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GuIded by:
Sir Suud Khun
(CCNA Certified, CCNP Certified, CCIE Studied)

Arrange and design: Yama (Aman) 2010
CCNA ]ana (Anan)
ii

Network................................................................................................................................................................... 1
System side.......................................................................................................................................................... 1
Network side ....................................................................................................................................................... 1
CCNA: ............................................................................................................................................................ 1
SOME DEVICES USED OVER NETWORK ...................................................................................................... 1
1. Repeater: ................................................................................................................................................. 1
2. Bridge:..................................................................................................................................................... 1
3. HUB: ....................................................................................................................................................... 1
4. Switch (4ports):....................................................................................................................................... 1
5. Router (L3 Device): ................................................................................................................................ 1
Interneworking models ....................................................................................................................................... 1
1. OSI (Open System Interconnection)....................................................................................................... 1
2. TCP/IP..................................................................................................................................................... 2
3. Cisco 3-layer hierarchical Model............................................................................................................ 3
IP Addresses ....................................................................................................................................................... 3
1. IPv4......................................................................................................................................................... 3
2. IPv6:........................................................................................................................................................ 3
Dual stacking: ................................................................................................................................................. 3
Subnetting............................................................................................................................................................... 4
Converting a decimal IP into binary .................................................................................................................. 4
What is “Sub netting”......................................................................................................................................... 4
How to subnet ..................................................................................................................................................... 4
Subnetting class C........................................................................................................................................... 5
Notes: ..........................................................................................................................................................- 6 -
Subnetting class B.......................................................................................................................................- 7 -
Subnetting class A.......................................................................................................................................- 7 -
Notes ...........................................................................................................................................................- 8 -
Routing ...............................................................................................................................................................- 9 -
Routers............................................................................................................................................................- 9 -
Router configuration ...................................................................................................................................- 9 -
Router & Switch administrative functions....................................................................................................- 10 -
1. Host name .........................................................................................................................................- 10 -
2. Password ...........................................................................................................................................- 10 -
3. Banners .............................................................................................................................................- 10 -
4. Interface description..........................................................................................................................- 10 -
Routing..........................................................................................................................................................- 11 -
Static routing.............................................................................................................................................- 12 -
Note...........................................................................................................................................................- 13 -
Default routing..........................................................................................................................................- 14 -
Dynamic routing .......................................................................................................................................- 14 -
Protocol Types ..........................................................................................................................................- 14 -
Protocol Classes ........................................................................................................................................- 14 -
Wildcard calculation.....................................................................................................................................- 18 -
Notes .........................................................................................................................................................- 18 -
Switching..........................................................................................................................................................- 19 -
Switch............................................................................................................................................................- 19 -
VLAN .......................................................................................................................................................- 19 -
VTP (VLAN Trunking Protocol) ...................................................................................................................- 20 -
Trucking....................................................................................................................................................- 21 -
STP (Spanning Tree Protocol)......................................................................................................................- 23 -
CCNA ]ana (Anan)
iii
InterVLAN routing ...................................................................................................................................- 24 -
MLS (Multilayer Switching)..........................................................................................................................- 24 -
Security.............................................................................................................................................................- 26 -
Access Control List (ACL) ............................................................................................................................- 26 -
Standard ACL configuration.........................................................................................................................- 26 -
Extended ACL configuration ........................................................................................................................- 27 -
Named ACL configuration............................................................................................................................- 27 -
NATTING.........................................................................................................................................................- 28 -
Configuring Static NAT ................................................................................................................................- 28 -
Configuring Dynamic NAT...........................................................................................................................- 29 -
Configuring Overloading..............................................................................................................................- 30 -
Frame relay ......................................................................................................................................................- 32 -
Internal components ........................................................................................................................................- 34 -
Software portion ...........................................................................................................................................- 34 -
1. Boot strap..........................................................................................................................................- 34 -
2. POST.................................................................................................................................................- 34 -
3. ROM monitor....................................................................................................................................- 34 -
4. Mini IOS ...........................................................................................................................................- 34 -
Hardware portion .........................................................................................................................................- 34 -
1. RAM.................................................................................................................................................- 34 -
2. ROM.................................................................................................................................................- 34 -
3. Flash..................................................................................................................................................- 34 -
4. NVRAM............................................................................................................................................- 34 -
Boot sequence ...........................................................................................................................................- 34 -
VPN (Virtual Private Networks)......................................................................................................................- 35 -
VPN types......................................................................................................................................................- 35 -
VPN protocols...............................................................................................................................................- 35 -
Wireless LAN (WiFi) .......................................................................................................................................- 36 -
Modes............................................................................................................................................................- 36 -
Standards ......................................................................................................................................................- 36 -
Topologies.....................................................................................................................................................- 36 -
Configuration................................................................................................................................................- 36 -
Loading IOS on a router..................................................................................................................................- 38 -
How to Copy IOS..........................................................................................................................................- 38 -
How to load IOS ...........................................................................................................................................- 38 -
Note...............................................................................................................................................................- 38 -
CCNA ]ana (Anan)
1
XETWBRR XETWBRR XETWBRR XETWBRR
14-12-2009
1 11 1ÆÆM41& ÆÆM41& ÆÆM41& ÆÆM41&
The connection between homogenous and heterogonous devices to share their resources and information is
called network, Network is studied by its two sides as System side and Network side.
Æ_m±er m1Oe
The system side is studied under following certifications as:
1. MCP: Microsoft Certified Professional.
2. MCSE: Microsoft Certified System Engineer
3. MCSA: Microsoft Certified System Administrator
1e±m<xM m1Oe
The network side is studied under following certifications as:
1. CCNA: Cisco Certified Network Associate.
2. CCNP: Cisco Certified Network Professional.
3. CCIE: Cisco Certified Inter network Expert, etc.
¢¢1W: The main purpose of this course is a Network’s administration in the following bases as Routing
and switching, Security, and Voice over IP.
15-12-2009
Æ4WÆ 1ÆN1¢ÆÆ XÆÆ1 4NÆ1 1ÆÆM41&
1. 1egem±ex: This device is used just as a connection between two devices.
2. Æx1O@e: This device is used as a repeater but to strengthen the signal between two LAN
networks.
3. 1XÆ: This device is just a multiport Bridge that beside LAN networks here; PCs also can be
connected, and HUB is a single collision domain.
4. Æm1±<W ¶Æg<x±m}: This device works as a HUB but it is promoted with the increase of
buses inside, it works on the base of MAC addresses so the first time a switch is connected on a LAN
network; it broadcasts a “Hello/echo” massage and in reply to that massage by Hosts, it saves all the
MAC addresses on a MAC table so switch is called a single broadcasting domain, if all the switch ports
are in use then sometimes it causes a LAN blockage. Switch is a multiple collision domain, and in Cisco
it is still called a (24port Bridge), the data format in switch is called data Frames.
5. 1<w±ex ¶1G 1e<1<e}: This device is used on WANs, over internetwork (the network
of Routers); it is both multiple broadcasting & multiple collision domains because more buses are used
inside it. The address used over routers is all logical addresses (IP addresses), the data formats moving
over routers is called Packets so the packet exchange between routers in an internetwork is called packet
switching and the decision for packet switching is called packet filtering.
16-12-2009
1r±exrem<xM1r@ r<OeIm
NOW WE SEE DEFFIRENT COMPANIES HAS PRODUCCED THESE DEVICES; so in order to
communicate them ISO (International Standardization Organization) has introduced some Models as following:
1. 4Æ1 ¶4ger Æ_m±er 1r±ex<<rre<±1<r} 7-Layers Model:
a. Application layer: This layer presents the data for users.
b. Presentation layer: It collects the data and presents it to application layer and also encryption and
decryption of data is done in same layer.
c. Session layer: This layer divides the data into sessions for every user and supplies the type of
communications whether it is Simplex, Half duplex, or full duplex.
CCNA ]ana (Anan)
2
d. Transport layer: It provides a logical link for end to end communication maybe reliable or
unreliable by the use of TCP/UDP protocols. If TCP (Transmission Control Protocol) is used
Connection Oriented Protocol works here for receiving an acknowledgment of packet arrival to
the other host but UDP (User Datagram Protocol) has no acknowledgment massage received.
This layer is also responsible for the flow control (Windowing: The size of Sender’s data sent at
a time, Buffering: The amount of data received at a time by receiver) to avoid Congestion. The
data is called Segment yet.
e. Network layer (L3): It provides a physical link for end to end communication, here segments are
changed into Packets for routing (checking the direction of packets) with the help of logical
addresses (IP address) and the device used here is Router
i
under protocols as Routing protocols
(Refreshes the link update as RIP, IGRP etc) & Routed protocols (helps a packet rich to its
destination from a host as IPv4, IPv6) both work together interconnecting each other.
f. Data link layer (L2): Frames’ transfer occurs now by the use of physical addresses (MAC
address) and the devices for this layer are switches
ii
, Intelligent HUB, further two layers work
inside this layer as MAC (Media Access Control) layer that interacts with the upper layer
(Physical), LLC (Logical Link Control) layer that interacts with the lower (Network) layer.
g. Physical layer (L1): The devices on this layer are Dump HUB as a multiport Bridge to provide
communication for sending and receiving bits (0, 1).
2. Ƣ1/11 (Transmission Control Protocol/ Internet Protocol)
4-Layers Model: introduced by DOD (Department Of Defense)
a. Process/Application layer: It works as OSI first 3 layers to provide user interface.
b. Host-to-Host layer: All the data is sequenced here as in session layer and provides end to end
communication by the use of protocol from transport layer.
c. Internet layer: It provides routing by the use of logical addresses as in Network layer.
d. Network access layer: It does all the activities done in Data link layer & Physical layer.

i
Metric: The destination between two internetworks, where routing and routed protocols work.
ii
If switches work for routing in network layer so they are called L3 switches.
CCNA ]ana (Anan)
3
17-12-2009
3. ¢1m<< G-Im_ex W1exmx<W1<mI W<OeI
a. Access layer: It completes the switching for Host-to-Host communication by switches over
LANs and VLANs.
b. Distribution layer: It distributes packets after taking routing decisions by routers with the help of
logical addresses.
c. Core layer (Back bone layer): It completes the transportation through physical link for end to end
communication.
11 WOOxemmem
Internet Protocol addresses is of two types as (IPv4, IPv6).
1. 11<Æ: It consists of 32 bits (4Bytes), 4 octets separated by dots (.) as (xxx.xxx.xxx.xxx), it is
called decimal addresses because only decimal numbers are used in it and classified into five classes:
a. Class A: (1.0.0.0) to (126.255.255.255)
i
for large organizations (Governmental)
b. Class B: (128.0.0.0) to (191.255.255.255) for middle range companies
c. Class C: (192.0.0.0) to (223.255.255.255) for small organizations
d. Class D: (224.0.0.0) to (239.255.255.255) for Multicasting
e. Class E: (240.0.0.0) to (247.255.255.255) Under research for future use
Due to the lake of IP addresses some rules were introduced as NAT (Network addresses Translation), CIDR
(Classless Inter Domain Routing (Sub netting)), Private IP addresses for each class of IP (10.0.0.0 -
10.255.255.255/ 172.16.0.0 - 172.31.255.255/ 192.168.0.0 - 192.168.255.255) but again the lake of IP
addresses were felt so IPv6 was introduced.
2. 11<W: It consists of 128 bits (16 Bytes), 8 octets separated by colons (:) and it supports
hexadecimal numbers as (xxxx:xxxx:xxxx:xxxx:xxxx:xxxx:xxxx:xxxx), it is of three types:
a. Global unicast IP: This type starts with (2001, 3001, 4001)
ii
, it is used on WANs for routers e.g.
(2001:0000:0000:0000:0000:0000:0000:0001) - (2001:0000:0000:0000:FFFF:FFFF:FFFF:FFFF)
in this type the first four octets is network portion and last four octets are host but called interface
portion.
b. Site local IP: These are not purchased as Private IP addresses and starts with (FEC0:) e.g.
(FEC0:0000:0000:0000:0000:0000:0000:0001)
c. Link local IP: These are used inside LAN communications and starts with (FE80:) e.g.
(FE80:0000:0000:0000:0000:0000:0000:0001)
Multicast addresses starts with (FE00:) and used for multicasting.
IPv6 can be abbreviated as bellow:
(2001:0000:0000:0000:0000:0000:0000:0001) = (2001::0000:0000:0000:0001)
(2001::0010:0000:0000:0001) = (2001:: 10::1) IPv6 is used over Back bones.
1wmI m±m<M1r@: The way of communication between IPv4 & IPv6 through NATTING, this is
called a GRE tunnel.
IPv6 (NATTING) IPv4 (NATTING) IPv6

i
The IP (127.0.0.1) is called Loop back IP that is used for self pinging with a switch or other device.
ii
(3001, 4001) is not used yet.
CCNA ]ana (Anan)
4
18-12-2009
Æ ÆÆ ÆXÆ XÆ XÆ XÆ1ÆÆÆ114 1ÆÆÆ114 1ÆÆÆ114 1ÆÆÆ114
Only for IPv4 (IPv6 can not be subnetted): A network runs over subnet masks defined for them, subnet mask is
used to define the number of hosts allowed and send through a network by its host portion but network portion
can not be subnetted; each IP class has got an automatic default subnet mask as below:
1. Class A: Network (255.)- Host (0.0.0) = (255.0.0.0)
2. Class B: Network (255.255.)- Host (0.0) = (255.255.0.0)
3. Class C: Network (255.255.255.)- Host (0) = (255.255.255.0)
4. Class D: Network (255.255.255.255) - Host () = (255.255.255.255) for routers only.
5. Class E is still under research for future use.
¢<r<ex±1r@ m Oe<1rmI 11 1r±< k1rmx_ (255.0.0.0)
255: 11111111
0: 00000000
0: 00000000
0: 00000000 255 = 1 1 1 1 1 1 11
Now as we see here all 1s shows the up/on bits and all the 0s shows the down/off bits.
21-12-09
MWm± 1m ^Æwk re±±1r@"
The word “Subnet” is derived from two words; Sub (a part of), Net (network) so it means being a part of
network, an internetwork is also called the part of a network, to avoid wasting the large amount of IP addresses
of a skim “subnetting” is introduce, by the help of which we can divide a class of IP addresses into small
subnetworks so that a class of IP addresses is used by a large amount of networks. In each network’s IP series
the first and the last IP is not used by users/hosts because the first IP of every IP pool is for self network
identification (Network IP) and the last IP of every pool is used for broadcast of that network (Broadcast IP); so
the least number of IP addresses in each pool must be 4 in order to connect only two users/hosts. Two directly
connected devices should used same network’s IP; e.g. two routers and connected to each other, the assigned IP
for their connected interfaces
i
should continue as (192.168.1.1 & 192.168.1.2).
1<m ±< mwkre±
For subnetting a class of IP addresses we should know some of the following terms:
1. Each class of IP has a default subnet mask, the number of “up” bits in a default subnet mask is called the
prefix value for that class of IP addresses; e.g. in class C default subnet mask is (255.255.255.0) in
binary number we can have it as (11111111.11111111.11111111.00000000), start counting from left
side we have 24 “up” bits so the prefix value for class C is (24).
2. Value extracted from binary number is on the base of following weights (
128
1
64
1
32
1
16
1
8
1
4
1
2
1
1
1) the
on bits’ weight is added from left side and written e.g. 11111000 = (128+64+32+16+8) = 248
3. Subnetting always occurs in the host portion of an IP class by changing “down” bits to “up” so it’s
added to the network portion.
4. For getting the number of pools (group) and IP addresses per pool some formulas are used as the
formula (2
n
where “n” = “up bits of a subnetted mask”) to find out the number of Pools or groups, the
formula (2
n
where “n” = “down bits of subnetted mask”) to find range of IP addresses per pool, in each
pool 2 IP addresses are considered as “Network” & “Broadcast” IPs then the formula (2
n
-2 where “n” =
“down bits of sub netted mask”) is used for total usable IPs for hosts. The number of IP/pool including
network and broadcast IP addresses is called block size.
5. The prefix value after subnetting can be called “CIDR” value as well, and its range for every class is
fixed in which a mask can be subnetted but (31 & 32) CIDR values are not valid for subnetting because
for 31 we can’t get user IPs and for 32 no IP available.

i
A router is not included in a network only the interface is used in a network; a router can be used by multiple networks.
/ 2 2 2 2 2 2 2
255 127-1 63-1 31-1 15-1 7-1 3-1 1-1
CCNA ]ana (Anan)
5
22-12-09
Æwkre±±1r@ <Immm ¢ Some notations about this class:
1. The prefix value for class C is 24; (X.X.X.X/
24
)
2. The CIDR value range is (25 to 32); (X.X.X.X/
25-32
); But (31 & 32) CIDR is not used for user
3. Default subnet mask is (255.255.255.0)
4. For better study of this class; we start sub netting from 30 downward.
e.g. IP 192.168.0.0/
24
; Default mask 255.255.255.0 = 11111111.11111111.11111111.00000000
For IP 192.168.0.0/
30
; Subnetted mask 255.255.255.252; last octet = .111111100
Number of pools = 2
6
= 64 Number of IP per Pool = 2
2
= 4
1
st
: 192.168.0.0 Network IP
192.168.0.1
192.168.0.2
192.168.0.3 Broadcast IP
2
nd
: 192.168.0.4 Network IP
192.168.0.5
192.168.0.6
192.168.0.7 Broadcast IP
63
rd
: 192.168.0.248 Network IP
192.168.0.249
192.168.0.250
192.168.0.251 Broadcast IP
64
th
: 192.168.0.252 Network IP
192.168.0.253
192.168.0.254
192.168.0.255 Broadcast IP

For IP 192.168.0.0/
29
; Subnetted mask 255.255.255.248; last octet = .11111000
Number of pools = 2
5
= 32 Number of IP per Pool = 2
3
= 8
1
st
: 192.168.0.0 Network IP
192.168.0.1
192.168.0.2
192.168.0.3
192.168.0.4
192.168.0.5
192.168.0.6
192.168.0.7 Broadcast IP
32
nd
: 192.168.0.248 Network IP
192.168.0.249
192.168.0.250
192.168.0.251
192.168.0.252
192.168.0.253
192.168.0.254
192.168.0.255 Broadcast IP

For IP 192.168.0.0/
28
; Subnetted mask 255.255.255.240; last octet = .11110000
Number of pools = 2
4
= 16 Number of IP per Pool = 2
4
= 16
1
st
: 192.168.0.0 Network IP
192.168.0.1
192.168.0.2
192.168.0.3
192.168.0.4
192.168.0.5
192.168.0.6
192.168.0.7
192.168.0.8
192.168.0.9
192.168.0.10
192.168.0.11
192.168.0.12
192.168.0.13
192.168.0.14
192.168.0.15 Broadcast IP
16
th
: 192.168.0.240 Network IP
192.168.0.241
192.168.0.242
192.168.0.243
192.168.0.244
192.168.0.245
192.168.0.256
192.168.0.247
192.168.0.248
192.168.0.249
192.168.0.250
192.168.0.251
192.168.0.252
192.168.0.253
192.168.0.254
192.168.0.255 Broadcast IP

CCNA ]ana (Anan)
6
For IP 192.168.0.0/
27
; Subnetted mask 255.255.255.224; last octet = 11100000
Number of pools = 2
3
= 8 Number of IP per Pool = 2
5
= 32
1
st
: 192.168.0.0 Network IP
192.168.0.1
. . .
. . .
. . .
192.168.0.31 Broadcast IP
8
th
: 192.168.0.224 Network IP
192.168.0.225
. . .
. . .
192.168.0.254
192.168.0.255 Broadcast IP

For IP 192.168.0.0/
26
; Subnetted mask 255.255.255.192; last octet = .11000000
Number of pools = 2
2
= 4 Number of IP per Pool = 2
6
= 64
1
st
: 192.168.0.0 Network IP
192.168.0.1
. . .
. . .
192.168.0.62
192.168.0.63 Broadcast IP
2
nd
: 192.168.0.64 Network IP
192.168.0.65
. . .
. . .
192.168.0.126
192.168.0.127 Broadcast IP
3
rd
: 192.168.0.128 Network IP
192.168.0.129
. . .
. . .
192.168.0.190
192.168.0.191 Broadcast IP
4
th
: 192.168.0.192 Network IP
192.168.0.193
. . .
. . .
192.168.0.254
192.168.0.255 Broadcast IP

