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8

VOLUME 49, NUMBER 8

15 FEBRUARY 1994-II

**Level broadening for localized electrons: Change of the magnetocondnctance
**

O. Entin-Wohlman

School of Physics and Astronomy, Raymond and Beverly Sackler Eaculty of Exact Sciences, Tel Aviu University,

sign

Tel Auiu 69978, Israel

Y. Levinson

Department

and A.

G. Aronov*

of Physics,

Weizmann Institute of Science, Rehouot 76100, Israel (Received 2 September 1993)

The distribution of the hopping probabilities in the strong localization regime is calculated via the independent-directed-path formalism, allowing for level broadening of the intermediate site energies of the hopping process. The distribution belongs to the Gaussian unitary ensemble even in the absence of a magnetic field, whereas in the absence of level broadening it belongs to the orthogonal ensemble. In the presence of the field it leads to an orbital magnetoconductance quadratic in the field, changing from positive to negative as the temperature is lowered and the number of paths increases.

I. INTRODUCTION

The study of the magnetoconductance (MC) in the weak-localization regime has shown that it is related to the interference processes in such systems. There is no of the magnetotransport similar detailed understanding in the strong localization regime. However, descriptions of the MC at low fields, which are based on the interference among the tunneling paths, seem to be successful in explaining experimental data of highly localized samples. This observation has led to investigations of the consequences ensuing modifications in the interference pattern, e.g. , due to spin-orbit scattering. This paper addresses the interference-induced MC of strongly localized electrons when level broadening, due to phonon scattering, of the on-site energies along the tunneling paths is taken into account. The low-temperature conductance in the strong localization regime is dominated by thermal hopping. When electronic correlations are not significant, it obeys Mott's variable-range-hopping (VRH) law, g, -exp[ —Tp/ ( T)'~' +"], in two and three dimensions (d =2, 3) with hopping distance R typically on the order of several localization lengths (depending on the temperature and the amount of disorder). The interference description, first invoked by Nguyen, Spivak, and Shklovskii, is based upon the latter fact. They pointed out the importance of the interference among various paths associated with the hopping process, which are contained within a cylindershaped domain of length R and width (Rg)', where g is the localization length. They found that in the presence of a magnetic field the modifications in the interference pattern considerably affect the hopping probability. the logarithm of the hopping Averaging numerically probability over many random impurity realizations, they obtained under certain conditions a positive MC, linear in the field at weak fields. The picture of Nguyen, Spivak, and Shklovskii' refers to a single hopping process. Its relationship to the macroscopic conductance is based on the analysis of the conducting properties of a sample in the VRH regime in

0163-1829/94/49(8)/5165(7)/$06. 00

terms of an equivalent resistor network. ' In that description, any two sites between which the electron hops are connected by a conductance g,&

g (I= g py |/exp

(

—r t//g + e~@/k T] ) [

where go has units of conductance, r & is the distance between the two sites, and e f2(~'E''~+~EI~+[6; E'I)), e; and e& being the initial and final site energies measured from the Fermi level. In (1), y denotes the renormalization of the effective overlap probability of the wave functions localized at the two sites, due to the interference effect. The effective overlap results from electron tunneland contains the effects of ing between the sites i and the interference among the various possible paths. The macroscopic conductance is determined by the "critical" conductances g, which connect sites whose spatial separation is R g and whose site energy difference is kT. Alternatively stated, the conducting properties are dominated by hops of elementary conductance g, which span a critical network throughout the system. ' Deep in the strong localization regime the critical conductance may be obtained by treating separately the exponential factor and the interference factor in (1), since the scale of the r,, dependence of y, , is large compared with g. (The change of the localization length, b, g, due to the interference is small compared with g. ) The analysis of the exponential factor leads to Mott's law giving the essential temperature dependence of the conductance in the VRH regime, with R -g(TQ/T)' and e-kT(TQ/T)'~. The contribution of the interference term is given' ' by exp[(lny)], i.e., by averaging over the logarithm of the overlap probability. It follows that the interference aspect of the hopping conduction is determined by the distribution of the wave-function overlaps in the highly disordered system. The latter is particularly sensitive to the effect of a constant magnetic field H. At weak-enough fields, such that the flux in the cylinder-shaped domain does not exceed pp hc /e is the quantum flux unit), the only orbital (QQ effect of the field is to multiply the overlap amplitude of

