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Engine Mount Analysis Methodology

S. S. Sane
Sr.Vice President Engineering and R&D Piaggio Vehicles Private Limited Baramati, Pune, India

Vyankatesh Madane
Manager - Design Piaggio Vehicles Private Limited Baramati, Pune, India

Gaurav Upadhyay
Traniee - Design Piaggio Vehicles Private Limited Baramati, Pune, India

Keywords: Engine mounts, Vibration isolation, Transmissibility Abstract
Good NVH is becoming must feature in recent commercial vehicles. One of the major discomforts caused to driver by Engine vibration during idling. The power train is suspended on the vehicle frame on several flexible mounts, whose purpose is to isolate the vibration between engine and frame. Total 6 different modes of Engine like roll, yaw, pitch and Vertical, lateral and longitudinal need to isolate. Engine mount stiffness and position is critical and need to have methodology to verify in early stage of designing. In this methodology, existing linear finite element software (Raddios-linear) is used. Advantage of using linear FE software is, same model immediately can be used for durability analysis. In this methodology, engine rubber mounts are model separately. By applying unit force and calculating displacement, stiffness is calculated for specific “Modulus of Elasticity (E)” value. From this model, mathematical rubber E value is estimated to achieve desirable mount stiffness. Once separate rubber mount model is ready, it is imported in FE model of frame and power pack. In FE model, this Engine mounts are connected to frame and power pack. Once this complete assembly model is ready, modal analysis is done to get different Engine modes. Results of this modal analysis are compared to Experimental modes to have correlation of analysis with testing. Different Engine modes frequencies are checked with Target. To achieve Engine modes frequency target, different iterations are done by varying mount position and stiffness (E value).

1. Introduction:
The task of delivering low cost, quality products well ahead of competitors is forcing OEMs to cut down development cost and time. This is leading to increased emphasis on simulation tools for product design and validation. Considering the major contribution of the powertrain vibrations to overall vehicle NVH, the use of simulation tools during powertrain design stages is a critical stage of the vehicle NVH development. Reduced levels of engine idle shake are required to produce satisfactory levels of overall NVH perceived by the customer. Major factors governing the same are either a part of the power train or its ancillaries. Power train mounting system and its transmissibility characteristics are also the key governing factors. Engine mounts protect the engine from excessive movement and forces due to low frequency road and high frequency engine excitations. On the other hand, body mounts protect the cabin from vibration forces exerted by the body. Normally, a complete set of mounts is conceived at early stages of design, subsequently the set is tuned in the refinement stage to improve the vehicle’s noise, vibration, and harshness (NVH) response.

Simulation Driven Innovation


which gets radiated as noise or as vibration through different engine parts like crank pulley. The usual way of reducing the unbalanced forces of the engine is by addition of counter balancing masses. At higher running speeds of the engine mechanical noise is dominant. The factors contributing to it are the inertial forces and the variable torque generation of the engine. When the engine is attached to its support by means of properly selected resilient isolators. The excitation of the system originates from cylinder pressure. When an engine is fastened directly to its support frame. Simulation Driven Innovation 2 . Care need to be taken while designing the mounting system so that the highest mode of the power train is at least √2 times lower than the first firing frequency of the engine.1. Fig 1: Unbalanced Mechanical and Combustion Forces of the Engine . 1 shows the typical vibration generating mechanism of an engine. These are features which need to be incorporated at the earlier stages of engine design. wheel suspensions and components mounted on to the body. crank case. oil pan etc. An important parameter influencing engine vibration especially at low speed is combustion. Idle and low speed comfort can also be influenced due to changes of the engine excitation and the transfer mechanisms. which causes a thrust force against cylinder liner wall and acts on crank train components which results in various modes of the power train. The major causes being: Unbalanced Mechanical and Combustion Forces of the Engine Fig. it has a direct path for the transmission of vibration and noise.1 Theory of Vibration Idle vibrations of any automotive system originate from the power train. The excitation becomes more critical when the main firing orders coincide with the Eigen frequencies of different components. The presence of power train modes in the operating frequencies leads to higher transmissibility during low speed operation. This leads to problems like piston slap and bearing impact forces. the path of vibration and noise disturbances is broken. The main transfer paths for the vibrations are the engine mounts. The rigid body modes of the power train normally occur at very low frequencies.

