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Sculpture Sculpture – is the art of making figures, such as human forms, animals or geometrics that can either be standing

freely or attached to a background frame; either single or in group. Sculpture is much more functional than painting or literature. In Medieval and Renaissance church, sculpture was frequently used for institutional purposes. Commemoration of individual or events is one of the popular functions of sculpture as well. Another functional use of sculpture is the coin. Every coin shows a relief. It is interesting to note how the spirit of a country is reflected in the designs of its coins. When it can stand freely, it is called three-dimensinal or free-standing sculpture, where the viewer can go around the figure and gaze it at different angles. The different parts of the figure: front, back, and side are all exposed to the viewer. When the figure is mounted to the background, which may either be a frame, a wall or a flat surface, it is called a relief sculpture. In high relief sculture, the frame is embossed or raised above the surface of the background. In low field sculpture, the figure is raised only a little from the background, as in the case of coins. Short History of Sculpture SHORT HISTORY OF SCULPTURE Egyptian Sculpture It is characterized from stone placed on tombs of important persons or temples of powerful rulers. Greek Sculpture (500 BC – 410 BC) Greece is the place of the artists, philosophers, warriors and athletes. Greeks are lovers of the human body, therefore, most of their works are of human figures, usually of their gods and goddesses. Earlier works show men figures that are always naked but the women are properly clothed. Later, however, both figures were carved almost with no clothing at all. The recovered statue of Venus de Milo is a good example of this era. Roman Sculpture Rome conquered Greece, but culturally, Greece conquered the Romans. However, to retain Roman culture, in their sculptures, they deducted the human body and concentrated on the bust or just the head part of the human figure. Evident are the bust of Julius Caesar, and Mark Anthony which were preserved out of ruins. Byzantine Sculpture This period is memorable among Christians since this is the time of Catholic liberation. The roman persecution of Christians ended and the celebration of the mass became legal. Common subjects prominent during this era are Biblical Characters, and the image of the God the Father as a bearded old man. Saints were not yet popular since the church was only a few years old then, after the death of Christ. Romanesque Sculpture It is a continuation of the Byzantine era where almost no difference in subject is observed. Gothic Sculpture

This figure is seen with its hands touching its knees. A sculptor has unlimited subjects to exploit. and its subjects are objects of definite form and solidity. even before. what really exists in reality.It was the most elaborate of all the eras. human emotions. panels. Racoco Sculpture (1715-1774) With the hangover of the Medieval period. Realist and Naturalist (1800 – 1895) This is the period of truth. victory and defeat. his own thoughts. The nature of the medium inevitably influences the type of subject it can portray. This is simply because since earliest times. In the court of influential kings or queens especially in France. sculpture witnessed the rise and fall of the Filipinos. love and frustrations. Cultural minorities carved their bulul or anito. noble men and women elevated their choice of art displays into a more detailed manner. England and Spain. and suffering are the main features of this era. The . Modern Century Sculpture Modern sculpture is a combination of all periods in the history of mankind with addition of cubism and abstract. Baroque Sculpture Bernini’s work such as The Ecstacy of St. Sculptors were meticulous on the garments worn by their figures. Teresa which focuses on human emotions of love. the presentation of good and evil. refers to the material used by the artist in the completion of his work. Renaissance Sculpture (1270-1594) Renaissance was the Golden Era of Arts and this period brought back the adoration of the human body introduced by the Greeks. Since art is the expression of oneself. sculpture was there to create an image used for worship. This figure is popular among the Ifugaos The Elements of Sculpture Subject It tells what the sculpture is all about. pain. during and after the arrival of the Spaniards on Philippine shores. It is made from hard cut wood from the forest. metal. subject is the best avenue when an artist can manifest his emotions. Medium. a figure which is either in sitting or standing position. Nude sculpture such that of David by Michelangelo is a fine example of this period. from animals. plastic or even ice. sculpture in the round has tended to emphasize mass and weight. it is said that of all other arts. therefore. marble. Medium Common materials used are wood. their furniture. clay. rock. The embroideries and folds of their clothing were emphasized. wax. vessels and others are carved into elaborate designs and perfections. human body and many more. Sculpture in the Philippines Since praying and worshiping is apart of Filipino life. Traditionally.