I

f

e))

»

49

5165

1994

The American Physical Society

deep in the strong localization regime.APS y — +J J Jz. The reason is that this ensemble describes systems in which time-reversal symmetry is broken. the distribution of the overlaps. (3) J II. and interferes with the effect of the magnetic field.& and This imp. Jz). P(y). Pi — +igz. The microscopic model for the individual path amplitude consists of an Anderson model.e.~ = 1 g (J»+iJzi )exptPi I (3) where the sum runs over all forward-directed paths connecting the sites i and and P& is the phase acquired from the magnetic field along the path l. and. As for the imaginary part Jz& which represents the level broadening. Then the 1 — J. With those considerations. appear as parameters. The effect is introduced by adding a small imaginary part to the site energies. (6) is carried out. are then modified and the logarithmic average is changed. which is of a definite sign As a result. =go/g ) such as the shrinking of the wave functions or modifications in the localization length. the effect of the level broadening becomes more pronounced as the number of paths increases. (2). the weak-localization regime. Then the sign of the MC becomes negative. — . The result is that for a small amount of broadening the MC is positive. Surprisingly enough. (1)] describes the renormalization of the tunneling probability due to all paths conHere we adopt the picture ' acnecting the sites i and cording to which the important contribution to y. the prefactor in (2) gives rise to the term exp( r. Thus the random part of the amplitude is represented by the last product in Eq. As L is the length of the path. we assume it to be taken from a normal distribution of finite mean.5166 O. dJzP(J. the relationship between the distribution and the random-matrix theory of transition strengths has been established. it leads to positive MC in the presence and in the absence contrary to the situation in of spin-orbit scattering.& in the expression for the e1ementary conductance g/ [Eq. Jz)5(y — — .//— in the elementary conductance. However. its functional dependence upon the field at weak fields changes from linear (in the absence of the broadening" ) to quadratic. are taken from a normal distribution of zero mean and variance ( i &. and variance f ' J (4) Thus it is seen that in our picture the level broadening modifies the interference among the tunneling paths. Y. The distribution of the wave-function overlaps has been calculated using various numerical and analytic ap' ' In particular it has been found that proximations. these phases appear in the forms in which the magnetic phases 1 g. Jj&. f dJ. Pi. it is straightforward to obthe joint probability tain P (y). consequently. I i. exponential in the path length L in the VRH regime. and . The formal considerations and details of the calculations are given in the next two sections. To 2g) a'ccount for level broadening of the intermediate site energies. with disordered on-site energies taken from a symmetric distribution of width 8'and hopping matrix element V. — 1 ' ' ' '" where the product is over the L impurity sites along the path. When the integration in Eq. we add to the energies ek a small imaginary part . g expi. This is the source of the orbita1 MC in the VRH regime. comes from all forward-oriented paths within a cylinder-shaped region of length r. The interference factor y. ENTIN-%'OHLMAN. lies that the paths considered width (gr/)'~ for the hopping from the initia1 to the final sites are roughly of the same length. v'M y(Jii»nyi+Jzicosyi) The required distribution P (y ) is then — 1 P(y)= J. ' In calculating the distribution of the overlaps. f.& of pairs belonging to the critical network. = &M g (J»cosgi ). ' lt should be noted that this description fields at effects occurring higher disregards (H ~ H. ARONOV effective hopping given by' each tunneling path by a magnetic phase factor. We use the overlap distribution to calculate the logarithmic average and to obtain the effects of level broadening upon the MC in the strong localization regime.. Recently. sing. Section IV and presents the results for the magnetoconductance their discussion. ' In (3). i. where both J& and Jz are real random variables. Refs. of the individual paths. AND A. M is the number of oriented paths. longer than the localization 1ength. ' Here we formalism to obemploy the independent-directed-path tain the distribution of the overlaps when the on-site energies at the intermediate impurity sites along the tunneling paths may be broadened due to electron-phonon scattering.& is given by y. +~Jz. where from Eq. G. as the temperature decreases and the hopping distance becomes longer. The interference pattern. It follows that y. THE DISTRIBUTION OF THE WAVE-FUNCTION OVERI. 5 in which correlations among paths are neglected and the real parts of the path amplitudes. ( Jz &. the random part of the overlap amplitude takes the form J. We find that the resulting overlap distribution belongs to the Gaussian unitary ensemble (cf. matrix element along a single path is L V= I' ll V k V W k ek)/W (e. 11 and 12) even in the absence of a magnetic field. One first derives P ( „Jz ). we follow the approach of Ref. in our case by level broadening. LEVINSON.