For IP 192.168.0.0/
25
; Subnetted mask 255.255.255.128; last octet = .10000000
Number of pools = 2
1
= 2 Number of IP per Pool = 2
7
= 128
1
st
: 192.168.0.0 Network IP
192.168.0.1
. . .
. . .
192.168.0.63
192.168.0.64
. . .
. . .
192.168.0.126
192.168.0.127 Broadcast IP
2
nd
: 192.168.0.128 Network IP
192.168.0.129
. . .
. . .
192.168.0.191
192.168.0.192
. . .
. . .
192.168.0.254
192.168.0.255 Broadcast IP
- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
1<±em:
1. To find the specific pool with its network and broadcast IPs for a subnetted IP address with the CIDR
value given, follow this manner; first solve the number of Pools and IP per pool from the CIDR value
given, second get the subnet mask for the IP, finally write down the pool as in following example:
E.g. Find the Network and Broadcast IPs for the pool which (194.100.9.83/
29
) IP exists in?
Ans: CIDR value = 29, it means last octet is (.11111000) so the subnet mask is 255.255.255.248;
number of pools = 2
5
(32); number of IP/pool = 2
3
(8). So by counting (10x8=80 & 11x8=88
80<83<88) we get “this IP exists in 11
th
Pool, and the network IP for this Pool is [(“Pool no”-1) x “No
of IP/pool”] = [(11-1) x 8 = 80] (194.100.9.80) & the Broadcast IP is got [(“Pool no” x “No of
IP/pool”) -1] = (11 x 8 -1 = 87) (194.100.9.87)
2. Network IP of every Pool is in “Even” numbers other than Broadcast IP is always in “Odd” numbers.
CCNA ]ana (Anan)
- 7 -
23-12-09
Æwkre±±1r@ <Immm Æ Some notations about this class:
1. The prefix value for class B is 16; (X.X.X.X/
16
)
2. The CIDR value range is (17 to 32); (X.X.X.X/
17-32
); But (31 & 32) CIDR is not used for user
3. Default subnet mask is (255.255.0.0)
4. For better study of this class; we start sub netting from 17 upward to 24.
E.g. IP 172.16.0.0/
16
; Default mask 255.255.0.0 = 11111111.11111111.00000000.00000000
For IP 172.16.0.0/
17
; Subnetted mask 255.255. 128.0; last two octets = .10000000.00000000
Number of pools = 2
1
= 2 Number of IP per Pool = 2
15
= 32768
1
st
: 172.16.0.0 to 172.16.127.255 Last: 172.16.128.0 to 172.16.255.255
For IP 172.16.0.0/
18
; Subnetted mask 255.255.192.0; last two octets = .11000000.00000000
Number of pools = 2
2
= 4 Number of IP per Pool = 2
14
= 16384
1
st
: 172.16.0.0 to 172.16.63.255 Last: 172.16.192.0 to 172.16.255.255
For IP 172.16.0.0/
19
; Subnetted mask 255.255.224.0; last two octets = .11100000.00000000
Number of pools = 2
3
= 8 Number of IP per Pool = 2
13
= 8192
1
st
: 172.16.0.0 to 172.16.31.255 Last: 172.16.224.0 to 172.16.255.255
For IP 172.16.0.0/
20
; Subnetted mask 255.255.240.0; last two octets = .11110000.00000000
Number of pools = 2
4
= 16 Number of IP per Pool = 2
12
= 4096
1
st
: 172.16.0.0 to 172.16.15.255 Last: 172.16.240.0 to 172.16.255.255
For IP 172.16.0.0/
21
; Subnetted mask 255.255.248.0; last two octets = .11111000.00000000
Number of pools = 2
5
= 32 Number of IP per Pool = 2
11
= 2048
1
st
: 172.16.0.0 to 172.16.7.255 Last: 172.16.248.0 to 172.16.255.255
For IP 172.16.0.0/
22
; Subnetted mask 255.255.252.0; last two octets = .11111100.00000000
Number of pools = 2
6
= 64 Number of IP per Pool = 2
10
= 1024
1
st
: 172.16.0.0 to 172.16.3.255 Last: 172.16.252.0 to 172.16.255.255
For IP 172.16.0.0/
23
; Subnetted mask 255.255.254.0; last two octets = .11111110.00000000
Number of pools = 2
7
= 128 Number of IP per Pool = 2
9
= 512
1
st
: 172.16.0.0 to 172.16.1.255 Last: 172.16.254.0 to 172.16.255.255
For IP 172.16.0.0/
24
; Subnetted mask 255.255.255.0; last two octets = .11111111.00000000 (For Class B)
Number of pools = 2
8
= 256 Number of IP per Pool = 2
8
= 256
1
st
: 172.16.0.0 to 172.16.0.255 Last: 172.16.255.0 to 172.16.255.255
24-12.09
Æwkre±±1r@ <Immm W Some notations about this class:
1. The prefix value for class A is 8; (X.X.X.X/
8
)
2. The CIDR value range is (9 to 32); (X.X.X.X/
9-32
); But (31 & 32) CIDR is not used for user
3. Default subnet mask is (255.0.0.0)
4. For better study of this class; we start sub netting from 9 upward to 16.
E.g. IP 10.0.0.0/
8
; Default mask 255.0.0.0 = 11111111.00000000.00000000.00000000
For IP 10.0.0.0/
9
; Subnetted mask 255.128.0.0; last 3 octets = .10000000.00000000.00000000
Number of pools = 2
1
= 2 Number of IP per Pool = 2
23
= 8388608
1
st
: 10.0.0.0 to 10.127.255.255 Last: 10.128.0.0 to 10.255.255.255
For IP 10.0.0.0/
10
; Subnetted mask 255.192.0.0; last 3 octets = .11000000.00000000.00000000
Number of pools = 2
2
= 4 Number of IP per Pool = 2
22
= 4194304
1
st
: 10.0.0.0 to 10.63.255.255 Last: 10.192.0.0 to 10.255.255.255
For IP 10.0.0.0/
11
; Subnetted mask 255.224.0.0; last 3 octets = .11100000.00000000.00000000
Number of pools = 2
3
= 8 Number of IP per Pool = 2
21
= 2097152
1
st
: 10.0.0.0 to 10.31.255.255 Last: 10.224.0.0 to 10.255.255.255
For IP 10.0.0.0/
12
; Subnetted mask 255.240.0.0; last 3 octets = .11110000.00000000.00000000
Number of pools = 2
4
= 16 Number of IP per Pool = 2
20
= 1048576
1
st
: 10.0.0.0 to 10.15.255.255 Last: 10.240.0.0 to 10.255.255.255
For IP 10.0.0.0/
13
; Subnetted mask 255.248.0.0; last 3 octets = .11111000.00000000.00000000
CCNA ]ana (Anan)
- 8 -
Number of pools = 2
5
= 32 Number of IP per Pool = 2
19
= 524288
1
st
: 10.0.0.0 to 10.7.255.255 Last: 10.248.0.0 to 10.255.255.255
For IP 10.0.0.0/
14
; Subnetted mask 255.252.0.0; last 3 octets = .11111100.00000000.00000000
Number of pools = 2
6
= 64 Number of IP per Pool = 2
18
= 262144
1
st
: 10.0.0.0 to 10.3.255.255 Last: 10.252.0.0 to 10.255.255.255
For IP 10.0.0.0/
15
; Subnetted mask 255.254.0.0; last 3 octets = .11111110.00000000.00000000
Number of pools = 2
7
= 128 Number of IP per Pool = 2
17
= 131072
1
st
: 10.0.0.0 to 10.1.255.255 Last: 10.254.0.0 to 10.255.255.255
For IP 10.0.0.0/
16
; Subnetted mask 255.255.0.0; last 3 octets = .11111111.00000000.00000000 (Class A)
Number of pools = 2
8
= 256 Number of IP per Pool = 2
16
= 65536
1
st
: 10.0.0.0 to 10.0.255.255 Last: 10.255.0.0 to 10.255.255.255
1<±em:
1. CIDR value is called a also Subnetted prefix for a class of IP; which is the abbreviation for (Classless
Inter Domain Routing) but when in it was introduced by Cisco so changed to CCIDR (Cisco CIDR).
2. The number of usable IPs in a class excluding Network and Broadcast IPs is called “Block size”.
26-12-09
N1ÆW ¶Nmx1mkIe 1er@±W Æwkre± WmmM}
This is a easy way to take a network and create many networks using subnet mask of different lengths and
different types of network designs called VLSM networking, it benefits us to save a group of IP address space,
as we can have different subnet masks for different router interfaces each joining separate networks as you can
see in this figure:

CCNA ]ana (Anan)
- 9 -
29-12-09
1 11 14XÆ114 4XÆ114 4XÆ114 4XÆ114
1<w±exm
This device is used over network layer on internetwork, it uses and operating system called IOS (Internetwork
Operating System) that provides us Communication, Static/Dynamic routing support, Scalability
i
, Security for
user and network access. There are four ways for router’s connectivity in different conditions as:
1. Console cable: this is a “RS232” & “RJ45” ends’ connecter cable used for essential configuration only;
its further usage for troubleshooting or traffic control is not recommended by Cisco.
2. Telnet: Once configuration is done on a router and it is up, then if any traffic problem or troubleshooting
occurs then the router is accessed from remote area by NMS (Network Management Server) via Telnet.
3. Aux (Auxiliary): this connectivity is done through a modem connected to the router and the number
assigned for it, is dialed remotely and then router is set, but new routers doesn’t have modem interfaces.
4. SSH (Secure Shell): here, a router is configured remotely by an OS as windows or Linux
ii
but not used
with new routers.
A figure from backside of a Cisco 2600 router shows the important ports
iii
except two serial ports used for
connecting to other routers called (Point to point/ Peer to peer) connectivity.
1<w±ex <<r11@wxm±1<r: Router configuration is of two types; when it is configured
through Console cable or Aux directly, it is called “Out-of-band”, while configuring through Telnet or SSH
from any of its networks that is called “In-band” configurations. Configuring through console cable: after
connecting “RS232” PC port to “RJ45” router console port, then on “Windows XP” follow this path: Start> All
programs> Accessories> Communication> Hyper terminal> Edit for any “Name”> Click “Restore Default” for
values> OK> wait while router completes its loading step> Edit “NO” then you move to “Router console mode”
(you are asked to press RETURN)> by pressing “Enter” move to “User executive mode ( Router> )”> Edit for
(enable)
iv
command and by pressing “Enter”, it moves to “User privilege mode ( Router# )” here you can
access basic commands to show or check some information about router by using following commands:
1. show version For checking the version of a router.
2. show ? For getting more info about “show” usages.
3. show clock For checking router time.
Using the command (configure terminal) and pressing “Enter”, move to “Router/User/Global
configuration mode” determined as ( Router(config)# ) where you get access to configure a router.

i
The ability to adjust configuration and size to fit new conditions
ii
Not much usage because “Linux” is mostly used on servers and router is not configured by a server
iii
On ports the sign 0/0 means (
Slot number
/
Port number
).

iv
If any word is present uniquely in IOS dictionary so by typing only some begging letter of command and pressing “TAB”; the
command will be auto completed as: ena > enable, conf t > configure terminal etc.
CCNA ]ana (Anan)
- 10 -
30-12-09
1<w±ex w Æm1±<W mOr1r1m±xm±1<e 1wr<±1<rm
Introducing four functions to administrate a router or a switch:
1. 1<m± rmre: first and most important point is to configure a host name for a router with the
help of (hostname) command followed by a specific name for router or switch.
2. 1mmmm<xO: as you know security is must for a device so that security is implemented by
configuring the following password configurations to the device step by step in configuration mode:
a. Enable password: the passkey implemented by (enable password) command followed by a
password, asked back while moving to “User privilege mode” but this password is revealed
while showing running configurations then secret code is used.
b. Enable secret password: this code is implemented by (enable secret) followed by a pass
code, and this code for hacking avoidance in routers.
c. Aux password: auxiliary pass code is implemented by (line aux 0 password a word
login ) commands for aux port, this is asked when router is accessed through Aux
connectivity, the “0 or 1” digits included command shows the number of ports on router.
d. Console password: console pass code is implemented by (line console 0 password a
word login ) command for security on connectivity through console cable.
e. Telnet password: this code is very important to secure a router from hacking that is easily
implemented by (line vty 0 4 password a word login ) commands, the number
of telnet servers’ access is defined while password configuration in the underlined part of the
command, which is (0 4) for non enterprise IOS and (0 1180) for enterprise IOS version.
3. Æmrrexm: it is used to display information, it’s of four types: 1. Executive process, 2. Incoming
process, 3. Login process (console), and 4. Massage of the day (contains a router’s information located
at the top, arrange it in user configuration mode of a router by (banner motd # some information
about the router # ), shown back after console mode.
4. 1r±ex1m<e Oem<x1g±1<r: at User privilege mode; for getting information about the
ports’ connectivity using commands as (show ip interface brief ) to check router’s
interfaces’ IP assigned to, (show int followed by interface Id as s0/0, s0/1, f0/0 or f0/1) to
get information about the specific port’s connectivity, to describe a port; at interface’s configuration
mode (description “Some words to describe the port” ) command is used, this description is
shown back in “user privilege mode” for interface.
Implementations: switch on a router and start with the following! Command Descriptions
Router>enable User Executive mode.
Router#configure terminal User privilege mode.
Enter configuration commands, one per line. End with CNTL/Z.
Router(config)#hostname "Qta router" Changing hostname.
Qta router(config)#enable password 123 Adding Enable password.
Qta router(config)#enable secret 456 Adding Enable secret password.
Qta router(config)#line console 0 Entering console line.
Qta router(config-line)#password 789 Adding Console password.
Qta router(config-line)#login Enabling console password.
Qta router(config-line)#exit Getting out of console line.
Qta router(config)#line vty 0 4 Entering telnet path for 5 users.
Qta router(config-line)#password 1234 Adding password for telnet users.
Qta router(config-line)#login
Qta router(config-line)#exit
Qta router(config)#banner motd # Adding Massage of the day banner.
Enter TEXT message. End with the character '#'.
This is the Quetta router # Banner massage, ending with #.
Qta router(config)#interface serial 0/0 Entering interface mode.
Qta router(config-if)#description "This port is connected to Karachi"
CCNA ]ana (Anan)
- 11 -
Qta router(config-if)#exit Description added to the port.
Qta router(config)#exit
%SYS-5-CONFIG_I: Configured from console by console
Qta router#show interface serial 0/0 “Show” command in privilege mode.
Serial0/0 is down, line protocol is down (disabled)
Hardware is HD64570
Description: "This port is connected to Karachi" This line is added via description.
%SYS-5-CONFIG_I: Configured from console by console
This is the quetta router This is the banner, defined earlier.
User Access Verification
Password: Console password is needed.
Qta router>enable
Password: Enable password is needed.
Password: Enable secret password is needed.
Qta router# Back to privilege mode.
1<±em:
1. For ending any configuration use the command (exit).
2. For console and Aux connectivity users we can set session time.
31-12-09
1<w±1r@
Defining paths for packets transfer from one internetwork to another internetwork is called routing, a router
checks packet’s destinies through IP addresses
i
, the destiny a packet passes leaving an interface of first router
and crosses the 2
nd
router is called One “Hop” distance, any routing’s trust worthiness is defined for its “AD
(administrative distance)”; AD value varies between (0-255) but AD approximating to (0) is considered the
better routing because lower AD path is always followed by packets, after defining the paths (routing) & router
configurations a router creates some tables for saving different information on them as:
1. Routing table: this table is made in a router to keep routes’ information on it.
2. Neighbor table: this table saves information about its neighbor router.
3. Topology
ii
table: if two routers are connected by multiple connections, so some routers save all
connection routes on routing table but some of them save only the best connectivity on routing table
then the remaining connections are saved on topology table with network’s structure. Topology table is
same for all routers in an internetwork because all routers are connected to same structured network.
Routing is of three types as Static routing, Default routing, Dynamic routing.

i
IP addresses are assigned and used only with devices having multiple broadcasts as router not single broadcast as switches.
ii
Topology is the name for a network structure.
CCNA ]ana (Anan)
- 12 -
Ʊm±1< x<w±1r@: in static routing a network administrator has to define all routes of a network
manually, which has got some advantages as:
1. Once all routes are defined then there is no need felt for “update packets”, which due to less overhead.
2. The AD value for static routing is (1) which is considered the best AD.
But some disadvantages of static routing are:
1. Static routing depends on network administrator with a lot of responsibilities.
2. A static routed network can not be managed easily without a basic model guide for it.
01-01-10
Static routing configuration: for the implementation of static routing we attend the following example:
PC/Switch, Switch/Router is straight cable but Router to Route is Pair to pair connectivity.
On Router1:
Self decompressing the image:
########################################################################## [OK]
--- System Configuration Dialog --- COMMAND DISCRIPTIONS
Continue with configuration dialog? [Yes/no]: No Continue with manual setup
Press RETURN to get started! Press ENTER
Router>Enable User executive mode
Router#conf t User privilege mode
Router(config)#Hostname A Changes router’s name
A(config)#int s0/0 Enter a serial interface
A(config-if)#ip address 1.0.0.1 255.0.0.0 Assign IP
A(config-if)#encapsulation PPP Establish peer connection
A(config-if)#no shutdown Interface turns on
A(config-if)#exit Get out of interface
A(config)#int f0/0 Enter a Fast Ethernet interface
A(config-if)#ip address 200.100.50.1 255.255.255.0 Assign IP
A(config-if)#no shutdown Interface turn on
A(config-if)#exit
A(config)#do show ip interface brief Check IP configurations
Interface IP-Address OK? Method Status Protocol
FastEthernet0/0 200.100.50.1 YES manual up up
Serial0/0 1.0.0.1 YES manual up up
Serial0/1 unassigned YES manual administratively down down Means (it isn’t made UP)

CCNA ]ana (Anan)
- 13 -
On Router 2:
Self decompressing the image:
########################################################################## [OK]
--- System Configuration Dialog ---
Continue with configuration dialog? [Yes/no]: No
Press RETURN to get started!
Router>Enable
Router#conf t Configurating terminal
Router(config)#hostname B
B(config)#int s0/0
B(config-if)#ip address 1.0.0.2 255.0.0.0
B(config-if)#clock rate 64000 Must for DCE port
i

B(config-if)#encapsulation PPP Only on Serial connections
B(config-if)#no shutdown
ii

B(config-if)#exit
B(config)#int f0/0
B(config-if)#ip address 200.100.100.1 255.255.255.0
B(config-if)#no shutdown
B(config-if)#exit
B(config)#do
iii
show ip interface brief
Interface IP-Address OK? Method Status Protocol
FastEthernet0/0 200.100.100.1 YES manual up up
Serial0/0 1.0.0.2 YES manual up up

Back to Router 1:
A(config)#ip route 200.100.100.0 255.255.255.0 1.0.0.0 Mention route in Static routing
A(config)#do show ip route Check routing table
C 1.0.0.0/8 is directly connected, Serial0/0 Directly connected
C 200.100.50.0/24 is directly connected, FastEthernet0/0
S 200.100.100.0/24 [1/0] via 1.0.0.0 Mentioned through routing

Back to Router 2:
B(config)#ip route 200.100.50.0 255.255.255.0 1.0.0.0 STATIC ROUTING
iv

B(config)#do show ip route
C 1.0.0.0/8 is directly connected, Serial0/0
S 200.100.50.0/24 [1/0]
v
via 1.0.0.0
C 200.100.100.0/24 is directly connected, FastEthernet0/0
B(config)#do ping 200.100.50.1 Check direct connectivity
!!!!! Connection success sign but (.....) is connection failed sign

On Router 1:
A(config)#do ping 200.100.100.1
!!!!!

1<±e: While assigning IP for PCs: PC1 (IP 200.100.50.2, Subnet 255.255.255.0, Default gateway
200.100.50.1
i
) but PC2 (IP 200.100.100.2, Subnet 255.255.255.0, Default gateway 200.100.100.1)

i
The clock rate is must on a DCE (Female) serial port for synchronization.
ii
While making further changes on an interface it should be turned down by the use of (shutdown) command.
iii
This “Do” is used before a command from “User privilege mode” to enforce it run at “Configuration mode”.
iv
For canceling any of the defined routes just use (no) command before that routing command.
v
(1) shows the AD (Administrative Distance) and (0) shows METRIC (number of Hopes) for a route.
CCNA ]ana (Anan)
- 14 -
04-01-10
1e1mwI± x<w±1r@: default routing is also called default static routing, it has got less overhead
than static routing with the best (AD = 0), but the most important point is; default routing is configured where
only one exit point
ii
exists on the router otherwise, loop will occur whilst the packet will be moving round the
network but gets to no LAN network. For default routing; no route is defined in routing table but only one line
starting with (S*) sign that defines a default route. As we see in example below: here default routing is
configured only on Router D because the only exit point is from (S0/0), no other exit point but on (A, B, C)
routers we define all networks statically as before:
Now in this model we see that Router A has got 3 exit
interfaces, Router B has got 2 exit interfaces, and
Router D also has got 2 exit interfaces so we can’t
configure Default routing on them but as we see that
Router C has got only one exit interface (highlighted
in blue). So after all IP configurations on routers and
Static routings for (A, B, C) routers at last we can
configure default routing on Router D as defined only
by one line for its exit point: [C (config)#IP route
0.0.0.0 0.0.0.0 4.0.0.0] and on its routing
table, it is shown as: (S* 0.0.0.0/0 [1/0]
via 4.0.0.0) which is different from other
routers’ routing table.



Default routing model

05-01-10
1_rmr1< x<w±1r@: The routing which follows some algorithms (set of rules called protocols)
is called dynamic, it is also easy to configure and troubleshoot as compare to Static routing, every protocol is
defined for its specific metric that it uses, some of them makes and works on all (Routing, Neighbor, &
Topology) tables but some works only on routing tables. This is the routing in which routers check all
(protocols, links, connectivity for neighbor routers etc) then every router sends the collected information to its
all neighbor routers as a packet called “Update packet”, if a router receives no update packet from its neighbor
router then it puts a cross on that neighbor. Dynamic routing’s protocols are defined in Types and Classes:
1x<±<<<I Æ_gem: protocols are defined in three types as following:
1. Routing Information Protocol: its metric that it works on is hop-counts and its examples are RIP, RIPv2.
2. Interior Gateway Protocol: its metric is Bandwidth (link’s capacity) and runs on only one Autonomous
iii

inside as IGRP (Interior Gateway Routing Protocol) it’s Cisco’s proprietary but very weak.
3. Exterior Gateway Protocol: it has no relation inside a network but it work on the outgoing connectivity
of a network as an outstanding, and strong protocol but inside a network it’ll be the weakest one, it’s not
corrupt shortly but again its information is update by user as: BGP (Border Gateway Protocol).
1x<±<<<I ¢Immmem: protocols are classified into three classes as following:
1. Distance vector protocol: for its distance measuring vector it uses Hop-counts and always follows the
less number or hops as RIP, RIPv2, and IGRP
iv
.

i
PCs’ default gateway is always the IP assigned on router’s interface joining same network.
ii
Only Serial or peer to peer connectivity is called an “exit point” for a router, not a fast Ethernet.
iii
A huge size of network by routers connected to the only network is called one “Autonomous System” AS.
iv
IGRP uses bandwidth but while facing equal hop-counts; it prefers to follow high bandwidth.
CCNA ]ana (Anan)
- 15 -
2. Link state protocols: considering its distance measured, always the shortest path is followed and works
on all three tables as OSPF (Open Shortest Path First) which is a widely used, and reliable protocol for
interior and different autonomous system networks.
3. Hybrid protocols: it is mixed up of both first and second protocol classes and uses its specifics as EIGRP
(Enhanced Interior Gateway Routing Protocol) which also works on different Autonomous systems.
06-01-10
RIP: RIP is a distance victor protocol that sends update packets to neighborly connected routers; duration
between two update packets sent is (30sec) called “update timer”, if no update packet is sent by a router for
(180sec) called “Invalid timer” then it is marked as invalid for neighbor router, after invalid timer “Hold down
timer up to 240sec” starts during which an echo packet is sent by neighbor router and waits for reply, but if till
240sec no reply received then the next “Flash timer” starts in which the down router is removed from neighbor
routers’ routing table. Maximum number of hops for RIP is 15, means that RIP can be configured over 15
routers’ network, while trying to connecting the 16
th
router on RIP a “Destination unreachable” massage is
shown so it is efficient for small network to the range of 15 routers. The AD value for this protocol is 120. Rip
i

supports only class-full routing because no subnet mask information is sent in update packets. Rip supports 4 to
6 serial “up” connectivity at a time for two routers called “Equal load balancing” but no support of down
connectivity for backup on its topology table called “Unequal load balancing”. The algorithm used by RIP is
called “Belemenford algorithm”. For configuring RIP on a router use (router RIP ) command, then add
all networks directly connected to the router by mentioning their network IP via command as (network
1.0.0.0 Exit) on all routers joining a network.
07-01-10
RIP configuration: here we can see that after all interfaces’ IP configured then dynamic routing is configured
on two routers using RIP protocol just by opening the Rip’s command and define all directly connected network
to the router as following:
Router A:
A(config)#router rip
A(config-router)#network 1.0.0.0
A(config-router)#network 200.100.50.0
A(config-router)#exit

Router B:
B(config)#router rip
B(config-router)#network 1.0.0.0
B(config-router)#network 200.100.100.0
B(config-router)#exit
On routing table the network connected to a router via rip is
shown as you see here on router B:
(R 200.100.50.0/24 [120/1] via 1.0.0.1, 00:00:12, Serial0/0)
08-01-10
RIP version 2: in short to explain that all other specifics between RIP and RIPv2 as (Metric, AD, timers, and
maximum router’s support on one network) are same but two major differences are:
1. RIPv2 supports classless routing since it is sending the subnet mask information in update packets so
VLSM is also supported by RIPv2.
2. RIPv2 is introduced with a multicasting feature as it has a multicast IP address (244.0.0.9) but RIP was
able to unicast only, no multicasting on RIP.
While configuring RIPv2 the only difference is the use of (version 2 ) command after opening RIP.
11-01-10

i
In RIP configured network the only CIDR value for all classes of IP is supported.
CCNA ]ana (Anan)
- 16 -
RIPv2 configuration: check here that after all interfaces’ IP configured then dynamic routing is configured on
two routers using RIPv2 protocol just by opening the Ripv2’s command and define all directly connected
networks to the router as following:
A(config)#router rip
A(config)#version 2
A(config-router)#network 1.0.0.0
A(config-router)#network 200.100.50.0
A(config-router)#exit
B(config)#router rip
B(config)#version 2
B(config-router)#network 1.0.0.0
B(config-router)#network 200.100.100.0
B(config-router)#exit
If routers are connected in a circle so one router’s LAN will be
shown twice in routing table with different hops because it will be available via both paths.
12-01-10
IGRP (Interior Gateway Routing Protocol): This routing protocol which is a Cisco proprietary, is an interior
gateway protocol, it is from distance vector class and works on different autonomous systems. This protocol is
developed to overcome the RIP problems seeing that IGRP includes 100 hop-counts for best service but it is
scalable to its maximum support of 255 hop counts. IGRP has 90 seconds update timer. By default “hop-count”
is the metric for IGRP but due to providing both equal and unequal load balancing (bandwidth & delay) is also
used called composite metrics for it, some non-default metrics as (Reliability, Load, and MTU
i
) are used. The
algorithm followed by IGRP is “Belmenford”, having the “AD = 100”. IGRP is a class-full routing protocol, but
finally to declare that IGRP is the older version so not used anymore. The sample configuration on a router is
simple as starting with (Router IGRP 1) command where “1” is the number of AS, that is to be same for all
routers then continue the commands for advertising directly connected networks.
13-01-10
EIGRP (Enhanced Interior Gateway Routing Protocol): it is an interior gateway protocol, enhanced or
advanced distance vector protocol that also contains some features from Link state protocol class so it is a kind
of hybrid class protocols, because by default its metric is hop-count (Best till 100 routers, scalable to 255) but
being the best protocol for unequal load balancing; it uses composite and non-default or secondary metrics as
used by IGRP. Only at network’s upping time EIGRP sends an update packet to neighbor routers after that in
each update timer
ii
only an “echo packet” is sent, no update packet anymore until any change occurs in
network’s topology; this results to maximize bandwidth
iii
and lessen chocking on network. EIGRP is rapid
convergence (spread fast over network) protocol, which can work on different AS. The algorithm followed by
EIGRP is “DUAL (Diffusing Update Algorithm)”, and this is the best protocol of Cisco proprietary with the
reliable AD of 90. EIGRP is a classless routing protocol that supports VLSM, CIDR and Multicasting. Wildcard
mask configuration, which is used for blocking and permitting networks and users, is also supported by the
mentioned protocol, but its configuration is optional as an example (wildcard mask for 255.0.0.0 is
0.255.255.255). Not to forget that beside IPv4 this protocol supports IPv6 as well. The ease in configuration is
to open it by (router EIGRP 1) command and advertise all directly connected networks to a router.