The artist using his chisels. Combined Materials This method happens when a combination of small pieces of materials such as plastic or moist dry clay is worked and modelled into desired form which may then be subjected to intense heat to produce a ceramic known as terracotta. On the other hand. it is heavy and expensive and breaks easily. durability—can heighten the effect the sculptor desires if their physical attributes are incorporated into the subject. deducts parts from the medium to form a designed image with perfect lines and angles. Texture Literally. It takes a high polish and is almost translucent Of the metals. hammers. Of the stones. Stone is durable. The Process of Creation Subtraction The carving of stone and wood is an example of this process. fire and all ordinary hazards. Addition The construction of a figure by putting together bits of clay or by welding together metal parts to create an image is addition. The processes used in making stone and bronze statues are exactly opposite. Space Space refers to the portion or area where the piece stands. The process of casting bronze is a very . Sculpture and Its Mediums Stone and Bronze The two mediums most commonly used for sculpture are stone and metal. (Faulkner et al). Most bronze statues are hollow. Figuratively. it resists weather. and other tools. it refers to the interpretation given both by the artist and the admirer towards the piece.qualities we associate with metal—strength. marble is the most beautiful. the one most commonly used traditionally was bronze. Wire. texture refers to the touch of the skin against the surface or the body of a given sculpture. weight. rods and plates may also be combined by soldering or welding.

It is one of the lost mediums of sculpture. though they have been very important in the past. whereas metal tends to be light. crosses. for example.‖ Terra cotta is made by firing clay. Wood Wood has an initial advantage in that it is cheap. It is easily broken and chipped. ivory cracks. chess pieces. so difficult that it constitutes one of the disadvantages of the Stones tend to be heavy and massive but brittle. The great advantages of terra cotta are that it is very cheap in comparison with stone and bronze. Cast stone (an artificial conglomerate of sand and silicone pressed and molded like concrete). From the Middle Ages on. and intricate one. and sculptors of the present day are no exception. and easy to cut. Usually carvings in ivory are small. aluminium. . ivory has been much used for small pieces in which very delicate carving is needed—as.difficult medium. and that brilliant colors are made possible by glazing. readily available. Wood is not brittle and permits the sculptor to work in thin and extended forms. Like wood. wrought iron. and the backs of the books. glass. New Mediums Artists at all times have experimented in new mediums. for they are used very little today. and graceful. tensile. and steel are other mediums used today. as in pottery. creamy yellow. Terra Cotta The term terra cotta means ―baked earth. It is usually painted and covered with a heavy glaze. the reasons being the great expense of ivory and the difficulty of securing it in large pieces. The color of ivory is a rich. Ivory Ivory is one of the lost mediums of sculpture.

This is because of his valuable contribution to art and science and his sense of nationalism in his artwork. say that even without knowing the story of Christ and Mary. Puget6 could always be remembered for his monumental. dabbed as People Power of February. In 1970. Many who witnessed this magnificent art. it gained acceptance and praise. Christ himself is a picture of an aching soul-betrayed by friends. One of his most eye catching masterpiece is The Ecstasy of St. Castrillo is the favourite of many historians and religious to carve a significant historical event as an important historical mark for an equally historical place. but because the focus was more on the physical beauty. 1986. This masterpiece was executed in the nude considering the time when it was carved. the sadness. France was about to emerge as a super power in Europe. It is composed of many figures. considering that the medium used was marble. The Liberators (1980) – the landmark of the Pamantasan ng Lungsod ng Maynila. People Power (1993) located along EDSA. Vatican then was a melting pot of artistic creation and the Pope was the patron of the artist and their works. he received the thirteenth Artist Award of the Cultural Center of the Philippines. such as: 1. the Victorious Alexander (1668). Santa Maria Della Victoria. was a student of Bernini. Jose Rizal (1991) 2. Pierre Puget. a painter. a Frenchman. He received various awards and citations both from private and government institutions. It features Alexander the Great fresh from his triumph all in his regality. adjacent to the EDSA Shrine. Eduardo Castrillo He is a sculptor. Jose P. 2. the sculpture will tell you the full details of their sadness that will make you cry. The Martyrdom of Dr. When Italy was in decline. Some of his monumental works are. It dramatizes the five day historic non-violent revolt of the masses. Theresa created in 1644 and displayed in Rome. Castrillo has also executed masterpieces that depict the different memorable moments in the life of the Philippine National Hero. The sculpture is almost perfect. Dr. Douglas McArthur as he embarked on the shore of Leyte. Another masterpiece is La Pieta which features the dead Christ on the lap of the grieving Mother. Rizal. It features the fulfilment of a promise made by a man named Gen. rather than depth of emotion. This monument costs millions. The word then was conservative. a jeweller and truly the artist of realism and of modern time. Michelangelo Buonarroti Michelangelo is best remembered for his David.Great Sculptors Giovanni Lorenzo Bernini emerged as the chief artist to the Vatican. It symbolizes the liberation of the Philippines from the bondage of tyranny of 20 years of the Marcos era. It was during this time when Louis XIV made an enormous effort to bring arts to France and he succeeded. anguish and the pain on the face of the Virgin Mary was captured and defined. unique of them all is the woman with a cut chain on both hands. 1. The Tender Moments with Josephine (1991) . The art displays the emotions in Ecstasy of the Saint in seeing God in her dreams and the magnificent carvings of the cloth worn by the saint.