(10)] and are given by z g1+ 1 I s s L F(s)ln( — ys). In addition. A =1. and r=M(J )' (10) the effective amount of level which characterizes broadening in the hopping process. Equation (19) is derived from Eq. Second. is most conveniently presented in terms of its Laplace transform "" f 0 which is formally the same distribution as in the case where level broadening is not considered. It should be noted that higher values of the magnetic field are beyond the scope of our model. the Laplace transform would have approached s 'n ao.e. In that limit. Here we have introduced the following notations: (lny ) = J 0 dy P (y)lny .. deep in the strong localization regime. and hence the magnetoconductance. 577 is the Euler constant and the contour of integration is depicted in Fig. 1. Consequently. 5. b. (11) and (12)] are branch points at s = — z. for which all the singularities of F(s) lie on its left side. a. 1. the distribution (11) reduces to that obtained before (cf. and a1=a2 =0 12}.e. The contour of integration in the s plane. where s.++a ) o 1+s(o+ — 1 (16) ) and behaves as 1/s in the limit This implies that the inverse Laplace transform P (y ) is independent of y as y approaches zero. 2 Therefore.49 1 LEVEL BROADENING FOR LOCALIZED ELECTRONS: . as explained above.e.. In that case. P (y ). p&=q&=1. 11. at high fields such that the magnetic flux through the hopping region is on the order of the quantum flux unit A.. (»z FIG. a &. Eq. i. are proportional to the amount of level broadening 1 [Eq. the singular points correspond to essential singu- Fo(s}= exp sr 1+s 1 sr+ — u 1/2 s plane 1+s(o. (11). and az. )(1+sb2 . except for the appearance of 0+. by sa. The distribution of the overlaps. the Laplace transform of the distribution takes the form s. and a2 approach zero. (19) z lg ~ 1 [21M2rI19$+P'1( }1 2 )2)] (15) 2 2 I 2 b 2b2 91+ l2+ 2 2 [2P29192+Pl(91 — 92)] 2 in which lny=0. Those singularities [see Eqs. THE CALCULATION OF THE LOGARITHMIC AVERAGE As explained above. 5167 y exp~20I pl+ ~p2 ' (8) when and cr+ =o' = ( J1 ). by=0'+ where A A(T (13) In this section we calculate the logarithmic average by P(y} in Eq. (18) b1=0'++ Aa'. i. ' We note that this feature is directly related to the imaginary component of the overlap amplitude. (18} the inverse Laplace transform of F (s). the parameters of the J& and the J2 distributions appear in P (y) in the forms (9) Finally. We first consider the overlap distribution in the absence of a magnetic field. the distribution (11) takes the form 1 F„(s)= 1 +so'+ for the sum and the difference of the variances. (18) as follows. This leads to the expression using for =p+p +1 (14) (lny ) = 1 2m'l The remaining two parameters in the distribution (11).e. Refs. where ( J2 ) =0 and ) =0. we note that in the absence of the level broadening. 2 — 1 &0 (20) &i. the conductance. Because of the exponential factor in F(s).. The contour L which defines the inverse Laplace transform of F(s) is a straight a+a(x} in the half plane line between — — and — a ~~ Res & 0 of the complex s plane. s~ ~. "" F(s)= where dy exp( — 1p(s)]/F7(s). 1+sb1 1+sb2 ) ]'i~ (12) F7(s) = [(1+sb. .. is determined by the logarithmic average of the interference term. to a distribution of the Gaussian orthogonal ensemble. and @2=F2=0. 0&a &s&.. -Sp —s 1 s~ '. which in turn leads to P(y)-y i. i. the distribution belongs to the Gaussian unitary ensemble. J2. sy)P(y)=exp[ — sa2b2 (11) III.