i
MTU stands for Maximum Transmission Unit.
ii
The update timer for EIGRP is also same as IGRP (90 Sec).
iii
Also called low bandwidth utilization that means network resources utilization.
CCNA ]ana (Anan)
- 17 -
14-01-10
EIGRP configuration: After all interfaces’ IP configured then dynamic routing is configured for two routers
using EIGRP protocol just by opening the EIGRP’s command and advertise all directly connected networks to
the router as following:
A(config)#router EIGRP 1
A(config-router)#network 1.0.0.0 0.255.255.255
A(config-router)#network 200.100.50.0 0.0.0.255
A(config-router)#exit
B(config)#router EIGRP 1
B(config-router)#network 1.0.0.0 0.255.255.255
B(config-router)#network 200.100.100.0 0.0.0.255
B(config-router)#exit
When routing table was checked on Router A, shows this result:
(D 200.100.100.0/24 [90/2172416] via 1.0.0.2, 00:00:13, Serial0/0) as it
is seen that EIGRP route is defined by the letter “D”. Its metric is something different not “hop-counts”; so
don’t forget that EIGRP is showing MTU, which is not a default metric but a secondary metric.
15-01-10
OSPF (Open Shortest Path First): OSPF is a link state protocol that chooses the shortest path first. The
algorithm followed by OSPF is called “Dikjkastra”, and it follows IETF open standard’s both version 1 & 2.
OSPF is an extra-scalable protocol for as much routers on a network. This is a rapid convergence protocol as
compare to RIP and RIPv2 but not as EIGRP. OSPF, which maintains and works on all three (Routing,
Neighbor, and Topology) tables, has an update timer of “40sec”. OSPF contains two types of network as:
1. Multi-access network: in such a network all routers are connected by “Fast Ethernet” via “Cross over”
cables (no serial connectivity), and no routing update is sent. This network contains one “Designated
Router (DR)” that saves self-whole network’s topology and routing information from/to other routers; if
a new router joins the network, it requests the “DR” for topology then DR sends it as a packet. Self DR
is elected by two manners:
a. If all routers are upped at a time then based on some rules DR election occurs.
b. If all routers are not upped at a time then the router, loaded first, becomes the DR.
After DR in a multi-access network there is “Backup Designated Router (BDR)” that automatically becomes
DR, if network’s DR downs due to any problem. And all other network’s routers are called “DR other”.
DR election rules: the following steps are obeyed in router’s interface selection as DR of a network:
a. Router ID: every router has got a virtual or logical interface that supports up to (10) IP addresses
(0-9) called loopback IP. If any of this IP is advertised
i
on the routing protocol, it becomes that
router’s ID, which can’t be same for two routers in one network. So the first option noted for DR
election is the highest Router-ID to which an interface is attached.
b. Interface priority: when router is elected then its interfaces’ priority is checked, since a higher
priority is elected; by default each interface’s priority is 1.
c. If priority is not set or is remained by default then at third and last step higher interface IP is
elected. When DR is elected the second choice is for BDR.
These steps are followed only in case of router’s circle connectivity but if routers are connected as in a tree
then only Router-ID is check for DR election; the highest R-ID becomes DR after then BDR is elected.
2. Point to point network: this network is used on different ASes each AS contains areas inside as
following:
a. Area 0, which is called the backbone area, is the main and center area for an AS.
b. Other areas, which surround “area 0” and are connected to it, are called border areas.
OSPF is a classless protocol that supports VLSM, CIDR and multicasting through the fixed IP (244.0.0.5), it
possesses the AD value of (110) and it is a multi-vender
ii
protocol too. OSPF supports both IPv4 & IPv6, its

i
Router-ID is not implemented until OSPF is not reloaded by (clear IP OSPF process) command in user privilege mode.
ii
Multi-vender means that it can be implemented on non-Cisco devices.
CCNA ]ana (Anan)
- 18 -
metric is called “Cost”; the link with lowest cost value is more reliable and can provide high bandwidth. OSPF
provides equal and unequal load balancing for unlimited connections, while unequal load balancing the primary
backup link, which is defined by cost value, is called “Feasible successor” that is to replace primary link if it
turns down. While advertising networks on OSPF, wildcard and area definition is must. The easy configuration
is to start OSPF with (router OSPF 1) command and advertise the directly connected networks including
wildcard and specific area for a router.
16-01-10
OSPF configuration: After all interfaces’ IP configured then dynamic routing is configured for two routers
using OSPF protocol just by opening the OSPF’s command and advertise all directly connected networks to the
router including their wildcard mask and area, which are must for OSPF as following:
A(config)#router ospf 1
A(config-router)#network 1.0.0.0 0.255.255.255 area 0
A(config-router)#network 200.100.50.0 0.0.0.255 area 0
A(config-router)#exit
B(config)#router ospf 1
B(config-router)#network 1.0.0.0 0.255.255.255 area 0
B(config-router)#network 200.100.100.0 0.0.0.255 area 0
B(config-router)#exit
Observing the routing table for router “B” it’s seen that the path guided
through OSPF is shown with the “O” letter, metric is “Cost”, and default
AD is “110” as (O 200.100.100.0/24 [110/782] via
1.0.0.2, 00:06:12, Serial0/0). Some extra commands used with protocols:
1. Show controllers int: to get information about the connectivity of any port.
2. Clear IP ospf process: used to reload all OSPF settings.
3. Show IP ospf process: used to check all processes running with OSPF.
18-01-10
M1IO<mxO <mI<wIm±1<r
wildcard is calculated from subnet mask implemented to an interfaces’ IP as the subnet mask minus
(255.255.255.255) value for example: a router’s serial interface’s IP is (1.0.0.1 255.255.224.0), as seen this is a
subnetted mask for class A, and the network IP advertised on OSPF as (1.0.0.0/
19
) then its wildcard is counted
like: (255.255.255.255 – 255.255.224.0 = 0.0.31.255) and defined for OSFP.
1<±em:
On some switches we get additional ports as “Giga”, these ports use Fast Ethernet Cat 6
i
cables.
WR: this command is used after each configuration to save them for startup memory.
Ctrl + Shift + 6: this is the shortcut key for translation canceling.

i
Cat 6 cables transfer over 1000mbps data used with Giga port.
CCNA ]ana (Anan)
- 19 -
19-01-10
Æ ÆÆ ÆM1Æ¢1114 M1Æ¢1114 M1Æ¢1114 M1Æ¢1114
Starting with OSI layer-2, which is called data link layer (DLL) and includes two further layers inside namely
called MAC layer to control physical media interacting with physical layer and second is LLC interacting with
network layer to control logical links. As mentioned before, the device used in this layer is called switch that are
also of two types as L2 switches and L3 switches.
Æm1±<W
This device is used with small networks, which are limited networks; called local area networks (LAN) relating
one organization. For such networks the area range is not considered but signal range depending on media used
for a network as in the following table:
Remember that a half
duplex communication
can never facilitate you
as a full duplex
communication. Switch
works on MAC
addresses, which is a
physical address embossed on LAN cards, it can’t be same for any two LAN cards in the world. Mac addresses
of all hosts connected to a switch is resolved by a protocol named “Address Resolution Protocol (ARP)” from
IP addresses sent to switch in reply to switch’s broadcast then saved on Mac table in switch. The main
difference between routing and switching is that; routing uses IP addresses for path definition but in switching
there is no path definition but IP address is used for host-to-host communication. The mechanism used in switch
for switching services is called “ASICs (A6)” to build their filter table inside switch’s processor.
20-01-10
Switch is single broadcast domain that means it has got a single passage for data travel and the data sessions in
switch is called data frames. The time period while frame entry from one port and getting out of other port or in
other words the time, during which a data frame is inside a switch is called “Latency” so less latency switch is
considered the best. L2 switches has no routing capability but L3 switches provides routing capabilities due to
having SUP (Supervisor Engine) beside A6 mechanism. Some Cisco switch models are these:
Switching has two levels of failure namely High
point of failure that happens due to more boxes
connected in line, and second is Less point of
failure as failure is decreased by using less boxes
that L3 switch 6500 is used as best solution.
There is a rule in switching called (80-20), which
means on a LAN network; 80% of its traffic
should depend on local hosts and only 20% of its
traffic depends on out-network (e.g. internet…).
As mentioned before that switch is a single broadcast domain resulting that LAN works in a single broadcast
domain and uses the network broadcast IP address, so in order to break a single broadcast into multiple
broadcasts, an option is introduced called VLAN (Virtual LAN) and its process is called “virtual local area
networking”.
21-01-10
N1W1: by default a switch supports 255 VLANs but only 5 of them are usable in which VLAN 1is for
user by default and the rest are for administrative functions, the action of creating VLANs only makes existing
VLANs usable. The number of VLANs depends on switch’s IOS as well; if a switch has enterprise IOS it
supports (1-1005) VLANs but if switch’s IOS is non-enterprise, its maximum support of VLANs is (64) and
only some of them can support up to (128) VLANs. By default all switch ports are included in VLAN 1, until

xxviii
EOS = End Of Sale, EOL = End Of Life, TMM = Top Most Models, ASA = is a name for “firewall” device.
Connectivity Range (meter) Speed (mbps) Communication type Cable type
Ethernet 10 10 Half duplex Cat-5
Fast Ethernet 100 100 Full duplex Cat-6e
Gigabit 1000 1000 Full duplex Cat-6u
10 Gigabit 10000 10000 Full duplex Cat-6u
100 Gigabit This is implemented but no standards applied by IEEE yet.
Type of Switch Models number Situation
L2 1900, 2900, 5000 EOS & EOL
L3 3550, 3560 EOS
L2 2950 EOS
L2 & L3 2950, 3550, 3560 TMM
L3 400, 4500, 6000, 6500
*
TMM
* 6500 is the latest model, which is all in one (Switch, Router,
ASA)
xxviii

CCNA ]ana (Anan)
- 20 -
you define them for other VLANs then broadcast domain is broken not before, but remember that one port can
be defined only for one VLAN. A short definition for VLAN can be (All local area networks in a box). When
VLANs are defined on a switch then a VLAN database
xxix
or record is created then the mentioned database is
exchanged between switches based on some rules called “VLAN Trunking Protocol (VTP)” via trunking. There
are two types of connectivity between switches the first one is Access (on access connectivity only one VLAN’s
data travels) the second one is Trunk that any VLAN’s data travels on it.
Configuration:
A(config)#vlan 2 Two create 2
nd
VLAN.
A(config-vlan)#name sales Assign name for VLAN.
A(config-vlan)#exit Get the VLAN mode.
A#sh vlan br Check VLANs.
VLAN Name Status Ports
1 default active Fa0/1, Fa0/2, Fa0/3, Fa0/4
Fa0/5, Fa0/6, Fa0/7, Fa0/8
Fa0/9, Fa0/10, Fa0/11, Fa0/12
Fa0/13, Fa0/14, Fa0/15, Fa0/16
Fa0/17, Fa0/18, Fa0/19, Fa0/20
Fa0/21, Fa0/22, Fa0/23, Fa0/24
Gig1/1, Gig1/2
2 sales active
1002 fddi-default active
1003 token-ring-default active
1004 fddinet-default active
1005 trnet-default active
22-01-10
NÆ1 ¶N1W1 ÆxwrM1r@ 1x<±<<<I}
Starting with some of the VTP status:
1. VTP version: VTP has got two versions (1 & 2), but on switch version 1 runs by default and its 2
nd

version has got its maximum support as (token ring…).
2. VTP revision number: higher revision number is preferred for dominance, for example the switch with
high revision number overrides a switch with lower revision number means while database exchange
always high revision number’s switch overwrites its database on lower revision number’s switch.
3. VTP modes: switches are configured on three modes for VTP as:
a. Server mode: the switch with high revision number should be configured as server and VLANs
are always created on server, because its data is copied on clients.
b. Client mode: the switch wanted to get the database from any server mode switch then its mode is
changed into client.
c. Transparent mode: a switch with transparent mode is used only as a bridge between a server
mode switch and client mode in order to transfer the database from server switch to client switch,
no database is copied on transparent mode switch.
VTP mode always overrides VTP revision number for example a server switch’s database is always copied
on client though client switch’s revision number is being higher then server switch’s revision number.
4. VTP domain: it is strongly recommended that a domain name must be given for server switch then the
same domain name is transferred to other client switches so domain name must be same for all switches
otherwise no database exchange will take place.
5. VTP password: same as domain name, VTP password is also recommended to be same for all switches,
domain name is automatically sent to other switches but database exchange occurs when same VTP
password is set on any client mode switch.

xxix
If any change occurs in VLAN database, in real time devices it takes 300 Seconds to exchange the database.
CCNA ]ana (Anan)
- 21 -
Æxw<M1r@
xxx
: there are two types of Trunking as DTP & manual:
1. Trunking via DTP (Dynamic Trunking Protocol): in dynamic Trunking protocol two connected ports get
different status as “Auto” that is looking for any other port to communicate to but the other end is
“Desirable” that is waiting for any “auto” port to communicate with, communication starts between a
pair of “auto & desirable” ports, as media is connected between two switches then a DTP starts by
default but can’t provide communication because at that time both ends are set in auto mode and auto-
to-auto communication is not possible. Once DTP is implemented on both sides then they start sending
only link updates to each other called DTP packets and the first packet is always initiated from Auto
mode interface.
2. Manual Trunking: manual Trunking is same as static routing that all paths were defined for routers and
here on both ends, Trunking is implemented manually, as mentioned before by default DTP starts and it
send DTP packets, and after implementing manual Trunking this packets are not stopped and they are
useless for network but dangerous due to hackers, so they must be stop manually while manual
Trunking. If a manual Trunking is changed back to DTP these packets transmission starts automatically.
Configurations:
1. VTP configuration: for configuring VTP (Mode, Domain name, Password) are specified for server
switch and on client only (Mode & password) is configured as here on (A & B) switches:
A(config)#vtp mode server
Device mode already VTP SERVER
A(config)#vtp domain YAMA
Changing VTP domain name from NULL to YAMA
A(config)#vtp password 123
Setting device VLAN database password to 123
A(config)#^Z
A#show vtp status
VTP Version : 2
Configuration Revision : 0
Maximum VLANs supported locally : 255
Number of existing VLANs : 5
VTP Operating Mode : Server
VTP Domain Name : YAMA
VTP Pruning Mode : Disabled
VTP V2 Mode : Disabled
VTP Traps Generation : Disabled
MD5 digest: 0x22 0x2C 0x06 0xB3 0x41 0x70 0x10 0
Configuration last modified by 0.0.0.0 at 0-0-00 00:00:00
Local updater ID is 0.0.0.0 (no valid interface found)
B(config)#vtp mode client
Setting device to VTP CLIENT mode.
B(config)#vtp password 123
Setting device VLAN database password to 123
B(config)#^Z
B#show vtp status
VTP Version : 2
Configuration Revision : 0
Maximum VLANs supported locally : 255
Number of existing VLANs : 5
VTP Operating Mode : Client
VTP Domain Name : YAMA
VTP Pruning Mode : Disabled

xxx
The trunked port is not shown in any VLAN so it is check by (show interface f0/1 switchport) command.
CCNA ]ana (Anan)
- 22 -
VTP V2 Mode : Disabled
VTP Traps Generation : Disabled
MD5 digest: 0x22 0x2C 0x06 0xB3 0x41 0x70 0x10 0
Configuration last modified by 0.0.0.0 at 0-0-00 00:00:00
As you see that domain name is automatically copied to client but after Trunking. The best practice is that first
configure Trunking then VTP configuration.

2. Trunking via DTP: Trunking is always configured in interface mode, always shut the interface then
configure Trunking, on which connected to other switch and in DTP it is must to define the interface
mode whether “auto or desirable” as following:
A(config)#int f0/1 Move to interface.
A(config-if)#shutdown Turn it down.
A(config-if)#switchport mode dynamic auto Allow DTP auto port.
A(config-if)#no shutdown Up the interface back.
A(config-if)#exit
A#show interfaces f0/1 switchport Check the Trunked switch.
Name: Fa0/1
Switchport: Enabled
Administrative Mode: dynamic auto
Operational Mode: trunk
B(config)#int f0/1 Move to interface.
B(config-if)#shutdown Turn it down.
B(config-if)#switchport mode dynamic desirable Allow DTP desirable port.
B(config-if)#no shutdown Up the interface back.
B(config-if)#exit
B#show interfaces f0/1 switchport Check the Trunked switch.
Name: Fa0/1
Switchport: Enabled
Administrative Mode: dynamic desirable
Operational Mode: trunk
3. Trunking manually: in manual Trunking no mode is defined for interface, but not to forget that stopping
hackers is necessary (stop DTP packets exchange) because they are of no use any more so using the
(switchport nonegotiate) as following:
A(config)#interface f0/1
A(config-if)#shutdown
A(config-if)#switchport mode trunk
A(config-if)#switchport nonegotiate
A(config-if)#no shutdown
A(config-if)#exit
A#show interfaces f0/1 switchport
Name: Fa0/1
Switchport: Enabled
Administrative Mode: trunk
Operational Mode: trunk
B(config)#interface f0/1
B(config-if)#shutdown
B(config-if)#switchport mode trunk
B(config-if)#switchport nonegotiate
B(config-if)#no shutdown
B(config-if)#exit
B#show int f0/1 switchport
Name: Fa0/1
Switchport: Enabled
Administrative Mode: trunk
Operational Mode: trunk


CCNA ]ana (Anan)
- 23 -
23-01-10
ÆÆ1 ¶Ægmrr1r@ Æxee 1x<±<<<I}
xxxi

As it clear that data always follows the lower cost (high bandwidth), and the cost for between switches’
connectivity is always lower then a broadcast domain’s cost; observing the upper examples; in figure 1: it’s
seen that there is a 2
nd
link as a backup so when the data enters a switch from any of primary or backup link
then it gets lower cost than broadcast domain at other backup or primary link then it goes back to its previous
switch repeating this action ends with loop occurrence. Or in figure 2: when data enters any switch then it gets
lower cost at second port instead of switch’s broadcast domain finally data follows a circle ending with loop
occurrence. For avoiding these loops, there is a protocol running on every switch, called STP that blocks some
links automatically. STP is an automatic protocol used for loop avoidance; in STP there are two statuses for
switches as 1
st
one is called “Root Bridge (RB)”, which is elected based switch’s “lowest priority” or in case of
equal priorities “highest MAC address” is accepted, is the captain for a network, and the remaining switches
joined that network comes in 2
nd
status called “Non-Root Bridge (NRB)”. This election is not stable and can be
changed by lowering the priority of any switch than RB others so it becomes the RB of network. STP provides
some roles for ports as well;
1. Designated Port (DP): ports sending BPDU, and in a Root Bridge all ports are DP and send best BPDU.
2. Root Port (RP): ports receiving BPDU/best BPDU; exist in all NRPs.
3. Non-Root Port (NRP): those ports blocked by STP, and can’t receive BPDU.
BPDU (Bridge Protocol Data Unit) is the name of update packets in switching. In RB all of its ports become
DP but in NRB a DP ports is elected based on higher priority, the DP ports on a RP sends the best BPDU
but DP ports on other switches can’t send best one but only BPDU and finally NRP is used by STP for
blocking any port to avoid loops.
After connecting cable to switches, it takes 52 seconds while upping the ports in which ports gets following
states as: for the first 20 seconds its two states are Blocking (Receiving BPDU) and Learning (Send and
Receive BPDU), then 15 seconds is for third state called Listening (Creating MAC table), the last (1-16)
seconds is for forth state called Forwarding (forwarding frames), at 52
nd
second the port is upped and its
color turns green from umber color. In the first condition, if the primary link is down the backup
link automatically ups as a primary and NRP is changed to RP with the help of automatic protocol of STP.

xxxi
STP is an automatic protocol so it’s not manually needed to block or unblock any port, it does all automatically.
CCNA ]ana (Anan)
- 24 -
25-01-10
1r±exN1W1 x<w±1r@: this is an old scenario used to provide communication between
VLANs in a switch but using a router port via trunk connection. In this case a switch depends on a fast Ethernet
port from router, by creating multiple logical ports in a router’s physical port for each VLAN, because in this
case only Layer-2 switch is used, also considered as a high point of failure due to multiple boxes used.
Forwarding with configuration: as seen Switch is connected to router by (F0/1) trunk link, encapsulated to
(dot1Q).
Switch:
A(config)#int f0/1
A(config-if)#shut
A(config-if)#switchport mode trunk
A(config-if)#switchport nonegotiate
A(config-if)#no shut
A(config-if)#vlan 10
A(config-vlan)#exit
A(config)#vlan 20
A(config-vlan)#exit
A(config)#int f0/10
A(config-if)#switchport access vlan 10
A(config-if)#exit
A(config)#int f0/20
A(config-if)#switchport access vlan 20
A(config-if)#exit
Router:
A(config)#int f0/0.10
A(config-subif)#encapsulation dot1Q 10
A(config-subif)#ip add 10.0.0.1 255.0.0.0
A(config-subif)#no shut
A(config-subif)#exit
A(config)#int f0/0.20
A(config-subif)#encapsulation dot1Q 20
A(config-subif)#ip add 20.0.0.1 255.0.0.0
A(config-subif)#no shut
A(config-subif)#exit
A(config)#int f0/0
A(config-if)#no shut
A(config-if)#exit

On any PC run (Tracert destination IP) command to troubleshoot any path failure problem.
26-01-10
W1Æ ¶WwI±1Im_ex Æm1±<W1r@}
This scenario is the outcome of previous one inside a single box, used for same purpose as to provide
communication for VLANs in a switch with the help of a layer-3 switch only. In this case only Layer-3 switch
is used, and considered with less point of failure due to using only one box replacing router and switch both. In
this case an alone L-3 switch provides both Multilayer switching and interVLAN routing, that’s why it is called
a multilayer switch too (it provides both switching for “Physical layer” & routing for “Network layer”). Moving
to configuration; as observed in the model below, only switch helps us for both routing and switching, VLANs
are defined with their specific IP address and ports, all in existence on a L-3 switch.
Switch:
B(config)#int f0/10
B(config-if)#switchport
xxxii

B(config-if)#switchport access vlan 10
% Access VLAN does not exist. Creating vlan 10
xxxiii

B(config-if)#exit
B(config)#int f0/20
B(config-if)#switchport

xxxii
This command forces any Port to work as a switch’s port not for routing.
xxxiii
If a VLAN doesn’t exist and you assign any port to it then that VLAN is created automatically.
CCNA ]ana (Anan)
- 25 -
B(config-if)#switchport access vlan 20
% Access VLAN does not exist. Creating vlan 20
B(config-if)#exit
B(config)#int vlan 10
B(config-if)
xxxiv
#ip add 10.0.0.1 255.0.0.0
B(config-if)#exit
B(config)#int vlan 20
B(config-if)#ip add 20.0.0.1 255.0.0.0
B(config-if)#exit
At a time some commands can be applied on two or more ports but by selecting them as a range, in this
command for configuring two interfaces of fast Ethernet: (int range f0/1-2)
The difference between Juniper’s PIX firewall and Cisco’s ASA firewalls is that PIX is used before defense
line router because it doesn’t support WAN connections but ASA is used after last router on exact defense
line because of having support for WAN connections.

