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SETS

• WHY ARE WE STUDYING SETS • The concept of set is basic to all of mathematics and mathematical applications. • Sets are foundational in many areas of Computer Science. • For us, sets are useful to understand the principles of counting and probability theory

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4}. 2} . 1. 4.SETS A set is determined by its elements and not by any particular order in which the element might be listed. Example. A={1. 3. A might just as well be specified as {2. 3. 2. 3. 1} or {4.

b. 3. 3. c} = {a. c. 5. a. Example {a. we may have duplicates in our list. only one occurrence of each element is in the set. 3. 1} = {1. 5} . b.SETS The elements making up a set are assumed to be distinct. c} {1.

B. C … to denote sets The symbol ∈ stands for “belongs to” The symbol ∉ stands for “does not belong to” .SETS Use uppercase letters A.

EXAMPLE X={ a. {2}. 3. {2}∈ A and 1∉ A . d. e }. b∈ X and m∉ X A={{1}. 4}. c. b.

we can describe it by listing a property necessary for memberships Let S be a set. A= {x | x ∈S. P(x)} or A= {x∈ S | P(x)} means that A is the set of all elements x of S such that x satisfies the property P. SETS . the notation.If a set is a large finite set or an infinite set.

6}. 0<x<7} if Z denotes the set of integers. B={1. 4. A={x | x∈ Z. 2.SETS Let A={1. we can also write A as. 3. 5. …} . 4. Let B={x | x∈ Z. x>0}. 3. 2.

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SUBSET If every element of A is an element of B. A=B. . we say that A is a subset of B and write A ⊆ B. The empty set { } is a subset of every set. if A ⊆ B and B ⊆ A.

2. {1. 3} {1. 3}. { }. 2. {1}.EXAMPLE A={1. {1. 2}. {2. {3}. {2}. 3} Subset of A. 3} .

we say that A is a proper subset of B.PROPER SUBSET If A is a subset of B and A is not equal to B. A ⊂ B and A≠B .

2. { }. {2. 2}. 3}. {3}.EXAMPLE B={1. {1. 3} . 3} Proper subset of B. {1. {2}. {1}.

a}. 4} D={x | x is a positive integer . A=B C={1. c. 3. B={b. example A={a. if A and B have the same elements. 2x <10} C=D . c}.EQUAL SET Two set A and B are equal and we write A=B. 2. b.

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The set U must be explicitly given or inferred from the context. .UNIVERSAL SET Sometimes we are dealing with sets all of which are subsets of a set U. This set U is called a universal set or a universe.

4.7.8} and Z={5.3}.8} as a universal set.3.4.2. .2.EXAMPLE The sets X={1.6.5. Y={2.7} One may choose U={1.6.

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Finite Set

Let A be a set, If there exists a nonnegative integer n such that A has n elements, then A is called a finite set with n elements. Example C = {1, 2, 3, 4} B = {x | x is an integer, 1 < x < 4}

Infinite SET

Let A be a set, A is called an infinite set, if A is not a finite set. Example Z = {x| x is an integer} or Z = {…, -3, -2, -1, 0, 1, 2, 3,…} S={x| x is a real number , 1 < x < 4}

f.g}.e. Then we write |S|=n and say that the cardinality (or the number of elements) of S is n.c. 3}. example A= {1.b. 2. |B|=7 . |A|=3 B= {a.CARDINALITY SET Let S be a finite set with n distinct elements.d. where n≥0.

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denoted P(A).POWER SET The set of all subsets of a set A. then |P(A)| = 2^n . P(A)= {X | X ⊆ A} If |A|=n. is called the power set of A.

2.3} the power set of A. {1. and|P(A)| = 2^3 = 8 .3}.2. {3}. {2}. P(A)= {{ }.2}. {1}. {1.EXAMPLE A={1.3}. {1. {2.3} } Notice that|A| = 3.

EXERCISE Let X= {1. 2. a} Find: |X| Proper subset of X Power set of X . 2. {1}.

OPERATION ON SET The union of two sets A and B. denoted by A ∪ B. is defined to be the set The union consists of all elements belonging to either A or B (or both) A ∪ B = { x | x ∈ A or x ∈ B} .

OPERATIONS ON SETS Venn diagram of A ∪ B .

EXAMPLE A={1. 6} and C={8. 5}. 4. 3. 9} Find : A∪B= A∪C= B∪C= A∪B∪C= . B={2. 4. 2.

3. 6. 5. 4. 8. 9} B ∪ C = {2. 4. 3. 3. 4. 2. 2. 9} . 5. 6} A ∪ C = {1. 6. 5. 4. 8. 8.A ∪ B = {1. 2. 9} A ∪ B ∪ C = {1.

is defined to be the set A ∩ B = { x | x ∈ A and x ∈ B} The intersection consists of all elements belonging to both A and B. denoted by A ∩ B.OPERATIONS ON SETS The intersection of two sets A and B. .

OPERATIONS ON SETS Venn diagram of A ∩ B .