R — ln —— (g. (0) (32) p lane In order to characterize the magnetic-6eld dependence of the MC. (34) average takes the It follows that [see Eq. tgz+e) Bi x =2mt . 1+exp((lny ) — (lny )o) . ENTIN-%OHI. g. where C~ is a circle of a large radius R disconnected at the cut. On Cz one may replace g(g) by unity and R (g) by g. Let ) The contour C can now be transformed into the contour C~ + C (see Fig. =b& b2 (21) s =— sz ln — +tgz+e) (g. we change the integration variables as follows. Then pz=g2=0 and consequently a. IV.O. &0 and (z~+0. (28) and This implies that become (=1 and (=0. e. B — '(v'ad+1+ +21n —.] — g & e. LEVINSON. yielding ln[cR /) ]. (26) and MC. + o rv'1+r 1 — — Bt exp . The integral can then be easily calculated. (12)] is defined such that R (s) & 0 at s & 0. C =— (cg+d) that s = — s. 2). as the integral converges for x for the logarithmic average is used in the next determine the e6'ects of the level broadening ~ ~. = a)b) C B2 = a2b2 (27) %'ithin the interference model. 1). Note that the argument of the square root [Eq. MAN. DISCUSSION OF THE MAGNETOCONDUCTANCE B. Using now the relation (for R »1) (30) In terms of the new variable g. the contour L becomes a circle. AND A. =0 and a2 = I q)/b~ . the MC is given by' ' Note that R (g) & 0 for R (s) & 0 for s &0. v'e) y FIG. with v'x (x (23) + 1) exp +1 v'E+ &e+ I (29) c=d/c )0 . 2. 2). (19)]. with a cut connecting the points — and — (see Fig. sz the term ln( — in Eq. (27)] c and the expression for the logarithmic form (lny ) = ln Br=0. and to remove the pole s =0 from the branch point of the logarithm [see Eq. s such respectively. assumption Spivak. 2. In addition. ARONOV larities. encompassing counterclockwise the cut (0. and Shklovskii' in which the number of paths is large). In order to obtain an expression for (lny ) which includes less parameters. Carrying out the above transformations we obtain &x (x +1) 1 — exp 8) x+1 (31) bound by expression section to upon the (lny ) = where c dg exp[/(g)]ln —g+E 2nt fc R (g) 1 (25) y In the last integral we have replaced the upper This ~. and C is along the cut. +tgz. Y. G. [This follows from (&) — (0) = — g. with g. 1) (see Fig. The integral along C can be reduced to a simple one by noticing that for g=g. we assume' that for any path with a phase Pt there is also a symmetric path with a phase — (a valid Pt in the model of Nguyen. (22) The integral along C then becomes dx &0 d =62 &0 The cuts in the g plane are shown in Fig. The contours of integration in the g plane. =-+ 1 we finally obtain (24) ( ) +e+1+v E dx which can be transformed into an arbitrary contour C. (19) is defined in the complex s ys) plane with a cut along Res 0. MC= g. s. dx ~ — x(x+1) c 4a c .