Some of his works are Baby Moses (1951) and Ring of the Gods (1971). a reminder of hope. the Filipino youth will continue to gain inspiration to work for the betterment of the Filipino and allow the human race. iron and aluminium which are all metals. he favourite mediums. It dramatizes the lost of a Filipino soul in the midst of injustice and suffering during the Spanish regime.3. Towering of all the figures if the great plebeian. He is ascending to heaven to dramatize his victory over death. Manila. Other religious icons are: v La Pieta (19660 v The Redemption (1974) v The Apostles (1977) v Our Lady of Loreto (1976) Castrillo will always be remembered with his above-mentioned works and as an artist. Napoleon Abueva He is the modern Filipino sculptor. Behind him is the Katipunan flag. Another great contribution of Tolentino is the Oblation Statue of the University of the Philippines. experimentation and modern techniques in sculpture. This piece was executed for the Dominican Sisters Seminary in Tagaytay City. each figure has a story to tell. The Mock Trial (1991) Rizal Consoling his Family (1991) The Last Walks to Bagumbayan (1991) The Writing of Mi Ultimo Adios (1991) Among the Religious Icons carved under him are as follows: 1. He did abstraction. It was installed in front of Our Lady of Consolation church in Malate. 2. the cross is on the background t remind the faithful on Christian reality of sufferings. . Andres Bonifacio. steel. It is the chronicle of Philippine history. 5. 4. holding a bolo on his right and a revolver on his left. The monument consists of 23 figures. Our Lady of Remedios (1973). the naked figure of a young man is a symbolic gesture of sacrificial offering of service to country and humanity. 6. This hanging sculpture features Christ in a different perspective. Guillermo Tolentino One of his monumental creations and lasting legacy to his race is the inspiration that could be taken from the Bonifacio Monument (1933) located at Caloocan City. Yet. This monument is not just a piece of sculpture. he will always be remembered as the sculptor of bronze. The ascending Christ on the Cross (1991). It is hoped that through this work of art.

which afforded abundance of excellent building stone. are often perceived as cultural and political symbols and as works of art. were provided out of the simplest materials. Somewhere and somehow the people of Egypt must have developed from crude beginnings the architectural knowledge and resource which meet us in the oldest monuments. According to Vitruvius."chief" and τέκτων "builder. PRIMITIVE AND PREHISTORIC ARCHITECTURE EARLY BEGINNINGS. It came from the Greek ἀρχιτέκτων – arkhitekton. carpenter. the Egyptians were a people already highly civilized. a stockade for defense. The oldest existing monuments of architecture—those of Chaldæa and Egypt—belong to an advanced civilization. fertilized by the periodic overflow of the river. however. •Utility – it should be useful and function well for the people using it •Beauty – it should delight people and raise their spirits. designing and construction. and skilled in the arts of peace and war. How the earliest architecture came into existence is as yet an unsolved problem. History of Architecture EGYPTIAN ARCHITECTURE LAND AND PEOPLE. nearly vertical in many places. from which there was access to the outer world. or profession of designing and constructing buildings or other structures. . while they both isolated the Egyptians and protected them from foreign aggression. they required only the simplest kinds of buildings. If we may judge of the condition of the primitive races of antiquity by that of the savage and barbarous peoples of our own time. a shrine of some sort for worship.. A hut or house for shelter. though every vestige of that early age has apparently perished. into broad lowlands. The earliest surviving written work on the subject of architecture is De architectura. a mound over the grave of the chief or hero. PRIMITIVE ARCHITECTURE. venustas. the valley widened out.Architecture Architecture   The art and science of building It is the science. from ἀρχι. and these often of a perishable nature. As long ago as 5000 b. which translate roughly as – •Durability – it should stand up robustly and remain in good condition. Historical civilizations are often identified with their surviving architectural achievements. utilitas. The narrow valley of the Nile. in the material form of buildings. though the purposes which they served were the same as those of later times in civilized communities. with the falling away of these heights. mason") Architecture is both the process and product of planning. by the Roman architect Vitruvius in the early 1st century CE.c. Architectural works. art. It is impossible to trace the early stages of the process by which true architecture grew out of the first rude attempts of man at building. a good building should satisfy the three principles of firmitas. At the Delta. was flanked by rocky heights.

