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BRIDGE REHABILITATION

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CHAPTER 5
SOME GENERAL PROBLEMS OF
BRIDGE REHABILITATION
5.1 General Considerations
Although rehabilitation problems concerning a given bridge structure
should be considered individually, i.e., depending on the situation, there
are several general problems that are required to be solved in every case.
These general problems can be formulated as a set of the following
fundamental questions:
(a) does the bridge need to be utilized at all?
(b) how long is the bridge predicted to be utilized?
(c) what is the technical condition of the bridge and its safety?
(d) what are the current and predicted traffic conditions (i.e., the changes
in traffic intensity and speed, weights of the vehicles and their types,
etc.)?
(e) is the bridge functionally adequate for current or predicted traffic
conditions?
(f) is the load-carrying capacity adequate for the current or predicted live
loads (i.e., mainly road or railway traffic) and other types of loads
(e.g., wind load) acting on the structure?
(g) what are the structural and material possibilities to repair, rehabilitate,
strengthen or modernize the bridge geometrically?
(h) what are the costs of the above mentioned actions, including the costs
of traffic difficulties, compared with the costs of the new bridge?
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86 Bridge Rehabilitation
(i) what are the maintenance costs before and after the repair, rehabilitation,
strengthening or geometrical modernization of the bridge?
(j) what are the historical merits and aesthetics of the bridge?
(k) what is the role of the bridge in the development plan concerning the
given town or out-of-town areas?
The questions denoted by (a), (b), (d) and (e) may be classified into the
utilization group of problems, the questions denoted by (c), (f) and (g) —
into the structural and material group, while the questions denoted by (h)
and (i) — into the economical group. The questions denoted by (j) and (k)
belong to the architecture and urban planning group of problems. It is
obvious that all the above groups have references to each other and should
be considered when making decision concerning bridge evaluation and to
determine the technical and economical actions needed to enable safe
utilization of the bridge according to the required traffic conditions. The
decision making process is schematically illustrated in Fig. 5.1.
Each of the above listed questions demand some comments to explain
their technical and economical meanings. Some of the problems are more
widely presented in the next sections of this chapter (cf. Secs. 5.2–5.5).
The question denoted by (a) seems to be somewhat controversial and
nonsensical. However, in cases concerning mostly old bridges, further
utilization may not be needed due to the following reasons:
• a road or railway line is inactivated or closed to normal traffic, e.g.,
when the bridge is located along the industrial road to a quarry or mine
that is shutdown,
• when the location of the existing bridge is not in accordance with
current development plans and the structure is earmarked to be
removed, e.g., an old viaduct (overpass structure),
• when the bridge, especially its superstructure, is completely destroyed
(e.g., by a military action) and should be replaced by a new structure.
Of course, some other reasons indicating unprofitableness of bridge
utilization may also occur. When the answer to question (a) is “not”, the
bridge can remain in place or it can be wholly or partially disassembled.
Some structural members can be used for other construction purposes,
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Some General Problems of Bridge Rehabilitation 87
Fig. 5.1 Decision making process for evaluation of the bridge and its further safe
utilization.
5.1
Inspection
and testing
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88 Bridge Rehabilitation
some parts of the materials can be recycled. However, when the historical
merits of the bridge are particularly valuable (the answer to question (j) is
required), the bridge can be subjected to restoration and presented as an
historical structure. In other words, the whole bridge or some of its parts
can be arranged in the form of a specific “museum piece”, e.g., in the case
of Alsea Bay Bridge
5.2
or the first fully-welded bridge in the world
completed in 1929 over the S»udwia river near ºowicz, central Poland.
5.3
However, if the answer to question (a) in a great majority of cases is
“yes”, then the answers to questions (b)–(k) should be formulated.
Answer to the questions (b), (d), (e) and (k) are normally based on the
development plan as well as the traffic studies (which are beyond the
scope of this book) of a given area.
Depending on the technical condition, structural and functional adequacy
and required service (mostly traffic) conditions as well as the required
technical service life, different technical actions may be undertaken, such
as local or major repair, strengthening, widening of the deck, replacement
of the whole bridge superstructure, rebuilding of the bridge piers including
foundations, etc.
The technical condition of the bridge and its load-carrying capacity and
safety (questions (c) and (f)) are usually estimated with the use of techniques
briefly presented in Chapters 3 and 4 as well as using various theoretical
analyses, briefly presented below (Sec. 5.2).
Special attention should be given to questions (g) and (h), which are
both multi-component problems and have many references to each other.
They are also of technical and economic nature. It should be pointed out
that in the economic analysis, the costs connected with traffic difficulties
during the construction work should be taken into account. The most
important aspect of bridge rehabilitation, strengthening or geometrical
modernization that makes it different from the construction of a new
bridge, is that it can be performed under normal traffic, some traffic
limitations (e.g., closure of one lane) or when the bridge is closed to
traffic during the period required for work on the bridge. Therefore,
depending on the individual situation, rehabilitation of the existing bridge
may require the construction of a temporary bridge (i.e., by-pass bridge)
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Some General Problems of Bridge Rehabilitation 89
located in the vicinity of the rehabilitated structure to enable the road or
railway traffic to proceed in some cases, or the traffic may be rerouted
through other existing neighboring bridges. The above situation can be
considered as an example to indicate that the additional costs resulting
from disturbances to normal traffic are an important component of the
total rehabilitation costs. In any case, traffic management should be
developed as an inherent element in the rehabilitation project.
In many cases, especially when the technical condition of the bridge is
estimated to be relatively low but its further utilization is necessary
because of transport and social needs, it is recommended to compare the
costs of rehabilitation and modernization with the costs of construction of
a new bridge (question (h)). In certain cases, replacement of the old
structure by a new one is economically and technically justifiable. In
many situations, the replacement concerns some parts of the structure
only. For instance, when the bridge deck is required to be widened to add
new lanes, the whole of the old deck may be replaced by the new one
while the main girders or other main structural members remain the
same
5.4
or are adequately strengthened (cf. Chapters 6 and 7).
It should also be mentioned that the maintenance costs before and after
rehabilitation or modernization should be analyzed (question (i)) after
taking into account the predicted period of bridge utilization. The
maintenance costs may be sometimes higher after rehabilitation, e.g., due
to heavier traffic than before, replacement of some concrete elements by
steel ones, etc. On the other hand, an increase in the rehabilitation costs in
many cases resulting from the use of materials of high quality, is justified
by a decrease in the maintenance costs during the years of further utilization
of the bridge.
Some other economical problems connected with bridge rehabilitation
are presented in Sec. 5.3.
The structural and material possibilities for rehabilitation of the bridge
should be carefully analyzed (question (g)).
The structural possibilities are closely connected with the structural
system of the bridge. In some cases, the system remains in its original
form after rehabilitation, but in many situations, the system is changed
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90 Bridge Rehabilitation
during rehabilitation or modernization to improve the durability of the
bridge, e.g., by providing continuity to the concrete superstructure over the
bridge piers (cf. Sec. 3.1, Fig. 3.2). Moreover, depending on the structural
system, bridge rehabilitation or modernization may vary in complexity. For
instance, when the concrete bridge superstructure consists of a series of
parallel precast stringers or beams, their repair or replacement is easier
than in rehabilitation of a concrete superstructure constructed in the form
of a voided slab cast-in-place. The structural system can also affect the
sequence of the rehabilitation or modernization works as well as traffic
management during these works. For instance, when the superstructure of
a highway bridge consists of two longitudinally separated, parallel structural
parts, the two-way traffic may temporarily proceed through one structural
part only.
Some other structural problems concerning bridge rehabilitation or
modernization are presented below (Sec. 5.2).
The possible materials for bridge repair and rehabilitation are also of
prime importance. There are a great variety of high-quality products
available for bridge repair. There are also many techniques and relevant
equipment of various types for bridge rehabilitation and strengthening
(cf. Chapters 6 and 7). Therefore, choice of the appropriate material
should be preceded by an extensive analysis of the properties of the repair
material and the costs of the material, in order to select an optimum
solution from both technical and economic points of view. It should be,
however, emphasized that the different repair materials may not be
chemically and physically compatible. Therefore, a selection of whole
repair systems offered by many highly specialized firms is recommended.
Some other problems concerning material solution for bridge repair
and rehabilitation are presented below (Sec. 5.4).
5.2 Analytical, Structural and Design Problems
As mentioned above, the analytical, structural and design problems con-
cerning bridge repair, rehabilitation and modernization are very specific
and generally different from the problems required to be solved during the
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Some General Problems of Bridge Rehabilitation 91
Table 5.1 Fundamental differences between analytical, structural and design problems
concerning bridge repair, rehabilitation or modernization and design and construction of
new bridges.
Fundamental problems
to be solved
Bridge repair, rehabilitation
or modernization
Design and construction
of new bridge structures
1. Estimation of the func-
tional adequacy for
current or predicted
traffic conditions.
2. Estimation of the requi-
red load-carrying capa-
city of the bridge.
3. Estimation of the tech-
nical condition of the
bridge.
4. Properties of the struc-
tural materials assumed
for statical calculations
and dimensioning.
5. Properties of the repair
materials.
6. Model for statical calcu-
lation.
Yes
(1)
Yes
Yes
In general, the actual pro-
perties are determined experi-
mentally “in situ” or on the
specimens taken from the
structure.
In general, the properties are
assumed according to the
manufacturer information or
sometimes checked experi-
mentally.
The calculation model can be
the same as in the original
design process or more
complex (e.g., three dimen-
sional) than the original one
due to the use of modern
calculation technique (i.e.,
with computers).
No
(2)
. All geometrical para-
meters are assumed according
to traffic, navigation or other
needs.
No. Required load-carrying
capacity is a fundamental
design criterion.
No. Current, more or less
routine inspection during con-
struction stages.
In general, material charac-
teristics are taken from the
relevant design standards.
No. In some particular cases,
when damage occurs during
construction, repair materials
can be used.
In general, no changes in the
calculation model are in-
cluded when the relevant
design model is selected.
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92 Bridge Rehabilitation
Table 5.1 (Continued)
Fundamental problems
to be solved
Bridge repair, rehabilitation
or modernization
Design and construction
of new bridge structures
7. Traffic management du-
ring building works.
8. Construction and mate-
rial costs.
9. General economics.
10. Design standards and
other regulations.
Special project should be
developed. The works may be
performed under normal
traffic, under some traffic
limitations or when the bridge
is closed to traffic. Cons-
truction of bypass bridge is
necessary in some cases.
Exact costs, especially the
material ones, are difficult to
determine prior to work on the
bridge (e.g., the actual volume
of deteriorated concrete
needed to be replaced can only
be determined during the
works itself).
In some cases, the costs of
rehabilitation or moderni-
zation of the bridge should be
compared with the costs of a
new bridge (i.e., bridge re-
placement costs).
The design standards and
other regulatory requirements
dating back to the period of
the bridge design and con-
struction should be taken into
account and compared with
current ones.
No. In general, no major
traffic problems occur, exclu-
ding some traffic disturbances
in cases of construction of
new bridges in urban areas.
The construction costs, espe-
cially material costs, can be
determined exactly.
In general, the costs of various
structural solutions are
compared to each other.
The current design standards
and other relevant technical
regulations have to be
observed.
(1)
Yes — means the problem needs to be solved.
(2)
No — means the problem does not need to be solved.
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Some General Problems of Bridge Rehabilitation 93
design and construction of new bridges. In many cases, they are even
more difficult than those related to new structures.
The fundamental differences between the above problems concerning
bridge repair, rehabilitation or modernization and design of new bridges
are listed in Table 5.1.
The information listed in Table 5.1 is not complete (some other problems
can be certainly included) and of a general nature. However, it evidently
indicates that all the technical actions concerning bridge repair, rehabilitation
or modernization always concern existing bridges, which are normally
utilized through a certain period, in other words, bridges having a history
of service, whereas the construction of a new bridge is a starting point to
the history of the bridge. This fundamental and probably somewhat
philosophically expressed difference leads to the many technical and
economical consequences presented below.
Excluding routine bridge repair, the relevant calculations should be
performed prior to bridge rehabilitation, strengthening or geometrical
modernization. A key problem is the structural model assumed for the
calculations. As mentioned in Table 5.1 (No. 6), there are in general two
main options, namely:
(1) the use of a model assumed for design and dimensioning of the
bridge,
(2) the use of a more complex model than that used for design.
Rehabilitation, improvement in load-carrying capacity or geometrical
modernization of the bridges usually concern old structures. They have
been designed in the years when the more advanced calculation models
are not used in the design process because of their labor-consuming nature
resulting from the lack of appropriate calculating tools such as computers.
Implementation of computer-aided design and its common use allows
more complex structural models for statical or other calculations to be
applied, e.g., the three-dimensional, spatial models instead of the one-
dimensional (e.g., beam) or two-dimensional (e.g., plane frame) ones. This
possibility is of prime interest especially in cases of old bridges in
relatively good condition but requiring strengthening because of heavy
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94 Bridge Rehabilitation
traffic and an increase of vehicular weights compared to previously
designated service conditions. It should be pointed out that a safety margin
in the load-carrying capacity can result from the calculation model; the
use of more advanced models representing the true structure more exactly
may reveal the fact that the required strengthening is not necessary.
Therefore, the structural model assumed for calculation has its technical
and economic consequences. In general, the use of more advanced models
leads to economic profits.
There are many structural models for bridge calculation and a great
variety of relevant computer programs. Their presentation is beyond the
scope of this book. However, it is worth indicating generally the various
models and methods which can be used for bridge calculation. They are
exemplified in Table 5.2 by the methods concerning calculation of slab
and girder (or stringer) concrete bridge superstructures.
Detailed presentation of the criteria for the selection of an adequate
calculation model is beyond the scope of this book. However, it should be
emphasized that one-dimensional model (i.e., beam model) is too simple
and does not allow the determination of the transversal load distribution in
bridge structure. Two-dimensional or three-dimensional models should be
applied with the use of the relevant, commonly available computer programs
(software). In general, the two-dimensional models are applied to the
calculation of the whole superstructure, whereas the three-dimensional
models are used for the analysis of certain parts of the structure, e.g., the
anchorage zone in prestressed concrete bridges. One of the fundamental
criteria in selecting a calculation model for theoretical analysis is the
mutual relation between the transversal (y-direction) and the longitudinal
(x-direction) flexural stiffness of the superstructure:
.
) (
) (
x
y
EJ
EJ

