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Female Infanticide in India

Five million girls were eliminated between 1986 and 2001 because of foetal sex determination done by unethical medical professionals. The rate of extermination continues to increase after census 2001.Sex determination and sex selective abortion was traced to an Amritsar clinic in 1979 and has now grown into an Rs.1000 -crore country wide industry. In recent years the misuse of ultrasound has reached remote tribal areas of Rajasthan, Bundelkhand and emerged even in parts of India where women were better treated such as Assam, Kerala and the Kashmir valley. China as of 2000 census was eliminating one million girls annually but present trends suggest that India is likely to overtake China in less than a decade. Son preference has become daughter hatred in India in the recent decades due to the widespread legitimization of this form of violence against women. In 1994 Parliament responded to the misuse of prenatal diagnostic techniques by enacting PNDT Act. However it was not implemented. The Supreme Court directed the government to implement the PNDT Act in May 2001.Later it was amended to make it more stringent. The health ministry has to be more proactive to stop female foeticide.The ministry surrendered one crore rupees of the meagre funds allocated to the PNDT cell in this budget year. In 2005 the health ministry released full-page advertisements calling female foeticide a sin. Converting crimes into sins is dangerous as it will only fuel further decline in sex-ratios. There are attempts by some politicians to limit abortion as a means to stop female foeticide. Such anti-women actions would endanger women's health though it may be acceptable to religious fundamentalists. Efforts of the media have certainly contributed to the increased public discourse on this issue over the years. Today reports of female fetuses found in drains or dug from dry wells or floating in lakes or eaten by dogs are headline news. There have been stories on the consequences like trafficking of women for marriage and emergence of polyandry. The government of India should set a target date by which the country will have balanced sex-ratios at birth. The coming plan needs to give a fair deal to women by abandoning fertility targets and replacing it with solid commitments to restore sex-ratio at birth. There has to be official recognition that small families are increasingly achieved by eliminating girls.

exploitation by Middlemen have been leading to series of suicides committed by farmers across India. Nagraj. the farmer was also caught in a Scissors Crisis.060. lack of better prices. In Karnataka the number stood at 1.In the initial years when farmers distress came to attract public attention it was said[who?] that indebtedness through use of Bt Cotton were the main cause for farmers suicide. More than 17. India was transforming rapidly into a primarily urban. NCRB also stated that there were at least 16.000 farmers committed suicide in 2005-2009 in Maharashtra. industrial society with industry as its main source of income. the government and society had begun to be unconcerned about the condition of the countryside. while 1. over 5.[13] At least 17. In the last four years. Others traced the increase in farmer suicides to the early 1990s.[24] Important research in Andhra Pradesh showed the very rapid change in seed and pesticide products to have caused "deskilling" in the cotton sector . moreover. bringing the total since 1997 to 199. The failure of these monsoons leading to series of droughts. It was said. according to data of the National Crime Records Bureau (NCRB). Meeta and Rajivlochan. a downturn in the urban economy was pushing a large number of distressed non-farmers to try their hand at cultivation. Kerala and Punjab. as thousands abandoning agriculture in distress.[22] identified a variety of causes.[12] In April 2009. since 2005-06 till August 2009. In 2006. the state of Maharashtra.Research by various investigators like Raj Patel. On figures there was much debate since the issue was so emotive. the state of Chattisgarh reported 1. Such stresses pushed many into a corner where suicide became an option for them Research has also pointed to a certain types of technological change as having played an instrumental role in the problem. The government tried to underplay the cases of farmer deaths. in the absence of any responsible counselling either from the government or society there were many farmers who did not know how to survive in the changing economy. with 4.313 cases reported by Andhra Pradesh between 2005 and 2007. Farmers in India became the centre of considerable concern in the 1990s when the journalist P Sainath highlighted the large number of suicides among them. Punjab 75 and Tamil Nadu 26.[11] According to government data. that most suicides occurred in states of Andhra Pradesh. according to the National Crime Records Bureau (NCRB).132. while the number of farm suicides increased since 2001.FARMERS SUICIDES India is an Agrarian country with around 60% of its people directly or indirectly depend upon Agriculture. the worst figure for farm suicides in six years.453 farmers’ suicides accounted for over a quarter of the allIndia total of 17.[10] According to another study by the Bureau. a comprehensive all-India study is still awaited.196 farmers' suicides in India in 2008. according to experts who have analyzed government statistics. Maharashtra.003. Agriculture in India is often attributed as gambling with Monsoon because of its almost exclusive dependency on Monsoons.500 farmers a year killed themselves between 2002 and 2006. Karnataka. the number of farmers has fallen. Gujarat 387. Moreover. The situation was grim enough to force at least the Maharashtra government to set up a dedicated office to deal with farmers distress. in recent times there has been a considerable ideologically driven movement[against the use of Bt crops.368 Indian farmers killed themselves in 2009. One study from the Punjab showed dramatic misuse of agricultural chemicals in farmer households in the absence of any guidance on how to correctly use these deadly chemicals and linked it to the rise in farm suicides wherever farm chemicals were in widespread use. intellectual supporters of the farmers preferred to inflate them. cases in Kerala were about 905.500 farmers committed suicide due to debt and crop failure. Here it is important to notice that in the context of Indian history [21] the moneylender is considered to be a particularly evil person and the farmer an unwitting subject of his machinations]. Official reports initially denied the farmer suicides but as more and more information came to light the government began to accept that farmers in India were under considerable stress.