which generates an excitation force or displacement. If a steady state sinusoidal excitation force. these forces are usually more balanced and simpler to isolate. Fig 2: Undamped Single Degree of Freedom Model.The engine produces two types of disturbances. The single degree of freedom model. etc. through which the vibratory disturbance is transmitted. 3. The model for the undamped condition is shown in Figure 2. This is the firing frequency. The first type consists of disturbances originating in torsional dynamic pulses caused by variations in Cylinder gas pressure. Disturbances in 6 or 8 cylinder engine. Fd = (RPM * Number of cylinder)/ (2*60) (2) In practice. (First order=1* RPM. we should consider isolating the ½ order (in 4 cycle engines) and 1st order (in 2 cycle engines) disturbances as well as harmonics: 1-1/2.). The objective of isolation is to minimize the transmission of vibratory disturbances from the source to the receiver. however uneven piston firing occurs because of uneven fuel mixture distribution. Depending on the number of cylinders and the crank arrangement. The second type of disturbance consists of unbalanced forces caused by reciprocating pistons or rotating crankshaft and rod masses within the engine. As the number of cylinders increases. 2. second order=2*RPM etc. the displacement of the mass is: Simulation Driven Innovation 3 . 4. is applied to the mass. the inertial forces combine or cancel in varying degrees. which defines the uniaxial behavior of a linear system consisting of a lumped mass and spring and dampening elements. 2-1/2. is fundamental to the understanding of vibration isolation.2 Fundamentals of vibration isolation: In general. are easily balanced. But the inertia forces are unbalanced in 1. The firing frequency can be calculated as follows: With a 2 stroke engine. Therefore.) of the isolators. the isolation of which is our primary concern. and a receiver. F. 2. The firing frequency is the most disturbing mode. and must be dealt with in the design of an isolation system. 1. the transmission of vibration can be thought of in terms of a source. or even five-cylinder engine. M. as a rule. We have to identify these in order to position the mounts correctly and also to choose the right dynamic characteristics (stiffness etc. Fd = (RPM * Number of cylinder)/ 60 (1) With a 4 stroke engine. the path.

the transmissibility is infinite. is defined as: n  K M (4) Dividing the numerator and denominator of equation (3) by K / M and substituting for Ώn. When ω / Ώn =1. T Fs ( K ) * (Y )  F Fo sin( wt ) T K ( Fo K ) sin( wt ) 2 [1  ( w 2  n )] Fo sin( wt ) (7) T 1 2 1  ( w2  n ) (8) The magnitude of equation (8) is represented graphically in Figure 3. The goal of an isolation system is to reduce the magnitude of the force transmitted to the support to a level below that of the excitation force acting on the mass. Examination of equation (8) indicates some important characteristics of the behavior of the undamped system. results in the following expression for the displacement of the lumped mass: Y Fo K sin( wt ) 2 1  w2 /  n   (5) Examination of the numerator and denominator in equation (5) indicates the dynamic displacement is a function of the static deflection divided by the ratio between the frequencies of the sinusoidal excitation force (ω) to the natural frequency (Ώn) of the system. When ω / Ώn transmitted force becomes less than the excitation force. The force acting on the support can be expressed as: Fs  ( K ) * (Y ) (6) The transmissibility through the spring is the ratio between the force applied on the mass and the force acting on the support. Simulation Driven Innovation 4 .Y Fo K sin( wt ) ( K M )  w2 (3) The natural frequency of the system (Radians / second).

is comparable to the case of an engine mount which supports a portion of the engine mass and which isolates the engine vibration from the body structure. Physical Mount stiffness Evaluation. deflection curve. Because transmissibility is a function of the natural frequency of the system. 2. which indicates the force acting on the support is in-phase with the excitation force. transmissibility can therefore be expressed as a function of static deflection of the isolator. the natural frequency of the system is a function of the static deflection of the isolator due to the weight of the mounted body. a positive value of transmissibility occurs when ω < Ώn. If the isolator exhibits a linear force vs. The derived expression for transmissibility. formulated as the ratio between the force originating in the supported mass and the force transmitted to the supporting structure. which occurs when ω > Ώn. Methodology In this paper methodology is divided in to two steps:I. indicates the reaction force is out of phase with the excitation. II. III.Also from equation (8). A negative value of transmissibility. Modal analysis of Engine-frame assembly with derived rubber mounts Simulation Driven Innovation 5 . Mathematical Modeling of Rubber Mounts. Fig 3: Transmissibility of an Undamped System.

to find out the stiffness of rubber mounts for vertical direction. E = 50N/mm2. 5 Rubber Material Properties Simulation Driven Innovation 6 . From this model. By applying unit force and calculating displacement.2. stiffness is calculated for specific “Modulus of Elasticity (E)” value. Mathematical Modeling of Rubber Mounts: In this method. In this analysis we have consider Rubber material as isometric material and elastic modulus.2.1. Physical Mount Evaluation: In this method. Fig. 4 Experimental Setup Two rubber mounts having different shore hardness are tested and stiffness of these two mounts are calculated as mention in below table Rubber Shore Hardness (HRC) Stiffness (kgf/mm) 55 20 65 30 Table 1 Experimental Result of stiffness 2. Fig. engine rubber mounts are model separately. mathematical rubber E value is estimated to achieve desirable mount stiffness. they are tested on UTM (as shown in below fig).