(5.1)
The case when ∝ ≈ 1 corresponds to the isotropic plate model, when 0 <
∝ < 1 corresponds to the orthotropic plate model, and when ∝ 0
corresponds to the situation where no transversal interaction between the
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Some General Problems of Bridge Rehabilitation 95
beam elements of the superstructure is observed. The relevant example
concerning the precast and composite concrete bridge superstructures is
shown in Fig. 5.2.
The other important calculation problems are material and structural
characteristics assumed for analysis. As mentioned in Table 5.1, in cases
of existing bridges required to be rehabilitated, strengthened or geometrically
Table 5.2 Fundamental methods and models for calculations of slab and girder concrete
bridge superstructures.
I. Bar models
(a) one-dimensional model (beam)
(b) two-dimensional model (grid)
II. Plate models
(a) isotropic plate
(b) orthotropic plate
(c) combined (e.g., with membrane
bending effects in the plate)
III. FEM two-dimensional model
IV. Three-dimensional models
(a) FEM method
(b) strut and tie method
(three-dimensional truss model)
A. Slab bridges
I. Bar models
(a) one-dimensional (beam)
(b) two-dimensional (grid)
II. Surface models
(a) orthotropic plate
(b) combined models (e.g., with
membrane bending effects)
(c) FEM
(1)
models
(d) other approximate models (e.g.,
Trost’s method
5.5
)
III. Three-dimensional models
(a) FEM method
(b) combined models (e.g., plate with
membrane bending effects in whole
structure and finite strip method in
some of its parts)
(c) strut and tie method
(three-dimensional truss model)
B. Girder or stringer bridges
(1)
FEM — Finite Elements Method
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96 Bridge Rehabilitation
modernized, the actual properties of the structural materials, taken from
the appropriate “in situ” or laboratory tests (cf. Chapter 4), should be
assumed for theoretical considerations. Moreover, the structural defects
and material weakening affecting a reduction in the flexural and torsional
stiffness of the structure and its individual members (e.g., the main girders,
roadway slab, floor beams, etc.) as well as influencing their strength,
should also be taken into account in the analyses.
It should also be mentioned that the structural model assumed for the
statical calculations can differ in some situations from that used for the
design of the original bridge not only because of the availability of new
Fig. 5.2 Calculation models for precast and composite concrete bridge superstructures.
5.6
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Some General Problems of Bridge Rehabilitation 97
calculation techniques, but also due to some changes planned in the
structural system itself, e.g., by providing structural continuity over the
piers during bridge rehabilitation.
A serious problem also required to be solved during the design process
prior to bridge rehabilitation or structural and functional modernization is
a change in the distribution of internal forces in the structure resulting
from active methods of strengthening, e.g., strengthening by means of
external prestressing tendons (cf. Chapter 6). Redistribution of the internal
forces and its influence on the behavior of the structure is especially
important in the case of relatively old bridges with a long service history.
An evident change in the load distribution may sometimes lead to
unexpected unfavorable effects on the behavior of the bridge after its
modernization.
In most considerations, bridge rehabilitation and modernization problems
are limited to problems concerning the bridge superstructure only. However,
in some situations, the bridge piers and abutments also need to be
rehabilitated, modernized or strengthened. For instance, the widening of
the bridge deck may demand some changes in the shape of bridge piers
and their strengthening. Moreover, the bridge foundations may need to be
strengthened. In other words, the whole bridge substructure should also be
analyzed and, if necessary, subjected to repair, rehabilitation and
strengthening, etc. (cf. Chapter 9).
The main aims of calculations concerning bridge rehabilitation,
strengthening or geometrical modernization can be therefore summarized
as follows:
(1) Determination of the load-carrying capacity of the existing bridge,
including its structural defects and material deterioration, according to
current or predicted traffic and other technical or administration
requirements — the bridge superstructure and substructure should be
analyzed.
(2) Determination of the level of strengthening, if necessary, according to
the requirements — the bridge superstructure and substructure should
be checked.
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(3) Determination of the behavior of the bridge after its rehabilitation,
strengthening or geometrical modernization, including safety margin
and the new traffic conditions, e.g., in the case of additional lanes on
the bridge deck after its modernization by widening.
As mentioned before, the results of the above listed calculations are
verified in many cases by field testing (cf. Chapter 4).
However, the calculation problems are only one of several design
problems, which can be summarized as follows:
(1) The technical condition of the existing bridge as well as the fundamental
properties of its structural materials should be known prior to the
design process.
(2) All the technical and functional (mostly traffic) conditions for the
bridge after its rehabilitation or modernization including the expected
service life of the bridge should be clearly determined.
(3) Making an inventory of the bridge is required in the case of a lack of
relevant original documentation.
(4) Comparison between the current standard or other requirements and
the original ones should be performed, if possible, to determine the
minimum scope of rehabilitation or strengthening of the bridge.
(5) Compatibility of the repair or other new materials to the original
structural materials should be a fundamental criterion of the selection
of material solutions for bridge rehabilitation (cf. Sec. 5.4).
(6) Familiarity of contractors with products and repair or rehabilitation
techniques should be taken into account.
(7) Aesthetical problems should be taken into account, especially regarding
old or important bridges (cf. Sec. 5.5).
(8) Cost effectiveness should be considered in particular (cf. Sec. 5.3).
(9) Traffic management for the period of rehabilitation works should be
developed.
5.3 Economic Problems
Economic problems of bridge rehabilitation, modernization, etc. are of
prime interest due to the great scale of needs on one hand and limited
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Some General Problems of Bridge Rehabilitation 99
funds on the other. Depending on the country as well as the economic and
financial conditions and the road or railway administration systems, these
problems are considered using various methods. Therefore, the economics
concerning bridge rehabilitation and modernization is presented below in
the most general form possible with some exemplifications taken from
practice in different countries.
Economic analysis in bridge engineering needs to consider three main
components of the costs, namely:
(1) capital costs (total investment costs), i.e., planning, design, total
construction costs, etc., denoted below by I,
(2) maintenance costs during the whole expected service life of the bridge,
denoted below by E,
(3) benefits arising from the availability and operation of the bridge
during the whole expected period of its utilization, denoted below
by B.
Therefore, the measure of the efficiency of bridge investments (ε) can
be expressed by:
.
E I
B
+
ε
(5.2)
However, the capital (I) and maintenance costs (E) as well as the
benefits (B) occur at different times with different durations. Therefore, to
compare the economic efficiency (ε) of different projects or existing
bridges as well as to evaluate the costs of different maintenance strategies,
it is necessary to bring the values of B, I and E to a common reference
time. In general, the beginning of the bridge utilization is assumed to be
the reference time. Therefore, Eq. (5.2) can be rewritten in a somewhat
different form:
,
0 0
0
0
E I
B
+
ε
(5.3)
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100 Bridge Rehabilitation
where B
0
, I
0
and E
0
are the values of B, I, and E, respectively, brought to
the above mentioned common reference time.
Assuming that the investment and maintenance expenditures as well as
the benefits vary arbitrarily in time, the following equations bringing the
unit values (e.g., the year values) of I, E and B to the common reference
time can be applied
5.7, 5.8
:
, ) 1 ln( exp ) ( ) (
0
0
]
]
]
,
¸
,
+ ⋅ (
,
\
,
(
j ′ −
q
t
t t
t i t i
i
(5.4)
, ) 1 ln( exp ) ( ) (
0
0
]
]
]
,
¸
,
+ ⋅ (
,
\
,
(
j
′ ′ −
c
t
t
t e t e
(5.5)
, ) 1 ln( exp ) ( ) (
0
0
]
]
]
,
¸
,
+ ⋅ (
,
\
,
(
j
′ ′ −
a
t
t
t b t b
(5.6)
where i
0
(t), e
0
(t) and b
0
(t) are the unit (e.g., one year) investment and
maintenance expenditures as well as the unit benefits, respectively, brought
to the beginning of the bridge utilization:
i(t), e(t), and b(t) — the unit (e.g., one year) investment and maintenance
expenditures as well as the unit benefits, respectively,
t′ — time from the beginning of the investment process,
mostly from the start of bridge construction,
t
i
— time from the beginning of investment process to
the start of bridge utilization, mostly the bridge
construction time,
t
0
— time unit (e.g., one year),
t″ — time from the beginning of bridge utilization (max
t″ t
u
, where t
u
is the whole predicted service life
of the bridge),
q, c, a — discount rates of investment and maintenance costs
as well as the benefits, respectively.
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Some General Problems of Bridge Rehabilitation 101
Particular values of the discount rates are different depending on the
country and its economic system, current financial conditions, financial
strategy, etc. According to G. P. Tilly,
5.9
the values of discount rates in the
the European countries and the United States vary from 2% to 10%
annually, but mostly from 6% to 8% in the developed countries.
The total values of I
0
, E
0
and B
0
in Eq. (5.3) can be expressed in the
following forms:

i
t
dt t i I
0
0 0
, ) (
(5.7)

u
t
dt t e E
0
0 0
, ) (
(5.8)

u
t
dt t b B
0
0 0
, ) (
(5.9)
where i
0
(t), e
0
(t) and b
0
(t) are expressed by Eqs. (5.3), (5.4) and (5.6),
respectively, t
u
is the whole predicted service life of the bridge with other
notations as before.
In practice, the integration sign (∫) in the above equations can be
replaced by the summation sign (∑) and the integrands by the functions
with linear variation in particular time intervals (e.g., during the year).
Equations (5.3)–(5.9) include all the most important economic and
social characteristics such as investment expenditures and their freeze
time, maintenance costs and benefits during the whole expected service
life of the bridge, etc.
Equation (5.3) indicates that the higher the value of ε
0,
the more
economically efficient is the bridge. It assists in making decisions concerning
selection of projects competing for expenditure.
It should be emphasized that the investment (I
0
) and maintenance (E
0
)
expenditures are relatively easy to predict and their determination or
planning are more of a technical and economic nature than of a social one,
while prediction of the benefits (B
0
) requires an extensive economic and
social study including not only the direct transport effects but also some
indirect effects occurring in domains other than transport itself.
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102 Bridge Rehabilitation
Direct benefits (B
0
′ ) occur in the transport domain and consist mainly
of time saving and fuel economy due to more effective road or railway
system resulting from bridge operation.
Indirect benefits (B
01
″) consist mainly of an increase in economic
activity and economic values of buildings or recreation grounds in the area
where the bridge is located and utilized. These indirect benefits can be
classified as calculable and predictable ones. However, other indirect
benefits (B
02
″) resulting from bridge operation also occur, such as an
improvement in various social and cultural domains. They are rather
difficult to be exactly determined using routine calculation methods but
should be taken into account during the decision-making process.
It should be pointed out that in many situations, indirect calculable
benefits can be greater than the direct benefits (i.e., B
01
″ > B
0
′ ). However,
a more particular analysis of this problem is beyond the scope of this book.
The method of analysis summarized by Eqs. (5.2)–(5.9) can be used
for both evaluation of new projects and to make a “ranking list” for bridge
rehabilitation and modernization. The only difference is the replacement
of investment costs by rehabilitation or modernization costs and the
appropriate calculations of the benefits. For instance, it is evident that in
many situations, the costs of traffic delays can be many times greater than
the costs of bridge works and therefore, the time for bridge rehabilitation
or modernization should be minimized whenever possible. As mentioned
previously, determination of the benefits requires extensive studies perform
in general not only by bridge engineers but also by traffic engineers, town
and country planners and long-term planners.
However, the method presented in its general form above can also be
applied in a somewhat simpler form as presented by G. P. Tilly
5.9
regarding
highway bridges and defined as “whole life costing (WLC)”.
WLC method includes the costs of construction, maintenance, traffic
management and traffic delays as well as the benefits resulting from the
availability and operation of the bridge. The costs are discounted to the
present value (PV) according to:
,
) 1 (
t
r
C
PV
+

