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1.0 INTRODUCTION Maintaining power system frequency at constant value is very important for the health of the power generating equipment and the utilization equipment at the customer end. The job of automatic frequency regulation is achieved by governing systems of individual turbine-generators and Automatic Generation Control (AGC) or Load frequency control ( LFC) system of the power system. 2.0 FREQUENCY VARIATION IN A SINGLE MACHINE To understand the variation of frequency in a power system, we can consider a single machine connected to an isolated load, as shown in the figure below.





Normally, the turbine mechanical power (Pm) and the electrical load power (Pl) are equal. Whenever there is a change in load, with mechanical power remaining the same the speed (ω) of the turbine generator changes as decided by the rotating inertia (M) of the rotor system, as given by the following differential equation.. Pm-Pl = M [dω/dt ] The governing system senses this change in speed and adjusts steam control valve so that mechanical power (Pm) matches with the changed load (Pl). Speed variation stops but at a different steady value. The change in frequency (Δω) at steady state can be described using the following equation in terms of change in load (Δ Pl) and a factor R called ‘speed regulation or ‘droop’. Δω = - [Δ Pl ]( R) A 20 % change in load (Δ Pl = 0.2 per unit) causes 1 % change in frequency (Δω = 0.01 p.u) with a per unit (p.u) droop value of 0.05. Similarly full load throw off (Δ Pl = - 1.0)


This new speed value is dictated by the droop value. speed settles down after a transient period at a value different from the original steady speed.05). The speed however has to be brought back to the original value for which speed/ load reference (Pref) has to be adjusted either by the operator or by a supplementary control system. when elec. Load TSR (6 . load changes. (Δω = + 0. 52 5 Frequency (Hz) 50 5% Droop 0% Fig.causes 5 % change in speed.10%) 100% 0% t 5% Droop 100% Speed (%) Time(sec) Fig 3 LOAD REJECTION RESPONSE In the speed control system block diagram shown in Fig. 4. 2 .2 50% 100% Load SPEED REGULATION CHARACTERISTIC 3. 5. reference set point is to be adjusted to restore speed to the pre-disturbed value. This is described by the well known droop characteristic.0 NEED FOR SUPPLEMENTARY CONTROL Now when there is a load change. as shown in the figure below. with a droop value of 5 %. For instance a 100 % load rejection will cause the machine speed to settle down at 105 % speed. This is equivalent to shifting the speed droop characteristic to match the new operating load as shown in Fig. During the transient. speed may touch a higher value as shown in the figure (by TSR: transient speed rise).

Pref SET POINT GOVERNOR TURBINE + + ROTOR INERTIA - Valve Position Mechanical Power Elec.6.generator system to a power system comprising several turbine. The governors of all the 3 .generators as shown in Fig. Now the mismatch between the total power generated and the total electrical load causes the frequency change as dictated by the combined system inertia.5 50% 100% Load SHIFTING OF SPEED REGULATION CHARACTERISTIC 4. load S P E E D Fig 4 GOVERNING SYSTEM FUNCTIONAL BLOCK DIAGRAM Frequency (Hz) 50 Operating point shifted to 50 % 0% Fig.0 AUTOMATIC GENERATION CONTROL (AGC) Automatic Generation Control (AGC) usually implemented in Energy Management system (EMS) of Energy Control centers (ECC) consists of    Load frequency control Economic Dispatch Interchange scheduling In this section Load frequency control is described. LOAD FREQUENCY CONTROL The speed/ frequency variation concept can be extended from a single turbine.

7. But frequency remains at a new value and set points must be adjusted. This job is done by the Automatic Load Frequency controller (ALFC) as shown in Fig. Load Despatch Center in each region monitors the frequency by interacting with State Load Despatch Centers and generating 4 . Pref + Composite Governor Composite Turbine + Power System Inertia Combined Mechanical Power Frequency Total Elec.machines sense the frequency and the mechanical power outputs will be changed automatically to match the combined generation with the new combined load. This process of set point adjustment is called secondary regulation. This action is called primary regulation. load Fig 6 BLOCK DIAGRAM SHOWING POWER SYSTEM FREQUENCY VARIATION Set point ○ AUTOMATIC LOAD REQUENCY CONTROLLER Generator Other m/c Power ○ Governor Turbine Secondary regulation To Other Machines Set point ○ Total Load + + - GRID INERTIA - + ○ Frequency Area Frequency + Total Generation Primary regulation Fig 7 AUTOMATIC LOAD RFEQUENCY CONTROL SYSTEM 5. just as in single machine case for frequency restoration. When load change occurs frequency varies and the regulation initially for the first few seconds is due to the action of the governors of all generating units and subsequently the Load frequency control system prevails.0 POWER SYSTEM FREQUENCY CONTROL :INDIAN SCENARIO In India. the power system is divided into regions.