xxxiv
In this case IP is assigned to VLANs not to ports.
CCNA ]ana (Anan)
- 26 -
27-01-10
Æ ÆÆ ÆÆ¢X11ÆÆ Æ¢X11ÆÆ Æ¢X11ÆÆ Æ¢X11ÆÆ
A network’s security is considered in two parameters as following:
1. External parameters: depending on firewalls or routers at the defense line of a network.
2. Internal parameters: the security state depending on internal routers also called additional security that is
implemented on various parts of a network according to administration choice and mostly implemented
through Access Control List (ACL).
Security is implemented on a network for avoiding some threats that’s to be denied, some examples below:
1. Denial of services (DoS): it checks packet headers and drops to find any suspected packet.
2. Trojan horse attack: this attacks a network to maintain connection with any network outside.
3. Distributed denial of services (DdoS): all running services are stopped on a network.
4. Packet sniffing: mostly happens in telecommunication, a copy of any packet is received by hacker.
5. Password attacks: discovering user passwords.
6. IP sniffing and spoofing attack: revealing any IP address that later on, it can be changed, deleted … etc.
W<<emm ¢<r±x<I 11m± ¶W¢1}
ACL is used for securing the inside portion of an internetwork by categorizing packets, which helps to control
network traffic by user privilege or by analyzing packet traffics, to stop unwanted traffic across the network,
based on packet IP for forwarding purpose. ACL has got three types as following:
1. Standard ACL: this type is implemented at network’s own side router or end terminal to control
outbound (Outgoing) traffic.
2. Extended ACL: the type configured on other end router to control inbound (incoming) traffic from other
routers.
3. Named ACL: this type can be any standard or extended ACL but the only difference is the name given
to them.
28-01-10
ƱmrOmxO W¢1 <<r11@wxm±1<r
Observing the following diagram; a standard ACL is configured to stop outbound traffic for all hosts in
(200.100.50.0) network except the host with (200.100.50.2) IP
address, so after running any type of routing then we see the
mentioned network is connected to the (A) router so we implement
an ACL on the same router to be a standard one as:
A(config)#access-list 1 permit host 200.100.50.2
A(config)#access-list 1 deny any
A(config)#int s0/0
A(config-if)#ip access-group 1 out
A(config-if)#exit
A#show ip access-lists
Standard IP access list 1
permit host 200.100.50.2 (4 match(es))
deny any (4 match(es))
The access-list number range (0-99) shows Standard ACL and the range of (100-199) shows an extended ACL.
On serial interface the command (Out) is given due to standard ACL for outbound traffic.
Note: remember that (out) command can be given on Fast Ethernet interface also more useful and best unless
there are VLANs defined for that port because it causes blocking interVLAN communication.
CCNA ]ana (Anan)
- 27 -
29-01-10
Æm±erOeO W¢1 <<r11@wxm±1<r
Observing the coming diagram; an extended ACL is configured this time stopping inbound traffic to
(200.100.100.0) network “Wildcard is must” from all hosts in (200.100.50.0) network excluding the host with
(200.100.50.3) IP address, so after running any type of routing then observing that the destination network
(200.100.100.0) is connected to (B) router so the ACL is implemented on the same router (maybe via telnet
connection) to be a extended one for the network (200.100.50.0) connected to router (A), important to mention
that an extended ACL is recognized by its value in a range of (100-199), as:
B(config)#access-list 101 permit ip host 200.100.50.3 200.100.100.0 0.0.0.255
B(config)#access-list 101 deny ip any any
B(config)#int s0/1
B(config-if)#ip access-group 101 in
B(config-if)#exit
B#show ip access-lists
Extended IP access list 101
permit ip host 200.100.50.3 200.100.100.0 0.0.0.255
deny ip any any
Here it is observed that ACL number is (101) being the
extended one, and interface command is changed to (in) to
filter only inbound traffic. If you want to deny traffic only
from (200.100.100.0) network, not from the whole router,
then you must run (in) command only on (B) router’s fast Ethernet port.
1mreO W¢1 <<r11@wxm±1<r
As mentioned before; a named access-list can be either standard or extended; depending on the condition a
standard named ACL or an extended one can be implemented.
Correlated to the diagrams before a standard ACL for (Admins) and an extended ACL (Sales) in named ACL
commands goes as following:
A(config)#ip access-list standard ADMINS
A(config-std-nacl)#permit host 200.100.50.2
A(config-std-nacl)#deny any
A(config-std-nacl)#exit
A(config)#int s0/0
A(config-if)#ip access-group ADMINS out
A(config-if)#exit
A#show access-lists
Standard IP access list ADMINS
permit host 200.100.50.2
deny any
B(config)#ip access-list extended SALES
B(config-ext-nacl)#permit ip host 200.100.50.3 200.100.100.0 0.0.0.255
B(config-ext-nacl)#deny ip any any
B(config-ext-nacl)#exit
B(config)#int s0/1
B(config-if)#ip access-group SALES in
B(config-if)#exit
B#show access-lists
Extended IP access list SALES
permit ip host 200.100.50.3 200.100.100.0 0.0.0.255
deny ip any any
S0/1
CCNA ]ana (Anan)
- 28 -
30-01-10
1WÆÆ114 1WÆÆ114 1WÆÆ114 1WÆÆ114 (Network Address Translation)
Natting is used for translating one logical address to another logical address, now the question arises that what
is the need to translate an existing IP address as well as again to an IP address? The best answer it goes for can
be: that for a network the IP addressing is used from private address in each class of IP wherein (A: 10.0.0.0 to
10.255.255.255/ B: 172.16.0.0 to 172.31.255.255/ C: 192.168.0.0 to 192.168.255.255) but while
communicating with WAN, the network is unable to communicate through private IP addresses so for WAN
communication; a network needs some public IP addresses purchased. Now the problem is that for every host
on a network, it is too difficult to get a public IP due to its high prices, but by using a single public IP for a
complete network, natting provides facility to save money or in other words it can be defined as “Translating
Public IP to Private and its reverse is called natting”. There are three types of natting as:
1. Static natting: in static natting, one private IP is mapped to only one public IP statically, used while
mapping any gateway of a network to a single public IP purchased.
2. Dynamic natting: in this case a network of Public IP addresses is defined on router, needed while
multiple gateways are connected to a router and needs WAN communication, when each gateway
communicates to WAN from the group of Public IP present on router, one is dynamically mapped to that
gateway, which is not mapped to any other gateway, finally all gateways connected gets their public IP
to communicate WAN.
3. Overloading “Port Address Translation (PAT)”: its need is felt when again one wants to save public IP
addresses for multiple gateways connected to a router, through “overloading” all gateways can be
mapped to one and single Public IP address instead of one for each.
¢<r11@wx1r@ Ʊm±1< 1WÆ
NAT statically by defining Public IP and Private IP; as in following example the port (Serial0/0) is connected to
WAN so its private IP (10.0.0.1) is mapped to a public IP (1.0.0.1) but it can be mapped with two conditions:
1. Data packets should own private IP coming inside the network and Public IP when sent to WAN:
A(config)#ip nat inside source static 10.0.0.1 1.0.0.1
A(config)#int s0/0
A(config-if)#ip nat outside
A(config-if)#exit
A(config)#int f0/0
A(config-if)#ip nat inside
A(config-if)#exit
In this condition packets use its private IP
(10.0.0.1) inside self network but while going on WAN, they use the public IP (1.0.0.1) as the result below
got by pinging border interface from both regions:
WAN-PC>ping 10.0.0.1
Pinging 10.0.0.1 with 32 bytes of data:
Reply from 1.0.0.1: bytes=32 time=110ms TTL=254
Reply from 1.0.0.1: bytes=32 time=79ms TTL=254
Reply from 1.0.0.1: bytes=32 time=94ms TTL=254
Reply from 1.0.0.1: bytes=32 time=93ms TTL=254
Ping statistics for 10.0.0.1:
Packets: Sent = 4, Received = 4, Lost = 0 (0% loss),
Approximate round trip times in milli-seconds:
Minimum = 79ms, Maximum = 110ms, Average =
94ms
PC1>ping 10.0.0.1
Pinging 10.0.0.1 with 32 bytes of data:
Reply from 10.0.0.1: bytes=32 time=62ms TTL=255
Reply from 10.0.0.1: bytes=32 time=62ms TTL=255
Reply from 10.0.0.1: bytes=32 time=63ms TTL=255
Reply from 10.0.0.1: bytes=32 time=62ms TTL=255
Ping statistics for 10.0.0.1:
Packets: Sent = 4, Received = 4, Lost = 0 (0% loss),
Approximate round trip times in milli-seconds:
Minimum = 62ms, Maximum = 63ms, Average =
62ms
Comparing both results: it is observed that the reply to WAN region from border router is from (1.0.0.1),
means that packet sent on WAN possesses the Public IP but in reply to internal region shown in 2
nd
column,
packet uses the IP assigned to the interface that means packet is using its private IP inside network.
2. This time data packets work opposing the first condition; they use private IP addresses on WAN and
public IP inside, configured by changing some parameters as:
CCNA ]ana (Anan)
- 29 -
A(config)#ip nat inside source static 10.0.0.1 1.0.0.1
A(config)#int s0/0
A(config-if)#ip nat inside
A(config-if)#exit
A(config)#int f0/0
A(config-if)#ip nat outside
A(config-if)#exit
This time the results for WAN side and network side replace each
other due to packet’s IP holding decision change. (Private IP used
for WAN and Public IP inside network).

01-02-10
¢<r11@wx1r@ 1_rmr1< 1WÆ
The important points to remember in dynamic NAT are:
1. Dynamic NAT is configured mostly at border router for LAN gateways, so the network assigned on
serial connectivity toward WAN (router to WAN) must be any Public IP address.
2. The pool of public IP addresses that we want to map LANs’ gateways to; is taken from the network on a
network’s WAN connectivity.
Following such points let’s check an example diagram below: interface serial 0/0 is connected to (1.0.0.0)
network, which is a public network. Public IP addresses for mapping lower networks’ gateways to; is a pool of
IP addresses from the public network assigned on serial interface toward WAN, (1.0.0.3-1.0.0.5):
A(config)#ip nat pool YAMA 1.0.0.3 1.0.0.5 netmask 255.255.255.248
A(config)#access-list 1 permit 192.168.0.0 0.0.3.255
A(config)#ip nat inside source list 1 pool YAMA
A(config)#int s0/0
A(config-if)#ip nat outside
A(config-if)#exit
A(config)#int f0/0
A(config-if)#ip nat inside
A(config-if)#exit
A(config)#int f0/1
A(config-if)#ip nat inside
A(config-if)#exit
A(config)#int f1/0
A(config-if)#ip nat inside
A(config-if)#exit
In dynamic NAT and overloading translation occurs after
a packet sent, not before that. After IP translation all IP
addresses are classified according to their different states
as:
1. Inside Global: The IP used by a packet moving on the WAN, mostly the public IP addresses mapped for
gateways, are called inside global IP address for a network.
2. Inside local: The IP used by packet inside a network is called inside local IP addresses, mostly those
private IP addresses used on LANs connected to its corporate router.
3. Outside local: Those IP addresses that are the IP on the WAN to communicate to.
4. Outside global: The destination IP address for outbound packets is called outside global IP addresses.
All theses states of IP address are checked by running the command (show IP NAT translations):
A#show ip nat translations
Pro Inside global Inside local Outside local Outside global
Icmp 1.0.0.3:4 192.168.1.2:4 192.168.4.2:4 192.168.4.2:4
Icmp 1.0.0.4:5 192.168.2.2:5 192.168.4.2:5 192.168.4.2:5
Icmp 1.0.0.5:6 192.168.3.2:6 192.168.4.2:6 192.168.4.2:6
Icmp 1.0.0.5:1 192.168.1.2:1 192.168.4.2:1 192.168.4.2:1
Icmp 1.0.0.3:1 192.168.2.2:1 192.168.4.2:1 192.168.4.2:1
CCNA ]ana (Anan)
- 30 -
To get information about the NAT pool, then run this command (show IP NAT statistics):
A#show ip nat statistics
Total translations: 0 (0 static, 0 dynamic, 0 extended)
Outside Interfaces: Serial0/0
Inside Interfaces: FastEthernet0/0 , FastEthernet0/1 , FastEthernet1/0
Hits: 0 Misses: 3
Expired translations: 6
Dynamic mappings:
Inside Source
access-list 1 pool YAMA refCount 0
pool YAMA: netmask 255.255.255.248
start 1.0.0.3 end 1.0.0.5
type generic, total addresses 3 , allocated 0 (0%), misses 0
On the fifth line of this result (Expired translations) value is seen; this is the time that the translations is expired
after a time interval, depending on the routing protocol’s update timer duration. This happens in dynamic and
overloading only but not in static NAT.
02-02-10
¢<r11@wx1r@ 4<exI<mO1r@
In “Overloading” IP addresses are saved but more important is money saved, by getting only one public IP
address from network’s WAN connected network and map the entire network’s LANs to that only IP address as
in this example:
A(config)#ip nat pool YAMA 1.0.0.1 1.0.0.1 netmask 255.255.255.252
A(config)#access-list 1 permit 192.168.0.0 0.0.3.255
A(config)#ip nat inside source list 1 pool YAMA overload
A(config)#int s0/0
A(config-if)#ip nat outside
A(config)#int f0/0
A(config-if)#ip nat inside
A(config)#int f0/1
A(config-if)#ip nat inside
A(config)#int f1/0
A(config-if)#ip nat inside
Now let’s take a glance on NAT translations’ table: that shows, all Private IP addresses on LAN gateways are
translated to the only Public IP address that is chosen form the public network on which WAN connection is
running, and later in NAT statistics table that “Overloading” also follows a translation expiry, depending on the
routing protocol’s update timer same as checked in dynamic NAT statistics table:
A#show ip nat translations
Inside global Inside local Outside local Outside global
1.0.0.1:13 192.168.1.2:13 192.168.4.2:13 192.168.4.2:13
1.0.0.1:16 192.168.2.2:16 192.168.4.2:16 192.168.4.2:16
1.0.0.1:19 192.168.3.2:19 192.168.4.2:19 192.168.4.2:19
1.0.0.1:1024 192.168.3.2:1 192.168.4.2:1 192.168.4.2:1024
1.0.0.1:1026 192.168.3.2:3 192.168.4.2:3 192.168.4.2:1026
1.0.0.1:1027 192.168.3.2:4 192.168.4.2:4 192.168.4.2:1027

A#show ip nat statistics
Total translations: 0 (0 static, 0 dynamic, 0 extended)
Outside Interfaces: Serial0/0
Inside Interfaces: FastEthernet0/0 , FastEthernet0/1 ,
FastEthernet1/0
Hits: 0 Misses: 3
CCNA ]ana (Anan)
- 31 -
Expired translations: 6
Dynamic mappings:
Inside Source
access-list 1 pool YAMA refCount 0
pool YAMA: netmask 255.255.255.252
start 1.0.0.1 end 1.0.0.1
type generic, total addresses 1 , allocated 0 (0%), misses 0
CCNA ]ana (Anan)
- 32 -
03-02-10
1 11 11WWÆ 1Æ1WÆ 1WWÆ 1Æ1WÆ 1WWÆ 1Æ1WÆ 1WWÆ 1Æ1WÆ
The frame relay device can be a WAN switch or a router, the type of connectivity that doesn’t use any routing
protocol, provides a multi-access network with no broadcasting. Using no protocol on frame-relay leads to high
bandwidth providence with high speed included. Its encapsulation type is called (frame-relay), used as a
leased
xxxv
line connectivity. Frame relay is cost factor means that it is economic as compared to (PPP). The
technology used by Frame relay is called (X.25). Frame relay has got two main configuration factors as DLCI
(Data Link Connection Identifier) and LMI (Local Management Interfaces) called interface negotiation, which
is must to be configured just after encapsulation on serial interface connected to any frame relay cloud. Incase
of using any serial cable connection to frame relay provider; never use DCE connector toward network’s router
serial port but on frame relay cloud so when no DCE, no clock rate is used. Now let’s check a simple example
of frame-relayed network:
A(config)#interface serial 0/0
A(config-if)#ip address 10.0.0.1 255.255.255.0
A(config-if)#encapsulation frame-relay
A(config-if)#frame-relay interface-dlci 101
A(config-if)#frame-relay lmi-type cisco
A(config-if)#no shutdown
A(config-if)#exit
B(config)#interface serial 0/0
B(config-if)#ip address 10.0.0.2 255.255.255.0
B(config-if)#encapsulation frame-relay
B(config-if)#frame-relay interface-dlci 202
B(config-if)#frame-relay lmi-type cisco
B(config-if)#no shutdown
B(config-if)#exit
The “DLCI” number is not same for both ends because this digit is translated to an IP address for path direction
using Inverse ARP on frame-relay device. The “LMI-type” is must to be defined, while using a Cisco router it is
defined as here but if any other router is used; get information about its compatibility and define it for frame-
relay as these types (Ansi, Cisco, and q933a). The network used remains the same for both routers in order to
provide connectivity but no clock rate because of DTE use on end routers.
Now let’s check for some cloud configuration to provide connectivity:
1. Select the connected interface and edit for DLCI number same as opposite router’s serial interface for
both end routers and a name with DLCI number and add them to list.
2. Select frame-relay and select the pair of interfaces to communicate and click “Add”.

xxxv
Using any main connectivity for connecting different network devices is called “leased line” as TV’s main cable connection, but if
a direct connectivity between any two network devices exists that is called “dedicated line”.
CCNA ]ana (Anan)
- 33 -







CCNA ]ana (Anan)
- 34 -
04-02-10
1 11 11ÆÆ11W1 ¢4W141Æ1ÆÆ 1ÆÆ11W1 ¢4W141Æ1ÆÆ 1ÆÆ11W1 ¢4W141Æ1ÆÆ 1ÆÆ11W1 ¢4W141Æ1ÆÆ
For Cisco Router/Switch devices, it is collaborate of 2 protions:
Æ<1±mmxe g<x±1<r
1. Æ<<± m±xmg: this software is located in ROM, which is responsible for booting the device and
load IOS.
2. 14ÆÆ (Power On Self Test): is also located in ROM responsible for checking the basic
functionality of devices and checks the basic interfaces’ performance.
3. 14W r<r1±<x: located in ROM to monitor the ROM with test and troubleshoot it.
4. W1r1 14Æ: this is a small operating system which is basically a boot loader, holding load
processes and initializes the interface checkup, also responsible to take startup configuration from flash
to NVRAM, and performs the maintenance operation.
Checking the devices configuration; it has got two types of configurations as following:
1. Startup configuration: all those default configuration that loads with IOS on device upping time.
2. Running configuration: all the changes made later after configuring the devices for network needs.
Always remember that running configuration can became startup configuration by writing them on memory
using these commands in privilege mode (copy running-config startup-config or wr). But
most important is that never be in hurry to write them, first make sure that all running-configurations works
acceptably perfect then decide to write them for startup.
1mxOmmxe g<x±1<r
1. 1WW (Random Access Memory): this device holds all running-configurations, as in routers the
routing table and switches put their ARP cache (MAC table) in RAM. RAM also holds IOS but only
while it is expanded.
2. 14W (Read Only Memory): it contains Boot strap, POST, Mini IOS, ROM monitor for providing
device checking, making them up, and maintenance operation.
3. 1ImmW: this memory space differs for different devices; it contains IOS using EEPROM
(Electronically Erasable Programmable Read Only Memory) technology. Cisco devices use Intel flashes
for this memory. Point to be noted is that; there is no relation between IOS and running configurations.
4. 1N1WW (Nonvolatile RAM): this memory holds all startup configurations with the
configuration register. Configuration register is a device’s all initial steps before Console mode interface
called startup sequence, which is changed while IOS update and checked by (show version)
command, in number at last line as (Configuration register is 0x2102).
Æ<<± me@wer<e: these components work in turn to up the device in the following sequence:
1. Boot strap
2. POST
3. Mini IOS
4. ROM monitor
5. NVRAM

CCNA ]ana (Anan)
- 35 -
06-02-10
N11 N11 N11 N11 ¶N ¶N ¶N ¶N11ÆXW1 11ÆXW1 11ÆXW1 11ÆXW1 1 11 111NWÆÆ 11NWÆÆ 11NWÆÆ 11NWÆÆ 1 11 1ÆÆM41&Æ ÆÆM41&Æ ÆÆM41&Æ ÆÆM41&Æ} }} }
VPN, which is used to provide communication for a remote user or client to its corporate network, can be
configured through both CLI (Command Line Interface) & SDM (Security Device manager). This connectivity
is provided using “Internet” utility by creating a tunnel on internet, that tunnel’s bandwidth is for the network’s
requirement but virtually. The remote user/users are also called (co-location) related to network that can be
called (Disjointed network). A network’s data can be private on Internet, and VPN follows its own protocols. In
short VPN is the use of public medium for private data transmission purpose.
N11 ±_gem
VPN has got four following types:
1. Remote access VPN: this connectivity is used when a corporate network doesn’t need access to its
remote user so only remote user can access its corporate network (One way transmission).
2. Site-to-site VPN: this time a dual transmission occurs between corporate network and its client users.
3. Extranet
xxxvi
VPN: when a network depends on out of its network as GPS (Global Positioning System),
mostly used in business also called business to business (b2b) VPN.
VPN is configured in the following two ways:
1. The first way is to configure it by tunnel but this manner is not secured because of not having security
policies, and its configuration is only by creating a tunnel linked end to end using tunneling protocols.
2. Second ways is called IP Sec (Internet Protocol Security), it is a secure one due to providing
authentication and encryption services and mostly it functions in network layer (Layer three).
N11 gx<±<<<Im
VPN uses the following four protocols:
1. L2F (Layer two forwarding protocol): this is a Cisco proprietary used for VPDN (Virtual Private Dial-
up network), but nowadays its usage has expired.
2. Point to Point tunneling protocol (PPTP): this is Microsoft proprietary used for remote access VPN.
3. L2TP (Layer two tunneling protocol): this is also a Cisco proprietary that contains the features from both
L2F and PPTP, replacing both of them.
4. GRE (Generic Routing Encapsulation) tunnel: its proprietary is owned by Cisco; it accommodates
further protocols inside and widely used, having the support for (Virtual point to point link) also proved
by IETF (Internet Engineering Task Force) and uses with non-Cisco devices too. The site-to-site VPN is
specifically called GRE tunnel.
While using a secure VPN then further following two protocols are used:
5. Authentication header (AH)
6. ESP (Encapsulating Security Payload): this protocol is mostly used with IP Sec.

xxxvi
Intranet: respected to internet our inside network is called intranet.
CCNA ]ana (Anan)
- 36 -
08-02-10
M MM M11Æ1ÆÆÆ 11Æ1ÆÆÆ 11Æ1ÆÆÆ 11Æ1ÆÆÆ 1W1 1W1 1W1 1W1 ¶M ¶M ¶M ¶M1 11 11 11 11 11 1} }} }
This terminology is used for local area networks, its switch
xxxvii
is configured same as a wired network switch
but with some mini differences, for example in wired network a switch is upped just at connecting the cable but
a wireless switch port is upped after some configurations. It is based on radio waves, (Bluetooth connectivity
uses a technology named “FHSS (Frequency Hopping Sequence Spectrum)”. Wireless technology is used in
hotels, Offices, Cafes, and hospitals etc. Some specifications in wireless LAN:
W<Oem
In wireless network, its switches behave in different modes as following:
1. AP mode: this mode is configured to a wireless switch when the switch works for one LAN (up to 50
client) to provide communication.
2. Repeater mode: each access point has got a range circle of signals that maximum range is 54 meters, and
communication starts when two access points’ range circles overlap each other, but if any two access
points of same network (AP communicated with CPE) are much far from each other as their range
circles can’t overlap then another switch is used between them in repeater mode to create another range
to overlap both ends and provide communication.
3. Bridge mode: while joining two access points that are running for different networks, then an access
point is used between them with bridge mode to join them if their standards are different as well.
ƱmrOmxOm
All network communications run on a specific standard
xxxviii
defined by IEEE as followings for WiFi:
1. 802
xxxix
.11b: working at 2.4 GHz, bandwidth provided = 11mbps, (DSSS (Direct Sequence Spread
Spectrum)); this is the name of a technique used by this standard for spreading its signals.
2. 802.11g: working at 2.4 GHz, bandwidth provided = 54mpbs
3. 802.11b: working at 5 GHz, providing 54mbps of bandwidth, both (a, b) standards use “OFDM
(Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplexing)” for their signal spreading.
Æ<g<I<@1em
1. Infrastructure: in this topology an access point is defined in any of the following modes:
a. AP mode: as mentioned before, for working as a server for a LAN.
b. CPE: it is the client mode for an access point, used while expanding a network for more hosts,
then another access point is joined to AP but in client mode “CPE”.
c. WDS: this is used with access points possessing Bridge/Repeater modes, mostly in Cisco and
Motorola devices.
2. ADHOC: this is the name for the topology that is arranged while joining two access points of different
networks with the help of another access point between them with bridge mode, simply we can say “it is
a same devices communication” because both network’s access points must be in AP mode.
3. WiMesh: same as Mesh topology in wired network.
4. Bus, Star etc topologies are also supported with WiFi.
¢<r11@wxm±1<r
Some items to be configured for a wireless network to start:
1. IP address: IP must be assigned to network’s access points and hosts.
2. Name: or user name is must for wireless network and its access points
3. SSID: this is an ID assigned for a wireless switch for identification or security purpose.
4. Channel: it is only necessary when a switch is used in bridge mode.
5. Mode: mode must be defined for a switch to provide better communication.
Configuration can take place via different paths as (Internet, Console, Telnet) mostly used manner is via
internet. IP assignment can take place via DHCP or statically to users on LAN.

xxxvii
In wireless technology a “Switch” is called an “Access point”.
xxxviii
The standard for Ethernet LAN switching is (802.2, 802.3, and 802.5).
xxxix
This digit is taken from its introduction date as (1980, Feb), so “80” is taken from year and “2” from month = “802”.
CCNA ]ana (Anan)
- 37 -
Remember that bridge mode is always used between different network access point between two AP mode
access points while repeater mode is used only to provide signal range for two access points of same network
between an AP and CPE switch. (If access point is set in DHCP mode then after upping, it assigns IP for hosts).