we consider the ' ' M ( J. (17)] this term is 0~ (lny Iny+lno ) „=— +. %e emphasize that the derivation of Eq. Since we consider a symmetric distribution for the real part of the tunneling amplitude (J& }. -exp[ h /2]. (45) Then.. &. ) & (5J2z). (36)] that in the absence of level broadening. 11 and 12. The latter can be obtained following the expressions derived in Ref. follows [see Eq. (41) &0. and (35) we obtain ~= — 2+ + 2 2 exp 1/2 Xexp (40} This result is examined in two limits. N «1 &&1 . H »H. we define ~ . = Bh r&(t+1) (lny )o . .e. N N'ln(1/N ). &'«2& fiJ. to be Gaussian variables. 5169 In e=(1 — A)/2A. [see Eqs. (7). (46) one may neglect the second term in (40) and obtain — Thus the level broadening changes the functionA.. (22). (40) may be neglected and %hen the J2 distribution is strongly asymmetric A. the level broadening enhances the interference contribution to the conductance at zero Geld. ( (x&.. when the transition amplitudes are complex. )' »2(5J. (J. i. depends on the degree of asymmetry of the J2 distribution and the number of paths. When the broadening is stronger and the inequality is reversed. (32) and (35) then yield and M =exp (36) R a'. It follows that the sign of the MC This point will be dismay change with temperature.e.e. h2= 1 g =1— h (37) units where h is the magnetic field in dimensionless 0 ' M I H. =$0/R&Rg=H. the sign of A. — '& &8J. The crossover from ~h~ to h occurs at H =H„ that is.. This result is quite surprising as one would have expected the broadening at the intermediate states to destroy phase memory. {39)and (40)]. A. To find the weak-field behavior of the MC in the presence of level broadening. i. as the temperature tends to zero. (but H «H„higher fields are beyond the scope of our model). At weak fields we have [see Eqs. we find g. One then has p is the Assuming the magnetic phases.49 LEVEL BROADENING FOR LOCALIZED ELECTRONS: the absence . from Eqs. and (14)] (N)= '— A[in{%)]'~'. (8Jz) tn o= (lny ) — (lny ) ~J 2— 21n (J)& 2 — Bt MC=Ah. cussed further below. From Eq. (35} we find H. that is. (47) and it is independent of the asymmetry of the J2 distribution. 7. 1. The sign of the MC at sma11 fields. (i) When the J2 distribution is almost symmetric ' M( J. This cancellation is destroyed in the presence of J2.. The effect is larger as the J2 distribution becomes more asymmetric. II [see Eq. the number of paths becomes exponentially large as the hopping distance R increases.e. MC ~ 2 h ~. p — f (N ) (44a) This reproduces the results of Refs. the MC at weak fields is linear in the Geld. To deduce the overall behavior of the MC up to fields such that the Aux through the hopping region is larger than $0. the last term in Eq. (8).. It should be noted that this result is valid as long as N=(p Ng')' ' (43) (J'. Equations MC=&I — of level 8 =0 broadening. . one expects the phase memory to be lost. i. One defines a parameter N. i. (T/To) &&H. Then the exponential — . (44b) 3=1— 2h. (38) It. (39} &0. the linear dependence is smeared out by the level broadening. i. where the first term is the logarithmic average at According to the discussion in Sec. & (48) where N is the density of hopping centers and scattering length of each of them. difference (42) & lny ) „— ( lny &.e. (23). al dependence of the MC at small fields from ~h~ to h .. and shows that under this condition the MC is positive. then in the absence of an imaginary part (J2 =0) there is a significant cancellation of amplitudes of opposite signs. (ii) That is. ). ~ Hence. p~. Next we consider the efFect of the level broadening upon the zero-field logarithmic average. (45) assumes a &0. The enhancement of the zero-field conductance can be explained as follows.

