China Hong Kong Egypt Italy UAE Nepal Spain Other countries 233027 7103 2260 407 36251 66006 36689 14973 6644 18249 6635 37810 Value (Rs. ’000) 64124 6089 5792 4385 5328 1800 4016 953 1687 1567 867 31640 1205950 211131 133366 84854 84023 72555 58969 40258 36304 25685 24515 434290 Table . ’000) 247140 16158 12715 11888 39946 36741 32822 14216 7757 21400 5431 48066 2877795 444307 411580 327519 266858 204930 159460 149074 134297 110907 83275 585588 2007-08 Table . ’000) 1757662 204432 42331 5362 204670 306745 153387 142066 62449 106074 76092 454054 Qty. Value (t) (Rs. ’000) 297158 110584 64018 20766 17699 19633 14761 10433 10927 4775 5328 18234 5275339 1703883 941776 559838 544817 463621 261896 174699 137886 88417 72266 326240 2007-08 56-9 . Value (t) (Rs.8 : Imports of Marble : Total (By Countries) 2006-07 Country Qty. Rep. Value (t) (Rs. ’000) 2809996 453178 64916 21856 233256 215490 113696 308070 156371 162429 109246 971488 Qty. of Turkey UK Other countries 57085 6345 4181 3013 5812 430 4128 760 1460 2769 714 27473 Value (Rs. Value (t) (Rs. (t) All Countries USA Italy UAE Spain Netherlands Saudi Arabia France Korea. (t) All Countries Italy Turkey Oman Sri Lanka China Egypt Spain Iran Nepal Vietnam Other countries 212522 81205 33162 8576 28071 7018 15831 4581 7818 5604 12558 8098 Value (Rs.5 : Exports of Marble : Total (By Countries) 2006-07 Country Qty. ’000) 4227144 1324470 557114 288257 917902 216876 270332 87731 112748 89183 173592 188939 Qty.MARBLE Table . (t) All Countries USA UK Belgium Italy China UAE Hong Kong Egypt Spain Nepal Other countries 290112 13448 2974 861 19154 37739 9657 66051 36837 12447 18619 72325 Value (Rs. ’000) 1052334 248746 91190 51247 86337 15601 55991 19009 32661 48071 22585 380896 2007-08 Qty. ’000) 311264 22247 13582 12178 20008 40435 12142 36782 34218 10759 21981 86932 4083745 655438 436095 337474 282440 273814 219151 205427 184052 167298 115829 1206727 2007-08 Country Table : 7 : Exports of Marble (Others) (By Countries) 2006-07 Qty.

10 : Imports of Marble (Others) (By Countries) 2006-07 Country Qty. 56-10 . Value (t) (Rs. ’000) 104136 18297 21479 16944 13730 5417 3860 1399 848 1399 4957 2464079 486934 439518 388955 271925 131423 87033 36941 20788 18579 94165 2007-08 FUTURE OUTLOOK The dimension stone. ’000) 193022 89105 50288 9344 9206 6573 2689 2469 1893 2809 3929 14717 2811260 1264365 669851 130473 111744 87666 74666 72904 56999 55936 53687 232969 2007-08 Table . Marble industry has to gear up to meet the increasing demand for exports as well as for domestic consumption in foreseeable future.MARBLE Table . ’000) 1628294 227533 365582 163579 188665 26456 31898 22573 23487 31413 61759 Qty. ’000) 2598850 958888 368449 243876 97650 55833 53297 60724 432553 88836 142179 96565 Qty. there is a major concern over low recovery of finished product. is being used more commonly in domestic markets. Value (t) (Rs. marble. In the world. there is an urgent need to invent sophisticated machinery to minimise losses during mining and processing. finishing and hauling technology. India with its rich tradition of craftmanship and trained artisans could impact the world market in discernible ways.9 : Imports of Marble (Dresssed) (By Countries) 2006-07 Country Qty. It is articulated that improved quarrying. (t) All Countries Oman Italy China Turkey Egypt Spain Bhutan Greece Vietnam Other countries 58361 6517 16878 5534 6742 1186 1285 950 570 2231 2388 Value (Rs. (t) All Countries 154161 Italy 64327 Turkey 26420 Egypt 14645 Iran 6776 Spain 3296 China 1484 Oman 2059 Sri Lanka 13991 Nepal 5590 Vietnam 10327 Other countries 5246 Value (Rs. As the industry is growing. The demand for artifacts specially carved work is on the rise the world over. availability of many varieties of marble and the rising cost of alternative construction materials could be the factors that would keep marble high in demand in the immediate future. India has a great export potential as well as large domestic market.

Sign up to vote on this title
UsefulNot useful