•The ancient Egyptians believed that temples were the homes of the gods and goddesses. As in the tombs the internal walls bore pictures for the contemplation of the Ka. While there is little of strictly architectural art. and had sloping sides.  Pyramid was constructed as an eternal resting place of the pharaohs. . Matabas were built for the nobility. The inner chamber was connected to a shaft which led to the actual tomb where the body was placed. The Ancient Empire has also left us a great number of tombs of the type known as Mastabas. Mastaba is the Arabic word for stone bench‖ (―mastaba‖).   Stone was undertaken after thousands of year. These are oblong rectangular structures of stone or brick with slightly inclined sides and flat ceilings.The great works of this period are almost exclusively sepulchral. the serdab. and are internally divided into three parts. for the glory of the king and the delectation of the people. and include the most ancient buildings of which we have any remains. and the audacity and skill shown in their construction. Unlike the pyramids most people are familiar with. Every temple was dedicated to a god or goddess and he or she was worshipped there by the temple priests and the pharaoh The prime source of early Egyptian architectural design was done in sunbaked bricks. In the first of these. they were rectangularly shaped. TEMPLES •The surpassing glory of the New Empire was its great temples. The great works of this period are almost exclusively sepulchral. TOMBS. While there is little of strictly architectural art. Some of them were among the most stupendous creations of structural art. flat-topped. or kings of Egypt. and the well. and include the most ancient buildings of which we have any remains. entitle them to the first place in any sketch of this period. and successive monarchs found no more splendid outlet for their piety and ambition than the founding of new temples or the extension and adornment of those already existing. and the audacity and skill shown in their construction. were placed the offerings made to the Ka or ―double. were covered with colored reliefs reciting the monarch’s glorious deeds. Pyramid of Egypt typify monumental architecture . By the forced labor of thousands of fellaheen (the system is in force to this day and is known as the corvée) architectural piles of vast extent could be erected within the lifetime of a monarch. The mastabas were made of mud or stone bricks faced with limestone slabs. Each mastaba had an outer chamber that was used for offerings. the chamber or chapel. so in the temples the external walls. in endless iteration. next the entrance. The prime source of early Egyptian architectural design was done in sunbaked bricks together with papyrus and the lotus. Internally the worship and attributes of the gods were represented in a similar manner.‖ for whom 10 also scenes of festivity or worship were carved and painted on its walls to minister to his happiness in his incorporeal life. To temples rather than palaces were the resources and energies of the kings devoted. hence the name stone bench. Some of them were among the most stupendous creations of structural art. entitle them to the first place in any sketch of this period. the overwhelming size and majesty of the Pyramids. They uniformly face the east. the overwhelming size and majesty of the Pyramids. The surpassing glory of the New Empire was its great temples. Builders most likely had to use ramps to move the bricks and limestone slabs. TEMPLES.