It is instructive to compare our results for the effect of level broadening with those obtained by considering a simple ring model (see Fig.e.e. . C. addwhere ing an imaginary part to the transition amplitude essentially the resulting magnetoconductance. (44)] and the temperature dependence of the level-broadening parameters. therefore. 7 that when the distribution is symmetric. one expects J. ARONOV 49 factor in Eq. Moreover. . and the distriwhere the distribution of bution of Jz is arbitrary. Harris for helpful discussions. yI (52) y 0 (54) Let us first confine ourselves for simplicity to the limiting case in which the path amplitudes are purely imaginary. MC&0. This finding is in accordance with our conclusions regarding the relationship between the sign of the MC and the asymmetry of the J2 distribution. 7. 3). J2 ]ln 1+C. Aharony and A. examine the MC of a ring with complex transition amplitudes. J*. the total transition probability becomes Under condition (41) this difference is positive and hence in this case the MC is positive for all fields. which should be important at very low temperatures. we calculate it in the two limiting cases (41} and (42). we obtain the temperature range at which we may consider high fields: ' 1/2 FIG. For a period of $0/2. On the other hand. and the MC we need to calculate 4 J (hlny) = f dJ. (49) At the same time. therefore. measured in units of are the path amplitudes (see Fig. (Ji ). in the case is symmetric. while when it is asymmetric. this example shows that even in the most simplified situation. changes ACKNOWLEDGMENTS We are grateful to A. (b. but not exponentially. and J2 to decrease as the temperature decreases. those occurring between nearest neighbors with a spontaneous phonon emission. the orbital MC of strongly localized electrons can be negative at low temperatures. used in Ref. This implies that I k depends weakly upon the temperature. the amount of asymmetry of the J2 distribution [Eqs. (44)] this factor to be H'&. G. though smaller than in the case where the broadening is neglected. This dependence has two origins: the relationships between the number of paths and the hopping distance [Eqs. we also have H & H. the number of paths increases exponentially I a'+-e. 2 f(N) . i. while its sign depends upon the details of the J2 distribution. (48) is Mil. T »~f(g) p . the J2 distriHence. The research was partially supported .+. dJ2+dJ2 XP(J. lny ) is exactly the same as in Ref. AND A. and changes into positive at We emphasize that we have not higher temperatures. LEVINSON. As a result. The situation is changed when the level-broadening distribution is substantially asymmetric [Eq.5170 O. Consequently. In this case. In particular. ENTIN-VfOHLMAN. =0. the MC is positive. considered the effect of electron correlations. 3).— 1+ Since for condition (42) [cf. . B. when one replaces the real amplitudes by the imaginary ones. Eq. Combining these two requirements together. J2 )ln MC. . (10)] implies that I & a+. i.J2+. in accordance with our conclusions. it follows that a very asymmetric distribution of the level broadening renders the MC to be negatiue at all fields. We find that for an almost symmetric level-broadening distribution 2 1/2 1+ 1— (lny ) „— )0= — ln (1ny 30 1 0+ ' 3/2 0'+ +0 (51) as the temperature is reduced.+dJ. 7. Therefore. It follows from this equation that for nonzero J2. sin — +C2sin~@+ 2 (55) C. (41) and (42)] depends upon the temperature. while for $0 periodicity it is negative. In this simplified picture. Y. As it is pointed out above.J. (42}]. We show in the Appendix that in this case (lny ) 0=lnI' and consequently y(4)=~(Ji++iJz+ )e" +(J +iJz )e (53) where is the Aux through the ring. The level width I k of a given intermediate state of energy ek is determined by the fastest transitions. Requiring small yields [see Eqs. Let us. the periodicity of the MC is always $0. 3. there are only two paths. lny) =Co f 0 dJi+dJi f dJ2+dJ2 P[(Ji+ ). The ring model with real transition amplitudes gave that the sign of the MC is related to its periodicity. One then finds from Eq. Moreover. To find $0. it is shown in Ref. . (50) As for the second term in (46). Ji+. (54) J & (b. bution is less symmetric at lower temperatures. vanishes when J2 =0. the MC is positive. and C2 are real combinations of J~ and J2. A ring model for the magnetoconductance. The ring-model results are.