(5.10)
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Some General Problems of Bridge Rehabilitation 103
where C is cost at current price levels, r is the discount rate and t is the
time period expressed in years.
Introducing the calculable benefits at current price levels (B) into
Eq. (5.10), the net present value (NPV) can be expressed by:
,
) 1 (

+

t
r
C B
NPV
(5.11)
with all notations as before.
It should be noticed that the NPV can be negative when costs exceed
benefits. In such a case, construction, rehabilitation or modernization of
the bridge is economically not justified. However, it should also be
noticed that the discount rate (r) is a dominant element and depending on
its value, the NPV can be more or less profitable.
Other new information on economic evaluation of bridge structures can
be found, e.g., in Refs. 5.10 and 5.11.
Of course, the analysis of bridge efficiency is highly computerized at
present. For instance, the traffic delay costs and its relation to the bridge
works can be assessed by the program QUADRO (Queues and Delays at
Roadworks) used in the Great Britain.
5.12
In certain Bridge Management Systems (BMS, cf. Chapter 4), there are
special sub-modules focussing on bridge repair, rehabilitation or
modernization. One of them being applied in Portugal is presented by F.
A. Branco and J. de Brito.
5.13
The decision-making process is performed
according to the cost effectiveness index (CEI ), indicating “how well the
proposed workplan compares to the no-action option”. The CEI is expressed
by:
,
) (
) (
action - no
repair
B C
B C C
CEI
F
F R

− +

(5.12)
where C
R
is repair (or other action) costs, C
F
is the failure costs and B is
the benefits.
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104 Bridge Rehabilitation
Equation (5.12) indicates that the bigger the CEI is for a particular
option, the better an investment is that option. It allows the selection of
the most effective options for a given bridge as well as to make a “ranking
list” of the needs for the whole bridge stock in the country or its road
administrative regions. Moreover, an optimization procedure enables
selection of the repair or rehabilitation technique when more than one
technique is taken into consideration. Each technique has an associated
cost and estimated service life in a special module based on the expert
knowledge system.
An example of a cost analysis performed according to F. A. Branco and
J. de Brito
5.13
is briefly presented below to explain the fundamental
problems of bridge economy and management. Irrespective of its particular
nature, this example can be considered as characteristic for analysis
performed prior to bridge rehabilitation or modernization.
The example concerns a concrete highway bridge with continuous
beam spans with lengths 18 + 21 + 18 m and the slab deck with a total
width of 9 m and two lanes. The bridge was opened to traffic in 1987 and
its service life is predicted for 50 years (i.e., up to the year 2037). The
traffic study has shown that the so-called “area of influence” of the bridge
operation on the road length is equal to 12.5 km.
The first step of the analysis was a study of the evolution of functional
costs. The rate of evolution of the traffic was predicted based on data
collected during the service years of the bridge. It was assumed that due to
repair works on the bridge or at rush hour, traffic delay may occur and
20% of the potential traffic volume will choose other roads. An increase
in traffic through the bridge was assumed at 15% annually. The benefits
included traffic delay, traffic flow detour and heavy traffic detour. The
functional failure costs were determined as a reduction of the functionality
of the bridge. Therefore, it can be concluded that a benefit is equivalent to
a negative functional failure cost. The results of the long-term economic
analysis is shown in Fig. 5.3.
It can be noticed that at the end of the predicted service life, the
increase in functional failure costs due to delay is so evident that they
exceed the global annual benefits. Figure 5.3 also shows that to maximize
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Some General Problems of Bridge Rehabilitation 105
the net present value (NPV) of the bridge (cf. Eq. (5.11)), it should be
replaced by a new one when the total annual costs are equal to the total
annual benefits (i.e., in 2017), assuming that the cost of opportunity of
capital equals the discount rate. In other words, Fig. 5.3 indicates the
economically justified functional service life of the bridge when no action
is undertaken to increase its traffic capacity.
The second step of the analysis was a consideration concerning the
increase of bridge traffic capacity by widening the deck from two lanes to
three with the assumption that the extra lane will be used alternatively,
according to the rush hours. Five options were studied: no-action option
(option 0, Fig. 5.4), the widening of the deck in 1995 (option 1), 2000
(option 2), 2005 (option 3), and 2010 (option 4).
The following additional assumptions for the analysis were made:
• the load-carrying capacity of the bridge in terms of the maximum allow-
able live load is not affected by the widening of the deck — therefore, the
costs of heavy traffic detour are the same for all the options,
• the structural failure costs are affected by the widening of the deck, but
they are almost the same for all the options.
Fig. 5.3 Evolution of functional costs.
5.13
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106 Bridge Rehabilitation
The direct costs of the deck widening were calculated at 1991 present
value costs (PV, cf. Eq. (5.10)) as US $60 000. The costs of traffic delay
and light traffic detour were taken into consideration. The costs of the
deck widening are different depending on the option taken because they
occur at different times, as shown in Fig. 5.4.
The influence of the deck widening date on the traffic delay costs
(i.e., a part of the functional failure costs) is shown in Fig. 5.5. The peak
values correspond to the local traffic delay costs during the construction
periods.
The influence of the deck widening date on the detoured light traffic
(i.e., other part of the functional failure costs) is shown in Fig. 5.6. The
peak values indicate the fraction of the total in excess traffic detoured
during the construction periods.
The results of the economic analysis biefly presented above can be
summarized numerically by the values of the cost effectiveness index
(CEI, cf. Eq. (5.12)). These values, corresponding to all the options
considered, are as follows
5.13
:
Fig. 5.4 Costs of deck widening.
5.13
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Option 0 (no-action) → CEI = 1.0000
Option 1 (1995) → CEI = 1.8982
Option 2 (2000) → CEI = 1.8942
Option 3 (2005) → CEI = 1.8507
Option 4 (2010) → CEI = 1.7551
Fig. 5.5 Influence of deck widening on traffic delay.
5.13
Fig. 5.6 Influence of deck widening on light traffic detour.
5.13
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108 Bridge Rehabilitation
F. A. Branco and J. de Brito present the following conclusions resulting
from the above analysis
5.13
:
• Any of the options that considers widening the deck is preferred to the
no-action option;
• The best option is to widen the deck in 1995 or a date between 1995 and
2000 as the first two options have very close results. A more localized
analysis would be necessary to reach a definite conclusion;
• Deck widening will significantly increase the functional service life, a
situation that is particularly interesting as the end of the bridge structural
life will probably not occur in 2017.
However, it should be added that some of the assumptions made in the
analysis need to be verified using sensitivity analysis. For instance, the
assumed increase in annual traffic (15%) should be verified in particular.
It should also be mentioned that computer technique is an especially
useful tool for economic analysis in bridge management, where a great
amount of data processing and numerical simulations are necessary.
However, the input data should be technically and economically justified
in any case. It requires relevant studies prior to the use of computer
technique itself. Economic analysis belongs to the most important
moduli in the highly computerized bridge management systems (BMS., cf.
Chapter 4).
It is obvious that because of their importance, economic problems
concerning bridge rehabilitation and modernization demand to be much
more widely presented than it is done above; they require a separate book
devoted entirely to this subject. However, the limitation of the above
presentation to selected problems only serves to be a sufficient base for
the readers to read about further, more particular studies. More detailed
economic considerations are beyond the scope of this book.
5.4 Material Solutions and Repair Techniques
Material solutions as well as repair techniques are especially important in
bridge rehabilitation. There are many available materials or repair systems
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Some General Problems of Bridge Rehabilitation 109
and associated techniques which can be used. More detailed information
on these problems is presented in later chapters, especially in Chapters 6
and 7, which are devoted to the rehabilitation of concrete and steel bridge
superstructures. General information regarding the repair of concrete bridges
can be found in Ref. 5.14, where the particular extensive references are
also included and discussed. Problems concerning the selection of repair
materials for concrete structures are discussed by D. Plum,
5.15–5.17
L. Czarnecki and M. Suchan.
5.18
They are also the subject of relevant
international and national regulations and standards, e.g., Refs. 5.19–5.21.
However, irrespective of the structural material, i.e., steel, concrete,
wood or stone, there are certain general rules required to be observed in
the design process concerning bridge rehabilitation and during the
rehabilitation works. Therefore, some of the most important problems
related to material solutions and repair techniques are briefly presented
below in a general form.
To select an appropriate material solution and an adequate repair
technique, the following problems should be solved by bridge inspection,
“in situ” or laboratory tests (cf. Chapter 4), theoretical analysis, etc., and
known prior to the selection. The fundamental problems are presented
below as a series of questions:
(a) what are the causes of material deterioration?
(b) what is the nature and type of material deterioration in the bridge
structure?
(c) what is the scale of material deterioration — local or global, i.e.,
occurring in a large part of the structure?
(d) what is the depth of deterioration — only the surface, deeper or
throughout the structural elements?
(e) which element of the structure have deteriorated — primary or
secondary ones and what is their location in the structure (e.g., external
or internal, exposed or not)?
(f) what are the environmental conditions — e.g., normal, moderate or
strongly aggressive chemically?
(g) what is the location of material deterioration with respect to internal
forces in the structure — e.g., in the tensile or compressive zones?
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110 Bridge Rehabilitation
(h) what is the main purpose of bridge repair or rehabilitation — e.g.,
restoration of previous load-carrying capacity or its upgrading,
assurance of required tightness (in case of concrete bridge), restora-
tion of both required load-carrying capacity and tightness?
(i) what is important in the repair — aesthetic only or affecting the
structural behavior?
Answers to all these questions are the basis for the selection of an
appropriate material solution.
Of course, the particular names of repair products or material systems
are not given in this section of the book nor in the following chapters —
specification or promotion of particular material solutions is not the
subject of the book. It is necessary, instead, to present certain fundamental
criteria and conditions, which should be fulfilled by the repair materials.
In the case of steel bridge, repair problems are more concerned with
the selection of repair techniques adequate to the given situation than the
repair material itself (cf. Chapter 7). Repair materials for steel bridges
are mostly steel and steel products (e.g., cables) or, in some situations,
composite materials and products such as strips or sheets (cf. also Chap-
ter 7). However, the properties of steel as repairing material should
conform to structural steel. This requirement concerns mainly weldability
of both steels and avoidance of corrosion cell when the steels are not in
electrochemical conformity.
In the case of concrete bridge, repair problems are much more complex
and concern both selection of repair materials and repair techniques (cf.
Chapter 6). Because of the different natures and types of material and
structural deterioration (cf. Chapter 3) and the necessity to repair or
protect two different materials, i.e., concrete and reinforcing or prestressed
steel, there are a great variety of material and technique solutions. They
are presented in Chapter 6. The general requirements concerning the
material to repair concrete are presented below.
It should be mentioned that the requirements have varied in time.
During a relatively long period, the similarity of the constituent materials
in the repairing material and the material to be repaired (i.e., “concrete to
concrete” repair) has been considered a fundamental condition.
5.18, 5.23
It
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Some General Problems of Bridge Rehabilitation 111
has eliminated the use of new materials. However, the principal rule for
the use of repair materials has changed during recent years.
5.18, 5.24
This
rule can be formulated as follows: the repairing material and the material
to be repaired should be physically and chemically compatible. In other
words, a good interaction between these two materials should be assured.
This good interaction can be defined as the material ability to conserve
stresses or strains within allowable limits under required service conditions
and in the desired period of time.
5.18
More general requirements for the repairing materials can be classified
into two main groups as follows
5.18
:
(a) basic requirements, which should be fulfilled by any repairing material
as a necessary condition, but not always a sufficient one,
(b) additional requirements, which depend on the type of repair and
environment and together with the basic requirements make a sufficient
condition.
The above requirements are presented in particular in Chapter 6.
However, to explain the problem, it should be indicated that the bond,
measured usually by means of the “pull off” method, is normally a
decisive factor influencing interaction between the repairing material and
the material to be repaired. Therefore, the bond belongs to the basic
requirements (i.e., to group (a)), like shrinkage, which should be low.
Some other material properties, such as compressive strength, modulus of
elasticity, permeability, diffusion coefficient for CO
2
, Cl