The dome appears to have been composed of numerous arches and ribs. •Pyramid was constructed as an eternal resting place of the pharaohs. private luxury. The noblest of all circular temples of Rome and of the world. filled in and finally coated with concrete. basilicas. Gothic churches were filled with illuminated manuscripts. and stained glass windows. . BYZANTINE ARCHITECTURE Inspired by the roman architecture but developed later into a competent style which was remarkably wealthy. with mosaic and marble veneered walls. Roman architecture is more elaborate than the Greek architecture in terms of huge interiors and vast spaces to hold enormous number of people. It did not only become a religious monument but a way of showing the strength and wealthy of the city. which they fitted to the varied requirements of government. forum buildings. •Pyramid of Egypt typify monumental architecture . 532-537 History of Architecture 3 Gothic Architecture It is known as the architecture of the pointed arch. colourful and luxurious. baths. The Parthenon is a temple dedicated to goddess Athena (Goddess of Wisdom). and is considered the most nearly perfect building in the world because of its exact mathematical calculation by the chief architect. They covered the antique world with arches and amphitheatres. and temples. with villas. It was characterized by a central dome over a square space. and the common comfort. Church of Hagia Sophia is the greatest achievement of the dome-style construction. all bearing the unmistakable impress of Rome. aqueduct. Forms of architecture. arches and homes THE PANTHEON. ROMAN ARCHITECTURE The Romans were above all things a practical people. temples. They brought engineering into the service of architecture. though wrought by artists and artisans of diverse races. Iknitus. Gothic architecture found its expression in the church or the cathedral. It excelled Roman architecture by its colorfulness trough the generous use of colored stone and mosaic walls and windows. He used the Doric order.•Stone was undertaken after thousands of year. rich tapestries. or kings of Egypt. History of Architecture 2 GREEK ARCHITECTURE Greek architecture is best exemplified in the temples of the gods and the goddesses.D. public amusement. Matabas were built for the nobility. baths and theatres. built for Emperor Justinian by Isidorus of Miletus and Anthemius of Tralles in A.

Summary Outline Summary Outline of Major Historical Architectural Styles Egyptian (3000-1000 BCE) 1. While. acclaimed as the Glory of the Middle Ages. Cathedral of Siena by Giovann Pisano. pilasters and lintels. the verticality suggesting an aspiration to Heaven. Mammoth rectangular plan of limestone . The structural advantage is that the pointed arch channels the weight onto the bearing piers or columns at a steep angle. it also gave Gothic architecture a very different visual character to Romanesque. use of the pointed arch gave a greater flexibility to architectural form. proportion. of which many examples remained. The other structural advantage is that the pointed arch channels the weight onto the bearing piers or columns at a steep angle. as well as the use of semicircular arches. Renaissance Architecture The Renaissance style places emphasis on symmetry.Some impressive churches are: Cathedral of Notre dame at Chartres. geometry and the regularity of parts as they are demonstrated in the architecture of classical antiquity and in particular ancient Roman architecture. Salisbury Cathedral as aleading example pf Early English or Lancet gothic. hemispherical domes. structurally. niches and aedicules replaced the more complex proportional systems and irregular profiles of medieval buildings. This enabled architects to raise vaults much higher than was possible in Romanesque architecture. Orderly arrangements of columns. as a rare example of Italian gothic.

Iconic. Bud and flower capitals for post-and-lintel construction 4. Monumental obelisks and sphinxes fronting pylons 6. 4. entasis Roman (100 BCE. and broken pedimentation 6. Coffered ceilings over large spaces 5.CE. 300-700) .. Clerestory in hypostyle hall 5. Entablature of pediment. Rectangular and circular plans of pozzuolona and stucco 2. Relief sculpture on walls and columns Greek (60-100 BCE) 1. and architrave 3.g. 500) 1.2. Mathematical approach to symmetry 6. frieze. barrel vaulting and groin vaulting 3. Triangular. cornice. Sloping pylons with gorge molding 3. circular. Color and gliding on statuary and architectural details 5. Doric. Engineering principle of arch in dome and drum. Decorative medallions and keystones Early Christian (CE. Fluted freestanding and engaged columns and pilasters with Greek orders. or Corinthian capitals on fluted columns for post and lintel 4. Refinements of proportion to create optical illusions—e. Relatively small rectangular plan of marble 2.

such as basket capitals Byzantine (CE. richly grained marble and mosaics in upper vaults Romanesque (1000-1200) . Campanile disengaged from facade 4. Square coffered ceiling 5. 2. Great dome on pendentives buttressed by half domes 3. Plain exterior 4. sometimes with small round window and compound arches 3. 300-1000) 1. fret. Variations of Roman orders. Clustered colonnettes 5.1. and apse 2. Greek cross plan. or chevron. Plain buttressed facade. walls and surfaced in patterned brick in meander. one or two side aisles. Interiors of colored. Carved basket capitals 6. Roman basilica plan of center aisle. Interior marble and mosaics 6.

