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Topic 1 1. Egressive pulmonic airstream expulsion of air from the lungs through the mouth and nose. 2.

. Ingressive pulmonic airstream - movement of air into the lungs. 3. Speech organs : Protrusion at the front of the mouth. Sound produced as a result of airstream. Teeth Located on both upper jaw and lower jaw. Teeth on the upper jaw known as upper teeth, lower jaw as lower teeth. Palate The roof of the mouth. Can be divided into continuous parts. Tongue Can be divided into 3 parts; tip, front and back. Tip touch behind upper teeth, front rest below hard palate, back below the soft palate. Epiglottis At the end of our throat; protect what we eat and drink from going to the lungs. Close the windpipe when we swallow. Larynx Upper part of the windpipe. Sometimes referred as voice box. Vocal Consist 2 lip-like elastic membranes. cords When it closed together during the sound production, it vibrates and produces buzzing noise. 4. Articulatory organs form 2 tracts where the airstream has to pass through before they released. 1st oral tract ; starts from pharynx through oral cavity between the palate and tongue. 2nd nasal tract ( nasal cavity ) ; air flows through nose. Sound released through nose called nasal sounds. 5. Place of articulation Bilabials the 2 lips ; ban, pan, man, win Labio-dentals upper teeth and the lower lips ; fan, van Interdental tongue behind upper teeth ; thin, then Alveolar tongue touch hard palate ; tin, dine, nine, live Hard palate (palatals) palayo-alveolar, palate-velars ; ship, cheap, judge Soft palate (velar) coat, goat, sing Glottis ( glottals) *refer numb 11 hat 6. Manner of articulation in English sounds = how the airstream is obstructed and closure of the cavity flows through. Lips

7. Nasal cavity : a case in which the velum is lowered through nose Oral cavity : a case in which the nasal cavity is blocked by raising the velum through mouth Nasals Plosives or stops Fricatives Sibilants Affricates Total nasal cavity blockage ; met, net. Airstream obstructed sudden released ; pat, bat, tap. Continuous friction at point of articulation ; fin, van, thin . Sin, zoo, then. Combinations of plosives and fricative ; cheap, judge. Partial obstruction airstream ; win, year. Row, live.

Approximants/Semivo wels liquids 8. Phonation (ingat telephone) = the vibration of the vocal cords in the production of sound. 9. Voiceless/fortis = not vibrate during articulation because the glottis are opened and the flows out (f) ; pat, kite, fin. 10.Voiced/lenis = vibrate; the glottis is closed and the airstream flows together ( v) bat, pad, gate. 11.Glottis = space between the vocal cords.

Topic 2 1. Stop consonants/plosives = produced with complete obstruction of airstream. Bilabial stops = pear, pit / boy, buy Alveolar stops = tea, tear / dig, do Velar stops = kid, kite / go, give 2. Nasal consonants = 3 places of articulations similar to stop consonants. Bilabial nasal = my, mother Alveolar nasal = nine, nag Velar nasal = sing, bring 3. Fricative consonants = 9 fricatives ; the airstream can escaped through a puncture. labio dental = five, fog / van, veal

interdental = Thursday, throw / thus, this alveolar = sad, site / zoo, zeal palatal = sheep, sugar / measure, treasure

4. Affricate consonants = 2 affricate ; involves a combination of stop and fricative which contain less energy and less air escaping ; child, chill / jab, jeep. 5. Approximant consonants / glide sounds = similar to the production of vowels, which little obstruction to the airstream. All app are voiced (vibrate). bilabial = produced with slight lip rounding ; win, with. alveolar = tongue being slight raised to alveolar region ; like, lice, ring, ran. palatal = which orthographically associated with letter y; you, yes.

6. English vowels = the quality of the vowel sound in relation to the height of the tongue and the advancement of the tongue also lip rounding, the strength and length. 7. Short vowels : Short front vowels = terms of their height from high to low ; bid (i), bed (e ), bad (ae). Short central vowels = central mid vowel being slightly lower than the vowel ; the (9), but (^). Short back vowel = terms of their height from high to low contrast the two short back vowel ; put (u), pot (C). 8. Long vowels: Long front = length of the sound ; sheep (i:) / ship (I) Long central = slightly lower than central mid vowel ; the bird ( 9:) Long back =3 long back ; soon (u:), sore (c:), spa (a:) 9. Diphthong = combination of 2 vowels similar in length to a long vowel. The 1st vow in diph more prominent of the length and the 2nd much shorter in duration. Centering diph = hear (i9), hair (e9), poor (u9). Closing diph = bay (ei), buy (ai), boy (ci) Closing back diph = go (9u), now (au)

10.Triphtongs = combination of 3 vowels and not random. Closing front = player (ei9), fire (ai9), loyal (ci9) Closing back = lower (9u9), power (au9)

Topic 3 Segmental Features of speech

1. Assimilation = a regular process in spoken or connected speech in which a particular sound or phoneme changes to become more like an adjacent sound. 2. Progressive assimilation = sound changes to match a preceding (before) phoneme ; best man, credit card, dress shop. 3. Regressive assimilation = the sound changes to match the following phoneme ; bad pain, good cook, cheese shop. 4. Voicing ass = a phoneme change to match the phonation of a previous or following sound. 5. Morphophonemic rule = pronunciation of the plural morpheme and the past morpheme in English ; bee-bees ( bi:-biz), miss-missed (mist). 6. Elision = sound segments to be deleted or omitted (silent k = knee) ; camera / vegetable. 7. Linking = sound segments of a word are seldom discrete or clearly separated from the sound of other words. They become linked or connected. ; media event, four apes.