CCNA ]ana (Anan)
- 38 -
09-02-10
1 11 14W1114 4W1114 4W1114 4W1114 14Æ 14Æ 14Æ 14Æ 41 W 14XÆÆ1 41 W 14XÆÆ1 41 W 14XÆÆ1 41 W 14XÆÆ1
For coping and reloading IOS from/to a router the first requirement is that a route must be connected to an NMS
server, maybe directly or behind a switch but if it is connected directly then the media used for it, is “cross-over
cable”. Second requirement is any software installed on the NMS server to fulfill this action as (Pumpkin, &
TFTP) for downloading and uploading IOS on a router. IOS can be downloaded from Internet for any type of
router but it is recommended that when first time a router is made up for a network its IOS should be copied and
saved on the NMS server so that afterward in case of any problem or IOS need it will be convenient for
organization.
1<m ±< ¢<g_ 14Æ
After assigning IP addresses for both router interface and NMS server use these commands to copy IOS from
router’s flash to TFTP server (defined via its IP address):
A#copy flash: TFTP: Copies IOS from flash.
Source filename []? c2600-i-mz.122-28.bin File name is copied from versions.
Address or name of remote host []? 1.0.0.2 This is NMS server’s IP.
Destination filename [c2600-i-mz.122-28.bin]? Just press ENTER.
!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!! Shows copying process
[OK - 5571584 bytes]
5571584 bytes copied in 3.484 secs (1599000 bytes/sec)
1<m ±< I<mO 14Æ
Using these commands the saved IOS on a TFTP server is loaded back on a router:
A#copy TFTP: flash: Loads IOS from server.
Address or name of remote host []? 1.0.0.2 Again NMS server’s IP is given.
Source filename []? c2600-i-mz.122-28.bin Same file name.
Destination filename [c2600-i-mz.122-28.bin]?
%Warning:There is a file already existing with this name
Do you want to over write? [confirm] Asking for overwrite, press ENTER.
Accessing tftp://1.0.0.2/c2600-i-mz.122-28.bin...
Erase flash: before copying? [confirm] It erases the existing IOS
i
in flash.
Erasing the flash filesystem will remove all files! Continue? [confirm]
Erasing device... eeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeee ...erased This is the sign of erasing.
Erase of flash: completeAccessing tftp://1.0.0.2/c2600-i-mz.122-28.bin...
Loading c2600-i-mz.122-28.bin from 1.0.0.2: !!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!
[OK - 5571584 bytes]
5571584 bytes copied in 3.377 secs (378032 bytes/sec)
1<±e:
1. If a PC is to configure a device (Router/Switch) but has no RS232 port, then the solution is using a
“Roll-over” cable connecting device’s console port to PC’s LAN card to provide connectivity via
console.
2. To erase startup-configuration then at user privilege mode use the command (write erase)
THE END

i
If a router is not supported by any UPS etc for power facility, then don’t erase IOS because incase of power failure during IOS
reloading the router will move to ROM mode.

Network................................................................................................................................................................... 1 System side.......................................................................................................................................................... 1 Network side ....................................................................................................................................................... 1 CCNA: ............................................................................................................................................................ 1 SOME DEVICES USED OVER NETWORK ...................................................................................................... 1 1. Repeater: ................................................................................................................................................. 1 2. Bridge:..................................................................................................................................................... 1 3. HUB: ....................................................................................................................................................... 1 4. Switch (4ports):....................................................................................................................................... 1 5. Router (L3 Device): ................................................................................................................................ 1 Interneworking models ....................................................................................................................................... 1 1. OSI (Open System Interconnection)....................................................................................................... 1 2. TCP/IP..................................................................................................................................................... 2 3. Cisco 3-layer hierarchical Model............................................................................................................ 3 IP Addresses ....................................................................................................................................................... 3 1. IPv4 ......................................................................................................................................................... 3 2. IPv6:........................................................................................................................................................ 3 Dual stacking: ................................................................................................................................................. 3 Subnetting............................................................................................................................................................... 4 Converting a decimal IP into binary .................................................................................................................. 4 What is “Sub netting”......................................................................................................................................... 4 How to subnet ..................................................................................................................................................... 4 Subnetting class C........................................................................................................................................... 5 Notes: ..........................................................................................................................................................- 6 Subnetting class B.......................................................................................................................................- 7 Subnetting class A.......................................................................................................................................- 7 Notes ...........................................................................................................................................................- 8 Routing ...............................................................................................................................................................- 9 Routers ............................................................................................................................................................- 9 Router configuration ...................................................................................................................................- 9 Router & Switch administrative functions ....................................................................................................- 10 1. Host name .........................................................................................................................................- 10 2. Password ...........................................................................................................................................- 10 3. Banners .............................................................................................................................................- 10 4. Interface description..........................................................................................................................- 10 Routing..........................................................................................................................................................- 11 Static routing .............................................................................................................................................- 12 Note...........................................................................................................................................................- 13 Default routing ..........................................................................................................................................- 14 Dynamic routing .......................................................................................................................................- 14 Protocol Types ..........................................................................................................................................- 14 Protocol Classes ........................................................................................................................................- 14 Wildcard calculation.....................................................................................................................................- 18 Notes .........................................................................................................................................................- 18 Switching ..........................................................................................................................................................- 19 Switch............................................................................................................................................................- 19 VLAN .......................................................................................................................................................- 19 VTP (VLAN Trunking Protocol) ...................................................................................................................- 20 Trucking ....................................................................................................................................................- 21 STP (Spanning Tree Protocol)......................................................................................................................- 23 ii CCNA

InterVLAN routing ...................................................................................................................................- 24 MLS (Multilayer Switching)..........................................................................................................................- 24 Security .............................................................................................................................................................- 26 Access Control List (ACL) ............................................................................................................................- 26 Standard ACL configuration.........................................................................................................................- 26 Extended ACL configuration ........................................................................................................................- 27 Named ACL configuration ............................................................................................................................- 27 NATTING.........................................................................................................................................................- 28 Configuring Static NAT ................................................................................................................................- 28 Configuring Dynamic NAT ...........................................................................................................................- 29 Configuring Overloading..............................................................................................................................- 30 Frame relay ......................................................................................................................................................- 32 Internal components ........................................................................................................................................- 34 Software portion ...........................................................................................................................................- 34 1. Boot strap ..........................................................................................................................................- 34 2. POST.................................................................................................................................................- 34 3. ROM monitor....................................................................................................................................- 34 4. Mini IOS ...........................................................................................................................................- 34 Hardware portion .........................................................................................................................................- 34 1. RAM .................................................................................................................................................- 34 2. ROM .................................................................................................................................................- 34 3. Flash..................................................................................................................................................- 34 4. NVRAM............................................................................................................................................- 34 Boot sequence ...........................................................................................................................................- 34 VPN (Virtual Private Networks)......................................................................................................................- 35 VPN types......................................................................................................................................................- 35 VPN protocols...............................................................................................................................................- 35 Wireless LAN (WiFi) .......................................................................................................................................- 36 Modes............................................................................................................................................................- 36 Standards ......................................................................................................................................................- 36 Topologies.....................................................................................................................................................- 36 Configuration................................................................................................................................................- 36 Loading IOS on a router..................................................................................................................................- 38 How to Copy IOS ..........................................................................................................................................- 38 How to load IOS ...........................................................................................................................................- 38 Note...............................................................................................................................................................- 38 -

CCNA

iii

14-12-2009 The connection between homogenous and heterogonous devices to share their resources and information is called network, Network is studied by its two sides as System side and Network side. The system side is studied under following certifications as: 1. MCP: Microsoft Certified Professional. 2. MCSE: Microsoft Certified System Engineer 3. MCSA: Microsoft Certified System Administrator The network side is studied under following certifications as: 1. CCNA: Cisco Certified Network Associate. 2. CCNP: Cisco Certified Network Professional. 3. CCIE: Cisco Certified Inter network Expert, etc. The main purpose of this course is a Network’s administration in the following bases as Routing and switching, Security, and Voice over IP. 15-12-2009 1. ! This device is used just as a connection between two devices. # This device is used as a repeater but to strengthen the signal between two LAN 2. " networks. 3. " This device is just a multiport Bridge that beside LAN networks here; PCs also can be connected, and HUB is a single collision domain. 4. $% &' ( This device works as a HUB but it is promoted with the increase of buses inside, it works on the base of MAC addresses so the first time a switch is connected on a LAN network; it broadcasts a “Hello/echo” massage and in reply to that massage by Hosts, it saves all the MAC addresses on a MAC table so switch is called a single broadcasting domain, if all the switch ports are in use then sometimes it causes a LAN blockage. Switch is a multiple collision domain, and in Cisco it is still called a (24port Bridge), the data format in switch is called data Frames. 5. ) & * + $ ( This device is used on WANs, over internetwork (the network of Routers); it is both multiple broadcasting & multiple collision domains because more buses are used inside it. The address used over routers is all logical addresses (IP addresses), the data formats moving over routers is called Packets so the packet exchange between routers in an internetwork is called packet switching and the decision for packet switching is called packet filtering. 16-12-2009

,

,

,#

-

NOW WE SEE DEFFIRENT COMPANIES HAS PRODUCCED THESE DEVICES; so in order to communicate them ISO (International Standardization Organization) has introduced some Models as following: 1. & , , $ ,, $ ,( 7-Layers Model: a. Application layer: This layer presents the data for users. b. Presentation layer: It collects the data and presents it to application layer and also encryption and decryption of data is done in same layer. c. Session layer: This layer divides the data into sessions for every user and supplies the type of communications whether it is Simplex, Half duplex, or full duplex. CCNA 1

g. . Host-to-Host layer: All the data is sequenced here as in session layer and provides end to end communication by the use of protocol from transport layer. This layer is also responsible for the flow control (Windowing: The size of Sender’s data sent at a time. CCNA 2 . IPv6) both work together interconnecting each other. If TCP (Transmission Control Protocol) is used Connection Oriented Protocol works here for receiving an acknowledgment of packet arrival to the other host but UDP (User Datagram Protocol) has no acknowledgment massage received. Buffering: The amount of data received at a time by receiver) to avoid Congestion. here segments are changed into Packets for routing (checking the direction of packets) with the help of logical addresses (IP address) and the device used here is Routeri under protocols as Routing protocols (Refreshes the link update as RIP. d. Intelligent HUB. b. where routing and routed protocols work. 4-Layers Model: introduced by DOD (Department Of Defense) a. Internet layer: It provides routing by the use of logical addresses as in Network layer. c. f. Process/Application layer: It works as OSI first 3 layers to provide user interface. If switches work for routing in network layer so they are called L3 switches. (Transmission Control Protocol/ Internet Protocol) 2. Transport layer: It provides a logical link for end to end communication maybe reliable or unreliable by the use of TCP/UDP protocols. IGRP etc) & Routed protocols (helps a packet rich to its destination from a host as IPv4. Physical layer (L1): The devices on this layer are Dump HUB as a multiport Bridge to provide communication for sending and receiving bits (0. Data link layer (L2): Frames’ transfer occurs now by the use of physical addresses (MAC address) and the devices for this layer are switchesii. further two layers work inside this layer as MAC (Media Access Control) layer that interacts with the upper layer (Physical)./ . LLC (Logical Link Control) layer that interacts with the lower (Network) layer. Network access layer: It does all the activities done in Data link layer & Physical layer. The data is called Segment yet. 1).d. Network layer (L3): It provides a physical link for end to end communication. e. i ii Metric: The destination between two internetworks.

(3001. Link local IP: These are used inside LAN communications and starts with (FE80:) e.255) for small organizations d. 4001) is not used yet. 4 octets separated by dots (. b.0.255. 8 octets separated by colons (:) and it supports hexadecimal numbers as (xxxx:xxxx:xxxx:xxxx:xxxx:xxxx:xxxx:xxxx).255.255) but again the lake of IP addresses were felt so IPv6 was introduced.0. it is used on WANs for routers e.# The way of communication between IPv4 & IPv6 through NATTING.31.255. (2001:0000:0000:0000:0000:0000:0000:0001) .0.0. Class E: (240. 4001)ii.16.255/ 192.xxx. this is called a GRE tunnel. Class A: (1.255. Distribution layer: It distributes packets after taking routing decisions by routers with the help of logical addresses.255.255) for Multicasting e. . c. b.+': It consists of 32 bits (4Bytes).168.) as (xxx.1) is called Loop back IP that is used for self pinging with a switch or other device. it is called decimal addresses because only decimal numbers are used in it and classified into five classes: a.(2001:0000:0000:0000:FFFF:FFFF:FFFF:FFFF) in this type the first four octets is network portion and last four octets are host but called interface portion. $ *0-! % ! $% $!- - a. IPv6).255. 3001. (FEC0:0000:0000:0000:0000:0000:0000:0001) c.255)i for large organizations (Governmental) b. .0. CCNA 3 .xxx).0.+1 It consists of 128 bits (16 Bytes).255.0.255) for middle range companies c.0.255) Under research for future use Due to the lake of IP addresses some rules were introduced as NAT (Network addresses Translation). Access layer: It completes the switching for Host-to-Host communication by switches over LANs and VLANs.192.0 . )!!$ .0 10. Private IP addresses for each class of IP (10.g.0.0) to (223.0. Class D: (224.255.168. Site local IP: These are not purchased as Private IP addresses and starts with (FEC0:) e. Class B: (128.255.0.g.0 .0.0.0.172. Core layer (Back bone layer): It completes the transportation through physical link for end to end communication.0. Internet Protocol addresses is of two types as (IPv4.0) to (247. . 1. Global unicast IP: This type starts with (2001.0.0) to (239. CIDR (Classless Inter Domain Routing (Sub netting)).xxx.0) to (126. it is of three types: a.0) to (191.255.255. IPv6 (NATTING) IPv4 (NATTING) IPv6 i ii The IP (127.255. IPv6 can be abbreviated as bellow: (2001:0000:0000:0000:0000:0000:0000:0001) = (2001::0000:0000:0000:0001) (2001::0010:0000:0000:0001) = (2001:: 10::1) IPv6 is used over Back bones.g.255. Class C: (192.255/ 172. 2.17-12-2009 3. (FE80:0000:0000:0000:0000:0000:0000:0001) Multicast addresses starts with (FE00:) and used for multicasting.255.

255. Net (network) so it means being a part of network.0. The number of IP/pool including network and broadcast IP addresses is called block size. the assigned IP for their connected interfacesi should continue as (192. . 5. 3 .255. by the help of which we can divide a class of IP addresses into small subnetworks so that a class of IP addresses is used by a large amount of networks.11111111. Class A: Network (255.0) 4. 4.255. the number of “up” bits in a default subnet mask is called the prefix value for that class of IP addresses. The prefix value after subnetting can be called “CIDR” value as well.255.0. . Subnetting always occurs in the host portion of an IP class by changing “down” bits to “up” so it’s added to the network portion. and its range for every class is fixed in which a mask can be subnetted but (31 & 32) CIDR values are not valid for subnetting because for 31 we can’t get user IPs and for 32 no IP available. 2..168.).18-12-2009 " 2 Only for IPv4 (IPv6 can not be subnetted): A network runs over subnet masks defined for them.). the formula (2n where “n” = “down bits of subnetted mask”) to find range of IP addresses per pool.0) = (255. i A router is not included in a network only the interface is used in a network. subnet mask is used to define the number of hosts allowed and send through a network by its host portion but network portion can not be subnetted. start counting from left side we have 24 “up” bits so the prefix value for class C is (24).2).0. e. Class D: Network (255.255.#5 The word “Subnet” is derived from two words.255. each IP class has got an automatic default subnet mask as below: 1. Class B: Network (255.255.). Class E is still under research for future use.1.Host (0. CCNA 4 . Sub (a part of). 11111000 = (128+64+32+16+8) = 248 3.255.! (255. Each class of IP has a default subnet mask. e.255) .0. Two directly connected devices should used same network’s IP. an internetwork is also called the part of a network.g. In each network’s IP series the first and the last IP is not used by users/hosts because the first IP of every IP pool is for self network identification (Network IP) and the last IP of every pool is used for broadcast of that network (Broadcast IP).0) 3.255. Class C: Network (255.g. For subnetting a class of IP addresses we should know some of the following terms: 1.# ! $ !. a router can be used by multiple networks. in each pool 2 IP addresses are considered as “Network” & “Broadcast” IPs then the formula (2n-2 where “n” = “down bits of sub netted mask”) is used for total usable IPs for hosts.255. two routers and connected to each other. .1 & 192.00000000).255.255) for routers only.0) 2. to avoid wasting the large amount of IP addresses of a skim “subnetting” is introduce.255. For getting the number of pools (group) and IP addresses per pool some formulas are used as the formula (2n where “n” = “up bits of a subnetted mask”) to find out the number of Pools or groups. in class C default subnet mask is (255.0) in binary number we can have it as (11111111.0) 255: 11111111 / 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 0: 00000000 255 127-1 63-1 31-1 15-1 7-1 3-1 1-1 0: 00000000 0: 00000000 255 = 1 1 1 1 1 1 11 Now as we see here all 1s shows the up/on bits and all the 0s shows the down/off bits. )3.Host () = (255.1.0.Host (0.+ .168.0.g.0) = (255.11111111. 21-12-09 %! 4 )3 . Value extracted from binary number is on the base of following weights (1281 641 321 161 81 41 21 11) the on bits’ weight is added from left side and written e. 5. so the least number of IP addresses in each pool must be 4 in order to connect only two users/hosts.Host (0) = (255.

0.0. The prefix value for class C is 24.0.168.168.168. For better study of this class. Default mask 255.0.0.255 Broadcast IP CCNA 5 .3 192.168.168.0.168. e.1 192.248 Network IP 192.0.253 192.248 192.255 Broadcast IP For IP 192. we start sub netting from 30 downward.168.0.168.0.255.X.249 192.168.0.168.8 192.7 192.3 192.250 192.168.256 192.0.251 192.0.13 192.9 192.0.168.0.0 Network IP 63rd: 192.168.168.0.0.168.168.0.0.5 192.168.255.168.252 Network IP 192.168.0.240.168.250 192.168.254 192.1 192.168.5 192.168. (X. Subnetted mask 255.X.0.168.168.168.242 192.255.0.168.168.0.0 = 11111111.0.0.168.0. But (31 & 32) CIDR is not used for user 3.168.251 192.0.00000000 For IP 192.168.0.22-12-09 )3.0.0.168.0.4 Network IP 192.168.168.168.168.168.248 Network IP 192.245 192. last octet = .0.0.0.X/25-32).168.255.168.2 192.0.0.168.255.243 192.0. .0) 4.168.14 192.253 192.0.0.11111111.0.X.1 192.12 192.168.255.0.3 Broadcast IP 192.11111111.168.168.0.255.168.0.168.0.168. IP 192.255 Broadcast IP For IP 192.4 192.11110000 Number of pools = 24 = 16 Number of IP per Pool = 24 = 16 1st: 192.0.168.240 Network IP 192.252 192.0.0.247 192.255.0.168.168.X.11 192.168.253 192.254 192.10 192. Subnetted mask 255.0/29.0.252 192.111111100 Number of pools = 26 = 64 Number of IP per Pool = 22 = 4 1st: 192.168.7 Broadcast IP 192.0/24.244 192.0.168.255.241 192.254 192.0.0 Network IP 32nd: 192. last octet = . (X. Default subnet mask is (255.0.249 192.# $-! Some notations about this class: 1.X/24) 2.0.g.2 192.0.0.0.4 192.0.168.6 192.5 192.168.168. last octet = .0.249 192. Subnetted mask 255. The CIDR value range is (25 to 32).6 192.0.15 Broadcast IP 192.255.2 192.7 Broadcast IP 192.0.0.168.250 192.0.0.168.0/28.168.0.6 192.0.251 Broadcast IP nd th 2 : 64 : 192.0.0.168.168.0/30.168.0.168.168.0 Network IP 16th: 192.168.0.248.168.168.168.11111000 Number of pools = 25 = 32 Number of IP per Pool = 23 = 8 1st: 192.252.

0..0.129 .168.254 192.192 .168.0/26.0..255 Broadcast IP For IP 192. .255.168. last octet = 11100000 Number of pools = 23 = 8 Number of IP per Pool = 25 = 32 1st: 192.225 ..65 192.168.193 .9.80) & the Broadcast IP is got [(“Pool no” x “No of IP/pool”) -1] = (11 x 8 -1 = 87) (194.. .0..168.0 Network IP 2nd: 192.255.0.168.0.168.255.128 Network IP 192. Subnetted mask 255.0. it means last octet is (.10000000 Number of pools = 21 = 2 Number of IP per Pool = 27 = 128 1st: 192..168. number of IP/pool = 23 (8).254 192...87) 2.255. 192..129 .1 192. Subnetted mask 255. follow this manner. 192.168.254 192.0.83/29) IP exists in? Ans: CIDR value = 29. .191 192..168.0.168.168.0.. ..0. Network IP of every Pool is in “Even” numbers other than Broadcast IP is always in “Odd” numbers..31 Broadcast IP 192.0..For IP 192.0.168.. . CCNA 6 .0.128 Network IP 192.0. So by counting (10x8=80 & 11x8=88 80<83<88) we get “this IP exists in 11th Pool.1 192..g.255.0.128.168. number of pools = 25 (32).168.0.192.0.11111000) so the subnet mask is 255. .0.1 192. second get the subnet mask for the IP...255.0..0..190 192.224.0.168..168....168. 192..0.168.62 192.9.168. .. first solve the number of Pools and IP per pool from the CIDR value given. last octet = .126 192.168.0/25. .248.. .168..0.63 192..0. Subnetted mask 255.224 Network IP 192..11000000 Number of pools = 22 = 4 Number of IP per Pool = 26 = 64 3rd: 1st: 192. finally write down the pool as in following example: E.168.168.0. 192.168.127 Broadcast IP --------------------------------------------. Find the Network and Broadcast IPs for the pool which (194.255.0/27.0. ..168.0.63 Broadcast IP 192.0.100.100. . .0.0.168. To find the specific pool with its network and broadcast IPs for a subnetted IP address with the CIDR value given. and the network IP for this Pool is [(“Pool no”-1) x “No of IP/pool”] = [(11-1) x 8 = 80] (194.168..168.168.168....0.168.0. ..0 Network IP 8th: 192.168.0.100.127 Broadcast IP 192.168.0.0.0 Network IP 192.168..255 Broadcast IP For IP 192.191 Broadcast IP nd th 192.168. 192.126 192.-------------------1.255. .168. last octet = ..64 Network IP 192..64 192..168..0. .192 Network IP 2 : 4 : 192. ..9.0.255 Broadcast IP 192.