or both Gothic (1200-1400) 1. Grouped piers (clustered). Towers engaged to facade and large transept tower 4. Latin-cross plan. and large rose windows on upper levels 6. High facade towers with gargoyles 4. Latin cross plan of local stone 2. Pinnacles with crockets and finials 6. usually of native stone 2. Dome often over aspe 5. recessed doorways decorated with elongated sculptured figures Renaissance (1400-1600) . Use of soaring pointed arch and ribbed vaulting with flying buttresses 3.1. Stained-glass rose and lancet windows 5. thick columns. Tall. Use of round arch and buttressed barrel vaulting and groin vaulting 3. Recessed doorways ornamented with sculpture.

keystones. Triangular and circular pedimentation 6. Broken pediments over doors and windows 6. but Baroque facades frequently added to existing buildings 2. Balanced fenestration of three stories 3. Elaborate console bracket. Decorative balustrades. Entablature with two-story columns 5.1. clocks. Ribbed dome on drum with lantern 4. pilasters. Circular plans and ornamentation. and quoins 7. Accent on sculpture above eye level 4. Greek and Roman ornamentation Baroque (1600-1700) 1. crests. Overly dramatic and exuberant light-and dark patterns 5. Playful in-and-out movement of curved steps and balustrading 3. and fountains International Style (1920s --) . Rectangular plan with combined post-and-lintel form and arch torm 2. cartouches.

Multilevel construction 4. it means the freedom to choose from the styles of the past. conceptually at least. on ―honest: functionalism Modern and Philippine Architecture NINETEENTH-CENTURY ARCHITECTURE The nineteenth century architecture is known as a period of eclecticism. Renaissance for Government Buildings Modern Architecture      New ways and principles were combined with old ones paved the way to new constructions Structural materials such as steel. man’s home should express his personality and it should be adapted to the natural surroundings of its location. Emphasis. such as cantilevering from hillside 3. plastic. It was built out of iron rods and sheathed by panes and glass. Functionalism was for the architects during this period because they believed that form must be based on function. and cement 5. glass in large sheets. Eclecticism means ―freedom of choice‖. Schlesinger and Mayer building expressed this theory. steel. His famous works are: Kaufmann House and Falling Water. The interest in various styles has resulted in the adoption of certain styles as suitable for certain types of buildings: Gothic for Churches. in art. This building was the world’s first prefabricated building and the prototype today’s steel selection and glass skyscrapers. Baroque for Theatres. America’s greatest architect said. such as permapane and stained aluminium 6. But in the nineteenth century. Kaufmann is one of his best known home which is built over the bed of a stream and clings to the gorge on each side of it. Frank Lloyd Wright. Louis Sullivan attested this in his theory. Nonelectric with minimum ornamentation 2. reinforced concrete. Philippine Architecture . New engineering principles. fabricated and prefabricated materials Sir Joseph Paxton built the sensational Crystal Palace for the Great Exhibition of the Works of Industry of All Nations in 1851 at London Hyde’s Park.1. both architects and clients began deliberately to choose to make a building in the style of one era or another. In former times architects had always used the style of their own periods. Greater use of glass. New materials.

Filipino architecture is ethnic. It is a building with several units constructed in the urban and thickly populated areas in the metropolis. Some Ilongots. the floor is made of split-bamboo and the wall is of sawali woven bamboo. built near the rice field. The windows are made of barandillas or balusters and sliding window frames. It is roofed with thick bundles of grass and the posts were made from hard. rice staks. It is also called bahay na tisa. kitchen-dining room and a bathroom.     It is a combination of the different influences handed down to us by our colonizers. Condominiums overtook the apartments. or storms. sugar cane leaves. a symbol of high status in the community. It is a dwelling place of the Maranaos. typhoons. These were mixed with our own untouched designs thereby reflecting the Filipino character. Its entrance is made of bamboo or rattan ladder drawn up at night to prevent intruders from entry. It is made of cogongrass or nipa with four bamboo posts and a roof made of cogon grass. The Bale. It is made two or three stories where the ground floor is made of stone while the upper portion is made of wood. abaca or anahaw leaes. the school buildings. One of the famous cathedrals is the Manila Cathedral. motives and traditions. It is wider and is built on nine to twelve posts with a stiff roof. strong and cylindrical wood. It is one-storey house with a small living room. colleges and universities (University of Santo Tomas) . It is the answer to places often visited by floods. Tree house. Other forms of architecture are expressed in churches and cathedral. These are some of the Philippine ethnic designs: Lean-to It is improvised type of dwelling that uses two bamboo posts and a roof of leaves and grasses. Manobos and the Gaddangs still lodge in tree houses. or nipa or cogon leaves. Bahay na bato is the typical 19th century dwelling of well-off families. one that is pure and unblemished by modernization. It is a royal house. Walay. It serves as a model of the housing project of the government. The torogan is the biggest house in the community. The Ifugaos from the Cordilleras developed this hut. bedroom. a Romanesque Byzantine inspired architecture. Mother nature endowed the Filipinos with rich natural resources which have provided for their shelter needs.. It is made of simple dwellings that serve as protection from the rain. The balcony is a special feature of the bahay na bato. Bungalow is a response to the growing population in the urban areas also. Nipa hut or bahay kubo is the expression of Filipino folk architecture. Apartment is a development of the bahay na bato.

