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# MATH 331

Lab 8

Winter 2004

(1) Suppose that k is a divisor of n. Prove that Zn / < k >≈ Zk . (Hint: Find a homomorphism with kernel < k >) Solution: Note that < k > is a subgroup of Zn with order n/k. Consider the map φ : Zn → Zk where φ(t) = t mod k. φ is a function because a ≡ b (mod n) ⇒ n|(a − b) ⇒ k|(a − b) ⇒ a ≡ b (mod n) ⇒ φ(a) = φ(b). φ is a homomorphism since φ(a + b) = a + b mod k = a mod k + b mod k = φ(a) + φ(b). Also, φ is obviously an onto function. The kernel of φ is < k >. Hence, by First Isomorphism Theorem, Zn / < k >≈ Zk .

(2) If M and N are normal subgroups of G and N is a subgroup of M , prove that (G/N )/(M/N ) ≈ G/M . Solution: Consider the following mapping φ : G/N → G/M where φ(gN ) = gM. First, we need to show that φ is well deﬁned. Let a, b ∈ G and aN = bN , then aN = bN ⇒ ⇒ ⇒ ⇒ ab−1 ∈ N ab−1 ∈ M because N ≤ M aM = bM φ(a) = φ(b)

Next, we will show that φ is a homomorphism. Let g, h ∈ G, φ((gN )(hN )) = φ(ghN ) = ghM = (gM )(hM ) = φ(gN )φ(hN ). The kernel of φ is the set {gN | gN ∈ G/N and gM = eM }, that is, {gN | g ∈ M }, that is, all the cosets of N that are contained in M , which is M/N . Note that N for all m ∈ M and mN, N m ⊆ M . Finally, φ is onto because for every gM ∈ G/M , φ(gN ) = gM . Hence, by First Isomorphism Theorem, (G/N )/(M/N ) ≈ G/M . M since mN = N m

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. nk where n1 + n2 + · · · + nk = n. Hence. then the order of (a1 . . a2 . The number of ways of generating elements of order 2 is 2k − 1 (each of the elements a1 . (4) Prove that an abelian group of order 2n (n ≥ 1) must have an odd number of elements of order 2. Hence Z is nonempty. . Therefore. For any y ∈ R (ab)x = a(bx) = a(xb) = (ax)b = (xa)b = x(ab) ⇒ ab ∈ Z. the abelian groups. . . . For any x ∈ R (a − b)x = ax − bx = xa − xb = x(a − b) ⇒ (a − b) ∈ Z. ak ) is lcm(|a1 |. We need to show that a − b. |a2 |. . then by the Fundamental Theorem of Abelian Groups. a2 . . b ∈ Z. . Solution: Since m(−a) + ma = m(−a + a) = m(0R ) = 0R . ak can have an order of 1 or 2. up to isomorphism. there are 2k − 1 elements of order 2. . . 2 . . |ak |). (5) Given a ring R: (a) If a ∈ R and m ∈ Z. ak ) ∈ Z2n1 ⊕ Z2n2 ⊕ · · · ⊕ Z2nk . Solution: Let Z be the center of R. . Notice that for each of the cyclic groups Z2ni . Show that the center of R is a subring of R. Then. then m(−a) = −(ma). By the Fundamental Theorem of Abelian Groups. a2 . m(−a) = −ma. . G ≈ Z2n1 ⊕ Z2n2 ⊕ · · · ⊕ Z2nk for some positive integers n1 . are: Z4 ⊕ Z125 ⊕ Z7 Z4 ⊕ Z25 ⊕ Z5 ⊕ Z7 Z4 ⊕ Z5 ⊕ Z5 ⊕ Z5 ⊕ Z7 Z2 ⊕ Z2 ⊕ Z125 ⊕ Z7 Z2 ⊕ Z2 ⊕ Z25 ⊕ Z5 ⊕ Z7 Z2 ⊕ Z2 ⊕ Z5 ⊕ Z5 ⊕ Z5 ⊕ Z7 . there is one unique element of order 2. except when all of them are 1). 0R ∈ Z. Solution: If G is an abelian group of order 2n . n2 . ab ∈ Z. . . Let a. Note that for any element (a1 . .MATH 331 Lab 8 Winter 2004 (3) How many abelian groups (up to isomorphism) are there of order 3500? Solution: Note that 3500 = 22 × 53 × 7. . . (b) Deﬁne the center of R = {x ∈ R | ax = xa ∀a ∈ R}.

c are zero is a zero-divisor. . We want to show that a + b d is invertible. That is. (6) Describe all zero-divisors and units of Z ⊕ Q ⊕ Z. nm )|m. Solution: Note that there is no zero-divisor in Z or Q. and ni be the order of xi under addition for i = 1. However. . every nonzero element is a unit. Hence. Solution: Let x1 . c) where one or two of a.MATH 331 Lab 8 Winter 2004 Hence Z is a subring of R.. xm be the elements of R. √ √ (7) Let d be a negative integer. n2 . a+b d We have 1 √ a+b d = = = √ 1 a−b d √ · √ a+b d a−b d √ a−b d when a2 − b2 d = 0 a2 − b2 d √ √ a b − 2 d ∈ Q[ d]. 3 . the units of Z ⊕ Q ⊕ Z are {(a. The only units in Z are ±1. Note that char(R) = lcm(n1 . b ∈ Q} is a ﬁeld. a non-zero element of the form (a. b. c) | a. We need to show that every nonzero element is a unit. . √ √ √ Let a + b d ∈ Q[ d] where a. Hence. . mxi = 0R . c = ±1. x2 . .m.. char(R)xi = 0R . show that the characteristic of R divides m. . b. Note that ni xi = 0R . (8) Let R be a ring with m elements. . . we want to show that √ 1 √ ∈ Q[ d]. 2 − b2 d 2d a a −b Note that a2 − b2 d = 0 only when a = b = 0. . b = 0}. with ni ≤ char(R) ≤ m and ni |char(R) and ni |m. b. while any nonzero element in Q is a unit. √ Solution: It was discussed in class that Q[ d] is a commutative ring with unity 1. Prove that Q[ d] = {a + b d | a. b ∈ Q.

xn−1 = 1F . That is.MATH 331 Lab 8 Winter 2004 (9) Let F be a ﬁeld with n elements. b ∈ R. by the corollary to Lagrange’s Theorem. suppose that every element x ∈ R satisﬁes x2 = x. (10) In a ring R. That is. R is commutative. x|F−{0F }| = 1F . Then. Solution: We need to show that ab = ba for every a. Hence −ab = ab = ba. Solution: Note that the nonzero elements of F form an abelian group under multiplication. prove that R must be commutative. Consider the element (a + b). We have (a + b)2 = a + b ⇒ a2 + ab + ba + b2 = a + b ⇒ a + ab + ba + b = a + b ⇒ −ab = ba. But −ab = (−ab)2 = (−1)(−1)(ab2 ) = ab. Prove that xn−1 = 1 for all nonzero x ∈ F. 4 .