Milk and milk Products Food microbiology Group 6 What is milk?

 Milk is the basic food of all new born mammals produce by their mothers as a liquid.  Made in mammary glands ( breast and udders) from which the baby get nourishment. Composition  Fresh whole milk contains 88 % of H2O and the remaining contains fat, protein, and lactose. These gives its color, taste, and nutritional value.  Whole milk contains 3% fat which supplies body with calories for energy. ◦ Most of 150 calories in an 8 ounce( 237 ml) glass of milk come from this fats.  Protein ( in milk) is in form of casein and whey protein. ◦ Needed for tissue building ◦ 40 % of daily protein required for a young person is supplied by a quart (0.95 ml) of milk.  Lactose is a carbohydrate that is easily burned for energy Milk Products

◦ ◦ ◦ ◦

Evaporated milk, (less concentrated than condensed) milk without added sugar Ricotta cheese, milk heated and reduced in volume, known in Indian cuisine as Khoa Infant formula, dried milk powder with specific additives for feeding human infants Baked milk, a variety of boiled milk that has been particularly popular in Russia

 Butter, mostly milk fat, produced by churning cream ◦ Buttermilk, the liquid left over after producing butter from cream, often
dried as livestock food

◦ ◦ ◦ ◦ ◦ ◦ ◦ ◦ ◦ ◦

Ghee, clarified butter, by gentle heating of butter and removal of the solid matter Smen, a fermented clarified butter used in Moroccan cooking. Anhydrous milkfat

 Cheese, produced by coagulating milk, separating from whey and letting it  Milk after optional homogenization,pasteurization, in several grades after
standardization of the fat level, and possible addition of bacteria Streptococcus lactis andLeuconostoc citrovorum ◦ Crème fraîche, slightly fermented cream ripen, generally withbacteria and sometimes also with certain molds Curds, the soft curdled part of milk (or skim milk) used to make cheese (or casein) Paneer Whey, the liquid drained from curds and used for further processing or as a livestock food Cottage cheese Quark Cream cheese, produced by the addition of cream to milk and then curdled to form a rich curd or cheese made from skim milk with cream added to the curd Fromage frais

 Clotted cream, thick spoonable cream made by heating  Smetana, Central and Eastern European variety of sour cream ◦ ◦ ◦ ◦
Cultured buttermilk, fermented concentrated (water removed) milk using the same bacteria as sour cream Kefir, fermented milk resembling buttermilk but based on different yeast and bacteria culture Kumis/Airag, slightly fermented mares' milk popular in Central Asia Milk powder (or powdered milk), produced by removing the water from milk  Whole milk products  Buttermilk products

 Skim milk
    Whey products Ice Cream High milk-fat & nutritional products (for infant formulas) Cultured and confectionery products

 Casein ◦ Caseinates ◦ Milk protein concentrates and isolates ◦ Whey protein concentrates and isolates ◦ Hydrolysates ◦ Mineral concentrates  Yogurt, milk fermented by Streptococcus salivarius
thermophilus and Lactobacillus delbrueckii ssp. bulgaricus sometimes additional bacteria, such as Lactobacillus acidophilus

◦ ◦

Condensed milk, milk which has been concentrated by evaporation, often with sugar added for longer life in an opened can Khava, milk which has been completely concentrated by evaporation, used in Indian sweets (Gulab Jamun, Pedha and many more)