Topic 4 Topic 4 English Syllabus and word stress

1. Syllable a basic unit of speech which consist of a peak that has little or no obstruction to airflow and which sounds comparatively loud. e.g : bat /bt/ is a monosyllable (one-syllable) word. The centre or peak of the syllable is the vowel //. The consonants /b/ and /t/ surrounds this peak are both plosive / stop sound.

2. Peak (p) also known as nucleus /n/ = centre 3. Coda (c) which include all consonants that follow the peak in a syllable.

Monosyllable with only the peak : Type Monosyllable with only one peak Description Roach (2003), calls these minimal syllables. E.g are and or.

Are ----- syllable ( ) -------rhyme (r) ------- peak (p) ------- / : /

Or ------ syllable ( / ------- rhyme (r) ------ peak (p) ------ / symbol tulis sendiri /

Monosyllable with onset and peak Type Mono syllable with onset and peak Description Some mono syllabic words have only a peak and onset. E.g : sea and car

Refer page 35

Read table page 36 and 37susah nak buat dlm bentuk tablehuhuhuhuhu!

Word stress 1. Indicate word stress by capitalizing the stressed syllable. e.g : information = inforMAtion to indicate the stress on the third syllable

a) Stress in nouns Nouns of two syllables are stressed on the first.

e.g : motherbooklet

tower

Word with more than two syllables e.g : potato camera relation emperor horizon

compliment

Apartment disaster quantity custody

appendix reincarnation

b) Stress in verbs Are stressed on the stronger vowel.

e.g :

exercise

exacerbate

c) Stress in adjectives The stress falls on the first syllable of the two syllable adjectives.

e.g :

fatal stellar

More than two syllables The stress is placed on the stronger penultimate syllable accidental peripheral

e.g :

d) Stress in compound nouns Stress is given to the first part of the compound noun.

e.g :

black . board

tooth . brush

note . book

Topic 5 1. Intonation = associated with the rise and fall of the tone of the voice. Also been referred as pitch. Actually realized as a supra segmental feature of speech. 2. Prosody = variations of length, pitch and loudness that occur the level of the segment. 3. The length in utterance relates: the relative durations of a numb of successive syllables

the duration of a given syllable in one environment relative to the same syllable in a different environment.

4. Tonic syllable = the most prominent within the intonation group containing the syllable by the variation or change pitch and also carries the tonic stress. (stress word/suku kata) 5. Pre-heads = is composed of all unstressed syllable. 6. Head = the first stressed syllable & all subsequent syllables before the tonic syllable. 7. Patterns of eng intonation = 5 : fall, rise, fall-rise, rise-fall, level. Fall = affirmatively or declaratively, state a proposition. Rise = often used during asking questions. Fall-rise / Rise-fall = single syllable or stretches across several syllables. Level = the tone using a constant pitch and the level sound is robotic and artificial eg, in the elevator.

Topic 6 Function of intonation 1. Attitudinal = to express emotions and attitudes of the speaker. 2. Grammatical = to resolve the grammatical functions of an utterance. 3. Discourse (formal/dikalangan/situasi tertentu/maksud tersirat,emphasis) = play important role in social interaction and communication and change the meaning for emphasis. Attitudinal Fall Definiteness,Assured, Confidence he is yusoff? Rise Unsure, encouraging are u going? Uncertain, doubt perhaps Grammatical To state or assert he is yusoff. Discourse New information giving she is arriving on Thursday. Invitation to another to talk yes. Focusing attention on shared information the car (as u know) belongs to en. Ali.

To questions, to seek confirmation where r u going? Question tag contras and comparison he is a tr isnt he? He is angry but not upset.

Fallrise

Risefall

Surprised, impressed they won the gold medal.

Topic 7 Speech analysis : acoustic phonetics

1. The air pressure fluctuation or sounds can be captured and converted into speech waves graphs. 2. Duration the length of time taken to utter the segment. 3. Amplitude - loudness of the sound.

Classification of speech waves 1. Silence no sound ; occurs as a part of a plosive consonant. Also in speech pauses. Seen as a straight line 2. Plosion sudden flow of air due to the build-up and subsequent release of a pressure difference. 3. Friction noise turbulence due to air that is forced through a narrow constriction 4. Voice - repetitive opening and closing of the vocal cords

Burst most noticeable in the aspiration of initial voiceless plosive sounds. Random wave does not have a regular pattern. Fricative sounds normally produce random waves. Periodic wave the wave pattern is repeated and consistent over a duration of time. Most vowel sounds do exhibit periodic wave.