e. ATRS etc. the generating units at Hydro power plant are normally adjusted as the response is faster to raise/lower the power. Load – Generation imbalance causes frequency variation. Hence load shedding is resorted to for frequency management.. the natural tendency of the governors to raise/ lower generation when frequency falls/ rises is suppressed. 5 . But all units are expected to participate in primary regulation.0 Hz – 50. which is not the case in many states.  No dead band or time delays should be deliberately introduced  Each Generating Unit shall be capable of instantaneously increasing output by 5% when the frequency falls.51. The situation has vastly improved in the recent years after the introduction of availability cased tariff (ABT) and free governor mode of operation (FGMO) regimes. In many cases. 6. Above MCR :105 % of MCR  Facility available like load limiters. Kerala and Goa.0 FREE GOVERNOR MODE OF OPERATION (FGMO) To maintain grid discipline. all generating units shall have their governors in free operation (natural governing ) at all times. SRLDC is located in Bangalore. The Regional Load Despatch Centers (RLDC) function under Power Grid Corporation of India.0 Hz the statutory acceptable limits are 48. With the result. When sudden disturbances occur.5 . system collapses causing blackouts. generators are not allowed to participate in primary regulation also i. shall not be used to suppress natural governor action in any manner  All governors shall have a droop of between 3% and 6%. Thermal power plants have ‘rate’ limitations due to thermal stresses. Karnataka. The rated System frequency is 50 Hz and the target range for control should be 49. Load is never constant.stations under the control of States and the generating companies like NTPC. frequency is always less than the rated value of 50 Hz. Mostly manual control is only exercised to maintain frequency.  Each operating machine should pick up load as below: Up to MCR: 5% extra load for at least 5 minutes. For the load frequency control. Precise frequency control is possible only if there is a surplus generating capacity. TN. NHPC. There is no AUTOMATIC load frequency control in many regions as many utilities want to generate to the maximum possible extent and would not like their generation levels adjusted by ALFC. So. for the purpose of frequency each region can be considered as one coherent unit. For instance Southern RLDC comprises AP. limited to 105% MCR. In Indian grid code the following specifications are given.5Hz.

CMC MAX LOAD LIMIT. all partly loaded generating units shall pick up additional load at a faster rate. if frequency falls below 49. SCHEME OF FGMO.. as UFR actuated shedding is meant only for taking care of contingencies like sudden losses of bulk generation etc.e. Implementation of FGMO in power plant In a typical 200 MW/ 250 MW thermal power plant. However. The recommended rate for changing the governor setting. ( 220 MW) LOAD CORRECTION DUE TO FREQ. At 49 Hz.9.5 Hz.     Ramping back to the previous MW level (in case the increased output level can not be sustained) shall not be faster than 1% per minute. irrespective of their type and size. according to their capability.APPOX 2. all constituents shall resort to adequate manual load shedding instantly. 6 . VARIATIONS BOILER FUEL CONTROL.20 MW MIN. FGMO WORKS WITHIN THE LOAD SET PT LIMITS OF 175 MW TO 220 MW ONLY CMC LOAD ST. would be one (1.1 KG/CM2 MIN TURBINE CONTROL. When frequency changes these command signals are modified with a limit of plus or minus 20MW as shown below in Fig. supplementary control for increasing or decreasing the output (generation level) for all generating units.5 MW FOR +/. CORRECTION DUE TO PR. DEAD TIME (2.5 MINUTES) LOAD CORRECTION OF +/. which may trigger Under Frequency Relay (UFR) operation. LOAD SET POINT. Operating frequency should not touch such level.0) per cent per minute or as per manufacturer’s limits. i. TURB MAX LOAD LIMIT. (220 MW) Fig 8 IMPLEMENTATION OF FGMO IN A TYPICAL 210 MW PLANT The Coordinated Master Control ( CMC) scheme gives commands to the turbine control as well as the boiler fuel control to raise/lower generation. +/. PT. implementation scheme is shown in the figure below.