and water vapor
as well as coefficient of thermal expansion (α
t
), belong to the additional
requirements (i.e., to group (b)).
It should be emphasized that when the repairing material and material
to be repaired have different values of the coefficient α
t
, the factor, which
may influence the behavior of the repaired system, is not the coefficient
value itself, but the product (α
t
⋅ E), where E is the modulus of elasticity.
The difference between (α
t
⋅ E) for these two materials influences the
stress in their contact layer. This problem should be taken into account in
bridge repair due to the fact that the bridges are exposed both to the
variation in ambient temperature and solar radiation. For this reason, some
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112 Bridge Rehabilitation
practical guides for the use of repair material with the coefficient of
thermal expansion and modulus of elasticity as close as possible to the
existing concrete are recommended.
5.22
Finally, it should be mentioned that the selection of appropriate material
for bridge repair and rehabilitation is difficult and requires a lot of
engineering experience and even “technical intuition”. The standardization
of this problem is at its initial stage, e.g., Ref. 5.25 and does not sufficiently
include the specificity of bridge structures.
Selection of repair techniques for concrete bridges is closely associated
with the type of repairing material and scale, type, shape (e.g., shallow or
deep repairs) and location of the material and structural deterioration.
There are many techniques for use — from hand methods (e.g., hand-
applied mortar) to highly mechanized ones (e.g., pneumatically applied
mortar or pumping concrete), including special robots.
One of the basic selection criteria is the easy and safe application of
the repair technique. Moreover, it should be taken into account that the
bridge repairs are usually performed in extremely difficult conditions
concerning both accessibility to the deteriorated structural elements and
the works under normal traffic.
More detailed information on repair techniques applied to the rehabili-
tation of concrete bridges is given in Chapter 6.
5.5 Maintenance Problems
Maintenance problems should also be taken into consideration in the
decision-making process concerning bridge rehabilitation and moderniza-
tion. These problems are presented below in a general form, irrespective
of the structural system and structural material of the bridge. More
detailed aspects are discussed in the following chapters.
A specificity of the considerations can be characterized by the following
main problems needed to be solved:
(a) A relation between the costs of repair materials and repair techiques
used for bridge rehabilitation and the maintenance costs after
rehabilitation requires special analysis and the use of optimization
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Some General Problems of Bridge Rehabilitation 113
procedures. In general, an increase in material and labor costs leads to
a decrease in maintenance cost during bridge service after rehabilitation.
Therefore, the required bridge durability and prediction of its service
life are necessary for making optimum decision concerning selection
of material and technique solutions.
(b) Bridge rehabilitation cannot be limited to the structure itself or their
individual members. It should also include repair or replacement of
bridge equipment elements, such as drainage system, expansion joints,
pavement, insulation, etc. It is commonly known that deterioration of
the structure results mostly from the poor condition and low quality of
these elements or their insufficient routine maintenance and
conservation. The modern bridge equipment elements are of high
quality and durability, but their use evidently increases the costs of
bridge rehabilitation. In spite of it, replacement of the “old” equipment
elements instead of their repair is in general technically and
economically justified by an evident improvement in bridge durability.
However, this problem requires individual analysis in any situation.
(c) In the case when rehabilitation of the bridge is associated with its
modernization, e.g., by the deck widening, the maintenance problems
should also be analyzed. The existing deck may be entirely replaced
by a new one or the “old” deck can remain (entirely or partially),
and the new parts of the deck may be joined to the “old” one. In both
these situations, the maintenance conditions can be different to those
before modernization; this is mainly due to modernization or
replacement of the drainage system, expansion joints, insulation,
pavement, etc. Therefore, this problem also needs to be solved.
(d) The inspection and routine maintenance of the bridge should be easier
to carry out than before its rehabilitation. It should be taken into
account during the design process. Appropriate equipment (e.g.,
inspection platforms or scaffoldings, spiders, ladders, etc.) enabling
access to the structural members to check their technical condition
should be installed.
(e) For maintenance purposes as well as to enable future replacement of
bridge bearings or other operations, slight changes in the original
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114 Bridge Rehabilitation
structure can be recommended during bridge rehabilitation, e.g., special
cavities in the heads of the bridge piers for the installation of jacks for
lifting up the bridge superstructure to replace the bridge bearings.
The above maintenance problems connected with bridge rehabilitation
and modernization are selected only to exemplify a great variety of
engineering tasks and to indicate that any problem should not be ignored.
5.6 Aesthetic Problems
Aesthetic problems should also be deeply analyzed prior to bridge
rehabilitation itself. The rehabilitation is, in many situations, associated
with the evident change in the original structural form of the bridge (e.g.,
by providing structural continuity over the piers) and the change in its
color. The change in color may concern both structural elements (e.g.,
main girders in steel bridges) and bridge equipment elements (e.g.,
balustrades). The bridge color is a very important factor affecting both the
appearance of the structure itself and the aesthetic value of the bridge
surroundings.
Aesthetics is especially important when the bridge is geometrically
modernized by the widening of its deck. This operation strongly influences
the bridge appearance. Depending on the structural system, the deck
widening can require additional girders or beams. It may demand the
widening or strengthening of the bridge piers. Therefore, the original
shape and the geometrical proportions of the structure can be distorted.
Similarly, in some situations, the superstructure can be lifted to increase
the clearance under the bridge. It requires some changes in the geometry
of bridge piers, which also affects the general bridge silhouette.
Some other problems concerning the aesthetic aspects of bridge
geometrical modernization are presented in Chapters 6, 7 and 10.
Aesthetic problems also occur in cases of bridge strengthening, especially
when external prestressing tendons (cf. Chapter 6) are used. Because of
aesthetical requirements, the tendons are located between the girders or
beams and not visible within their depth in the bridge elevation.
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All the above examples indicate that bridge aesthetics belongs to the
important problems concerning bridge rehabilitation, strengthening and
geometrical modernization and also affect the selection of structural and
material solutions.
However, aesthetic problems are particularly important when bridges
of considerable architectural or historical values need to be rehabilitated
or modernized. Depending on its individual value and traffic functionality,
the historical bridge can be restored, modernized or replaced by a new
structure. One of the options is closing the bridge to normal traffic and
subsequent utilization of the structure as a specific technical museum (cf.
Sec 5.1).
When a historical bridge with an architectural heritage is restored
without any changes in its architectural form, the repair materials should
be selected in accordance with the requirements concerning preservation
of monuments and historical buildings. These requirements are beyond the
scope of this book. More information on the restoration of historical
buildings can be found, e.g., in Ref. 5.26.
When a bridge of considerable historical value is geometrically
modernized (e.g., by the deck widening), every planned change in its
architectural form should be analyzed to minimize the loss of historical
and aesthetic merits of the structure.
As mentioned above, some other aesthetic aspects of bridge repair,
strengthening, and modernization are presented and discussed in more
detail in the next chapters.
References
5.1. A. Madaj and W. Wo»owicki, Construction and Maintenance of Bridges
(Wydawnictwa Kominiacji i ºcznoÑci, Warszawa, 1995) (in Polish).
5.2. M. D. Miller, “Alsea Bay bridge replacement”, Proc. Fourth Int. Bridge
Eng. Conf., Vol. 1, 28–30 August 1995, San Francisco, pp. 80–87.
5.3. Stefan Bry»a, Faculty of Architecture, Warsaw University of Tech-
nology, Warsaw, 1995 (in Polish).
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116 Bridge Rehabilitation
5.4. J. Bongard, “Renovation and transformation of the Perolles Bridge
in Fribourg”, Extending the Lifespan of Structures, IABSE Symp.,
San Francisco 1995, IABSE Report, Vol. 73/1, pp. 107–112.
5.5. H. Trost, Load Distribution in Girder Bridges (Werner Verlag,
Duesseldorf, 1961) (in German).
5.6. J. Langrock, J. Schuchardt, and W. Verch, Construction of Concrete
Bridges (VEB Verlag fuer Bauwesen, Berlin, 1979) (in German).
5.7. Z. WasiutyZski, Analysis of the Economic Efficiency in Bridge Engi-
neering (PWN, Warszawa, 1964) (in Polish).
5.8. W. Radomski et al., Problems of Construction of Contemporary Con-
crete Bridges (WK

L, Warszawa, 1982) (in Polish).
5.9. G. P. Tilly, “Principles of whole life costing”, in Safety of Bridges, ed.
by P. C. Das (Thomas Telford, 1997), pp. 138–144.
5.10. P. R. Vassie, “A whole life cost model for the economic evaluation
of durability options for concrete bridges”, ibid., pp. 145–150.
5.11. D. M. Frangopol, “Application of life cycle reliability-based criteria
to bridge assessment and design”, ibid., pp. 151–157.
5.12. D. Jones, “The appraisal of traffic delay costs”, Proc. Seminar
“Whole Life Costing of Concrete Bridges”, Concrete Society, 1995,
pp. 27–36.
5.13. E. A. Branco and J. de Brito, “Bridge management from design to
maintenance”, in Recent Advances in Bridge Eng., ed. by J. R. Casas,
F. W. Klaiber, and A. R. Mari (Barcelona, 1996), pp. 76–98.
5.14. G. P. Mallet, Repair of Concrete Bridges — State-of-the-Art Report
(Thomas Telford, London, 1996).
5.15. D. Plum, “Materials — What to specify”, Construction Maintenance
& Repair 7/8, (1991), pp. 3–7.
5.16. D. Plum, “Materials — Why they fail”, Construction Maintenance &
Repair 9/10, (1991), pp. 3–6.
5.17. D. Plum, “Materials — How to select”, Construction Maintenance &
Repair 11/12, (1991), pp. 27–30.
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http://www.worldscibooks.com/engineering/p103.html
Some General Problems of Bridge Rehabilitation 117
5.18. L. Czarnecki and M. Suchan, “Technical requirements for repair
materials — Concrete replacement”, XVI Conf. “Concrete and Prefab-
rication”, Vol. 2, Jadwisin, Poland, 1998, pp. 465–472 (in Polish).
5.19. CEN — European Committee for Standardization: Ratified Text of
the European Prestandard ENV 1504-9:1997; Products and Systems
for the Protection and Repair of Concrete Structures — Definitions,
Requirements, Quality Control and Evaluation Conformity — Part 9:
General Principles for the Use of Products and Systems.
5.20. German Committee on Reinforced Concrete, Guidelines for the
Protection and Repair of Concrete Components, 1992.
5.21. Federal Ministry of Transport: Additional Technical Contract
Conditions and Guidelines for the Protection and Repair of Concrete
Construction Components, ZTV-SIB 90, 1991.
5.22. L. G. Silano (ed.), Bridge Inspection and Rehabilitation — A
Practical Guide (John Wiley & Sons, 1993).
5.23. J. Wood, E. King, and D. Leck, “Concrete repair materials for
effective structural application”, Construction and Building Materials
4, (1990), pp. 64–67.
5.24. D. Plum, “The behavior of polymer materials in concrete repair and
factor influencing selection”, The Structural Engineer 68, (1990),
pp. 337–346.
5.25. RILEM TC 124-SRC Draft Recommendations, “Repair strategies
for concrete structures damaged by steel corrosion”, Material and
Structures 27, (1994), pp. 415–436.
5.26. “Structural preservation of the architectural heritage”, IABSE Symp.,
Rome, 1993, IABSE Reports, Vol. 70.
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Bridge Rehabilitation

