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# Lecture 44 and 45 AUTOMATIC GENERATION CONTROL

1.0 INTRODUCTION Maintaining power system frequency at constant value is very important for the health of the power generating equipment and the utilization equipment at the customer end. The job of automatic frequency regulation is achieved by governing systems of individual turbine-generators and Automatic Generation Control (AGC) or Load frequency control ( LFC) system of the power system. 2.0 FREQUENCY VARIATION IN A SINGLE MACHINE To understand the variation of frequency in a power system, we can consider a single machine connected to an isolated load, as shown in the figure below.

Turbine

Gen

Pl

Pm
Fig.1 SINGLE TURBINE GENERATOR WITH LOAD

Normally, the turbine mechanical power (Pm) and the electrical load power (Pl) are equal. Whenever there is a change in load, with mechanical power remaining the same the speed (ω) of the turbine generator changes as decided by the rotating inertia (M) of the rotor system, as given by the following differential equation.. Pm-Pl = M [dω/dt ] The governing system senses this change in speed and adjusts steam control valve so that mechanical power (Pm) matches with the changed load (Pl). Speed variation stops but at a different steady value. The change in frequency (Δω) at steady state can be described using the following equation in terms of change in load (Δ Pl) and a factor R called ‘speed regulation or ‘droop’. Δω = - [Δ Pl ]( R) A 20 % change in load (Δ Pl = 0.2 per unit) causes 1 % change in frequency (Δω = 0.01 p.u) with a per unit (p.u) droop value of 0.05. Similarly full load throw off (Δ Pl = - 1.0)

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Pref SET POINT GOVERNOR TURBINE + + ROTOR INERTIA - Valve Position Mechanical Power Elec.6.generator system to a power system comprising several turbine. The governors of all the 3 .generators as shown in Fig. Now the mismatch between the total power generated and the total electrical load causes the frequency change as dictated by the combined system inertia.5 50% 100% Load SHIFTING OF SPEED REGULATION CHARACTERISTIC 4. load S P E E D Fig 4 GOVERNING SYSTEM FUNCTIONAL BLOCK DIAGRAM Frequency (Hz) 50 Operating point shifted to 50 % 0% Fig.0 AUTOMATIC GENERATION CONTROL (AGC) Automatic Generation Control (AGC) usually implemented in Energy Management system (EMS) of Energy Control centers (ECC) consists of    Load frequency control Economic Dispatch Interchange scheduling In this section Load frequency control is described. LOAD FREQUENCY CONTROL The speed/ frequency variation concept can be extended from a single turbine.