3. 8. 4.EXAMPLES A={1. 10 } Find: A∩B= A∩C= C∩B= A∩B∩C= . B={2. 2. 4. 8. 2. 5. 6. 10} and C={ 1. 6}.

A ∩ B = {2. 4. 10} A ∩ B ∩ C = {2} . 8. 2} C ∩ B = {2. 6} A ∩ C = {1.

A∩B=∅ .OPERATIONS ON SETS Two sets A and B are said to be disjoint if.

OPERATIONS ON SETS Venn diagram. A ∩ B = ∅ .

the cardinality of A ∪ B.OPERATIONS ON SETS If A and B are finite sets. | A ∪ B| = |A| + |B| − |A ∩ B| .

The difference A-B consists of all elements in A that are not in B. .OPERATIONS ON SETS The set A-B= { x | x ∈ A and x ∉ B} is called the difference.

OPERATIONS ON SETS Venn diagram of A-B .

2. 7. 7 } . 8 } B= { 2. 5. 3. 6.EXAMPLE A= { 1. 8 } A-B = { 1. 6. 4. 4. 5. 3.

OPERATIONS ON SETS The complement of a set A with respect to a universal set U. denoted by A′ is defined to be A′ = { x∈U| x ∉ A} A′ = U-A .

OPERATIONS ON SETS Venn diagram of A’ .

U= { 1. 4. 7 } . 2. 5. 7 } A= { 2. 6. 3.EXAMPLE Let U be a universal set. 3. 4. 6 } A′ = U – A = { 1. 5.

. f. k. h. U = { a. c. m} B = { b. m } A = { a. A ∩ B . c. l. h. d. f . j. g. m } Find: A ∪ B .EXERCISE Let. b. c. i. A-B and A′. e. | A ∪ B| . g.

j.f.g.d.b.k.c.h.m } SOLUTIONS A′ = { b.i.e.l} .f } A ∩ B = { c.g.| A ∪ B| = 7 A-B = { a.m } A ∪ B = { a.h.

4.5} {x| x>0} ∪ {x| x>1} {1.2.5 {x| x>0} ∩ {x| x>1} .4.EXERCISE {1.3} ∩ {3.3} ∪ {3.2.

5} {x| x>0} ∪ {x| x>1} = {x| x>0} {1.2.3} ∩ {3.5}={3} {x| x>0} ∩ {x| x>1} = {x| x>1} .3} ∪ {3.3.SOLUTIONS {1.5}={1.4.4.4.2.2.

Properties of Set • Commutative laws • A ∩ B=B ∩ A • A ∪ B=B ∪ A .

Properties of Set • Associative laws • A ∩ (B ∩ C) = (A ∩ B) ∩ C • A ∪ (B ∪ C) = (A ∪ B) ∪ C • Distributive laws • A ∪ (B ∩ C) = (A ∪ B) ∩ (A ∪ C) • A ∩ (B ∪ C) = (A ∩ B) ∪ (A ∩ C) .

Properties of Set • • • • • • Complement laws (A′)′ = A A ∩ A′ = ∅ A ∪ A′ = U ∅′ =U U′ = ∅ .

Properties of Set • Absorption laws • A ∪ (A ∩ B) = A • A ∩ (A ∪ B) = A • Idempotent laws • A ∩ A=A • A ∪ A=A .

Properties of Set • De Morgan’s laws • (A ∩ B)′ = A′ ∪ B′ • (A ∪ B)′ = A′ ∩ B′ • Properties of universal set • A∪U=U • A∩U=A .

Properties of SET • Properties of empty set • A∪∅=A • A∩∅=∅ .

EXAMPLE Simplify the set (((A∪B)∩C)’∪B’)’ .

SOLUTION .

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• Example (1. 1) .Cartesian Product • An ordered pair (a. 2) ≠ (2. b) is considered distinct from ordered pair (b. a). unless a=b.

written A×B is the set. • A×B = {(a. b∈B} • For any set A. • A×∅ = ∅×A = ∅ .b)| a∈A.Cartesian Product • The Cartesian product of two sets A and B.

1). (a. (b. (1. (2. 2)} • B×A = {(1. 2}. 1). b)} . (b.EXAMPLE • A= {a. a). a). B={1. b). • A×B = {(a. 2). b}. (2.

then A×B ≠ B×A.Cartesian Product • if A ≠ B. • if |A| = m and |B| = n. then |A×B|=mn .

(4. | A×B |= 2. 2). A×B ≠ B×A • |A| = 2 . B={2. 1). (4. 6}. 4). 6)} • B×A = {(2. 3). 6). 1). 4). • A×B = {(1. (2. . (3. (3. 3}. (6. (6. (1. 4. 3).EXAMPLE • A= {1. 3)} • A ≠ B.3= 6. 2). (1. 1). |B| = 3. (3.

2 } X {3. Faculty} .EXERCISE • {1. 4.5} • {Male. Single} X { Student. Female} X {Married.

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A×C • A×B×C . B×C. |B×C|. x}. B={1. 2} and C={KB. PS}. • Find |A×B|. • A×B.|A×B×C| • Determine the following set.Exercise • Let A= {w. |A×C|. SD.

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