ssp. with

◦ ◦

Ayran Lassi

 Clabber, milk naturally fermented to a yogurt-like state

When the water is removed. yogurt with emulsifiers that is frozen  Other 190 to 200 F (87. -2 to 3 days up to 2 to 3 months. Heating is at 160 F (71.forming • Bacillus • Clostridum • The percentage of reduction of microorganisms in milk during pasteurization will depend upon the proportion of thermoduric bacteria present in milk and may range from 90 to 99 percent. water and manure • Milking pail/ milking machine • Utensils • Hand-milkers/ other dairy workers • Processing plants • Preservation • Asepsis • Removal of microorganism – Pasteurization (phosphatase test) • 62 C (143 F) • 71 C (160 F) – Cooled rapidly at 10 C. digestibility and nutritive value of milk. Cream is more protective to organism than is milk. Objectives: 1. Drying .Condensed products . and flavoring and coloring materials – along with contamination picked up during processing will determine the microbial content after pasteurization of mix and freezing. Destroy organism that would interfere with the activities of desirable organisms. stabilizers. lesser fat than ice cream  Ice cream.Dry products *COOLING Chilling (refrigeration) -The temperature of the food is lowered but not low enough to solidify its water content to ice. The cooling is especial important on farms with low production of cream where it may accumulate for 3 or 4 days or even longer. • Cream for butter making is given a greater heat-treatment during pasteurization than market cream. PRESERVATION AND SPOILAGE OF MILK AND MILK PRODUCTS • Contamination • Exterior of the animal (udder and adjacent part/ milking machine) • Contamination with soil. *Steam under pressure Use of low temperature Cooling . sugar. dulce de leche and Skyr *Boiling – Usually employed at home – Destroy microorganism except the spore of bacteria – Changes the appearance. but freezing kills few if any of the organism. and unless may undergo deterioration by microorganism .Chilling and freezing * For the production of milk good quality it is essential that it is cooled promptly after it is drawn from the cow. The Grade A Pasteurized milk Ordinance of the United States Public Health Service stipulates that Grade A raw milk for pasteurization shall be cooled 50 F or less within two hours after drawn and kept that cooled until processed. cream. and cream for butter making is likely contain a higher population of microorganisms than most lots of milk. slowly frozen cream and emulsifying additives ◦ Ice milk ◦ Frozen custard ◦ Frozen yogurt. The temperature is about 0 C. slowly frozen milk and water.1C)or above for 30 minutes by holding method. of course. reduces numbers and kinds of microorganism. Thermodurics – Non. palatability. or . • Should kill all yeast and molds and most vegetative cells of bacteria in the milk.temperature. Pasteurization.8 to 93. and storage in frozen state permits survival of microorganisms for long periods. *DRYING -Microorganism requires plenty of free water.short. CONTAMINATION. Freezing -Temperature below 0 C. * Ice cream and other frozen dairy desserts are frozen as part of the manufacturing process and are stored at low temperatures in the frozen state where microbial multiplication is impossible. *The microbial content of the ingredients – milk. Rapid heating of cream may be by means of injection of steam or by combination of stem injection and evacuation in a process known as vacreation. the growth of microbes stop.3 C) for a few seconds by high. -The rates of enzymatic activity and chemical reactions are reduced. Improve keeping quality 3. Vla.sporforming • High temperature lactics • Miccrococcus – Spore. Gelato.time method. To kill all the pathogens 2. * Cream for butter should be cooled to 60 F or lower after separation and kept cooled until packed or delivered. ◦ ◦ ◦ ◦ Viili Kajmak Filmjölk Piimä.