(i) what are the maintenance costs before and after the repair, rehabilitation, strengthening or geometrical modernization of the bridge? (j) what are the historical merits and aesthetics of the bridge? (k) what is the role of the bridge in the development plan concerning the given town or out-of-town areas? The questions denoted by (a), (b), (d) and (e) may be classified into the utilization group of problems, the questions denoted by (c), (f) and (g) — into the structural and material group, while the questions denoted by (h) and (i) — into the economical group. The questions denoted by (j) and (k) belong to the architecture and urban planning group of problems. It is obvious that all the above groups have references to each other and should be considered when making decision concerning bridge evaluation and to determine the technical and economical actions needed to enable safe utilization of the bridge according to the required traffic conditions. The decision making process is schematically illustrated in Fig. 5.1. Each of the above listed questions demand some comments to explain their technical and economical meanings. Some of the problems are more widely presented in the next sections of this chapter (cf. Secs. 5.2–5.5). The question denoted by (a) seems to be somewhat controversial and nonsensical. However, in cases concerning mostly old bridges, further utilization may not be needed due to the following reasons: • a road or railway line is inactivated or closed to normal traffic, e.g., when the bridge is located along the industrial road to a quarry or mine that is shutdown, • when the location of the existing bridge is not in accordance with current development plans and the structure is earmarked to be removed, e.g., an old viaduct (overpass structure), • when the bridge, especially its superstructure, is completely destroyed (e.g., by a military action) and should be replaced by a new structure. Of course, some other reasons indicating unprofitableness of bridge utilization may also occur. When the answer to question (a) is “not”, the bridge can remain in place or it can be wholly or partially disassembled. Some structural members can be used for other construction purposes,
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Some General Problems of Bridge Rehabilitation

87

Inspection and testing

Fig. 5.1 Decision making process for evaluation of the bridge and its further safe utilization.5.1

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Therefore. then the answers to questions (b)–(k) should be formulated. the whole bridge or some of its parts can be arranged in the form of a specific “museum piece”. structural and functional adequacy and required service (mostly traffic) conditions as well as the required technical service life. strengthening or geometrical modernization that makes it different from the construction of a new bridge. (e) and (k) are normally based on the development plan as well as the traffic studies (which are beyond the scope of this book) of a given area. In other words. replacement of the whole bridge superstructure.g.g.88 Bridge Rehabilitation some parts of the materials can be recycled. the costs connected with traffic difficulties during the construction work should be taken into account. central Poland. widening of the deck. (d). different technical actions may be undertaken. etc.html .worldscibooks.. rebuilding of the bridge piers including foundations.2 or the first fully-welded bridge in the world completed in 1929 over the S»udwia river near ºowicz.e.2). briefly presented below (Sec. by-pass bridge) BRIDGE REHABILITATION © Imperial College Press http://www..com/engineering/p103. The technical condition of the bridge and its load-carrying capacity and safety (questions (c) and (f)) are usually estimated with the use of techniques briefly presented in Chapters 3 and 4 as well as using various theoretical analyses. 5. is that it can be performed under normal traffic. They are also of technical and economic nature. the bridge can be subjected to restoration and presented as an historical structure.5. when the historical merits of the bridge are particularly valuable (the answer to question (j) is required). However. Special attention should be given to questions (g) and (h). The most important aspect of bridge rehabilitation. depending on the individual situation. in the case of Alsea Bay Bridge5. Depending on the technical condition. Answer to the questions (b). closure of one lane) or when the bridge is closed to traffic during the period required for work on the bridge. which are both multi-component problems and have many references to each other. strengthening.. rehabilitation of the existing bridge may require the construction of a temporary bridge (i. e. It should be pointed out that in the economic analysis. some traffic limitations (e. such as local or major repair.3 However. if the answer to question (a) in a great majority of cases is “yes”.

The structural possibilities are closely connected with the structural system of the bridge.4 or are adequately strengthened (cf. Chapters 6 and 7). The maintenance costs may be sometimes higher after rehabilitation.3. or the traffic may be rerouted through other existing neighboring bridges. is justified by a decrease in the maintenance costs during the years of further utilization of the bridge. It should also be mentioned that the maintenance costs before and after rehabilitation or modernization should be analyzed (question (i)) after taking into account the predicted period of bridge utilization. The structural and material possibilities for rehabilitation of the bridge should be carefully analyzed (question (g)). Some other economical problems connected with bridge rehabilitation are presented in Sec..Some General Problems of Bridge Rehabilitation 89 located in the vicinity of the rehabilitated structure to enable the road or railway traffic to proceed in some cases. but in many situations.g. etc. an increase in the rehabilitation costs in many cases resulting from the use of materials of high quality. the system remains in its original form after rehabilitation. especially when the technical condition of the bridge is estimated to be relatively low but its further utilization is necessary because of transport and social needs. In any case. the system is changed BRIDGE REHABILITATION © Imperial College Press http://www.worldscibooks. 5. In certain cases. the whole of the old deck may be replaced by the new one while the main girders or other main structural members remain the same5. due to heavier traffic than before. For instance. In many situations. it is recommended to compare the costs of rehabilitation and modernization with the costs of construction of a new bridge (question (h)). when the bridge deck is required to be widened to add new lanes. the replacement concerns some parts of the structure only. traffic management should be developed as an inherent element in the rehabilitation project. On the other hand. replacement of the old structure by a new one is economically and technically justifiable.com/engineering/p103. replacement of some concrete elements by steel ones. The above situation can be considered as an example to indicate that the additional costs resulting from disturbances to normal traffic are an important component of the total rehabilitation costs. e. In some cases.html . In many cases.

2). in order to select an optimum solution from both technical and economic points of view. bridge rehabilitation or modernization may vary in complexity. choice of the appropriate material should be preceded by an extensive analysis of the properties of the repair material and the costs of the material. however. 5. There are a great variety of high-quality products available for bridge repair. 5. Structural and Design Problems As mentioned above. It should be. e.g.. 5. when the concrete bridge superstructure consists of a series of parallel precast stringers or beams. 3.com/engineering/p103. parallel structural parts. Some other problems concerning material solution for bridge repair and rehabilitation are presented below (Sec. rehabilitation and modernization are very specific and generally different from the problems required to be solved during the BRIDGE REHABILITATION © Imperial College Press http://www.90 Bridge Rehabilitation during rehabilitation or modernization to improve the durability of the bridge. The structural system can also affect the sequence of the rehabilitation or modernization works as well as traffic management during these works. emphasized that the different repair materials may not be chemically and physically compatible. Fig. structural and design problems concerning bridge repair. There are also many techniques and relevant equipment of various types for bridge rehabilitation and strengthening (cf.1. the two-way traffic may temporarily proceed through one structural part only. when the superstructure of a highway bridge consists of two longitudinally separated. Chapters 6 and 7). For instance.worldscibooks. Therefore.2).2 Analytical. For instance. The possible materials for bridge repair and rehabilitation are also of prime importance. depending on the structural system. Therefore. their repair or replacement is easier than in rehabilitation of a concrete superstructure constructed in the form of a voided slab cast-in-place. Moreover. a selection of whole repair systems offered by many highly specialized firms is recommended. the analytical. Sec.4).html . by providing continuity to the concrete superstructure over the bridge piers (cf. Some other structural problems concerning bridge rehabilitation or modernization are presented below (Sec. 3.

. Estimation of the requi.. Properties of the repair In general. more or less routine inspection during construction stages.Some General Problems of Bridge Rehabilitation 91 Table 5. Properties of the structural materials assumed for statical calculations and dimensioning.1 Fundamental differences between analytical. specimens taken from the structure. assumed according to the manufacturer information or sometimes checked experimentally. repair materials can be used. navigation or other needs.html .worldscibooks. All geometrical parameters are assumed according to traffic. when damage occurs during construction. with computers). rehabilitation or modernization Design and construction of new bridge structures No(2).Yes red load-carrying capacity of the bridge. In some particular cases. Fundamental problems to be solved Bridge repair. No. material characperties are determined experi. 5. 4.com/engineering/p103.teristics are taken from the mentally “in situ” or on the relevant design standards. the actual pro. 2. BRIDGE REHABILITATION © Imperial College Press http://www. 6. the properties are materials. Required load-carrying capacity is a fundamental design criterion.g.The calculation model can be lation. Model for statical calcu. 1. Current. the same as in the original design process or more complex (e.Yes(1) tional adequacy for current or predicted traffic conditions.In general. Estimation of the func. In general. No. In general. 3. rehabilitation or modernization and design and construction of new bridges. three dimensional) than the original one due to the use of modern calculation technique (i. no changes in the calculation model are included when the relevant design model is selected.e. No.Yes nical condition of the bridge. Estimation of the tech. structural and design problems concerning bridge repair.

In general. the costs of In general. rehabilitation or modernization Design and construction of new bridge structures No.worldscibooks. excluding some traffic disturbances in cases of construction of new bridges in urban areas. Design standards and The design standards and other regulatory requirements other regulations. Traffic management du. 7. especially the The construction costs.com/engineering/p103. bridge replacement costs). the costs of various rehabilitation or moderni. performed under normal traffic. (1) Yes (2) No — means the problem needs to be solved. In some cases.g. can be rial costs. under some traffic limitations or when the bridge is closed to traffic. The current design standards and other relevant technical regulations have to be observed.Exact costs. — means the problem does not need to be solved. dating back to the period of the bridge design and construction should be taken into account and compared with current ones. 8. espematerial ones. are difficult to cially material costs.92 Bridge Rehabilitation Table 5. BRIDGE REHABILITATION © Imperial College Press http://www.Special project should be developed. determine prior to work on the determined exactly.e. Construction and mate.. Construction of bypass bridge is necessary in some cases. General economics. The works may be ring building works. 9. the actual volume of deteriorated concrete needed to be replaced can only be determined during the works itself). 10.structural solutions are zation of the bridge should be compared to each other.1 (Continued ) Fundamental problems to be solved Bridge repair. no major traffic problems occur. compared with the costs of a new bridge (i.html .. bridge (e.

Implementation of computer-aided design and its common use allows more complex structural models for statical or other calculations to be applied. plane frame) ones. A key problem is the structural model assumed for the calculations.html .g. They have been designed in the years when the more advanced calculation models are not used in the design process because of their labor-consuming nature resulting from the lack of appropriate calculating tools such as computers. Excluding routine bridge repair.worldscibooks. 6).g. rehabilitation or modernization always concern existing bridges. The information listed in Table 5. The fundamental differences between the above problems concerning bridge repair. However. (2) the use of a more complex model than that used for design. beam) or two-dimensional (e.1. This possibility is of prime interest especially in cases of old bridges in relatively good condition but requiring strengthening because of heavy BRIDGE REHABILITATION © Imperial College Press http://www. e.1 (No. rehabilitation or modernization and design of new bridges are listed in Table 5... the relevant calculations should be performed prior to bridge rehabilitation. This fundamental and probably somewhat philosophically expressed difference leads to the many technical and economical consequences presented below.1 is not complete (some other problems can be certainly included) and of a general nature.. namely: (1) the use of a model assumed for design and dimensioning of the bridge. bridges having a history of service. there are in general two main options. In many cases.com/engineering/p103. strengthening or geometrical modernization. which are normally utilized through a certain period. Rehabilitation.Some General Problems of Bridge Rehabilitation 93 design and construction of new bridges. in other words. spatial models instead of the onedimensional (e. it evidently indicates that all the technical actions concerning bridge repair. whereas the construction of a new bridge is a starting point to the history of the bridge.g. improvement in load-carrying capacity or geometrical modernization of the bridges usually concern old structures. they are even more difficult than those related to new structures. the three-dimensional. As mentioned in Table 5.