09 )3.0.00000000.0.252.16.255 Last: 172.16.0/13.3.0 = 11111111.0/21.0.11110000. The prefix value for class A is 8.0.16.00000000 Number of pools = 21 = 2 Number of IP per Pool = 215 = 32768 1st: 172.11110000.16.254.0.255 Last: 172.255 Last: 172.00000000. last 3 octets = .255 For IP 172.255. Number of pools = 21 = 2 Number of IP per Pool = 223 = 8388608 st 10.255.255.255 24-12.16.255.0.255 Last: 172.0 to 172.10000000.00000000 Number of pools = 27 = 128 Number of IP per Pool = 29 = 512 172.X.00000000.0.0.0.255 Last: 172.X.255.0.0.0.0 to 172.16.16.0.0.255 For IP 10.00000000 Subnetted mask 255. The prefix value for class B is 16.0/8.255.16.10000000.00000000 Number of pools = 26 = 64 Number of IP per Pool = 210 = 1024 st 1 : 172.7.X. last two octets = .0 to 172.0/11.00000000.0.16. The CIDR value range is (9 to 32).0.23-12-09 )3. last two octets = .16.16.255.00000000.255 For IP 172.240.0/18.255 Last: 172.240.0 to 172.255.0/9.255.# $-! Some notations about this class: 1. Subnetted mask 255.X.11111111.0 to 172.0 to 10. (X.248. E.0/16.16.0.0.16. we start sub netting from 17 upward to 24.X.16.0.0.255 For IP 172.0.0.255 Last: 10.255. last two octets = .16.16.11100000.X/9-32). last two octets = .0 to 10. For better study of this class.00000000.16.255.255. E.0.0 to 172.255.11111000. Subnetted mask 255.255.0.127.X/17-32).00000000 Number of pools = 23 = 8 Number of IP per Pool = 221 = 2097152 1st: 10.g.0/23.0 to 172. 128.11111111.00000000 Number of IP per Pool = 212 = 4096 Number of pools = 24 = 16 1st: 172. Subnetted mask 255.0.16.255 For IP 10. IP 172.0/22.0/24.00000000 Number of pools = 25 = 32 Number of IP per Pool = 211 = 2048 st 1 : 172. Subnetted mask 255.15.0.0.00000000 For IP 10. last 3 octets = .240.16.0.255.0.0.00000000 Number of pools = 23 = 8 Number of IP per Pool = 213 = 8192 st 1 : 172.16.16.16.0.0.0/19.255 Last: 10.255.0.248.255.255.0 to 10. Subnetted mask 255.240.16. .0/10. Default mask 255.0.255 Last: 172. Subnetted mask 255.00000000 CCNA -7- .16.255.16.128.0.255.16.0.128.16.0.0.11100000.16.0. .0 to 10.252.255 Last: 10.0 to 10. last two octets = .0.0.0 to 172. last 3 octets = .63.31.16.255.128. Number of pools = 24 = 16 Number of IP per Pool = 220 = 1048576 st 1 : 10.X.11111110.0/20.0 to 172.16.0 to 172.0.0 to 10. Subnetted mask 255.0 to 172.255 For IP 172. Default subnet mask is (255.0.11000000.127.0 to 10.0.00000000 Number of pools = 22 = 4 Number of IP per Pool = 214 = 16384 st 1 : 172. (X. But (31 & 32) CIDR is not used for user 3.16.255.0.11111100.0. last two octets = .255.X/8) 2.0 to 172.255.g.63.0.0 = 11111111.0.255 Last: 172.00000000 For IP 172.X.0.0.0.16.0. we start sub netting from 9 upward to 16.0 to 10.255. last 3 octets = . Default mask 255.00000000 For IP 10.0.0.00000000.0.0.255 1 : For IP 10.16.0 to 172.255 For IP 172.00000000. last two octets = .255. (X.224. last two octets = .255.0.255 Subnetted mask 255.# $-! " Some notations about this class: 1.0. (X.0. Subnetted mask 255.15. Default subnet mask is (255.192.254.31.255.255 1st: For IP 172.16.255.0.0.255.00000000 Number of pools = 22 = 4 Number of IP per Pool = 222 = 4194304 st 1 : 10.224.224.224.0 to 172.255 Last: 10.255 For IP 172.11111000.248. Subnetted mask 255.16. Subnetted mask 255.0.0/12. But (31 & 32) CIDR is not used for user 3.X/16) 2. last 3 octets = .192. For better study of this class.16.0 to 172.16.0 to 172.192.0. The CIDR value range is (17 to 32). Subnetted mask 255.0) 4.16.0.0/17.255.0.0) 4.11000000.0.255.00000000 (For Class B) Number of pools = 28 = 256 Number of IP per Pool = 28 = 256 st 1 : 172.16.192.X.1.16. IP 10.16.

00000000 Number of pools = 26 = 64 Number of IP per Pool = 218 = 262144 1st: 10.0/16.255.00000000 Number of pools = 27 = 128 Number of IP per Pool = 217 = 131072 st 1 : 10.255.0.0.254.0.11111110. CIDR value is called a also Subnetted prefix for a class of IP.0.0.252.255.255 Last: 10.0.0.00000000 (Class A) Number of pools = 28 = 256 Number of IP per Pool = 216 = 65536 st 1 : 10.255.0.0 to 10.00000000.0 to 10.255. 26-12-09 st & ! !3- .255 For IP 10.0.0.0.0 to 10.0 to 10.255. last 3 octets = .0.7.0.0.0 to 10. it benefits us to save a group of IP address space.255 Last: 10.Number of pools = 25 = 32 Number of IP per Pool = 219 = 524288 1 : 10.255.0.0.0.255 Last: 10.# % )3.11111100. as we can have different subnet masks for different router interfaces each joining separate networks as you can see in this figure: CCNA -8- .0. Subnetted mask 255.255.00000000.255. The number of usable IPs in a class excluding Network and Broadcast IPs is called “Block size”. ! ( This is a easy way to take a network and create many networks using subnet mask of different lengths and different types of network designs called VLSM networking.0.252. 2.0.0/15.255 Last: 10.255.255 For IP 10.255.0 to 10.255. last 3 octets = . which is the abbreviation for (Classless Inter Domain Routing) but when in it was introduced by Cisco so changed to CCIDR (Cisco CIDR).0.0.255 : 1.0.1.3.0 to 10. last 3 octets = .255.255 For IP 10.00000000. Subnetted mask 255.254.11111111.0/14.0 to 10.255.0. Subnetted mask 255.0.248.

3. Using the command (configure terminal) and pressing “Enter”. it moves to “User privilege mode ( Router# )” here you can access basic commands to show or check some information about router by using following commands: 1. SSH (Secure Shell): here. Telnet: Once configuration is done on a router and it is up. is dialed remotely and then router is set. iv If any word is present uniquely in IOS dictionary so by typing only some begging letter of command and pressing “TAB”. it uses and operating system called IOS (Internetwork Operating System) that provides us Communication. 3. then on “Windows XP” follow this path: Start> All programs> Accessories> Communication> Hyper terminal> Edit for any “Name”> Click “Restore Default” for values> OK> wait while router completes its loading step> Edit “NO” then you move to “Router console mode” (you are asked to press RETURN)> by pressing “Enter” move to “User executive mode ( Router> )”> Edit for (enable)iv command and by pressing “Enter”. Scalabilityi.29-12-09 2 ) This device is used over network layer on internetwork. show clock For checking router time. show ? For getting more info about “show” usages. Console cable: this is a “RS232” & “RJ45” ends’ connecter cable used for essential configuration only. There are four ways for router’s connectivity in different conditions as: 1. 2.: Router configuration is of two types. then if any traffic problem or troubleshooting occurs then the router is accessed from remote area by NMS (Network Management Server) via Telnet. but new routers doesn’t have modem interfaces. Aux (Auxiliary): this connectivity is done through a modem connected to the router and the number assigned for it. Static/Dynamic routing support.6 #) ! . A figure from backside of a Cisco 2600 router shows the important portsiii except two serial ports used for connecting to other routers called (Point to point/ Peer to peer) connectivity. the command will be auto completed as: ena > enable. show version For checking the version of a router. Security for user and network access. Configuring through console cable: after connecting “RS232” PC port to “RJ45” router console port. a router is configured remotely by an OS as windows or Linuxii but not used with new routers. 4. move to “Router/User/Global configuration mode” determined as ( Router(config)# ) where you get access to configure a router. conf t > configure terminal etc. ii i CCNA -9- . ) $ . The ability to adjust configuration and size to fit new conditions Not much usage because “Linux” is mostly used on servers and router is not configured by a server Slot number iii On ports the sign 0/0 means ( /Port number). while configuring through Telnet or SSH from any of its networks that is called “In-band” configurations. 2. it is called “Out-of-band”. when it is configured through Console cable or Aux directly. its further usage for troubleshooting or traffic control is not recommended by Cisco.

one per line. Router#configure terminal User privilege mode.: at User privilege mode. f0/0 or f0/1 ) to get information about the specific port’s connectivity.30-12-09 ) 7 $% ! . Qta router(config-line)#exit Getting out of console line. Telnet password: this code is very important to secure a router from hacking that is easily implemented by (line vty 0 4 password a word login ) commands. 2. Command Descriptions Implementations: switch on a router and start with the following! Router>enable User Executive mode. Qta router(config-line)#login Qta router(config-line)#exit Qta router(config)#banner motd # Adding Massage of the day banner. "!. at interface’s configuration mode (description “Some words to describe the port” ) command is used. : it is used to display information. to describe a port. Qta router(config-line)#login Enabling console password. End with CNTL/Z. Enter configuration commands. 3. the number of telnet servers’ access is defined while password configuration in the underlined part of the command. Console password: console pass code is implemented by (line console 0 password a word login ) command for security on connectivity through console cable. . and 4.! configuring the following password configurations to the device step by step in configuration mode: a. Massage of the day (contains a router’s information located at the top.10 CCNA . 6!$ $ . Qta router(config-line)#password 1234 Adding password for telnet users. Qta router(config-if)#description "This port is connected to Karachi" . the “0 or 1” digits included command shows the number of ports on router. ending with #. Aux password: auxiliary pass code is implemented by (line aux 0 password a word login ) commands for aux port.$ . c. e. Login process (console). Qta router(config)#line vty 0 4 Entering telnet path for 5 users. Enter TEXT message. for getting information about the ports’ connectivity using commands as (show ip interface brief ) to check router’s interfaces’ IP assigned to. 3. ! + 6).. s0/1. this is asked when router is accessed through Aux connectivity. Qta router(config)#interface serial 0/0 Entering interface mode. shown back after console mode. . (show int followed by interface Id as s0/0. this description is shown back in “user privilege mode” for interface. Qta router(config)#enable password 123 Adding Enable password. End with the character '#'.! : first and most important point is to configure a host name for a router with the help of (hostname) command followed by a specific name for router or switch. which is (0 4) for non enterprise IOS and (0 1180) for enterprise IOS version. Incoming process. : as you know security is must for a device so that security is implemented by 2. d. it’s of four types: 1. b. Enable secret password: this code is implemented by (enable secret) followed by a pass code. Qta router(config)#enable secret 456 Adding Enable secret password. Qta router(config)#line console 0 Entering console line. Qta router(config-line)#password 789 Adding Console password. arrange it in user configuration mode of a router by (banner motd # some information about the router # ). 4. Introducing four functions to administrate a router or a switch: 1. This is the Quetta router # Banner massage. and this code for hacking avoidance in routers. Executive process. Enable password: the passkey implemented by (enable password) command followed by a password. . asked back while moving to “User privilege mode” but this password is revealed while showing running configurations then secret code is used. Router(config)#hostname "Qta router" Changing hostname.

Routing is of three types as Static routing. For console and Aux connectivity users we can set session time. 2. i ii IP addresses are assigned and used only with devices having multiple broadcasts as router not single broadcast as switches. AD value varies between (0-255) but AD approximating to (0) is considered the better routing because lower AD path is always followed by packets. Enable secret password is needed.Qta router(config-if)#exit Qta router(config)#exit %SYS-5-CONFIG_I: Configured from console by console Qta router#show interface serial 0/0 Serial0/0 is down. Dynamic routing. Default routing. after defining the paths (routing) & router configurations a router creates some tables for saving different information on them as: 1. so some routers save all connection routes on routing table but some of them save only the best connectivity on routing table then the remaining connections are saved on topology table with network’s structure. Routing table: this table is made in a router to keep routes’ information on it. CCNA . Back to privilege mode. the destiny a packet passes leaving an interface of first router and crosses the 2nd router is called One “Hop” distance. any routing’s trust worthiness is defined for its “AD (administrative distance)”.11 - . 2. This is the banner. This line is added via description. Topologyii table: if two routers are connected by multiple connections. Topology table is same for all routers in an internetwork because all routers are connected to same structured network. 31-12-09 ) . line protocol is down (disabled) Hardware is HD64570 Description: "This port is connected to Karachi" %SYS-5-CONFIG_I: Configured from console by console This is the quetta router User Access Verification Password: Qta router>enable Password: Password: Qta router# Description added to the port. defined earlier. Neighbor table: this table saves information about its neighbor router. Console password is needed. 3. “Show” command in privilege mode. Topology is the name for a network structure.# Defining paths for packets transfer from one internetwork to another internetwork is called routing. a router checks packet’s destinies through IP addressesi. Enable password is needed. : 1. For ending any configuration use the command (exit).

A static routed network can not be managed easily without a basic model guide for it.System Configuration Dialog --COMMAND DISCRIPTIONS Continue with configuration dialog? [Yes/no]: No Continue with manual setup Press RETURN to get started! Press ENTER Router>Enable User executive mode Router#conf t User privilege mode Router(config)#Hostname A Changes router’s name A(config)#int s0/0 Enter a serial interface A(config-if)#ip address 1. The AD value for static routing is (1) which is considered the best AD.1 YES manual up up Serial0/0 1.50. 2.50.0. 2.0.12 - .255. Once all routes are defined then there is no need felt for “update packets”.0. which due to less overhead. which has got some advantages as: 1.1 255.1 255.0 Assign IP A(config-if)#no shutdown Interface turn on A(config-if)#exit A(config)#do show ip interface brief Check IP configurations Interface IP-Address OK? Method Status Protocol FastEthernet0/0 200.! $ ) .1 YES manual up up Serial0/1 unassigned YES manual administratively down down Means (it isn’t made UP) CCNA .0. Switch/Router is straight cable but Router to Route is Pair to pair connectivity. On Router1: Self decompressing the image: ########################################################################## [OK] --.0 Assign IP A(config-if)#encapsulation PPP Establish peer connection A(config-if)#no shutdown Interface turns on A(config-if)#exit Get out of interface A(config)#int f0/0 Enter a Fast Ethernet interface A(config-if)#ip address 200. 01-01-10 Static routing configuration: for the implementation of static routing we attend the following example: PC/Switch.0.255.100. But some disadvantages of static routing are: 1.0. Static routing depends on network administrator with a lot of responsibilities.#: in static routing a network administrator has to define all routes of a network manually.100.

100.0 STATIC ROUTINGiv B(config)#do show ip route C 1.100.0. ii CCNA .100.0/8 is directly connected.100. Serial0/0 C 200.0/8 is directly connected.0/24 [1/0] via 1.1i) but PC2 (IP 200.100.100.255.100.2.2 255..100.2.0.0 B(config-if)#clock rate 64000 Must for DCE porti B(config-if)#encapsulation PPP Only on Serial connections ii B(config-if)#no shutdown B(config-if)#exit B(config)#int f0/0 B(config-if)#ip address 200.255.100. Default gateway 200. iii This “Do” is used before a command from “User privilege mode” to enforce it run at “Configuration mode”.100.1) i The clock rate is must on a DCE (Female) serial port for synchronization.0.50.0.100.0 1.0.100.0.255.100.0 255.100. FastEthernet0/0 B(config)#do ping 200.0.100.0/24 [1/0]v via 1.0 A(config)#do show ip route C 1..50.On Router 2: Self decompressing the image: ########################################################################## [OK] --.0. FastEthernet0/0 S 200.100.255.100.100.0.255. Subnet 255.0.0.0.0.13 - ..0/24 is directly connected.0.0.255.0.0 1.0.1 Check direct connectivity !!!!! Connection success sign but (.0 C 200. Default gateway 200. While making further changes on an interface it should be turned down by the use of (shutdown) command..255.1 !!!!! : While assigning IP for PCs: PC1 (IP 200.) is connection failed sign On Router 1: A(config)#do ping 200.255. Subnet 255.50.0 255.50.50.1 255.0. iv For canceling any of the defined routes just use (no) command before that routing command.100.100.50.100.0.System Configuration Dialog --Continue with configuration dialog? [Yes/no]: No Press RETURN to get started! Router>Enable Router#conf t Configurating terminal Router(config)#hostname B B(config)#int s0/0 B(config-if)#ip address 1.255.2 YES manual up up Back to Router 1: A(config)#ip route 200.0 B(config-if)#no shutdown B(config-if)#exit B(config)#doiii show ip interface brief Interface IP-Address OK? Method Status Protocol FastEthernet0/0 200.0 Mention route in Static routing Check routing table Directly connected Mentioned through routing Back to Router 2: B(config)#ip route 200.255.0.1 YES manual up up Serial0/0 1.100.0/24 is directly connected. Serial0/0 S 200. v (1) shows the AD (Administrative Distance) and (0) shows METRIC (number of Hopes) for a route.

iv IGRP uses bandwidth but while facing equal hop-counts.0 0.14 - .! $ ) . no other exit point but on (A.0/0 [1/0] via 4. iii A huge size of network by routers connected to the only network is called one “Autonomous System” AS.0. Distance vector protocol: for its distance measuring vector it uses Hop-counts and always follows the less number or hops as RIP.0. RIPv2.0] and on its routing table.#: The routing which follows some algorithms (set of rules called protocols) is called dynamic. Router B has got 2 exit interfaces. links.0. 2.0 4. B. So after all IP configurations on routers and Static routings for (A. $ -! : protocols are classified into three classes as following: 1.0. . Dynamic routing’s protocols are defined in Types and Classes: .0. it has got less overhead than static routing with the best (AD = 0). but the most important point is. it’s not corrupt shortly but again its information is update by user as: BGP (Border Gateway Protocol). if a router receives no update packet from its neighbor router then it puts a cross on that neighbor. B. Routing Information Protocol: its metric that it works on is hop-counts and its examples are RIP.04-01-10 6!)) . This is the routing in which routers check all (protocols.#: default routing is also called default static routing. & Topology) tables but some works only on routing tables.0. $ : protocols are defined in three types as following: 1. Exterior Gateway Protocol: it has no relation inside a network but it work on the outgoing connectivity of a network as an outstanding. Interior Gateway Protocol: its metric is Bandwidth (link’s capacity) and runs on only one Autonomousiii inside as IGRP (Interior Gateway Routing Protocol) it’s Cisco’s proprietary but very weak. C) routers at last we can configure default routing on Router D as defined only by one line for its exit point: [C (config)#IP route 0. it is shown as: (S* 0. default routing is configured where only one exit pointii exists on the router otherwise. For default routing. and strong protocol but inside a network it’ll be the weakest one.0. ii CCNA . Default routing model 05-01-10 .0.0) which is different from other routers’ routing table. 3. every protocol is defined for its specific metric that it uses. i PCs’ default gateway is always the IP assigned on router’s interface joining same network. As we see in example below: here default routing is configured only on Router D because the only exit point is from (S0/0). Only Serial or peer to peer connectivity is called an “exit point” for a router. and IGRPiv. loop will occur whilst the packet will be moving round the network but gets to no LAN network. it prefers to follow high bandwidth.0. some of them makes and works on all (Routing. RIPv2.0. it is also easy to configure and troubleshoot as compare to Static routing. connectivity for neighbor routers etc) then every router sends the collected information to its all neighbor routers as a packet called “Update packet”. not a fast Ethernet. Neighbor. no route is defined in routing table but only one line starting with (S*) sign that defines a default route. and Router D also has got 2 exit interfaces so we can’t configure Default routing on them but as we see that Router C has got only one exit interface (highlighted in blue). C) routers we define all networks statically as before: Now in this model we see that Router A has got 3 exit interfaces.

0. CCNA . Link state protocols: considering its distance measured. no multicasting on RIP.0. The algorithm used by RIP is called “Belemenford algorithm”.2.0. While configuring RIPv2 the only difference is the use of (version 2 ) command after opening RIP.50. Rip supports 4 to 6 serial “up” connectivity at a time for two routers called “Equal load balancing” but no support of down connectivity for backup on its topology table called “Unequal load balancing”.0 A(config-router)#exit Router B: B(config)#router rip B(config-router)#network 1. 00:00:12. 06-01-10 RIP: RIP is a distance victor protocol that sends update packets to neighborly connected routers. 07-01-10 RIP configuration: here we can see that after all interfaces’ IP configured then dynamic routing is configured on two routers using RIP protocol just by opening the Rip’s command and define all directly connected network to the router as following: Router A: A(config)#router rip A(config-router)#network 1. Ripi supports only class-full routing because no subnet mask information is sent in update packets. 2. The AD value for this protocol is 120.100. means that RIP can be configured over 15 routers’ network. but if till 240sec no reply received then the next “Flash timer” starts in which the down router is removed from neighbor routers’ routing table. while trying to connecting the 16th router on RIP a “Destination unreachable” massage is shown so it is efficient for small network to the range of 15 routers. AD.15 - . and reliable protocol for interior and different autonomous system networks.100. timers.0. For configuring RIP on a router use (router RIP ) command. and maximum router’s support on one network) are same but two major differences are: 1.0 B(config-router)#exit On routing table the network connected to a router via rip is shown as you see here on router B: (R 200.0. RIPv2 is introduced with a multicasting feature as it has a multicast IP address (244. after invalid timer “Hold down timer up to 240sec” starts during which an echo packet is sent by neighbor router and waits for reply. always the shortest path is followed and works on all three tables as OSPF (Open Shortest Path First) which is a widely used. Maximum number of hops for RIP is 15.0/24 [120/1] via 1.50.1.0 Exit ) on all routers joining a network.0.0. Hybrid protocols: it is mixed up of both first and second protocol classes and uses its specifics as EIGRP (Enhanced Interior Gateway Routing Protocol) which also works on different Autonomous systems. Serial0/0) 08-01-10 RIP version 2: in short to explain that all other specifics between RIP and RIPv2 as (Metric.100. RIPv2 supports classless routing since it is sending the subnet mask information in update packets so VLSM is also supported by RIPv2. then add all networks directly connected to the router by mentioning their network IP via command as (network 1. duration between two update packets sent is (30sec) called “update timer”.0 A(config-router)#network 200.0.0.9) but RIP was able to unicast only. if no update packet is sent by a router for (180sec) called “Invalid timer” then it is marked as invalid for neighbor router. 11-01-10 i In RIP configured network the only CIDR value for all classes of IP is supported.100. 3.0.0 B(config-router)#network 200.

The algorithm followed by EIGRP is “DUAL (Diffusing Update Algorithm)”. some non-default metrics as (Reliability.255. that is to be same for all routers then continue the commands for advertising directly connected networks. because by default its metric is hop-count (Best till 100 routers.255. The ease in configuration is to open it by (router EIGRP 1) command and advertise all directly connected networks to a router. CIDR and Multicasting.0. scalable to 255) but being the best protocol for unequal load balancing.16 - . but its configuration is optional as an example (wildcard mask for 255.0. no update packet anymore until any change occurs in network’s topology. IGRP is a class-full routing protocol. is also supported by the mentioned protocol.0. IGRP has 90 seconds update timer. is an interior gateway protocol. i MTU stands for Maximum Transmission Unit. it is from distance vector class and works on different autonomous systems.255). ii CCNA . The algorithm followed by IGRP is “Belmenford”. and MTUi) are used. Only at network’s upping time EIGRP sends an update packet to neighbor routers after that in each update timerii only an “echo packet” is sent. 12-01-10 IGRP (Interior Gateway Routing Protocol): This routing protocol which is a Cisco proprietary. Not to forget that beside IPv4 this protocol supports IPv6 as well. this results to maximize bandwidthiii and lessen chocking on network. iii Also called low bandwidth utilization that means network resources utilization. and this is the best protocol of Cisco proprietary with the reliable AD of 90.0. EIGRP is a classless routing protocol that supports VLSM. having the “AD = 100”.0 B(config-router)#network 200. Load.0 B(config-router)#exit If routers are connected in a circle so one router’s LAN will be shown twice in routing table with different hops because it will be available via both paths. but finally to declare that IGRP is the older version so not used anymore. it uses composite and non-default or secondary metrics as used by IGRP. which can work on different AS. EIGRP is rapid convergence (spread fast over network) protocol. enhanced or advanced distance vector protocol that also contains some features from Link state protocol class so it is a kind of hybrid class protocols. 13-01-10 EIGRP (Enhanced Interior Gateway Routing Protocol): it is an interior gateway protocol.0. The sample configuration on a router is simple as starting with (Router IGRP 1) command where “1” is the number of AS.0 A(config-router)#network 200.100.0 is 0.0 A(config-router)#exit B(config)#router rip B(config)#version 2 B(config-router)#network 1. which is used for blocking and permitting networks and users.100.50.100. This protocol is developed to overcome the RIP problems seeing that IGRP includes 100 hop-counts for best service but it is scalable to its maximum support of 255 hop counts.0.RIPv2 configuration: check here that after all interfaces’ IP configured then dynamic routing is configured on two routers using RIPv2 protocol just by opening the Ripv2’s command and define all directly connected networks to the router as following: A(config)#router rip A(config)#version 2 A(config-router)#network 1. Wildcard mask configuration. The update timer for EIGRP is also same as IGRP (90 Sec). By default “hop-count” is the metric for IGRP but due to providing both equal and unequal load balancing (bandwidth & delay) is also used called composite metrics for it.