Usually the fermentation is continued until the acidity is about 0.7 to 0. Flavor Changes • Sour or acid flavor • Bitter flavor • Curnt or caramel flavor • Miscellaneous other flavors Color Changes . • When it sours. Packaging is to atomize losses of moisture and penetration of oxygen.9 percent as lactic acid. to prevent the growth of most bacteria and decrease the numbers of those that not so salt-tolerant. lactis at about 70 F (21. diacetilactis and L. cathode rays and gamma rays have been tried experimentally to destroy most of the microorganisms in milk and lengthen the keeping time. Kumiss.900 cycles. -To make moisture unavailable to microorganisms and to draw moisture to them. *addition of sorbic acid. ordinarily made from mare’s milk. butter and ice cream has been traced as an aid as preservation. The drying and the chemical preservatives from the smoke may improve the keeping quality. propionic acid or propionates or by incorporation in the wrapper can prevent or delay the mold spoilage in cheese. • Low temperature • Destruction of lactics and other acid formers by heat • Molds and film yeast Ropiness • Stringiness caused by mastitis. -For controlling the growth of microorganisms during manufacture and curing. especially ultrasonic vibrations with a frequency of about 8. -in salted butter is in a concentration in the liquid phase. sorbates. bulgaricus. it usually is considered spoiled. Microorganism found in milk: • • • • • • • • Salmonella Brucella Bacillus cereus Campylobacter Jejuni Coxiella Brunetii E . Leuconostoc dextranicum. Sodium chloride – Preservative of cream for buttermaking. Ultrasonic treatment of cheese during ripening is primarily to hasten that process rather than to kill bacteria. or of carbonates. The acidity of the fermented milks is sufficient to prevent spoilage by proteolytic or other bacteria that are not acid-tolerant. Alternating electric currents have been applied to milk as method for rapid heating is the main effect produced.1 C) to produce most of the acidity and aroma-forming bacteria. The neutralization of milk or cream by an electric current has been reported to reduce numbers of bacteria. Acidophilus milk.6 F (37 C) Yoghurt is made by mixed culture of Streptococcus thermophilus and L. citrovorum. *addition of hydrogen peroxide with mild heat-treatment is permitted for pasteurization in milk for cheese. have been combined with temperature of 40 to 50 C (104-122 F) to kill most of vegetative cells. the curing or ripening process does not greatly improve the keeping quality. which otherwise would permit growth of molds. utilizes a pure culture of lactobacillus acidophilus. S. SOUND WAVES AND ELECTRIC CURRENTS Irradiation of milk to increase the vitamin-D content is not for its preservation. especially when it curdles Gas Production • By bacteria usually accompanied by acid formation and with few exemptions is undesirable • Clostridium • Bacillus Proteolysis • The hydrolysis of milk proteins by microorganisms usually is accompanied by the production of a bitter flavor caused by some peptides released.USE OF PRESERVATIVES Added preservatives Sugar – Acts as a preservative of sweetened condensed milk. In general. Chilling is necessary to stop acid formation and bottling and sealing to avoid mold growth. Bulgarian buttermilk is made by growth of pure culture of Lactobacillus bulgaricus at about 98. Developed preservatives Cultured buttermilk and sour cream result from the action of Streptococcus cremoris and S. The rays inhibit mold growth on the sides of the curing cheese exposed to them directly. Buttermilk made by means of a ropy variety of Streptococcus lactis. All completely cured cheeses require storage at chilling temperature to aid in their preservation. Sound waves. add flavouring substances like diucetyl? And acetic acid. X-rays. although losses in moisture occur during the aging of long-cured hard cheeses. *the carbonation of milk. results from fermentation by a mixture of lactics and yeast. USE OF RADIATIONS.Coli 0157:H7 Listeria Monocytogenes Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis SPOILAGE of Milk and Milk Products • Milk Is an excellent culture medium for many kinds of microorganism. as from organic acids such as citric acid. as from urea. Common salt – added in the manufacture of various kinds of cheese. *the smoking of the cheese is for addition of flavor. Irradiation of rooms to reduce the numbers of microorganisms in the air in processing rooms. fibrin and leukocytes from the cow’s blood • Enterobacter • Lactis var Change in Milkfat • Oxidation of the unsaturated fatty acids • Hydrolysis of the butterfat • Combined hydrolysis and oxidation Alkali Production • Bacteria which cause an alkaline reaction in milk without any evidence of proteolysis • May result from the formation of ammonia.

bacteria that survive pasteurization • Contamination from equipment Heat-resistant microbes storage Condensed and Dry Milk Products • Bulk condensed milk • Evaporated milk • Sweetened condensed • Butter Flavor Defects Color Defects • • .• Blue milk • Yellow milk • Red milk • Brown milk Temperature • Caused by succession of microorganisms • Pseudomonas. and molds • Pasteurization (HTST) • Thermodurics.

Sign up to vote on this title
UsefulNot useful