2 by the methods concerning calculation of slab and girder (or stringer) concrete bridge superstructures. the structural model assumed for calculation has its technical and economic consequences. the use of more advanced models representing the true structure more exactly may reveal the fact that the required strengthening is not necessary.html . the use of more advanced models leads to economic profits. It should be pointed out that a safety margin in the load-carrying capacity can result from the calculation model. There are many structural models for bridge calculation and a great variety of relevant computer programs.com/engineering/p103.. e. Therefore.g. However. beam model) is too simple and does not allow the determination of the transversal load distribution in bridge structure. However. when 0 < ∝ < 1 corresponds to the orthotropic plate model. ( EJ ) x (5.1) The case when ∝ ≈ 1 corresponds to the isotropic plate model. the two-dimensional models are applied to the calculation of the whole superstructure. In general. Their presentation is beyond the scope of this book. They are exemplified in Table 5. and when ∝ = 0 corresponds to the situation where no transversal interaction between the BRIDGE REHABILITATION © Imperial College Press http://www. In general.94 Bridge Rehabilitation traffic and an increase of vehicular weights compared to previously designated service conditions. commonly available computer programs (software). it is worth indicating generally the various models and methods which can be used for bridge calculation. One of the fundamental criteria in selecting a calculation model for theoretical analysis is the mutual relation between the transversal (y-direction) and the longitudinal (x-direction) flexural stiffness of the superstructure: ∝= ( EJ ) y . the anchorage zone in prestressed concrete bridges. Two-dimensional or three-dimensional models should be applied with the use of the relevant.. it should be emphasized that one-dimensional model (i. whereas the three-dimensional models are used for the analysis of certain parts of the structure.worldscibooks.e. Detailed presentation of the criteria for the selection of an adequate calculation model is beyond the scope of this book.

plate with membrane bending effects in whole structure and finite strip method in some of its parts) (c) strut and tie method (three-dimensional truss model) III. 5.g. Slab bridges I. A. Three-dimensional models (a) FEM method (b) combined models (e..g. with membrane bending effects) (c) FEM(1) models (d) other approximate models (e. The relevant example concerning the precast and composite concrete bridge superstructures is shown in Fig. Trost’s method5. Bar models (a) one-dimensional (beam) (b) two-dimensional (grid) II.worldscibooks..com/engineering/p103. FEM two-dimensional model IV. The other important calculation problems are material and structural characteristics assumed for analysis..Some General Problems of Bridge Rehabilitation 95 Table 5. strengthened or geometrically BRIDGE REHABILITATION © Imperial College Press http://www.html . Bar models (a) one-dimensional model (beam) (b) two-dimensional model (grid) II.1. with membrane bending effects in the plate) B.g. Three-dimensional models (a) FEM method (b) strut and tie method (three-dimensional truss model) (1) FEM — Finite Elements Method beam elements of the superstructure is observed. Surface models (a) orthotropic plate (b) combined models (e.2. in cases of existing bridges required to be rehabilitated.. Plate models (a) isotropic plate (b) orthotropic plate (c) combined (e.2 Fundamental methods and models for calculations of slab and girder concrete bridge superstructures. As mentioned in Table 5. Girder or stringer bridges I.g.5) III.

. roadway slab.6 modernized. Moreover.) as well as influencing their strength.html . the main girders. floor beams. the structural defects and material weakening affecting a reduction in the flexural and torsional stiffness of the structure and its individual members (e.worldscibooks. taken from the appropriate “in situ” or laboratory tests (cf. Chapter 4). It should also be mentioned that the structural model assumed for the statical calculations can differ in some situations from that used for the design of the original bridge not only because of the availability of new BRIDGE REHABILITATION © Imperial College Press http://www.g.5.com/engineering/p103. etc.2 Calculation models for precast and composite concrete bridge superstructures. should be assumed for theoretical considerations. should also be taken into account in the analyses. 5. the actual properties of the structural materials.96 Bridge Rehabilitation Fig.

according to the requirements — the bridge superstructure and substructure should be checked. Moreover.g. bridge rehabilitation and modernization problems are limited to problems concerning the bridge superstructure only. However. Redistribution of the internal forces and its influence on the behavior of the structure is especially important in the case of relatively old bridges with a long service history. modernized or strengthened. A serious problem also required to be solved during the design process prior to bridge rehabilitation or structural and functional modernization is a change in the distribution of internal forces in the structure resulting from active methods of strengthening. Chapter 6). the whole bridge substructure should also be analyzed and. In most considerations.worldscibooks. In other words. according to current or predicted traffic and other technical or administration requirements — the bridge superstructure and substructure should be analyzed. strengthening or geometrical modernization can be therefore summarized as follows: (1) Determination of the load-carrying capacity of the existing bridge.. rehabilitation and strengthening. An evident change in the load distribution may sometimes lead to unexpected unfavorable effects on the behavior of the bridge after its modernization. the bridge piers and abutments also need to be rehabilitated.com/engineering/p103.html . if necessary. Chapter 9). e. BRIDGE REHABILITATION © Imperial College Press http://www. (2) Determination of the level of strengthening. The main aims of calculations concerning bridge rehabilitation. e. in some situations. including its structural defects and material deterioration. etc. subjected to repair. the bridge foundations may need to be strengthened. strengthening by means of external prestressing tendons (cf. if necessary. but also due to some changes planned in the structural system itself. by providing structural continuity over the piers during bridge rehabilitation.Some General Problems of Bridge Rehabilitation 97 calculation techniques. For instance.. (cf. the widening of the bridge deck may demand some changes in the shape of bridge piers and their strengthening.g.

. However. 5. e.com/engineering/p103. which can be summarized as follows: (1) The technical condition of the existing bridge as well as the fundamental properties of its structural materials should be known prior to the design process. (6) Familiarity of contractors with products and repair or rehabilitation techniques should be taken into account. strengthening or geometrical modernization. Sec. As mentioned before. 5. are of prime interest due to the great scale of needs on one hand and limited BRIDGE REHABILITATION © Imperial College Press http://www. (4) Comparison between the current standard or other requirements and the original ones should be performed. (3) Making an inventory of the bridge is required in the case of a lack of relevant original documentation.g. to determine the minimum scope of rehabilitation or strengthening of the bridge. 5. etc. the calculation problems are only one of several design problems. Chapter 4). (9) Traffic management for the period of rehabilitation works should be developed.3).html . (2) All the technical and functional (mostly traffic) conditions for the bridge after its rehabilitation or modernization including the expected service life of the bridge should be clearly determined. if possible. 5. (7) Aesthetical problems should be taken into account. Sec. in the case of additional lanes on the bridge deck after its modernization by widening. (5) Compatibility of the repair or other new materials to the original structural materials should be a fundamental criterion of the selection of material solutions for bridge rehabilitation (cf.4). especially regarding old or important bridges (cf.98 Bridge Rehabilitation (3) Determination of the behavior of the bridge after its rehabilitation. including safety margin and the new traffic conditions. modernization.5). Sec. (8) Cost effectiveness should be considered in particular (cf. the results of the above listed calculations are verified in many cases by field testing (cf.worldscibooks.3 Economic Problems Economic problems of bridge rehabilitation.

worldscibooks. (5. the economics concerning bridge rehabilitation and modernization is presented below in the most general form possible with some exemplifications taken from practice in different countries.2) can be rewritten in a somewhat different form: ε0 = B0 . planning.Some General Problems of Bridge Rehabilitation 99 funds on the other.html . Depending on the country as well as the economic and financial conditions and the road or railway administration systems.2) However. (2) maintenance costs during the whole expected service life of the bridge. etc. these problems are considered using various methods... denoted below by I. namely: (1) capital costs (total investment costs). i. Eq. Therefore. the capital (I) and maintenance costs (E) as well as the benefits (B) occur at different times with different durations.e. Economic analysis in bridge engineering needs to consider three main components of the costs.3) BRIDGE REHABILITATION © Imperial College Press http://www. Therefore. In general. it is necessary to bring the values of B. (3) benefits arising from the availability and operation of the bridge during the whole expected period of its utilization.com/engineering/p103. total construction costs. the measure of the efficiency of bridge investments (ε) can be expressed by: ε= B . to compare the economic efficiency (ε) of different projects or existing bridges as well as to evaluate the costs of different maintenance strategies. I and E to a common reference time. Therefore. Therefore. I 0 + E0 (5. the beginning of the bridge utilization is assumed to be the reference time. denoted below by B. design. denoted below by E. I +E (5.

8:  t − t ′   i0 (t ) = i (t ) exp  i  ⋅ ln(1 + q ) . e0(t) and b0(t) are the unit (e.6) where i0(t). c. Assuming that the investment and maintenance expenditures as well as the benefits vary arbitrarily in time. ti — time from the beginning of investment process to the start of bridge utilization. e(t).g. BRIDGE REHABILITATION © Imperial College Press http://www.  t0    − t ′′   e0 (t ) = e(t ) exp   ⋅ ln(1 + c) . respectively. the year values) of I.g.. brought to the above mentioned common reference time. and b(t) — the unit (e.. respectively. respectively.worldscibooks.html . where tu is the whole predicted service life of the bridge). a — discount rates of investment and maintenance costs as well as the benefits. t′ — time from the beginning of the investment process. the following equations bringing the unit values (e.7. E and B to the common reference time can be applied5. I.g. one year). respectively. mostly the bridge construction time. brought to the beginning of the bridge utilization: i(t). mostly from the start of bridge construction.4) (5. q. 5. one year) investment and maintenance expenditures as well as the unit benefits. one year) investment and maintenance expenditures as well as the unit benefits.  t0   (5.100 Bridge Rehabilitation where B0. t0 — time unit (e.g.5) (5.. I0 and E0 are the values of B. and E.com/engineering/p103.  t0    − t ′′   b0 (t ) = b(t ) exp   ⋅ ln(1 + a)  .. t″ — time from the beginning of bridge utilization (max t″ = tu.

(5.. maintenance costs and benefits during the whole expected service life of the bridge. tu is the whole predicted service life of the bridge with other notations as before. during the year). financial strategy. 0 tu where i0(t). respectively. etc.3). P. According to G.5.7) (5.3) indicates that the higher the value of ε0.worldscibooks. e0(t) and b0(t) are expressed by Eqs. current financial conditions.html .9) E0 = ∫ e0 (t )dt .Some General Problems of Bridge Rehabilitation 101 Particular values of the discount rates are different depending on the country and its economic system.3) can be expressed in the following forms: I 0 = ∫ i0 (t )dt . etc. Tilly. but mostly from 6% to 8% in the developed countries. (5.8) (5. BRIDGE REHABILITATION © Imperial College Press http://www. 0 tu B0 = ∫ b0 (t )dt . 0 ti (5.com/engineering/p103. while prediction of the benefits (B0) requires an extensive economic and social study including not only the direct transport effects but also some indirect effects occurring in domains other than transport itself. the integration sign (∫) in the above equations can be replaced by the summation sign (∑) and the integrands by the functions with linear variation in particular time intervals (e. It should be emphasized that the investment (I0) and maintenance (E0) expenditures are relatively easy to predict and their determination or planning are more of a technical and economic nature than of a social one. (5. The total values of I0. It assists in making decisions concerning selection of projects competing for expenditure.9 the values of discount rates in the the European countries and the United States vary from 2% to 10% annually.4) and (5. the more economically efficient is the bridge.6).g.9) include all the most important economic and social characteristics such as investment expenditures and their freeze time.3)–(5. Equations (5. Equation (5. E0 and B0 in Eq. In practice.