But these set points may not be the optimum from cost point of view. frequency does not get restored but will settle down at a different value. utilities keep the overall system frequency at 50 Hz. Economic dispatch (ED) function readjusts the set points of the generations after the time scale of LFC.In case CMC is not there FGMO can be implemented in the Load control loop of the electro hydraulic turbine controller (EHTC). 7 . but they must also maintain any scheduled tie-line transactions. But as mentioned earlier.20 MW 7.0 AUTOMATIC GENERATION CONTROL : DESIGN AND IMPLEMENTATION ASPECTS The objective of the AGC in an interconnected power system is to maintain the frequency of each area and to keep tie-line power close to the scheduled values by adjusting the MW outputs the AGC generators so as to accommodate fluctuating load demands. The components of AGC in the modern power system are:    Load-frequency control (LFC) Economic dispatch (ED) Interchange scheduling (IS) When frequency changes.LFC maintains the system frequency by performing the function of Secondary Regulation. LOAD CORRECTION WITHOUT DEAD BAND Fig. In a large interconnected power system there are a number of areas connected by tie lines with share agreements with neighbors.9 +20 MW 48Hz 49Hz 50 51 Hz 52 Hz . It is possible. At this point of time LFC function comes in to the picture.. This function is performed by Interchange Scheduling (IS). Not only must areas adjust their generation to meet their own changing native load. It provides generation set points to the generators participating in the frequency regulation. Thus. electric utilities use an automatic generation control (AGC) system to balance their moment-to-moment electrical generation to load within a given control area. by monitoring both the tie-line flow and the system frequency to determine the proper generation action (raise or lower)." By keeping the generated power equal to the power consumed by the load. under primary regulation. governors respond immediately. The LFC and ED functions have to take care of these agreements. Each of these areas is responsible for generating enough power to meet its own customers or "native load.

p. where: The term (T.The current practice of the load frequency control (LFC) function of automatic generation control (AGC) is based on a strategy known as tie-line bias control. This characteristic is expressed as: where. D is the load damping Characteristic. (1/R) is the generator regulation or droop.-T. The coefficient. As long as one frequency bias β≠0. is known as the system natural response coefficient. if all areas have ACE=0: then Δω = 0 and all Δ Net Interchange =0 Driving ACE to zero restores frequency and interchange LFC Implementation: Ideally ΔPrefi = -ACEi 8 .-f. It is difficult to obtain an accurate value of p since it depends on the governor reslponse capability of the generating units presently on-line and the frequency dependence of the constantly changing load. The term representing the area's natural response to frequency deviations is lOp(f. Figure 10: AREA CONTROL ERROR WITH FREQUENCY Area Control Error (ACE) ACE = Δ Net Interchange + β Δ f Δ Net Interchange = Interchange error = Scheduled – Actual Δ f = Δ ω = frequency deviation β = frequency bias ( pu MW/ pu frequency) Basic Idea in AGC design is that when :ACE> 0 generation decreased and ACE<0 generation is increased.). In this control strategy each area of an interconnected system tries to regulate its area control error (ACE) to zero. ) is the difference between the actual and the schleduled net interchange on the tie lines.

where automatic control does not exist.209 Hz and due to governor actions (primary regulation). Then necessarily Prefi=ΔPli. a loss of generation has resulted in a frequency fall from 60.01 Hz to 59.75 Hz as shown 9 . frequency starts increasing and it should have settled around 59. Integral control with stable gain Ki guarantees zero error. In power systems. manual control of set points is done on instructions from dispatch center. In this response curve taken from published literature.Ki ∫ ACEi dt Note in steady state ΔPrefi must become constant and ACEi=0. LFC Implementation Load Frequency Control Frequency Measured At a central Location ~ every 4 sec Tie line flows(MW) Net Interchange Desired Frequency ACE Filters K ∫ Allocation To Plants ∆Pref To Units ~ every 4 sec Other Considerations Economic Dispatch Actual Unit Movement Minimum Movement Severity Unit Energy Balance Response Rate Time error Fig 11 LOAD FREQUENCY CONTROL SCHEME In the modern Energy Management Systems (EMS) automatic load frequency control system (ALFC) is part of Automatic Generation Control (AGC).More practically it is necessary to use integral control ( or Proportional integral control) ΔPrefi = .

