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WCDMA has 3.84 Mcps (chip per second). One 10-ms radio frame is divided into 15 slots. 1000 ms has 3.

84 10^6 chips 10 ms has 3.84 10^4 chips 15 slots have 3.84 10^4 chips 1 slot has 38400/15 = 2560 chips downlink spreading factor from 4 to 256 uplink spreading factor from 4 to 512 With spreading factor 4, 1 slot has 2560/4 = 640 symbols 15 slot has 640 * 15 = 9600 symbols 10 ms has 9600 symbols 1000 ms has 9600 * 100 = 960K symbols In QPSK, 1 symbol has 2 bits. Thus, the answer is 1.92Mbps Note that this is only for one channel (i.e., code)! One user may have several channels simultaneously.

Bit, Symbol, Chip:    A bit is the input data which contain information A symbol is the output of the convolution, encoder, and the block interleaving A chip is the output of spreading. In WCDMA chip rate = 3.84Mbps

Processing Gain:

Forward direction/ Downlink : Information Normally the first two timeslots are allocated to signaling channels.. There are several channel combinations allowed in GSM. Closely related to spreading factor. On a time slot Within the multiframe. Some of the more common ones are: FCCH + SCH + BCCH + CCCH BCCH + CCCH FCCH + SCH + BCCH + CCCH + SDCCH/4(0. SF.  Processing gain is the ratio of chip rate to the bit rate. Remember that Control Channel (signaling channels) are composed of 51 TDMA frames. 7) FCCH + SCH + BCCH + CCCH Downlink Uplink .3) SDCCH/8(0 . the 51 TDMA frames are divided up and allocated to the various logical channels..7) + SACCH/C8(0 .3) + SACCH/C4(0.

SACCH0 and SACCH1 would be transmitted.[Back to Top] BCCH + CCCH Downlink Uplink [Back to Top] FCCH + SCH + BCCH + CCCH + SDCCH/4(0.3) + SACCH/C4(0. SACCH2 and SACCH3 would be transmitted. in one multiframe. Each SACCH only gets half of the transmit time as the SDCCH that it is associated with. The two sequential multiframes would look like this: ... So. and in the next multiframe.3) The SACCH that is associated with each SDCCH is only transmitted every other multiframe.

7) Once again.Downlink Uplink You will also notice that the downlink and uplink multiframes do not align with each other. [Back to Top] SDCCH/8(0 . The MS then has enough time to process the request and reply on SDCCH0 (uplink) which immediately follows it on TDMA frames 37-40.7) + SACCH/C8(0 . The uplink is transmitted 15 TDMA frames behind the downlink. the BTS might send an authentication request to the MS on SDCCH0 (downlink) which corresponds to TDMA frames 22-25. Two consecutive multiframes would look like this: . This is done so that if the BTS sends an information request to the MS. it does not have to wait an entire multiframes to receive the needed information. the SACCH that is associated with an SDCCH is only transmitted every other multiframe. For example.

Full rate Data TCH (TCH/F14. picture messages.Encoded speech is voice audio that is converted into digital form and compressed.13 kb/s Half Rate Speech TCH (TCH/HS) .6 kb/s Data .Data refers to user data such as text messages.14. Full Rate Speech TCH (TCH/FS) .1) . It includes pretty much everything except speech.4 kb/s . internet browsing.Downlink Uplink [Back to Top] Traffic Channels (TCH) Traffic Channels are used to carry two types of information to and from the user: Encoded Speech Data There are two basic types of Encoded Speech channels: Encoded Speech .5. See the Speech Encoding tutorial to see the process. etc.

4) . The final frame (25). and the other channel would be transmitted on the other frames. 1 frame for a SACCH.8 kb/s Half rate Data TCH (TCH/F4.8) .≤2.9. In this case. On each multiframe. Remember that a MS (or other device) only gets one time slot per TDMA frame to transmit.4 kb/s [Back to Top] Traffic Channel Mapping Time slots 2 through 7 are normally used for Traffic Channels (TCH) Traffic Channel Multiframes are composed of only 26 TDMA frames. so one time slot can handle two half-rate channels.8 kb/s Full rate Data TCH (TCH/F2. so in the following diagrams we are looking at a single time slot. which is normally used as an Idle frame.6 kb/s Full rate Data TCH (TCH/F4.6 kb/s.8) .6) .Full rate Data TCH (TCH/F9. and the last frame is Idle. is now used as a SACCH for the second half-rate channel.≤2. .4.4 kb/s Half rate Data TCH (TCH/H2.4) . Full Rate Traffic Channel (TCH/FS) When using Half-Rate Speech Encoding (TCH/HS).4. the speech encoding bit rate is 5. one channel will transmit every other TDMA frame. there are 24 frames for Traffic Channels.