(1 + r )t (5.. The method of analysis summarized by Eqs. However. B01″ > B0′).9 regarding highway bridges and defined as “whole life costing (WLC)”.e. The costs are discounted to the present value (PV ) according to: PV = BRIDGE REHABILITATION © Imperial College Press http://www. They are rather difficult to be exactly determined using routine calculation methods but should be taken into account during the decision-making process.html C . P. The only difference is the replacement of investment costs by rehabilitation or modernization costs and the appropriate calculations of the benefits.worldscibooks. traffic management and traffic delays as well as the benefits resulting from the availability and operation of the bridge. WLC method includes the costs of construction. a more particular analysis of this problem is beyond the scope of this book. These indirect benefits can be classified as calculable and predictable ones. indirect calculable benefits can be greater than the direct benefits (i. other indirect benefits (B02″) resulting from bridge operation also occur. For instance. Tilly5. However. such as an improvement in various social and cultural domains. (5. It should be pointed out that in many situations. Indirect benefits (B01″) consist mainly of an increase in economic activity and economic values of buildings or recreation grounds in the area where the bridge is located and utilized. the method presented in its general form above can also be applied in a somewhat simpler form as presented by G. determination of the benefits requires extensive studies perform in general not only by bridge engineers but also by traffic engineers. the costs of traffic delays can be many times greater than the costs of bridge works and therefore. As mentioned previously.9) can be used for both evaluation of new projects and to make a “ranking list” for bridge rehabilitation and modernization.com/engineering/p103. it is evident that in many situations.10) .102 Bridge Rehabilitation Direct benefits (B0′) occur in the transport domain and consist mainly of time saving and fuel economy due to more effective road or railway system resulting from bridge operation.2)–(5. maintenance. However. town and country planners and long-term planners. the time for bridge rehabilitation or modernization should be minimized whenever possible.

de Brito. 5.13 The decision-making process is performed according to the cost effectiveness index (CEI ). In such a case. there are special sub-modules focussing on bridge repair. the net present value (NPV) can be expressed by: NPV = ∑ B −C . the NPV can be more or less profitable.11. indicating “how well the proposed workplan compares to the no-action option”. r is the discount rate and t is the time period expressed in years. it should also be noticed that the discount rate (r) is a dominant element and depending on its value.Some General Problems of Bridge Rehabilitation 103 where C is cost at current price levels. Chapter 4).10).. However.html . For instance. Other new information on economic evaluation of bridge structures can be found. Introducing the calculable benefits at current price levels (B) into Eq. e.11) with all notations as before. One of them being applied in Portugal is presented by F. Of course.worldscibooks. (1 + r )t (5.5. Branco and J. construction.10 and 5. in Refs. BRIDGE REHABILITATION © Imperial College Press http://www. rehabilitation or modernization of the bridge is economically not justified. the traffic delay costs and its relation to the bridge works can be assessed by the program QUADRO (Queues and Delays at Roadworks) used in the Great Britain. The CEI is expressed by: CEI = (C R + C F − B ) repair . (C F − B ) no -action (5. CF is the failure costs and B is the benefits. (5.12) where CR is repair (or other action) costs. the analysis of bridge efficiency is highly computerized at present. It should be noticed that the NPV can be negative when costs exceed benefits.12 In certain Bridge Management Systems (BMS.com/engineering/p103.5. A.g. rehabilitation or modernization. cf.

104 Bridge Rehabilitation Equation (5.html . The bridge was opened to traffic in 1987 and its service life is predicted for 50 years (i. it can be concluded that a benefit is equivalent to a negative functional failure cost. An increase in traffic through the bridge was assumed at 15% annually. Branco and J.13 is briefly presented below to explain the fundamental problems of bridge economy and management. Moreover. this example can be considered as characteristic for analysis performed prior to bridge rehabilitation or modernization.3 also shows that to maximize BRIDGE REHABILITATION © Imperial College Press http://www. de Brito5.worldscibooks. the increase in functional failure costs due to delay is so evident that they exceed the global annual benefits. The example concerns a concrete highway bridge with continuous beam spans with lengths 18 + 21 + 18 m and the slab deck with a total width of 9 m and two lanes. The results of the long-term economic analysis is shown in Fig.3. It can be noticed that at the end of the predicted service life. the better an investment is that option.12) indicates that the bigger the CEI is for a particular option. Each technique has an associated cost and estimated service life in a special module based on the expert knowledge system. an optimization procedure enables selection of the repair or rehabilitation technique when more than one technique is taken into consideration. Figure 5. The functional failure costs were determined as a reduction of the functionality of the bridge. traffic flow detour and heavy traffic detour. Therefore. It allows the selection of the most effective options for a given bridge as well as to make a “ranking list” of the needs for the whole bridge stock in the country or its road administrative regions. The rate of evolution of the traffic was predicted based on data collected during the service years of the bridge.com/engineering/p103. Irrespective of its particular nature.e.5 km. It was assumed that due to repair works on the bridge or at rush hour. 5. The first step of the analysis was a study of the evolution of functional costs. An example of a cost analysis performed according to F. A.. The benefits included traffic delay. The traffic study has shown that the so-called “area of influence” of the bridge operation on the road length is equal to 12. traffic delay may occur and 20% of the potential traffic volume will choose other roads. up to the year 2037).

and 2010 (option 4).. (5.13 the net present value (NPV) of the bridge (cf. The second step of the analysis was a consideration concerning the increase of bridge traffic capacity by widening the deck from two lanes to three with the assumption that the extra lane will be used alternatively. 2005 (option 3). 5. it should be replaced by a new one when the total annual costs are equal to the total annual benefits (i.11)). Eq.html . the costs of heavy traffic detour are the same for all the options. the widening of the deck in 1995 (option 1). assuming that the cost of opportunity of capital equals the discount rate.4). Fig. 5.com/engineering/p103.Some General Problems of Bridge Rehabilitation 105 Fig. • the structural failure costs are affected by the widening of the deck. 5.e. 2000 (option 2).worldscibooks. BRIDGE REHABILITATION © Imperial College Press http://www. Fig. The following additional assumptions for the analysis were made: • the load-carrying capacity of the bridge in terms of the maximum allowable live load is not affected by the widening of the deck — therefore.3 indicates the economically justified functional service life of the bridge when no action is undertaken to increase its traffic capacity.3 Evolution of functional costs.5. in 2017). In other words. Five options were studied: no-action option (option 0. but they are almost the same for all the options. according to the rush hours.

5. (5. cf.6. cf.13: BRIDGE REHABILITATION © Imperial College Press http://www.html .worldscibooks. (5. The influence of the deck widening date on the detoured light traffic (i. The results of the economic analysis biefly presented above can be summarized numerically by the values of the cost effectiveness index (CEI.10)) as US $60 000. These values.5.4 Costs of deck widening. The peak values indicate the fraction of the total in excess traffic detoured during the construction periods. 5.4. as shown in Fig.5.106 Bridge Rehabilitation Fig.com/engineering/p103. The costs of the deck widening are different depending on the option taken because they occur at different times. a part of the functional failure costs) is shown in Fig. other part of the functional failure costs) is shown in Fig.e. 5.. The costs of traffic delay and light traffic detour were taken into consideration.. Eq. The peak values correspond to the local traffic delay costs during the construction periods. Eq. are as follows 5.13 The direct costs of the deck widening were calculated at 1991 present value costs (PV. corresponding to all the options considered.e. 5. The influence of the deck widening date on the traffic delay costs (i.12)).

6 Influence of deck widening on light traffic detour.worldscibooks.Some General Problems of Bridge Rehabilitation 107 Fig. 5.5.5.html .7551 BRIDGE REHABILITATION © Imperial College Press http://www.5 Influence of deck widening on traffic delay.8507 (2010) → CEI = 1. 5.13 Option Option Option Option Option 0 1 2 3 4 (no-action) → CEI = 1.13 Fig.com/engineering/p103.0000 (1995) → CEI = 1.8942 (2005) → CEI = 1.8982 (2000) → CEI = 1.

com/engineering/p103. For instance. de Brito present the following conclusions resulting from the above analysis5. the assumed increase in annual traffic (15%) should be verified in particular.108 Bridge Rehabilitation F.4 Material Solutions and Repair Techniques Material solutions as well as repair techniques are especially important in bridge rehabilitation. 5. a situation that is particularly interesting as the end of the bridge structural life will probably not occur in 2017. Chapter 4). they require a separate book devoted entirely to this subject. Economic analysis belongs to the most important moduli in the highly computerized bridge management systems (BMS. • The best option is to widen the deck in 1995 or a date between 1995 and 2000 as the first two options have very close results. • Deck widening will significantly increase the functional service life. economic problems concerning bridge rehabilitation and modernization demand to be much more widely presented than it is done above. However.13: • Any of the options that considers widening the deck is preferred to the no-action option.. It is obvious that because of their importance. cf. the input data should be technically and economically justified in any case. it should be added that some of the assumptions made in the analysis need to be verified using sensitivity analysis. A.worldscibooks. However.html . more particular studies. where a great amount of data processing and numerical simulations are necessary. It should also be mentioned that computer technique is an especially useful tool for economic analysis in bridge management. Branco and J. A more localized analysis would be necessary to reach a definite conclusion. More detailed economic considerations are beyond the scope of this book. However. It requires relevant studies prior to the use of computer technique itself. There are many available materials or repair systems BRIDGE REHABILITATION © Imperial College Press http://www. the limitation of the above presentation to selected problems only serves to be a sufficient base for the readers to read about further.

deeper or throughout the structural elements? (e) which element of the structure have deteriorated — primary or secondary ones and what is their location in the structure (e. theoretical analysis...21. especially in Chapters 6 and 7. Chapter 4).com/engineering/p103. exposed or not)? (f) what are the environmental conditions — e. “in situ” or laboratory tests (cf.18 They are also the subject of relevant international and national regulations and standards. external or internal. i. normal.19–5.e.5. Refs. 5.worldscibooks. and known prior to the selection. some of the most important problems related to material solutions and repair techniques are briefly presented below in a general form.15– 5.g. However. concrete. there are certain general rules required to be observed in the design process concerning bridge rehabilitation and during the rehabilitation works. i.g.g..14. wood or stone.Some General Problems of Bridge Rehabilitation 109 and associated techniques which can be used. Suchan.html . More detailed information on these problems is presented in later chapters. which are devoted to the rehabilitation of concrete and steel bridge superstructures. moderate or strongly aggressive chemically? (g) what is the location of material deterioration with respect to internal forces in the structure — e. in the tensile or compressive zones? BRIDGE REHABILITATION © Imperial College Press http://www. Problems concerning the selection of repair materials for concrete structures are discussed by D. 5. occurring in a large part of the structure? (d) what is the depth of deterioration — only the surface. steel. General information regarding the repair of concrete bridges can be found in Ref.5..e.g. etc. The fundamental problems are presented below as a series of questions: (a) what are the causes of material deterioration? (b) what is the nature and type of material deterioration in the bridge structure? (c) what is the scale of material deterioration — local or global. the following problems should be solved by bridge inspection. Therefore.. where the particular extensive references are also included and discussed. Plum.17 L. irrespective of the structural material. Czarnecki and M. e... To select an appropriate material solution and an adequate repair technique.

“concrete to concrete” repair) has been considered a fundamental condition. repair problems are more concerned with the selection of repair techniques adequate to the given situation than the repair material itself (cf.5.e. composite materials and products such as strips or sheets (cf.110 Bridge Rehabilitation (h) what is the main purpose of bridge repair or rehabilitation — e. It is necessary.. This requirement concerns mainly weldability of both steels and avoidance of corrosion cell when the steels are not in electrochemical conformity. Repair materials for steel bridges are mostly steel and steel products (e. instead.g. which should be fulfilled by the repair materials. also Chapter 7). The general requirements concerning the material to repair concrete are presented below. there are a great variety of material and technique solutions. Chapter 3) and the necessity to repair or protect two different materials. in some situations. to present certain fundamental criteria and conditions. concrete and reinforcing or prestressed steel. Because of the different natures and types of material and structural deterioration (cf. However. assurance of required tightness (in case of concrete bridge). Chapter 7). It should be mentioned that the requirements have varied in time. the properties of steel as repairing material should conform to structural steel.23 It BRIDGE REHABILITATION © Imperial College Press http://www. In the case of concrete bridge. the particular names of repair products or material systems are not given in this section of the book nor in the following chapters — specification or promotion of particular material solutions is not the subject of the book. They are presented in Chapter 6. Of course. restoration of previous load-carrying capacity or its upgrading.html . Chapter 6).18.g. cables) or.. 5. i. repair problems are much more complex and concern both selection of repair materials and repair techniques (cf. the similarity of the constituent materials in the repairing material and the material to be repaired (i.e..worldscibooks. restoration of both required load-carrying capacity and tightness? (i) what is important in the repair — aesthetic only or affecting the structural behavior? Answers to all these questions are the basis for the selection of an appropriate material solution. During a relatively long period. In the case of steel bridge..com/engineering/p103.

to group (b)). Therefore. such as compressive strength.. the principal rule for the use of repair materials has changed during recent years. a good interaction between these two materials should be assured. some BRIDGE REHABILITATION © Imperial College Press http://www. but not always a sufficient one. which should be low.18. to group (a)).Some General Problems of Bridge Rehabilitation 111 has eliminated the use of new materials. For this reason.e. is normally a decisive factor influencing interaction between the repairing material and the material to be repaired. The difference between (α t ⋅ E) for these two materials influences the stress in their contact layer. 5. It should be emphasized that when the repairing material and material to be repaired have different values of the coefficient αt. is not the coefficient value itself.html . which depend on the type of repair and environment and together with the basic requirements make a sufficient condition.e. belong to the additional requirements (i. measured usually by means of the “pull off” method. (b) additional requirements. which may influence the behavior of the repaired system. modulus of elasticity. Cl− and water vapor as well as coefficient of thermal expansion (α t ). permeability. This good interaction can be defined as the material ability to conserve stresses or strains within allowable limits under required service conditions and in the desired period of time. However. the factor.worldscibooks.5. which should be fulfilled by any repairing material as a necessary condition. it should be indicated that the bond. Some other material properties. but the product (α t ⋅ E). the bond belongs to the basic requirements (i.18: (a) basic requirements..24 This rule can be formulated as follows: the repairing material and the material to be repaired should be physically and chemically compatible. However. This problem should be taken into account in bridge repair due to the fact that the bridges are exposed both to the variation in ambient temperature and solar radiation. diffusion coefficient for CO2. The above requirements are presented in particular in Chapter 6. In other words. where E is the modulus of elasticity.5.18 More general requirements for the repairing materials can be classified into two main groups as follows5.com/engineering/p103. like shrinkage. to explain the problem.