A first consideration in any building is the use to which it is to be put. the house is planned to take advantage of the prevailing breeze. to create in. and air conditioning. hot or cold. on the other hand. In olden times there was always need for protection. to live in. Social Factors The term ―social factors‖ is used to mean all those elements in architecture that are determined by people in contrast with those that are governed by nature. When the climate is mild. The Greeks. the temple was basically a shrine for the statue of the god. Factors influencing Function in Architecture Climate. to enjoy. but are for people – to delight in as they pass them. accommodating only a few people at a time. the house is planned to take advantage of the prevailing winds. had no service in the same sense. it may be of very light material. It is also the art in which the proper performance of function is most important. Another example of social influences on architecture can be found by comparing buildings designed as places of worship. The palace which Michelozzo built for Cosimo de’ Medici served both as palace and fortress. is it possible to live in any kind of house in any climate. even or variable. structural steel. and so on. in a warm climate. Although there are many individual styles in architecture today. because corporate worship is an integral part of the Christian faith. texture. hence. For them. as defense against the enemy. to work in. Is the climate wet or dry. sunny or dark. windy or calm? In countries where there is strong wind. A building is designed for special purpose: it may be an office building. To Christians a church or a cathedral is primarily a place where large numbers of people can assemble. Important in all these is an aim to create buildings which not only ―work‖. Palaces had to be strong enough to ward off possible attack. the house is planned with windbreaks and the living rooms are put in protected areas from the wind. it is placed on the attempt to keep cool. a church.Factors Influencing Functions in Architecture Function in Architecture Architecture is the only one of the major arts that is directly functional. their gatherings for religious purposes were infrequent and were held out-of-doors. its function in the narrower sense of the term. These primary functions are influenced by the physical conditions—climate—but they are even more dependent on social forces. the primary function of the wall is to ensure privacy and to keep out the sun and the rain. strong wall.  Prominent Filipino Architects and their Works Leandro Locsin – 1990 National Artist for Architecture designed the Cultural Center of the Philippines Ocular Chapel now church of the Holy Sacrifice at the University of the Philippines . color. carefully coordinated proportions. and in consequence their temples were small. nevertheless climate is still a factor of which everyone is acutely conscious. With central heating. symbolism and many more. emphasis is placed on building for warmth. whereas in warm climates with temperate winds. a garage. Castles and fortifications were made with very thick. In a cold climate. all of them tend to combine concern for mere function with other qualities –variety in shape. a residence.

It is a French Renaissance inspired building Antonio Toledo designed the Manila City Hall The Palma and Rizal Halls of the old University of the Philippines at Padre Faura. Roques Ruano constructed the main building of the University of Santo Tomas in 1927.’s Paterno Building now Feati University and the Central Seminary Building of the University of Santo Tomas Fr. Manila Arellano brothers (Juan and Arcadio) built the neo-renaissance inspired La Gota de Leche on Lepanto St. Tomas Mapua constructed the Nurse’s home of the Philippine General hospital at Taft Avenue.Andres Luna de San Pedro – chief architect of Manila (1920-1924) built the Crystal Arcade. . Sampaloc Manila Juan Arellano’s greatest works were the neoclassicism inspired Post Office Building at Lawton. Manila and the romantic styled Metropolitan theatre also at Lawton. These masterpieces made him a towering figure in Philippine architecture. the most modern building in Manila before World War II Legarda Elementary School at Lealtad Sampaloc Manila. Manila Ocampo Sr. It is considered as a unique building because of it earthquake-proof construction.