Half Rate Traffic Channel (TCH/HS) [Back to Top] ARFCN Mapping This diagram shows a sample Multiframe with logical channels mapped to time slots and TDMA frames. *For illustrative purposes. half of the traffic channels are full-rate and the other half are half-rate TS0 TS1 TS2 TS3 . This is just one possible configuration for an ARFCN.

the MS would begin to transmit. . the downlink would be at TS6. and the BTS is set to receive on TS3. [Back to Top] Offset Even though GSM uses a full duplex radio channel. Once the uplink reaches TS3. but their timing is offset. if the MS was allocated a TCH on TS3. At this point. it switches frequencies to monitor the BCCH of adjacent cells. the BTS would transmit when the downlink is on TS3 and the MS is set to receive on TS3. When the MS is not transmitting or receiving.TS4 TS5 TS6 TS7 *Remember that CCH Multiframes have 51 frames and TCH Multiframes only have 26. the MS and the BTS do not transmit at the exact same time. the uplink is only on TS0. both the MS and the BTS will transmit during that given time slot. Their sequences will synchronize every superframe. If a MS is assigned a given time slot. For example. At this point. The uplink is exactly 3 time slots behind the downlink.

Calculate bits per TCH Multiframe: We know that there are 114 bits of data on a single burst. Here is the math: 1. the . There is one reserved for a SACCH and one that is Idle.[Back to Top] Speech Data Throughput When looking at a Time slot allocated to a TCH. So. only 24 of the 26 frames are used for traffic (voice/data). in a TCH Multiframe. and we know that only 24 of the 26 frames in a TCH multiframe are used to send user data. This leaves us with a data throughput of 22. 114 bits × 24 frames = 2736 bits per TCH multiframe So. you will notice that TCH does not occur on every single frame within a time slot.8 kb/s. we know that on a single timeslot over the duration of one TCH multiframe.

data throughput is 2736 bits. we know that the throughput of a single TCH multiframe is 2736 bits. We also know that the duration of a TCH multiframe is 120ms. 2736 bits / 120 ms = 22. so we can say that the new throughput would be 24/26 of the original throughput. Convert bits to kilobits: Finally. .7 × . 22. 2. There are 1000 milliseconds in a second. Apply this 24/26 ratio to the 24. There is an easier method to come to this number: We know that only 24 of the 26 frames carry data.800 bits per second (22. we want to put it into terms of kilobits per second. 22. We know a kilobit is 1000 bits. so we simply multiply the value by 1000.8 kb/s You can see that we get the same answer as above.8 bits per millisecond 3.8 kb/s So now we see why the data throughput of a single allocated timeslot is 22. If we convert this to decimal form: 24÷26 = .9231 We know from the TDMA Tutorial that the data throughput of a single timeslot is 24.7 kb/s throughput: 24.9231 = 22.8 kb/s.7 kb/s.8 bits/millisecond × 1000 = 22. so we simply divide the term by 1000.800 bits/s ÷ 1000 = 22. Calculate bits per millisecond (ms): From step one above. wich is the most common term for referring to data throughput.8 kb/s) 4. Convert milliseconds (ms) to seconds: Now we need to put the value into terms of seconds.

The following diagram is an example of how a medium-sized cell might be set up with 4 TRX (ARFCNs). each TRX has its own ARFCN (one frequency) .A single BTS may have several Transceivers (TRX) assigned to it. All of the other ARFCNs assigned to a BTS will allocate all 8 time slots to Traffic Channels. Sample Medium-Size Cell . each ARFCN having 8 time slots. to support multiple users. The logical channels that support signaling will normally only be on one ARFCN.

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