More detailed information on repair techniques applied to the rehabilitation of concrete bridges is given in Chapter 6. A specificity of the considerations can be characterized by the following main problems needed to be solved: (a) A relation between the costs of repair materials and repair techiques used for bridge rehabilitation and the maintenance costs after rehabilitation requires special analysis and the use of optimization BRIDGE REHABILITATION © Imperial College Press http://www.html . One of the basic selection criteria is the easy and safe application of the repair technique. it should be mentioned that the selection of appropriate material for bridge repair and rehabilitation is difficult and requires a lot of engineering experience and even “technical intuition”.g.5 Maintenance Problems Maintenance problems should also be taken into consideration in the decision-making process concerning bridge rehabilitation and modernization. Selection of repair techniques for concrete bridges is closely associated with the type of repairing material and scale. e.com/engineering/p103. 5.g.g. shape (e..5.g. More detailed aspects are discussed in the following chapters..22 Finally. These problems are presented below in a general form. The standardization of this problem is at its initial stage. including special robots.. irrespective of the structural system and structural material of the bridge. Moreover. There are many techniques for use — from hand methods (e. it should be taken into account that the bridge repairs are usually performed in extremely difficult conditions concerning both accessibility to the deteriorated structural elements and the works under normal traffic. handapplied mortar) to highly mechanized ones (e.. type.112 Bridge Rehabilitation practical guides for the use of repair material with the coefficient of thermal expansion and modulus of elasticity as close as possible to the existing concrete are recommended.worldscibooks. 5. shallow or deep repairs) and location of the material and structural deterioration. Ref.25 and does not sufficiently include the specificity of bridge structures. pneumatically applied mortar or pumping concrete).

Some General Problems of Bridge Rehabilitation 113 (b) (c) (d) (e) procedures.. Therefore. The modern bridge equipment elements are of high quality and durability.g. insulation. etc. spiders. replacement of the “old” equipment elements instead of their repair is in general technically and economically justified by an evident improvement in bridge durability.. In both these situations. The existing deck may be entirely replaced by a new one or the “old” deck can remain (entirely or partially). ladders. In general.html . The inspection and routine maintenance of the bridge should be easier to carry out than before its rehabilitation. Therefore. It should also include repair or replacement of bridge equipment elements. an increase in material and labor costs leads to a decrease in maintenance cost during bridge service after rehabilitation. In spite of it. Bridge rehabilitation cannot be limited to the structure itself or their individual members. expansion joints. etc. and the new parts of the deck may be joined to the “old” one. this problem also needs to be solved. In the case when rehabilitation of the bridge is associated with its modernization. but their use evidently increases the costs of bridge rehabilitation. this problem requires individual analysis in any situation. inspection platforms or scaffoldings. by the deck widening.worldscibooks. etc. such as drainage system. this is mainly due to modernization or replacement of the drainage system.) enabling access to the structural members to check their technical condition should be installed.com/engineering/p103. the maintenance problems should also be analyzed. pavement. For maintenance purposes as well as to enable future replacement of bridge bearings or other operations. pavement. e. insulation.g. the maintenance conditions can be different to those before modernization. However. the required bridge durability and prediction of its service life are necessary for making optimum decision concerning selection of material and technique solutions. Appropriate equipment (e. slight changes in the original BRIDGE REHABILITATION © Imperial College Press http://www. It is commonly known that deterioration of the structure results mostly from the poor condition and low quality of these elements or their insufficient routine maintenance and conservation. It should be taken into account during the design process. expansion joints.

in some situations. associated with the evident change in the original structural form of the bridge (e. The bridge color is a very important factor affecting both the appearance of the structure itself and the aesthetic value of the bridge surroundings. Because of aesthetical requirements. Aesthetics is especially important when the bridge is geometrically modernized by the widening of its deck.worldscibooks. 5. 7 and 10.114 Bridge Rehabilitation structure can be recommended during bridge rehabilitation..g. This operation strongly influences the bridge appearance. The rehabilitation is.g. It requires some changes in the geometry of bridge piers. Chapter 6) are used. Depending on the structural system. Some other problems concerning the aesthetic aspects of bridge geometrical modernization are presented in Chapters 6. balustrades). the deck widening can require additional girders or beams. Therefore. which also affects the general bridge silhouette. The above maintenance problems connected with bridge rehabilitation and modernization are selected only to exemplify a great variety of engineering tasks and to indicate that any problem should not be ignored. especially when external prestressing tendons (cf. the superstructure can be lifted to increase the clearance under the bridge.g. the tendons are located between the girders or beams and not visible within their depth in the bridge elevation. Aesthetic problems also occur in cases of bridge strengthening.6 Aesthetic Problems Aesthetic problems should also be deeply analyzed prior to bridge rehabilitation itself. The change in color may concern both structural elements (e.g. BRIDGE REHABILITATION © Imperial College Press http://www. main girders in steel bridges) and bridge equipment elements (e. the original shape and the geometrical proportions of the structure can be distorted. by providing structural continuity over the piers) and the change in its color... special cavities in the heads of the bridge piers for the installation of jacks for lifting up the bridge superstructure to replace the bridge bearings..html . Similarly. It may demand the widening or strengthening of the bridge piers. in many situations.com/engineering/p103. e.

One of the options is closing the bridge to normal traffic and subsequent utilization of the structure as a specific technical museum (cf. by the deck widening). When a bridge of considerable historical value is geometrically modernized (e.worldscibooks. Warsaw. San Francisco. 80–87.2. However. strengthening and geometrical modernization and also affect the selection of structural and material solutions. 5. Bridge Eng. e. M. Wo»owicki. Faculty of Architecture.3.1. BRIDGE REHABILITATION © Imperial College Press http://www. the historical bridge can be restored.g. in Ref.. Depending on its individual value and traffic functionality. 1995 (in Polish). These requirements are beyond the scope of this book..g. References 5. modernized or replaced by a new structure. More information on the restoration of historical buildings can be found.26. 5. Construction and Maintenance of Bridges (Wydawnictwa Kominiacji i ºcznoÑci. Conf. “Alsea Bay bridge replacement”. aesthetic problems are particularly important when bridges of considerable architectural or historical values need to be rehabilitated or modernized.Some General Problems of Bridge Rehabilitation 115 All the above examples indicate that bridge aesthetics belongs to the important problems concerning bridge rehabilitation. pp. When a historical bridge with an architectural heritage is restored without any changes in its architectural form. A. 1. Madaj and W.com/engineering/p103. Fourth Int. and modernization are presented and discussed in more detail in the next chapters.1).html . D. Proc. strengthening. Vol. the repair materials should be selected in accordance with the requirements concerning preservation of monuments and historical buildings. some other aesthetic aspects of bridge repair.. every planned change in its architectural form should be analyzed to minimize the loss of historical and aesthetic merits of the structure. Warsaw University of Technology. 1995) (in Polish). 5. As mentioned above. Miller. Sec 5. Stefan Bry»a. 28–30 August 1995. Warszawa.

Tilly. ′ 5. Construction Maintenance & Repair 7/8. Concrete Society. 107–112. 1961) (in German).12. by J. IABSE Report. pp.9. Duesseldorf. Seminar “Whole Life Costing of Concrete Bridges”. Schuchardt. 5. Vassie. 27–36. 76–98. pp. pp.11. in Safety of Bridges. Frangopol. London. Construction Maintenance & Repair 9/10. pp.. D.html . Bongard. 1997).. Warszawa.116 Bridge Rehabilitation 5. J. Z. 5. 1995. 5.4. Vol. Casas.14. “Renovation and transformation of the Perolles Bridge in Fribourg”. R.6. (1991).7. “Materials — Why they fail”. pp. Klaiber. “A whole life cost model for the economic evaluation of durability options for concrete bridges”. R. J. Mallet. “Principles of whole life costing”. G. ed. pp. 5. Analysis of the Economic Efficiency in Bridge Engineering (PWN. “Materials — How to select”.worldscibooks.5. A. 5.15. 5. 5. P. E. 138–144. Jones. Langrock. Radomski et al. F. D. Construction Maintenance & Repair 11/12. Branco and J. Extending the Lifespan of Structures. 151–157. and W. P. 1982) (in Polish). BRIDGE REHABILITATION © Imperial College Press http://www. 5. pp. Mari (Barcelona.16. pp. 5. Problems of Construction of Contemporary Concrete Bridges (WKL.com/engineering/p103. 5. Das (Thomas Telford. WasiutyZski. W. Warszawa. H. de Brito. (1991). D. ibid. 73/1. P. in Recent Advances in Bridge Eng. Plum. ed. 1996). 145–150. C. ibid. Repair of Concrete Bridges — State-of-the-Art Report (Thomas Telford. “Materials — What to specify”. by P. 5. Trost. “The appraisal of traffic delay costs”. “Application of life cycle reliability-based criteria to bridge assessment and design”. M. 1996). (1991). R.17. 5. W. D.8. 3–7. San Francisco 1995. IABSE Symp. Plum. Load Distribution in Girder Bridges (Werner Verlag. Berlin. Verch.13. “Bridge management from design to maintenance”. 1964) (in Polish). 3–6. D. Construction of Concrete Bridges (VEB Verlag fuer Bauwesen. 1979) (in German).. Plum.. J.10. G. pp. 27–30. Proc. and A..

5.19.worldscibooks. 465–472 (in Polish).18.22. 5. 1993. pp. RILEM TC 124-SRC Draft Recommendations. pp. D. G. The Structural Engineer 68.25. Quality Control and Evaluation Conformity — Part 9: General Principles for the Use of Products and Systems. Silano (ed.). 5. Rome.com/engineering/p103. “Repair strategies for concrete structures damaged by steel corrosion”.Some General Problems of Bridge Rehabilitation 117 5. German Committee on Reinforced Concrete. J. 1993). 5. Plum. 1991. E. Federal Ministry of Transport: Additional Technical Contract Conditions and Guidelines for the Protection and Repair of Concrete Construction Components. 1998. 415–436. 64–67. 337–346. Construction and Building Materials 4. “The behavior of polymer materials in concrete repair and factor influencing selection”. 5. 5. Suchan. Bridge Inspection and Rehabilitation — A Practical Guide (John Wiley & Sons.. 70. Products and Systems for the Protection and Repair of Concrete Structures — Definitions. Material and Structures 27. 2. Jadwisin. 5. (1990). Czarnecki and M.21. BRIDGE REHABILITATION © Imperial College Press http://www. ZTV-SIB 90.24. pp.html . 5. and D.20. “Concrete repair materials for effective structural application”. “Technical requirements for repair materials — Concrete replacement”. L. Guidelines for the Protection and Repair of Concrete Components. IABSE Reports. Vol. Leck.26. Vol. (1990). Requirements. IABSE Symp.23. Wood. “Structural preservation of the architectural heritage”. “Concrete and Prefabrication”. XVI Conf. King. CEN — European Committee for Standardization: Ratified Text of the European Prestandard ENV 1504-9:1997. (1994). Poland. 1992. pp. L.