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Factors affecting growth and development

1. Heredity- sex, race and national characteristics 2. Environmental factors Pre-natal environment Post-natal environment a. External Environment- socio-economic factors, child-rearing factors, nutrition,illness, ethnicity, school attendance’ ordinal position in the family b. Internal environment-intelligence, hormonal influences, emotions, temperament Theories of growth and development PSYCHOSEXUAL THEORY- by Sigmund freud - considers sexual instincts to be significant in the development of personality. -STAGES includes: oral, anal, phallic, latency, genital PSYCHOSOCIAL THEORY – by Erik Erikson - believed that developmental task may increase the ego strength of every individual and enhance the probability of satisfactory achievements of subsequent task - stages includes: trust vs mistrust autonomy vs shame initiative vs guilt industry vs inferiority identity vs role confusion intimacy vs isolation generativity vs self-absorption integrity vs despair

COGNITIVE DEVELOPMENT Sensorimotor (0-24 months old) 0-1 month-Reflective Uses inborn motor and sensory reflexes to interact and accommodate the external world 0-4 months-Primary Circular reaction Coordinates activities of own body and 5 senses

does not seek stimuli outside of its visual field 4-8 months-Secondary Circular Reactions Seeks out new stimuli in the environment by relating own behavior to change in environment 8-12 months. so actions that satisfy this desire are selected 2. PRECONVENTIONAL –follows intuitive thought and is based on external control as child learns to conform to rules imposed by authority figures Stage 1.perception of goodness and badness develops due to motivation for choices of action which is fear of physical consequences of authority’s disapproval Stage 2.person is concerned with identifying with significant others and follows conformity with their expectations Stage 3.Social contract.Law and order orientation.Secondary Circular reactions shows preliminary signs of object permanence coordinates more than one thought pattern at a time to reach goal 12-18 months-Tertiary Circular reactions seeks out new experiences can understand simple commands 18-24 months.the thought of receiving a reward overcomes fear of punishment. reflective and hypothetical reasoning -future oriented -shows remarkable creativity MORAL DEVELOPMENT 1.Instrumental relativist orientation.Reality remains subjective. CONVENTIONAL.Punishment and obedience Orientation.Invention of new means through Mental Combinations begins to develop reasoning and can anticipate events understand self as separate from others and beginning of perception of body image Preoperational (2-7 years old) 2-4 years-preconceptual 4-7 years – Intuitive -begins to think symbolically -animalistic thinking -egocentric thinking Concrete Operational (7-11 years) -development of conceptual skills -organized and logical thinking -deals best with concrete and actual objects and people -uses inductive reasoning to solve new problems -understand reversal of events -develops awareness and understanding of other people’s perspective Formal Operational (11 years up) -abstract thinking -deductive.Interpersonal concordance-action is taken to please another and gain approval Stage 4. POSTCONVENTIONAL. legalistic orientation-correct behavior is based on adhering to legal rights of society .associated with moral judgment that is rational and internalized into ones standards or values Stage 5.right behavior is obeying the law and following the rules 3.

2. operated by the pleasure principle 2. although all individuals may. in times of severe emotional stress. ID. Follow parental beliefs as part of the daily lives rather than understanding the Stage 2. functions as the moral arbitrator and represents the ideas DEFENSE MECHANISMS Provides initial protection for the personality.the conscious.emotional conflict is blocked from the conscious mind and the individual refuses to recognize its existence . Conversion.Undifferentiated (0-3 years) . Denial. that prayers are not always answered and begins to abandon religious practices Stage 4-Individualizing-reflective-skeptical and begin to compare religious standards of their parents with those of others.emotional conflict is unconsciously changed into a physical symptom that can be expressed openly and without anxiety 7.Mythical-literal (7-12 years). Substitution. SUPEREGO.awareness of truth from a variety of viewpoints. functions as the controlling self that is able to find realistic means of gratifying the instincts.Universal-Ethical Principle Orientation. EGO. Rationalization.persons concern for equality for all human beings which is guided by personal opinions and standards SPIRITUAL DEVELOPMENT Stage 0. to Stage3-Synthetic-conventional (adolescence-adults) aware of spiritual disappointments. Identification-individual internalizes the characteristic of an idealized person. driven by instincts. Sublimation. use of many behavior listed and the repetitive use of these behavior in most situations is inactive of a problems.a socially acceptable behavior is substituted for an unacceptable instinct 5.Intuitive-projective (4-6 years)-Imitation of religious gesture and behaviors comprehending any meaning or significance.Stage 6. Commonly used normal defense mechanisms that help an individual to deal with reality are: 1. Stage 5. serves the reality principle 3. attempts to explain behavior by logical reasoning 6. Stage 6.strong interest in religion during school age years convictions without concepts.Paradoxical-consolidated.becoming an incarnation of the principles of love and justice. no belief and no guide their behavior Stage 1. STRUCTURE OF PERSONALITY 1.Universalizing. Compensation-individual makes-up for a perceive lack in one area by emphasizing capabilities in another 4.Individual makes acceptable excuses for behavior and concept of right and wrong.The unconscious mind.individual replaces one goal for another 3.the conscious mind.

Repression.involuntary exclusion from consciousness of those ideas. Projection. Regression.returns to an earlier stage of behavior when stress creates problems at the present stage 13. Introjections – complete acceptance of another’s opinions and values as one’s own . and situations that are creating conflicts and causing discomfort 14. Fantasy. Displacement.conscious distortion of unconscious wishes and needs to obtain gratification and satisfaction 10. feelings and situations that are creating conflicts and causing discomfort 15.emotions related to an emotionally charged situation or object are shifted to a relatively safe substitute situation or object 9. feelings.voluntary exclusion from consciousness of those ideas. Suppression. Transference.unconscious denial of unacceptable feelings and emotions in oneself while attributing them to others 11.The individual unconsciously reverses unacceptable feelings and behaves in the exact opposite manner 12.8. Reaction Formation.positive or negative feelings and emotions that were previously present toward important figures are applied and attributed to another person in the present 16.