For a similar system. Fig. 12 Typical frequency response of a 60-Hz power system with Automatic Generation Control (AGC) for a step load increase But Automatic Generation Control (AGC) system which includes Load Frequency Control (LFC) acts on the set points of the governors and frequency gets restored to the 60 Hz value as shown in the response curve (Fig. 13.below. 13 Typical frequency response of a 60-Hz power system with Automatic Generation Control (AGC) for a generation loss 10 . measured frequency variation when large generation is lost is shown in Fig. 12). Fig.

The 11 .The AGC implemented in developed countries includes load frequency control (LFC). In the literature. Generation Signals (MW) Frequency (f) Telemetry -----Energy Management System (EMS) -Automatic Generation Control (AGC) SYSTEM CONTROL CENTER (SCC) Set Point Electro Hydraulic Governor (EHG) TurbineGenerator (TG) f Set Point Electro Hydraulic Governor (EHG) Set Point Electro Hydraulic Governor (EHG) f Set Point TurbineGenerator (TG) f TurbineGenerator (TG) System Frequency Electro Hydraulic Governor (EHG) TurbineGenerator (TG) HYDRO POWER PLANTS Fig. 14 . After few seconds Secondary Control function by Automatic generation controller (AGC) is initiated. 14 Typical implementation schemeof Automatic Generation Control (AGC) When there is a frequency change primary control action is performed by the governors of prime movers. generations (MW) etc.. signals through remote terminal units (RTUs).0 CONCLUSIONS The basic concepts of power system load frequency control system are described in this article. These are implemented as application programs in Energy Management System (EMS) software located in Energy Control Centers. The implementation scheme for AGC is shown in Fig. economic allocation is also included. it is also referred to as Automatic Generation Control (AGC) where apart from load frequency control. economic dispatch (ED) and interchange scheduling (IS). AGC computes the set point changes required to restore the frequency to the set value and issues commands to participating generating units.The AGC function within SCADA/EMS will receive frequency. 8. (ECC). Dyer. NERC Operating Manual. 3 August 1992. P. available at 〈http://www. A. Nasser Jaleeli. December 2002. & Control. 4.1092-1099. McGraw-Hill.Vol. “IEEE Transactions on Power System. 1984. Vol. IEEE Trans.F. Shoureshi R. Louis S. King and R.1999 9. 1995. “Understanding Automatic Generation based Energy Management System (EMS) installed in modern power systems includes AGC also.” NSF Annual Report ECS-92-16549. Power Generation. 1994 6." American Power Conference. Rahmat A. on Power Systems. John Wiley & Sons. J.3. The concepts of Free governor mode of operation (FGMO) and implementation are also described.1122.J. Operation. P. Schulz. Kazuhiro Enomoto 8. N. ORNL Consortium for Electric Reliability Technology Solutions 2.L.pp.0 REFERENCES 1.14. VanSlyck: “NERC’S NEW CONTROL PERFORMANCE STANDARDS”. Power System Stability and Control. F. Ewart. March 31. Dr. Frequency Control Concerns In The North American Electric Power System December 2002 by B. Luck. and L. Guttromson. Vol. Kundur. The EPRI Power System Engineering Series. 28. 1106. Wood and B. Jaleeli. pp. XX. L. "Effect of PrimeMover Response and Governing Characteristics on System Dynamic Performance. 7. R. North American Electric Reliability Council. 1966. No. 3.nerc. Martinez. deMello. Wollenberg. Policy 10. Vol. 1999 7. C. J. D. 12 . Kirchmayer and R. Dynamic Analysis of Generation Control Performance Standards Tetsuo Sasaki. Fink.K. 5.No.N. 9.H. C. J. Kirby. “Intelligent Control Concepts for Automatic Generation Control of Power Systems. P. IEEE transactions on Power Systems. Concordia. 1074-85. pp.