You are on page 1of 3

Literature Review Travel became unimaginably faster and more convenient.

In 1900, there were about 9,000 cars on the road. Just 60 years later, there were 95 million, virtually all powered by petroldriven internal combustion engines that were faster, lighter and more powerful than previous steam engines. These new engines transformed air and sea travel, dramatically shaping the course of the 20th century. Public transportation gave people the freedom of convenient travel. With their efficiency, they could live further away from their workplaces and travel longer distances for leisure and business. Improved public transport, suh as Rails thrived in the early years of the 20th century, while efficient trams and motor-buses on city streets put horse-drawn vehicles out of business. In the 1960s and 1970s, high-speed trains were developed in Continental Europe and Japan. Leisure activities such as motor racing helped car makers test the reliability of their vehicles. Now in 21th century transportation development, you have already heard from TRANSIT about the plans for railway upgrades in the Iskandar Development region, including double tracking & electrification of the mainline from Gemas to Johor Baru, as well as the branch lines from Kempas to Tanjong Pelepas and Pasir Gudang (Johor’s main ports). You have also heard from TRANSIT about the proposed “Komuter Selatan” service (which, from what we are learning, would likely not be owned and operated by KTMB). It appears from this article that plans for public transport improvements in the Iskandar Development Region are continuing to move ahead. The setting aside of land for the transport hub is one important factor in getting this done. Now, it is quite likely that, true to Malaysian car-based infrastructure planning, this transport hub will likely be located in a place that is distant from any kind of residential areas and any kind of urban commercial activity and it will not be pedestrian-friendly in any way. But it will be there – which is better than not having it there. And hopefully, groups like TRANSIT and others will be heard in the planning process to ensure that these areas are pedestrian-friendly and well-planned for the long term. By the way, the possibility of a second MRT connection to Singapore does exist – although there are many political and legal issues to be ironed out and the planning has not yet taken place, it is physically possible to build the connection. Of course, let’s allow Singapore to build their Thompson MRT line first, and we can see how things progress from there. While many of the economic impacts of transportation are positive, there are also significant negative impacts that are assumed by individuals or by the society in one way or another. Among the most significant are:

Mobility gaps. Since mobility is one of the fundamental components of the economic benefits of transportation, its variations are likely to have substantial impacts on the opportunities of individuals. Mobility needs do not always coincide due to several factors, namely the lack of income, lack of time, lack of means and the lack of access. People’s mobility and transport demands thus depend on their socioeconomic situation. The higher the income, the higher the mobility, which may give rise to substantial mobility gaps between different population groups. Gender gaps exist in mobility as women tend to have lower incomes. Mobility gaps are particularly prevalent for long distance travel. With the development of air transport, a segment of the global population has achieved a very high level of mobility for their business and leisure activities, while the great majority of the global population has little mobility. This issue is expected to become more acute as the population of many of the most advanced countries is aging rapidly, which implies that access to mobility will not be

concomitant and lead impacts make it difficult to separate the specific contributions of transport to development. The relationship between transportation and economic development is difficult to formally establish and has been debated for many years. Locations that have low levels of accessibility. direct linkages could be clearly established. The public transport sector is an important component of the economy impacting on development and the welfare of populations. When transport systems are deficient in terms of capacity or reliability. Accidents tend to be proportional to the intensity of use of transport infrastructures which means the more traffic the higher the probability for an accident to occur. When transport systems are efficiently built. Contemporary trends have underlined that economic development has become less dependent on relations with the environment (resources) and more dependent on relations across space. it has become increasingly common for parts of the network to be used above design capacity. Distribution systems that rely upon on-time deliveries are particularly susceptible to congestion. Types of impacts vary considerably. . No mode is completely safe but the road remains the most dangerous medium for transportation. accounting for 90% of all transport accidents on average. The lag. Its complexity lies in the variety of possible impacts:   Timing of the development varies as the impacts of transportation can either precede. Every motorized vehicle contains an element of danger and nuisance. Transport also carries an important social and environmental load. damages and even death occur. The respective level of safety depends on the mode of transport and the speed at which an accident occurs. damage to property and the loss of life. Each case study appears to be specific to a set of timing circumstances that are difficult to replicate elsewhere. employment and additional investments. in others they may hinder economic development in a region. impacting on their welfare (disposable income) and competitiveness.   an income issue but an age issue. occur during or take place after economic development. tend to have higher costs for many goods (sometimes basic necessities such as food) as most have to be imported. Congestion is the outcome of such a situation with its associated costs. With the increased use of transport systems. Costs differences. Congestion. few. Consumers and industries will pay higher prices. Accidents. The resulting higher transport costs inhibit the competitiveness of such locations and limits opportunities. In some cases transportation impacts can promote. delays and waste of energy. They have important socioeconomic impacts including healthcare. The use of transport modes and infrastructure is never entirely safe. Due to human errors and various forms of physical failures (mechanical or infrastructural) injuries. they can provide economic and social opportunities and benefits that result in positive effects such as better accessibility to markets. if any. such as landlocked countries.492 million). they can have an economic cost such as reduced or missed opportunities. By 2020. The spectrum of impacts range from the positive through the permissive to the negative. about 10% of the global population (719 million) will be over 65 while by 2050 it will be 16% (1. In many cases. often over long distances. insurance. which cannot be neglected.

transit operators) employment are associated with transport. and so does competition. Improvements in transportation and communication favor a process of geographical specialization that increases productivity and spatial interactions. a large number of direct (freighters. costs.An efficient transport system with modern infrastructures favors many economic changes. the potential market for a given product (or service) increases. finance. Producers and consumers take economic decisions on products. A given area will thus tend to specialize in the production of goods and services for which it has the greatest advantages (or the least disadvantages) compared to other areas as long as appropriate transport is available for trade. their availability. When transport is efficient. costs and capacity. prices which are themselves based on transport services. The more efficient transportation becomes. Increased competition. location. managers. An efficient transport system offering cost. This facilitates mass production through economies of scale. The major impacts of transport on economic processes can be categorized as follows:    Geographic specialization. Accordingly. most of them positive. shippers) and indirect (insurance. time and reliability advantages permits goods to be transported over longer distances. Transport also contributes to economic development through job creation and its derived economic activities. the larger the markets that can be serviced and the larger the scale of production. markets. Large scale production. . packaging. It provides market accessibility by linking producers and consumers. handling. travel agencies.