Deformation plot is shown above. 7 Deformation result Rubber model with E=50 Load of 1000N is applied at one face and opposite face of rubber is constraint this setup is same as actual testing. To change stiffness we decided to change elastic modulus.26 = 384. we can assume that there is linear relationship between Elastic modulus and Stiffness of rubber. to achieve stiffness of 55HRC rubber. to model 65HRC rubber.6N/mm2 should be enter to achieve stiffness value of rubber equal to stiffness value of actual rubber.Fig. In similar way. E value is calculated as: = = E = 2. 6 Rubber model with E=50 Fig. As we have consider isometric material for rubber. 4 N/mm2 ) Simulation Driven Innovation 7 . Hence.26mm (this value is from deformation result) Stiffness of rubber from analysis = Force / Deformation = 100/0.9N/mm2 (approx.) Deformation = 0. F=1000N=100kg (approx. E value should be 3. E to achieve desire stiffness of rubber.6 kg/mm From analysis it is clear that stiffness of actual rubber is much lower than stiffness of modeled rubber.

In Radioss. Modal analysis of Engine-frame assembly with derived rubber mounts: For this analysis. Results & Discussion: Modal analysis results with different rubber HRC is listed in below table. vehicle is divided into three parts: engine. modal analysis done to get different Engine modes.3. Fig. Result of Modal analysis Simulation Driven Innovation 8 .7 Lateral 7 Longitudinal 9.4 Vertical Table 2. The engine is modeled as a rigid mass with six degrees of freedom and rubber mounts of isotropic material.7 Vertical With 65HRC Rubber mounts Frequency(Hz) Mode 5.Fig 8 Deformation plot for 55HRC rubber Fig 9 Deformation plot for 65HRC rubber 2. engine mounts and frame. 10 FEA Model of Vehicle with Rubber mounts 3.8 Longitudinal 7. With 55HRC Rubber mounts Frequency(Hz) Mode 4.6 Lateral 5.

Fig 11 Longitudinal Mode The engine use for this vehicle is 2cylinder engine having idling rpm of 900rpm.7/15)2)) = 1. acceleration measurement is carried out on test vehicle with 55 HRC and 65 HRC mounts.8/15)2)) = 1. 55HRC rubber mount and 65HRC rubber mount.35 With 65HRC Transmissibility for longitudinal mode = (1/(1-(7/15)2)) = 1.4/15)2)) = 1.27 Transmissibility for vertical mode = (1/(1-(9. The locations for accelerometer mountings are as shown below. Firing frequency of engine = (900*2)/ (2*60) = 15 Hz With 55HRC Transmissibility for longitudinal mode = (1/(1-(5. For test vehicle.17 Transmissibility for vertical mode = (1/(1-(7.64 Transmissibility with 55HRC for longitudinal (8%) and vertical mode (18%) is less than with 65 HRC. measurement done with 2 type of rubber mounts. Therefore. hence 55HRC rubber mount is better option for this engine. Fig 12 Accelerometers mounting locations Simulation Driven Innovation 9 . 4. Experimental Verification: To validate analysis results.

X axis Wind screen.Competitor Vehicle Existing vehicle Test Vehicle with 65HRC mount Test Vehicle with 55HRC mount Fig 13 RMS acceleration at mounting locations Channel 1 2 3 4 5 6 Channel Title Steering.X axis Wind screen.X axis Floor.Z axis Steering.Z axis Table 3: Accelerometers channel location Simulation Driven Innovation 10 .Z axis Floor.

clearly indicate that. Conclusion: Based on analysis 55HRC rubber mounts are suitable for this type of vehicle. 13 and 14. Vibration levels are lower with 55HRC rubber mount than 65HRC rubber mount. Hence there is a correlation between analysis and experimental. same results can be seen in experimental verification.Test Vehicle with 55HRC mount Test Vehicle with 65HRC mount Fig 14 Acceleration at steering X (longitudinal) direction Both fig. Simulation Driven Innovation 11 . 5.