Z. Phys. B. Nguyen.e. B 40. Meir. (35) in the form In the second term. under condition (42) [see Eq. Lett. S. ' Y. Tear. Phys. Zh. Phys. 1517 (1991). in Hopping Transport in Solids. i.49 LEVEL BROADENING FOR LOCALIZED ELECTRONS: . Phys. (lny )o=lnl . edited by M. 70. 'dr — v I r v I+t — . Italy. Imry. Fiz. 745 (1960). Shklovskii and B. t 1+t exp 1 — Bt (Al) — '(v'a+1+&a)+InyB . Shklovskii. Y. 1770 (1985) [Sov. Rev. Rev. Rev. I. is grateful to the Landau-Weizmann program for financia1 support. and S. 1988 (1993). Miller and E. G. 2612 (1971). ' Y. 'dr — v ' Combining (A2) where Et is the exponential integral. and M. Entin-Wohlman. B 41. L. New York. and P. 35 (1985) [JETP Lett. Kardar. Ioffe Physical-Technical Institute. 41. 41. 9984 (1992).. 194021 Saint Petersburg. l. and Dept. B 44. Sivan. Spivak. 1991). Feng. Z. Russian Federation. 3187 (1991). Rev. O. Pollak and B. 42 (1985)]. Handbook of Mathematical Functions (Dover. 4V. Stat. Lett.. N. Spivak. 1021 and B. Phys. A. P. Lett. Entin-Wohlman. 38. lnv 2 (A2} APPENDIX: THK LOGARITHMIC AVERAGE FOR A STRONGLY SYMMETRIC DISTRIBUTION Here we derive (Iny ) at zero field for a strongly asymmetric Jz distribution. Imry. Phys. I. S. (35). O. 65. 66. Ambegaokar. Debray. B. Wingreen. Gelfand. ICTP. Rev. and Y. Phys. M. Rev. Trieste. Sanquer. 120. 2461 (1990). Lett. M. Z. The first term here gives — in[@'a+ 1+Pe~+2 ln2 — . Rev. I. Fiz. Pichard. and J. 5U. 1812 (1990). (A4} It follows that when (42) holds. may expand (1+t) Up to corrections of order B second integral in (Al) gives the (Bz Et(Bv) E&— ')=lnv+lnyB. t3M. Rev. B. Halperin. becomes and (A3). for B/s »1. 8J. I. B. 2ln —. To this end we write the integral in Eq. Eksp. Amsterdam. Phys. Sivan. B. Phys. O. 5171 by the fund for basic research administered by the Israel Academy of Sciences and Humanities. H. Zhao. Lett. Spivak. A. Phys. Abramowitz and I. science foundation binational States-Israel A. 1964) E. JETP 62. and U. 'V. and B. I. Schirmacher. 10760 (1991). Phys. the integral in Eq. 267 (1988). (1985)].A. Shklovskii (NorthHolland. L. 8342 (1989). and by the United (BSF). Slevin. of Condensed Matter. F. Meir and O. Entin-Wohlman. Stegun. and B. (A3) v~0 lim .. Entin-Wohlman. B 4. Eksp. W. Altshuler. 'Permanent address: I. under the condition (42}. Z. Teor. 89. 66. L. I. Phys. Pis'ma Zh. Medina ~ . Rev. 60. Rev. Phys. Langer. 1566 (1988). Shklovskii Rev. B 46. Abrahams. K. Spivak. (34)] we '~ .

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