Serial0/0) as it is seen that EIGRP route is defined by the letter “D”.0. If priority is not set or is remained by default then at third and last step higher interface IP is elected.255. Multi-access network: in such a network all routers are connected by “Fast Ethernet” via “Cross over” cables (no serial connectivity). Other areas. becomes the DR. which can’t be same for two routers in one network. which is called the backbone area. If any of this IP is advertisedi on the routing protocol. Multi-vender means that it can be implemented on non-Cisco devices. DR election rules: the following steps are obeyed in router’s interface selection as DR of a network: a.50. the highest R-ID becomes DR after then BDR is elected.0 0.0. by default each interface’s priority is 1. it possesses the AD value of (110) and it is a multi-venderii protocol too.0.255.100.0/24 [90/2172416] via 1.0 0. Router ID: every router has got a virtual or logical interface that supports up to (10) IP addresses (0-9) called loopback IP.0 0.0. has an update timer of “40sec”. CIDR and multicasting through the fixed IP (244. These steps are followed only in case of router’s circle connectivity but if routers are connected as in a tree then only Router-ID is check for DR election. 2. and no routing update is sent. So the first option noted for DR election is the highest Router-ID to which an interface is attached. is the main and center area for an AS. After DR in a multi-access network there is “Backup Designated Router (BDR)” that automatically becomes DR. since a higher priority is elected.0. OSPF is a classless protocol that supports VLSM. which maintains and works on all three (Routing. b. which surround “area 0” and are connected to it.255 B(config-router)#exit When routing table was checked on Router A. shows this result: (D 200. if a new router joins the network. OSPF supports both IPv4 & IPv6.100.255. CCNA .17 - .0 0. which is not a default metric but a secondary metric. 00:00:13. b.255. it becomes that router’s ID. This network contains one “Designated Router (DR)” that saves self-whole network’s topology and routing information from/to other routers.0. and it follows IETF open standard’s both version 1 & 2. Self DR is elected by two manners: a. it requests the “DR” for topology then DR sends it as a packet.5).0. b.14-01-10 EIGRP configuration: After all interfaces’ IP configured then dynamic routing is configured for two routers using EIGRP protocol just by opening the EIGRP’s command and advertise all directly connected networks to the router as following: A(config)#router EIGRP 1 A(config-router)#network 1. Point to point network: this network is used on different ASes each AS contains areas inside as following: a.255 A(config-router)#network 200.0.0. so don’t forget that EIGRP is showing MTU.100. Its metric is something different not “hop-counts”. OSPF. Area 0. if network’s DR downs due to any problem. OSPF is an extra-scalable protocol for as much routers on a network. are called border areas. Neighbor. loaded first. When DR is elected the second choice is for BDR. its i ii Router-ID is not implemented until OSPF is not reloaded by (clear IP OSPF process) command in user privilege mode. And all other network’s routers are called “DR other”. If all routers are not upped at a time then the router. OSPF contains two types of network as: 1. Interface priority: when router is elected then its interfaces’ priority is checked.100. and Topology) tables. c. This is a rapid convergence protocol as compare to RIP and RIPv2 but not as EIGRP.100.0. 15-01-10 OSPF (Open Shortest Path First): OSPF is a link state protocol that chooses the shortest path first.0. If all routers are upped at a time then based on some rules DR election occurs.255 B(config-router)#network 200.2.0. The algorithm followed by OSPF is called “Dikjkastra”.255 A(config-router)#exit B(config)#router EIGRP 1 B(config-router)#network 1.

0 0.255 area 0 B(config-router)#network 200.255.0 0.255 area 0 B(config-router)#exit Observing the routing table for router “B” it’s seen that the path guided through OSPF is shown with the “O” letter. Show controllers int: to get information about the connectivity of any port.0 0. i Cat 6 cables transfer over 1000mbps data used with Giga port.224.255 – 255.0.100. which is defined by cost value.0. Ctrl + Shift + 6: this is the shortcut key for translation canceling.0.100.255.255 area 0 A(config-router)#exit B(config)#router ospf 1 B(config-router)#network 1. 00:06:12. CCNA .0.255. The easy configuration is to start OSPF with (router OSPF 1) command and advertise the directly connected networks including wildcard and specific area for a router.0. : On some switches we get additional ports as “Giga”.0 0.0.100. Some extra commands used with protocols: 1. wildcard and area definition is must. which are must for OSPF as following: A(config)#router ospf 1 A(config-router)#network 1.0.0 = 0.100.255. these ports use Fast Ethernet Cat 6i cables.50. 18-01-10 - $! $!-$)-! .255.255.255.255. 3. wildcard is calculated from subnet mask implemented to an interfaces’ IP as the subnet mask minus (255.255) value for example: a router’s serial interface’s IP is (1.0. while unequal load balancing the primary backup link.18 - .255 area 0 A(config-router)#network 200.0/24 [110/782] via 1. Clear IP ospf process: used to reload all OSPF settings.0.2. metric is “Cost”. Serial0/0).1 255.0/19) then its wildcard is counted like: (255. the link with lowest cost value is more reliable and can provide high bandwidth.0. OSPF provides equal and unequal load balancing for unlimited connections.224.0. WR : this command is used after each configuration to save them for startup memory.0. is called “Feasible successor” that is to replace primary link if it turns down.0. and the network IP advertised on OSPF as (1.0.100.255.0.metric is called “Cost”. as seen this is a subnetted mask for class A.31. Show IP ospf process: used to check all processes running with OSPF. 2.255) and defined for OSFP. 16-01-10 OSPF configuration: After all interfaces’ IP configured then dynamic routing is configured for two routers using OSPF protocol just by opening the OSPF’s command and advertise all directly connected networks to the router including their wildcard mask and area. While advertising networks on OSPF. and default AD is “110” as (O 200.255.0).

its maximum support of VLANs is (64) and only some of them can support up to (128) VLANs. it can’t be same for any two LAN cards in the world. 3550. if a switch has enterprise IOS it supports (1-1005) VLANs but if switch’s IOS is non-enterprise. routing uses IP addresses for path definition but in switching there is no path definition but IP address is used for host-to-host communication. 6500* TMM means on a LAN network. which L3 400. 4500. 3560 EOS failure as failure is decreased by using less boxes L2 2950 EOS that L3 switch 6500 is used as best solution. internet…). Some Cisco switch models are these: Switching has two levels of failure namely High Type of Switch Models number Situation point of failure that happens due to more boxes L2 1900. 20-01-10 Switch is single broadcast domain that means it has got a single passage for data travel and the data sessions in switch is called data frames. which is called data link layer (DLL) and includes two further layers inside namely called MAC layer to control physical media interacting with physical layer and second is LLC interacting with network layer to control logical links. 80% of its traffic * 6500 is the latest model. should depend on local hosts and only 20% of its xxviii ASA) traffic depends on out-network (e. The time period while frame entry from one port and getting out of other port or in other words the time. the action of creating VLANs only makes existing VLANs usable. By default all switch ports are included in VLAN 1. 3560 TMM There is a rule in switching called (80-20). which is a physical address embossed on LAN cards. Router. which is all in one (Switch. TMM = Top Most Models. the device used in this layer is called switch that are also of two types as L2 switches and L3 switches.19-01-10 2 Starting with OSI layer-2. Switch 10 Gigabit 10000 10000 Full duplex Cat-6u works on MAC 100 Gigabit This is implemented but no standards applied by IEEE yet. 2900. As mentioned before that switch is a single broadcast domain resulting that LAN works in a single broadcast domain and uses the network broadcast IP address. until xxviii EOS = End Of Sale.g. 5000 EOS & EOL connected in line. EOL = End Of Life. As mentioned before. 6000. CCNA . 21-01-10 : by default a switch supports 255 VLANs but only 5 of them are usable in which VLAN 1is for user by default and the rest are for administrative functions. Mac addresses of all hosts connected to a switch is resolved by a protocol named “Address Resolution Protocol (ARP)” from IP addresses sent to switch in reply to switch’s broadcast then saved on Mac table in switch. which are limited networks. The mechanism used in switch for switching services is called “ASICs (A6)” to build their filter table inside switch’s processor. and second is Less point of L3 3550. L2 & L3 2950. L2 switches has no routing capability but L3 switches provides routing capabilities due to having SUP (Supervisor Engine) beside A6 mechanism.19 - . addresses. an option is introduced called VLAN (Virtual LAN) and its process is called “virtual local area networking”. $% This device is used with small networks. during which a data frame is inside a switch is called “Latency” so less latency switch is considered the best. so in order to break a single broadcast into multiple broadcasts. For such networks the area range is not considered but signal range depending on media used for a network as in the following table: Connectivity Range (meter) Speed (mbps) Communication type Cable type Remember that a half duplex communication Ethernet 10 10 Half duplex Cat-5 can never facilitate you Fast Ethernet 100 100 Full duplex Cat-6e as a full duplex Gigabit 1000 1000 Full duplex Cat-6u communication. The main difference between routing and switching is that. called local area networks (LAN) relating one organization. The number of VLANs depends on switch’s IOS as well. ASA = is a name for “firewall” device.

$ -( Starting with some of the VTP status: 1. There are two types of connectivity between switches the first one is Access (on access connectivity only one VLAN’s data travels) the second one is Trunk that any VLAN’s data travels on it. Fa0/24 Gig1/1. . Fa0/4 Fa0/5. domain name is automatically sent to other switches but database exchange occurs when same VTP password is set on any client mode switch. Fa0/2. CCNA . VTP version: VTP has got two versions (1 & 2). VTP mode always overrides VTP revision number for example a server switch’s database is always copied on client though client switch’s revision number is being higher then server switch’s revision number. VTP password is also recommended to be same for all switches. VTP domain: it is strongly recommended that a domain name must be given for server switch then the same domain name is transferred to other client switches so domain name must be same for all switches otherwise no database exchange will take place. Fa0/23. Fa0/22. Server mode: the switch with high revision number should be configured as server and VLANs are always created on server. no database is copied on transparent mode switch.20 - . Fa0/20 Fa0/21. Configuration: A(config)#vlan 2 Two create 2nd VLAN. Gig1/2 2 sales active 1002 fddi-default active 1003 token-ring-default active 1004 fddinet-default active 1005 trnet-default active 22-01-10 . 2. but remember that one port can be defined only for one VLAN. Fa0/8 Fa0/9. Fa0/16 Fa0/17. Fa0/15. VTP modes: switches are configured on three modes for VTP as: a. Fa0/14. for example the switch with high revision number overrides a switch with lower revision number means while database exchange always high revision number’s switch overwrites its database on lower revision number’s switch. but on switch version 1 runs by default and its 2nd version has got its maximum support as (token ring…). because its data is copied on clients. Fa0/19. Fa0/18.# . A(config-vlan)#exit Get the VLAN mode. in real time devices it takes 300 Seconds to exchange the database. Fa0/3. A(config-vlan)#name sales Assign name for VLAN. VTP revision number: higher revision number is preferred for dominance. Transparent mode: a switch with transparent mode is used only as a bridge between a server mode switch and client mode in order to transfer the database from server switch to client switch. VLAN Name Status Ports 1 default active Fa0/1. When VLANs are defined on a switch then a VLAN databasexxix or record is created then the mentioned database is exchanged between switches based on some rules called “VLAN Trunking Protocol (VTP)” via trunking. A short definition for VLAN can be (All local area networks in a box).& ). Fa0/7. 4. Fa0/11. Client mode: the switch wanted to get the database from any server mode switch then its mode is changed into client. Fa0/10. Fa0/12 Fa0/13. 5. c. A#sh vlan br Check VLANs. VTP password: same as domain name. b. 3.you define them for other VLANs then broadcast domain is broken not before. Fa0/6. xxix If any change occurs in VLAN database.

Domain name.0.0. Password) are specified for server switch and on client only (Mode & password) is configured as here on (A & B) switches: A(config)#vtp mode server Device mode already VTP SERVER A(config)#vtp domain YAMA Changing VTP domain name from NULL to YAMA A(config)#vtp password 123 Setting device VLAN database password to 123 A(config)#^Z A#show vtp status VTP Version :2 Configuration Revision :0 Maximum VLANs supported locally : 255 Number of existing VLANs :5 VTP Operating Mode : Server VTP Domain Name : YAMA VTP Pruning Mode : Disabled VTP V2 Mode : Disabled VTP Traps Generation : Disabled MD5 digest: 0x22 0x2C 0x06 0xB3 0x41 0x70 0x10 0 Configuration last modified by 0. 2.0 (no valid interface found) B(config)#vtp mode client Setting device to VTP CLIENT mode. Trunking is implemented manually. and after implementing manual Trunking this packets are not stopped and they are useless for network but dangerous due to hackers. so they must be stop manually while manual Trunking. CCNA .#xxx: there are two types of Trunking as DTP & manual: 1. If a manual Trunking is changed back to DTP these packets transmission starts automatically.0. Manual Trunking: manual Trunking is same as static routing that all paths were defined for routers and here on both ends. Trunking via DTP (Dynamic Trunking Protocol): in dynamic Trunking protocol two connected ports get different status as “Auto” that is looking for any other port to communicate to but the other end is “Desirable” that is waiting for any “auto” port to communicate with.0. as mentioned before by default DTP starts and it send DTP packets. Configurations: 1. VTP configuration: for configuring VTP (Mode. communication starts between a pair of “auto & desirable” ports.)$ .21 - . Once DTP is implemented on both sides then they start sending only link updates to each other called DTP packets and the first packet is always initiated from Auto mode interface. B(config)#vtp password 123 Setting device VLAN database password to 123 B(config)#^Z B#show vtp status VTP Version :2 Configuration Revision :0 Maximum VLANs supported locally : 255 Number of existing VLANs :5 VTP Operating Mode : Client VTP Domain Name : YAMA VTP Pruning Mode : Disabled xxx The trunked port is not shown in any VLAN so it is check by (show interface f0/1 switchport) command.0 at 0-0-00 00:00:00 Local updater ID is 0. as media is connected between two switches then a DTP starts by default but can’t provide communication because at that time both ends are set in auto mode and autoto-auto communication is not possible.

but not to forget that stopping hackers is necessary (stop DTP packets exchange) because they are of no use any more so using the (switchport nonegotiate) as following: A(config)#interface f0/1 B(config)#interface f0/1 A(config-if)#shutdown B(config-if)#shutdown A(config-if)#switchport mode trunk B(config-if)#switchport mode trunk A(config-if)#switchport nonegotiate B(config-if)#switchport nonegotiate A(config-if)#no shutdown B(config-if)#no shutdown A(config-if)#exit B(config-if)#exit A#show interfaces f0/1 switchport B#show int f0/1 switchport Name: Fa0/1 Name: Fa0/1 Switchport: Enabled Switchport: Enabled Administrative Mode: trunk Administrative Mode: trunk Operational Mode: trunk Operational Mode: trunk CCNA . 2. Trunking via DTP: Trunking is always configured in interface mode. Trunking manually: in manual Trunking no mode is defined for interface. A(config-if)#switchport mode dynamic auto Allow DTP auto port. The best practice is that first configure Trunking then VTP configuration.VTP V2 Mode : Disabled VTP Traps Generation : Disabled MD5 digest: 0x22 0x2C 0x06 0xB3 0x41 0x70 0x10 0 Configuration last modified by 0.0. Allow DTP desirable port. always shut the interface then configure Trunking. A(config-if)#no shutdown Up the interface back.22 - . B(config-if)#shutdown Turn it down. Name: Fa0/1 Switchport: Enabled Administrative Mode: dynamic desirable Operational Mode: trunk 3.0 at 0-0-00 00:00:00 As you see that domain name is automatically copied to client but after Trunking. B(config-if)#exit B#show interfaces f0/1 switchport Check the Trunked switch.0. B(config-if)#switchport mode dynamic desirable B(config-if)#no shutdown Up the interface back. on which connected to other switch and in DTP it is must to define the interface mode whether “auto or desirable” as following: A(config)#int f0/1 Move to interface. A(config-if)#shutdown Turn it down. A(config-if)#exit A#show interfaces f0/1 switchport Check the Trunked switch. Name: Fa0/1 Switchport: Enabled Administrative Mode: dynamic auto Operational Mode: trunk B(config)#int f0/1 Move to interface.

This election is not stable and can be changed by lowering the priority of any switch than RB others so it becomes the RB of network. and the cost for between switches’ connectivity is always lower then a broadcast domain’s cost. there is a protocol running on every switch. xxxi STP is an automatic protocol so it’s not manually needed to block or unblock any port. Non-Root Port (NRP): those ports blocked by STP. called STP that blocks some links automatically.. exist in all NRPs. which is elected based switch’s “lowest priority” or in case of equal priorities “highest MAC address” is accepted. Designated Port (DP): ports sending BPDU. it takes 52 seconds while upping the ports in which ports gets following states as: for the first 20 seconds its two states are Blocking (Receiving BPDU) and Learning (Send and Receive BPDU). in figure 1: it’s seen that there is a 2nd link as a backup so when the data enters a switch from any of primary or backup link then it gets lower cost than broadcast domain at other backup or primary link then it goes back to its previous switch repeating this action ends with loop occurrence.23 - . BPDU (Bridge Protocol Data Unit) is the name of update packets in switching. at 52nd second the port is upped and its color turns green from umber color. then 15 seconds is for third state called Listening (Creating MAC table). 3. observing the upper examples. 2. 1. the last (1-16) seconds is for forth state called Forwarding (forwarding frames). STP is an automatic protocol used for loop avoidance.& !. CCNA .# . in STP there are two statuses for switches as 1st one is called “Root Bridge (RB)”. it does all automatically. Or in figure 2: when data enters any switch then it gets lower cost at second port instead of switch’s broadcast domain finally data follows a circle ending with loop occurrence. After connecting cable to switches. STP provides some roles for ports as well. and can’t receive BPDU. In the first condition. if the primary link is down the backup link automatically ups as a primary and NRP is changed to RP with the help of automatic protocol of STP. $ -(xxxi As it clear that data always follows the lower cost (high bandwidth). In RB all of its ports become DP but in NRB a DP ports is elected based on higher priority.23-01-10 . is the captain for a network. the DP ports on a RP sends the best BPDU but DP ports on other switches can’t send best one but only BPDU and finally NRP is used by STP for blocking any port to avoid loops. For avoiding these loops. Root Port (RP): ports receiving BPDU/best BPDU. and the remaining switches joined that network comes in 2nd status called “Non-Root Bridge (NRB)”. . and in a Root Bridge all ports are DP and send best BPDU.

also considered as a high point of failure due to multiple boxes used.1 255.0 A(config-if)#no shut A(config-subif)#no shut A(config-if)#vlan 10 A(config-subif)#exit A(config-vlan)#exit A(config)#int f0/0.0. as observed in the model below.0.0 A(config)#int f0/10 A(config-subif)#no shut A(config-if)#switchport access vlan 10 A(config-subif)#exit A(config-if)#exit A(config)#int f0/0 A(config)#int f0/20 A(config-if)#no shut A(config-if)#switchport access vlan 20 A(config-if)#exit On any PC run (Tracert destination IP) command to troubleshoot any path failure problem. Switch: B(config)#int f0/10 B(config-if)#switchportxxxii B(config-if)#switchport access vlan 10 % Access VLAN does not exist. CCNA . A(config-if)#exit Switch: A(config)#int f0/1 Router: A(config-if)#shut A(config)#int f0/0. all in existence on a L-3 switch. encapsulated to (dot1Q). that’s why it is called a multilayer switch too (it provides both switching for “Physical layer” & routing for “Network layer”).24 - .0. and considered with less point of failure due to using only one box replacing router and switch both. by creating multiple logical ports in a router’s physical port for each VLAN.25-01-10 . If a VLAN doesn’t exist and you assign any port to it then that VLAN is created automatically. In this case only Layer-3 switch is used. Moving to configuration. In this case an alone L-3 switch provides both Multilayer switching and interVLAN routing.10 A(config-if)#switchport mode trunk A(config-subif)#encapsulation dot1Q 10 A(config-if)#switchport nonegotiate A(config-subif)#ip add 10.0. ) . only switch helps us for both routing and switching.#( This scenario is the outcome of previous one inside a single box.20 A(config)#vlan 20 A(config-subif)#encapsulation dot1Q 20 A(config-vlan)#exit A(config-subif)#ip add 20.0. Forwarding with configuration: as seen Switch is connected to router by (F0/1) trunk link. In this case a switch depends on a fast Ethernet port from router.0. because in this case only Layer-2 switch is used. 26-01-10 & )- -! $% .0. VLANs are defined with their specific IP address and ports.#: this is an old scenario used to provide communication between VLANs in a switch but using a router port via trunk connection.1 255. Creating vlan 10xxxiii B(config-if)#exit B(config)#int f0/20 B(config-if)#switchport xxxii xxxiii This command forces any Port to work as a switch’s port not for routing.0. used for same purpose as to provide communication for VLANs in a switch with the help of a layer-3 switch only.

0.0 B(config-if)#exit At a time some commands can be applied on two or more ports but by selecting them as a range.0. CCNA .25 - .1 255.0 B(config-if)#exit B(config)#int vlan 20 B(config-if)#ip add 20. in this command for configuring two interfaces of fast Ethernet: (int range f0/1-2) The difference between Juniper’s PIX firewall and Cisco’s ASA firewalls is that PIX is used before defense line router because it doesn’t support WAN connections but ASA is used after last router on exact defense line because of having support for WAN connections. xxxiv In this case IP is assigned to VLANs not to ports.0.0.0.0.B(config-if)#switchport access vlan 20 % Access VLAN does not exist. Creating vlan 20 B(config-if)#exit B(config)#int vlan 10 B(config-if)xxxiv#ip add 10.1 255.0.0.

Internal parameters: the security state depending on internal routers also called additional security that is implemented on various parts of a network according to administration choice and mostly implemented through Access Control List (ACL). ! $ .50. deleted … etc. Named ACL: this type can be any standard or extended ACL but the only difference is the name given to them.0) network except the host with (200.100.100. Standard ACL: this type is implemented at network’s own side router or end terminal to control outbound (Outgoing) traffic. based on packet IP for forwarding purpose. some examples below: 1. 2.50. so after running any type of routing then we see the mentioned network is connected to the (A) router so we implement an ACL on the same router to be a standard one as: A(config)#access-list 1 permit host 200. External parameters: depending on firewalls or routers at the defense line of a network. a standard ACL is configured to stop outbound traffic for all hosts in (200.2 (4 match(es)) deny any (4 match(es)) The access-list number range (0-99) shows Standard ACL and the range of (100-199) shows an extended ACL.100. - & ( ACL is used for securing the inside portion of an internetwork by categorizing packets.6 #) ! . On serial interface the command (Out) is given due to standard ACL for outbound traffic. 28-01-10 !. 4. to stop unwanted traffic across the network. Note: remember that (out) command can be given on Fast Ethernet interface also more useful and best unless there are VLANs defined for that port because it causes blocking interVLAN communication.50. IP sniffing and spoofing attack: revealing any IP address that later on. it can be changed.27-01-10 8 A network’s security is considered in two parameters as following: 1. which helps to control network traffic by user privilege or by analyzing packet traffics. Security is implemented on a network for avoiding some threats that’s to be denied.100.2) IP address. $$ . 6.26 - . ACL has got three types as following: 1. a copy of any packet is received by hacker. 3. 2. Packet sniffing: mostly happens in telecommunication. Trojan horse attack: this attacks a network to maintain connection with any network outside. Denial of services (DoS): it checks packet headers and drops to find any suspected packet.50. 3. Password attacks: discovering user passwords. Observing the following diagram. 5. Distributed denial of services (DdoS): all running services are stopped on a network. CCNA . Extended ACL: the type configured on other end router to control inbound (incoming) traffic from other routers.2 A(config)#access-list 1 deny any A(config)#int s0/0 A(config-if)#ip access-group 1 out A(config-if)#exit A#show ip access-lists Standard IP access list 1 permit host 200. 2.

100.0.3) IP address. not from the whole router.255 B(config-ext-nacl)#deny ip any any B(config-ext-nacl)#exit B(config)#int s0/1 B(config-if)#ip access-group SALES in B(config-if)#exit B#show access-lists Extended IP access list SALES permit ip host 200. Observing the coming diagram.6 #) ! . then you must run (in) command only on (B) router’s fast Ethernet port.3 200.100. ! $ .100.100.0.0. $ .100.50. As mentioned before.0) network excluding the host with (200.100. so after running any type of routing then observing that the destination network (200. Correlated to the diagrams before a standard ACL for (Admins) and an extended ACL (Sales) in named ACL commands goes as following: A(config)#ip access-list standard ADMINS A(config-std-nacl)#permit host 200.3 200.100.2 deny any B(config)#ip access-list extended SALES B(config-ext-nacl)#permit ip host 200.100. important to mention that an extended ACL is recognized by its value in a range of (100-199).0.50. as: B(config)#access-list 101 permit ip host 200.100.3 200.255 deny ip any any CCNA .3 200.50.100.0.0 0.255 deny ip any any Here it is observed that ACL number is (101) being the extended one.100.100.50. an extended ACL is configured this time stopping inbound traffic to (200.100.100.50.100.100. If you want to deny traffic only from (200.0 0. a named access-list can be either standard or extended.100.0 0.50.50.100.0 0. and interface command is changed to (in) to filter only inbound traffic.2 A(config-std-nacl)#deny any A(config-std-nacl)#exit A(config)#int s0/0 A(config-if)#ip access-group ADMINS out A(config-if)#exit A#show access-lists Standard IP access list ADMINS permit host 200.0.0.100.27 - .100.255 B(config)#access-list 101 deny ip any any S0/1 B(config)#int s0/1 B(config-if)#ip access-group 101 in B(config-if)#exit B#show ip access-lists Extended IP access list 101 permit ip host 200.29-01-10 9 .50.0) connected to router (A).100.50.6 #) ! .100.0) network “Wildcard is must” from all hosts in (200.0) network.100.0.0) is connected to (B) router so the ACL is implemented on the same router (maybe via telnet connection) to be a extended one for the network (200. depending on the condition a standard named ACL or an extended one can be implemented.

0.# ! $ NAT statically by defining Public IP and Private IP.0.30-01-10 2 (Network Address Translation) Natting is used for translating one logical address to another logical address.0.0. one private IP is mapped to only one public IP statically.0.0.0. There are three types of natting as: 1. it is too difficult to get a public IP due to its high prices.0. needed while multiple gateways are connected to a router and needs WAN communication.0.0.1 with 32 bytes of data: Reply from 1. Maximum = 110ms.0 to 172.255.1). Dynamic natting: in this case a network of Public IP addresses is defined on router.0.168. which is not mapped to any other gateway. Approximate round trip times in milli-seconds: Approximate round trip times in milli-seconds: Minimum = 79ms.1: bytes=32 time=110ms TTL=254 Reply from 10.1: bytes=32 time=62ms TTL=255 Ping statistics for 10.0 to 10.0.0.1) is mapped to a public IP (1.0.0. 2.16.0. Received = 4.1 Pinging 10. Lost = 0 (0% loss).0.0.0.0.255. they use private IP addresses on WAN and public IP inside.0.0. Now the problem is that for every host on a network.1: bytes=32 time=93ms TTL=254 Reply from 10. Static natting: in static natting.255. means that packet sent on WAN possesses the Public IP but in reply to internal region shown in 2nd column.0.0 to 192. 3.1 1. they use the public IP (1.0.0.1 with 32 bytes of data: Pinging 10.0.1: bytes=32 time=94ms TTL=254 Reply from 10.0. Packets: Sent = 4. Average = 94ms 62ms Comparing both results: it is observed that the reply to WAN region from border router is from (1.0.0. 2. Maximum = 63ms.255.0.255/ B: 172. a network needs some public IP addresses purchased.0. packet uses the IP assigned to the interface that means packet is using its private IP inside network. natting provides facility to save money or in other words it can be defined as “Translating Public IP to Private and its reverse is called natting”. now the question arises that what is the need to translate an existing IP address as well as again to an IP address? The best answer it goes for can be: that for a network the IP addressing is used from private address in each class of IP wherein (A: 10.1: bytes=32 time=79ms TTL=254 Reply from 10. Average = Minimum = 62ms.6 #) .31.0.0.1 PC1>ping 10. configured by changing some parameters as: .0.1: bytes=32 time=62ms TTL=255 Reply from 1. Lost = 0 (0% loss).0. used while mapping any gateway of a network to a single public IP purchased.1: Ping statistics for 10.0.0.28 CCNA . but by using a single public IP for a complete network.0. through “overloading” all gateways can be mapped to one and single Public IP address instead of one for each.1) inside self network but while going on WAN. the network is unable to communicate through private IP addresses so for WAN communication.1) as the result below got by pinging border interface from both regions: WAN-PC>ping 10.0. This time data packets work opposing the first condition.0.1) but it can be mapped with two conditions: 1. Overloading “Port Address Translation (PAT)”: its need is felt when again one wants to save public IP addresses for multiple gateways connected to a router. finally all gateways connected gets their public IP to communicate WAN.1: bytes=32 time=62ms TTL=255 Reply from 1.0.1 A(config)#int s0/0 A(config-if)#ip nat outside A(config-if)#exit A(config)#int f0/0 A(config-if)#ip nat inside A(config-if)#exit In this condition packets use its private IP (10.255/ C: 192. Received = 4.0.1: bytes=32 time=63ms TTL=255 Reply from 1.168. when each gateway communicates to WAN from the group of Public IP present on router.0. Data packets should own private IP coming inside the network and Public IP when sent to WAN: A(config)#ip nat inside source static 10.255) but while communicating with WAN.1: Packets: Sent = 4.0.0. as in following example the port (Serial0/0) is connected to WAN so its private IP (10. . one is dynamically mapped to that gateway.0.

3 1.0.0.2:6 Icmp 1.2:5 192.3.5): A(config)#ip nat pool YAMA 1.0 0.2:5 192.168.2:6 192.4.0.2. 2.168.168.0.0. Inside local: The IP used by packet inside a network is called inside local IP addresses.4.168. mostly those private IP addresses used on LANs connected to its corporate router. (Private IP used A(config-if)#exit for WAN and Public IP inside network). not before that.5 netmask 255.0.168.3:4 192.168. Dynamic NAT is configured mostly at border router for LAN gateways.0.0) network.4. so the network assigned on serial connectivity toward WAN (router to WAN) must be any Public IP address.2:5 Icmp 1. All theses states of IP address are checked by running the command (show IP NAT translations): A#show ip nat translations Pro Inside global Inside local Outside local Outside global Icmp 1.255 A(config)#ip nat inside source list 1 pool YAMA A(config)#int s0/0 A(config-if)#ip nat outside A(config-if)#exit A(config)#int f0/0 A(config-if)#ip nat inside A(config-if)#exit A(config)#int f0/1 A(config-if)#ip nat inside A(config-if)#exit A(config)#int f1/0 A(config-if)#ip nat inside A(config-if)#exit In dynamic NAT and overloading translation occurs after a packet sent. Outside global: The destination IP address for outbound packets is called outside global IP addresses.0.# .5:1 192.2. 01-02-10 .4.6 #) . which is a public network.2:6 192. Outside local: Those IP addresses that are the IP on the WAN to communicate to.4.0.0.248 A(config)#access-list 1 permit 192.0.0.255. 4.0.A(config)#ip nat inside source static 10.168.2:1 192.2:4 192.3-1.2:1 192.0.3:1 192. Public IP addresses for mapping lower networks’ gateways to.168.5:6 192.168.2:1 192.2:1 Icmp 1. 2.2:4 192.4.168.0.168.0.4. is a pool of IP addresses from the public network assigned on serial interface toward WAN.168.2:4 Icmp 1.0.255. 3.168.2:1 192.4:5 192. Following such points let’s check an example diagram below: interface serial 0/0 is connected to (1.0.0.0.4. is taken from the network on a network’s WAN connectivity.2:1 CCNA .! $ The important points to remember in dynamic NAT are: 1.1. Inside Global: The IP used by a packet moving on the WAN. (1.1 1.168.0.3.0.0. mostly the public IP addresses mapped for gateways.1 A(config)#int s0/0 A(config-if)#ip nat inside A(config-if)#exit A(config)#int f0/0 This time the results for WAN side and network side replace each A(config-if)#ip nat outside other due to packet’s IP holding decision change. After IP translation all IP addresses are classified according to their different states as: 1. are called inside global IP address for a network.29 - .4.4.0.168.0. The pool of public IP addresses that we want to map LANs’ gateways to.168.1.0.

2.168.2:1027 A#show ip nat statistics Total translations: 0 (0 static.6 #) .2:19 1. and later in NAT statistics table that “Overloading” also follows a translation expiry.2:16 1.2:16 192.# In “Overloading” IP addresses are saved but more important is money saved.To get information about the NAT pool.# + .2:1 192.4.168. depending on the routing protocol’s update timer duration.4.1 netmask 255.2:1 192.0.168.3.0.4. 0 extended) Outside Interfaces: Serial0/0 Inside Interfaces: FastEthernet0/0 .2:1024 1.255.! .1.0.2:19 192.0.0.0 0.168.2:4 192.168.0.255 A(config)#ip nat inside source list 1 pool YAMA overload A(config)#int s0/0 A(config-if)#ip nat outside A(config)#int f0/0 A(config-if)#ip nat inside A(config)#int f0/1 A(config-if)#ip nat inside A(config)#int f1/0 A(config-if)#ip nat inside Now let’s take a glance on NAT translations’ table: that shows.3 end 1.168.30 - .168.0. 0 extended) Outside Interfaces: Serial0/0 Inside Interfaces: FastEthernet0/0 . misses 0 On the fifth line of this result (Expired translations) value is seen.0.0.2:13 192.0.0.4.168.3.255.0.2:4 192.168. total addresses 3 .5 type generic.4.2:1026 1.4.1:16 192.4. by getting only one public IP address from network’s WAN connected network and map the entire network’s LANs to that only IP address as in this example: A(config)#ip nat pool YAMA 1.0.4. all Private IP addresses on LAN gateways are translated to the only Public IP address that is chosen form the public network on which WAN connection is running.0.168.3. then run this command (show IP NAT statistics): A#show ip nat statistics Total translations: 0 (0 static. FastEthernet1/0 Hits: 0 Misses: 3 Expired translations: 6 Dynamic mappings: Inside Source access-list 1 pool YAMA refCount 0 pool YAMA: netmask 255.4.1:1027 192.2:13 192.255. This happens in dynamic and overloading only but not in static NAT.168.2:19 192.168.2:16 192.168.4.2:13 1.1:13 192. FastEthernet0/1 .168.0.1:19 192. depending on the routing protocol’s update timer same as checked in dynamic NAT statistics table: A#show ip nat translations Inside global Inside local Outside local Outside global 1.0.0.252 A(config)#access-list 1 permit 192. 0 dynamic. allocated 0 (0%).2:3 192.2:3 192.0. FastEthernet1/0 Hits: 0 Misses: 3 CCNA .4.0.0. 0 dynamic.1:1026 192. this is the time that the translations is expired after a time interval. FastEthernet0/1 .1:1024 192.255.3.168.168.248 start 1.168.168.4.0.168.1 1. 02-02-10 .0.3.

misses 0 CCNA . total addresses 1 .Expired translations: 6 Dynamic mappings: Inside Source access-list 1 pool YAMA refCount 0 pool YAMA: netmask 255.0.0.0.1 type generic.255.1 end 1. allocated 0 (0%).255.31 - .0.252 start 1.

while using a Cisco router it is defined as here but if any other router is used.255.255. the type of connectivity that doesn’t use any routing protocol. used as a leasedxxxv line connectivity. 2. The technology used by Frame relay is called (X. Select frame-relay and select the pair of interfaces to communicate and click “Add”. Frame relay is cost factor means that it is economic as compared to (PPP). never use DCE connector toward network’s router serial port but on frame relay cloud so when no DCE.25). Incase of using any serial cable connection to frame relay provider. but if a direct connectivity between any two network devices exists that is called “dedicated line”.0.0. and q933a).0.0 B(config-if)#encapsulation frame-relay B(config-if)#frame-relay interface-dlci 202 B(config-if)#frame-relay lmi-type cisco B(config-if)#no shutdown B(config-if)#exit The “DLCI” number is not same for both ends because this digit is translated to an IP address for path direction using Inverse ARP on frame-relay device. Frame relay has got two main configuration factors as DLCI (Data Link Connection Identifier) and LMI (Local Management Interfaces) called interface negotiation. CCNA . The “LMI-type” is must to be defined. xxxv Using any main connectivity for connecting different network devices is called “leased line” as TV’s main cable connection. Select the connected interface and edit for DLCI number same as opposite router’s serial interface for both end routers and a name with DLCI number and add them to list.2 255.32 - .03-02-10 8 The frame relay device can be a WAN switch or a router.0 A(config-if)#encapsulation frame-relay A(config-if)#frame-relay interface-dlci 101 A(config-if)#frame-relay lmi-type cisco A(config-if)#no shutdown A(config-if)#exit B(config)#interface serial 0/0 B(config-if)#ip address 10. provides a multi-access network with no broadcasting. Cisco. Now let’s check a simple example of frame-relayed network: A(config)#interface serial 0/0 A(config-if)#ip address 10.0. which is must to be configured just after encapsulation on serial interface connected to any frame relay cloud. The network used remains the same for both routers in order to provide connectivity but no clock rate because of DTE use on end routers.1 255. Using no protocol on frame-relay leads to high bandwidth providence with high speed included. get information about its compatibility and define it for framerelay as these types (Ansi.255.255. Its encapsulation type is called (frame-relay). no clock rate is used. Now let’s check for some cloud configuration to provide connectivity: 1.

CCNA .33 - .

Point to be noted is that. holding load 4. (Nonvolatile RAM): this memory holds all startup configurations with the configuration register. processes and initializes the interface checkup. (Read Only Memory): it contains Boot strap. Mini IOS. :) . 2. 2. " 1. 3. : located in ROM to monitor the ROM with test and troubleshoot it. it is collaborate of 2 protions: 6 ! . Configuration register is a device’s all initial steps before Console mode interface called startup sequence. 2. also responsible to take startup configuration from flash to NVRAM.04-02-10 . But most important is that never be in hurry to write them. which is changed while IOS update and checked by (show version) command. first make sure that all running-configurations works acceptably perfect then decide to write them for startup. ! 1.34 - . 3. (Random Access Memory): this device holds all running-configurations. " ! : this software is located in ROM. 2. (Power On Self Test): is also located in ROM responsible for checking the basic functionality of devices and checks the basic interfaces’ performance. POST. . it contains IOS using EEPROM (Electronically Erasable Programmable Read Only Memory) technology. ROM monitor POST 5. and maintenance operation. -! %: this memory space differs for different devices. . which is responsible for booting the device and load IOS. . : this is a small operating system which is basically a boot loader. Cisco devices use Intel flashes for this memory. it has got two types of configurations as following: 1. in number at last line as (Configuration register is 0x2102). ROM monitor for providing device checking. ! . Running configuration: all the changes made later after configuring the devices for network needs. making them up. Checking the devices configuration. RAM also holds IOS but only while it is expanded. NVRAM Mini IOS CCNA . 3. 4. as in routers the routing table and switches put their ARP cache (MAC table) in RAM. 1. Startup configuration: all those default configuration that loads with IOS on device upping time. there is no relation between IOS and running configurations.$ : these components work in turn to up the device in the following sequence: Boot strap 4. Always remember that running configuration can became startup configuration by writing them on memory using these commands in privilege mode (copy running-config startup-config or wr). and performs the maintenance operation. For Cisco Router/Switch devices.

Site-to-site VPN: this time a dual transmission occurs between corporate network and its client users. 4. having the support for (Virtual point to point link) also proved by IETF (Internet Engineering Task Force) and uses with non-Cisco devices too. ESP (Encapsulating Security Payload): this protocol is mostly used with IP Sec. The site-to-site VPN is specifically called GRE tunnel. 2. xxxvi Intranet: respected to internet our inside network is called intranet. ( VPN. but nowadays its usage has expired. replacing both of them. 3. it accommodates further protocols inside and widely used. GRE (Generic Routing Encapsulation) tunnel: its proprietary is owned by Cisco. 2. and its configuration is only by creating a tunnel linked end to end using tunneling protocols. and VPN follows its own protocols. that tunnel’s bandwidth is for the network’s requirement but virtually. 2. VPN is configured in the following two ways: 1. In short VPN is the use of public medium for private data transmission purpose. can be configured through both CLI (Command Line Interface) & SDM (Security Device manager). & .35 - . This connectivity is provided using “Internet” utility by creating a tunnel on internet. Second ways is called IP Sec (Internet Protocol Security). $ - VPN uses the following four protocols: 1. Remote access VPN: this connectivity is used when a corporate network doesn’t need access to its remote user so only remote user can access its corporate network (One way transmission). it is a secure one due to providing authentication and encryption services and mostly it functions in network layer (Layer three). Point to Point tunneling protocol (PPTP): this is Microsoft proprietary used for remote access VPN. The first way is to configure it by tunnel but this manner is not secured because of not having security policies. The remote user/users are also called (co-location) related to network that can be called (Disjointed network). 3. A network’s data can be private on Internet. CCNA . L2F (Layer two forwarding protocol): this is a Cisco proprietary used for VPDN (Virtual Private Dialup network). . Extranetxxxvi VPN: when a network depends on out of its network as GPS (Global Positioning System). . Authentication header (AH) 6. L2TP (Layer two tunneling protocol): this is also a Cisco proprietary that contains the features from both L2F and PPTP. mostly used in business also called business to business (b2b) VPN. While using a secure VPN then further following two protocols are used: 5.06-02-10 . which is used to provide communication for a remote user or client to its corporate network. VPN has got four following types: 1.

2.08-02-10 & xxxvii ( This terminology is used for local area networks.2. 3. . Mode: mode must be defined for a switch to provide better communication. IP assignment can take place via DHCP or statically to users on LAN. Repeater mode: each access point has got a range circle of signals that maximum range is 54 meters.4 GHz.6 #) ! . 2. bandwidth provided = 54mpbs 3. It is based on radio waves. Name: or user name is must for wireless network and its access points 3. 5. 802. this is the name of a technique used by this standard for spreading its signals. Configuration can take place via different paths as (Internet. 802. 2. 3. Channel: it is only necessary when a switch is used in bridge mode. c. so “80” is taken from year and “2” from month = “802”. and hospitals etc. used while expanding a network for more hosts. ! All network communications run on a specific standardxxxviii defined by IEEE as followings for WiFi: 1. Wireless technology is used in hotels. 802xxxix. 2. Some items to be configured for a wireless network to start: 1. The standard for Ethernet LAN switching is (802. AP mode: this mode is configured to a wireless switch when the switch works for one LAN (up to 50 client) to provide communication. (Bluetooth connectivity uses a technology named “FHSS (Frequency Hopping Sequence Spectrum)”. mostly in Cisco and Motorola devices. Console. Bridge mode: while joining two access points that are running for different networks.11b: working at 2. then an access point is used between them with bridge mode to join them if their standards are different as well. Star etc topologies are also supported with WiFi. b. 4. WiMesh: same as Mesh topology in wired network. Feb). both (a. then another access point is joined to AP but in client mode “CPE”. Offices. and 802. simply we can say “it is a same devices communication” because both network’s access points must be in AP mode. xxxviii CCNA . (DSSS (Direct Sequence Spread Spectrum)). bandwidth provided = 11mbps. AP mode: as mentioned before.11g: working at 2. Telnet) mostly used manner is via internet. and communication starts when two access points’ range circles overlap each other. ADHOC: this is the name for the topology that is arranged while joining two access points of different networks with the help of another access point between them with bridge mode. Cafes. Some specifications in wireless LAN: In wireless network. WDS: this is used with access points possessing Bridge/Repeater modes.4 GHz.11b: working at 5 GHz.# 1. but if any two access points of same network (AP communicated with CPE) are much far from each other as their range circles can’t overlap then another switch is used between them in repeater mode to create another range to overlap both ends and provide communication. its switches behave in different modes as following: 1. !. its switch is configured same as a wired network switch but with some mini differences. xxxix This digit is taken from its introduction date as (1980.5). IP address: IP must be assigned to network’s access points and hosts. providing 54mbps of bandwidth. Infrastructure: in this topology an access point is defined in any of the following modes: a. for example in wired network a switch is upped just at connecting the cable but a wireless switch port is upped after some configurations. xxxvii In wireless technology a “Switch” is called an “Access point”. for working as a server for a LAN. 802. CPE: it is the client mode for an access point. 4. .36 - . Bus.3. b) standards use “OFDM (Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplexing)” for their signal spreading. SSID: this is an ID assigned for a wireless switch for identification or security purpose.

it assigns IP for hosts).37 - . (If access point is set in DHCP mode then after upping.Remember that bridge mode is always used between different network access point between two AP mode access points while repeater mode is used only to provide signal range for two access points of same network between an AP and CPE switch. CCNA .

bin.0.122-28.bin]? %Warning:There is a file already existing with this name Asking for overwrite.. Loading c2600-i-mz.2 This is NMS server’s IP.5571584 bytes] 5571584 bytes copied in 3.0. IOS can be downloaded from Internet for any type of router but it is recommended that when first time a router is made up for a network its IOS should be copied and saved on the NMS server so that afterward in case of any problem or IOS need it will be convenient for organization. Address or name of remote host []? 1.122-28.! Using these commands the saved IOS on a TFTP server is loaded back on a router: A#copy TFTP: flash: Loads IOS from server. Second requirement is any software installed on the NMS server to fulfill this action as (Pumpkin. !!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!! Shows copying process [OK . then don’t erase IOS because incase of power failure during IOS reloading the router will move to ROM mode.. is “cross-over cable”. CCNA . Erase flash: before copying? [confirm] It erases the existing IOSi in flash.0..122-28. Erase of flash: completeAccessing tftp://1..bin from 1.bin.bin Same file name. Source filename []? c2600-i-mz. Source filename []? c2600-i-mz. Destination filename [c2600-i-mz. 2. Do you want to over write? [confirm] Accessing tftp://1.0.0. maybe directly or behind a switch but if it is connected directly then the media used for it. If a PC is to configure a device (Router/Switch) but has no RS232 port.484 secs (1599000 bytes/sec) .bin]? Just press ENTER.0. & TFTP) for downloading and uploading IOS on a router.122-28.0.0. After assigning IP addresses for both router interface and NMS server use these commands to copy IOS from router’s flash to TFTP server (defined via its IP address): A#copy flash: TFTP: Copies IOS from flash...2: !!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!! [OK .2/c2600-i-mz.122-28..122-28.. eeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeee .0.377 secs (378032 bytes/sec) : 1. Destination filename [c2600-i-mz.09-02-10 2 For coping and reloading IOS from/to a router the first requirement is that a route must be connected to an NMS server. press ENTER.0. Address or name of remote host []? 1. Erasing the flash filesystem will remove all files! Continue? [confirm] Erasing device.erased This is the sign of erasing.2/c2600-i-mz.bin File name is copied from versions. then the solution is using a “Roll-over” cable connecting device’s console port to PC’s LAN card to provide connectivity via console.5571584 bytes] 5571584 bytes copied in 3.38 - . To erase startup-configuration then at user privilege mode use the command (write erase ) THE END i If a router is not supported by any UPS etc for power facility.122-28.2 Again NMS server’s IP is given.