particularly in developing countries. Bengali women who supported the bill responded by claiming that they were more educated than the English women opposed to the bill. This point was raised during the Ilbert Bill controversy in 1883. is not yet a global norm. women earned 62% of Associate's degrees. secondary education. discussion is wide-ranging and by no means confined to narrow terms of reference: it includes for example AIDS. The role of women featured prominently in the controversy.[23] A convent education is an education for girls by nuns. In 1878. For example. and that Indian men should therefore not be given the right to judge cases involving English women.[1] Universal education. have helped them make inroads to professional careers and better-paying salaries and wages. in the United States in 2005/2006. Also involved are the issues of single-sex education and religious education. in that the division of education along gender lines. and pointed out that more Indian women had degrees than British women did at the time.FEMALE EDUCATION Female education is a catch-all term for a complex of issues and debates surrounding education (primary education. are neglected by their men. Furthering women's levels of education and advanced training also tends to lead to later ages of initiation of sexual activity and first intercourse. It can lead to higher rates of barrier and chemical contraceptive use (and a lower level of sexually transmitted infections among women and their partners and children). Giusi Spagnolo became the first woman with Down Syndrome to graduate college in Europe (she graduated from the University of Palermo in Italy) Higher rates of high school and university education among women. Education increases a woman's (and her partner and the family's) level of health and health awareness. later age at first marriage. Contemporary convent schools are not restricted to Catholic pupils. Education for women with handicaps has also improved. have no children. women have surpassed men at many levels of education. This was already being practised in England before 1275 and later become more popular in France during the seventeenth century. even if it is assumed in most developed countries. who they stereotyped as "ignorant". and religious teachings on education. with ministries addressing the area. and to improve rates of civic participation such as voting or the holding of office. before any of the British universities had later done the same. and are still highly relevant in contemporary discussion of female education as a global consideration. In the developed world. 58% of Bachelor's degrees. concern for female education has expressed itself in the foundation of religious orders. and later age at first childbirth (and an increased likelihood to remain single. and its connection to the alleviation of poverty and wasps. within a convent building.While the feminist movement has certainly promoted the importance of the issues attached to female education. where English women who opposed the bill argued that Bengali women. the University of Calcutta became one of the first universities to admit female graduates to its academic degree programmes. Students in contemporary convent education may be boys (particularly in India). It includes areas of gender equality and access to education. in addition. tertiary education and health education in particular) for females. In the Roman Catholic tradition. These include the Ursulines (1535) and the Religious of the Sacred Heart of Mary (1849). when it was being considered whether Indian judges should be given the right to judge British offenders. have been traditionally dominant. have increasing levels of long-term partnerships). meaning state-provided primary and secondary education independent of gender. and can increase the level of resources available to women who divorce or are in a situation of domestic violence. and 50% of Doctorates. . and thereafter spread worldwide. 60% of Master's degrees. to increase women's communication with their partners and their employers. or have no formal marriage and alternatively. It has been shown. In 2011.

It may result from:    Inadequate or unbalanced diet Problems with digestion or absorption Certain medical conditions Malnutrition can occur if you do not eat enough food. Causes. dizziness. However. Treatment Treatment usually consists of replacing missing nutrients. even though you survive. Symptoms Symptoms vary and depend on what is causing the malnutrition. and risk factors There are a number of causes of malnutrition. malnutrition is very mild and causes no symptoms. However. Poverty.of malnutrition and starvation. You may develop malnutrition if you lack of a single vitamin in the diet. Treatment is necessary if you or your child have any changes in the body's ability to function. Starvation is a form of malnutrition. Malnutrition continues to be a significant problem all over the world.even epidemics -. and war all contribute to conditions -. treating symptoms as needed. Most work-ups include nutritional assessments and blood work. Expectations (prognosis) The outlook depends on the cause of the malnutrition. However. and not just in developing countries. In some cases. Calling your health care provider Discuss the risk of malnutrition with your health care provider. and weight loss. some general symptoms include fatigue. illness.MALNUTRITION Malnutrition is the condition that occurs when your body does not get enough nutrients. incidence. if malnutrition is caused by a medical condition. especially among children. that illness has to be treated in order to reverse the nutritional deficiency. natural disasters. Contact your health care provider if the following symptoms develop:     Fainting Lack of menstruation Lack of growth in children Rapid hair loss . Complications If untreated. political problems. Signs and tests Testing depends on the specific disorder. Most nutritional deficiencies can be corrected. and possibly death. malnutrition can lead to mental or physical disability. and treating any underlying medical condition. sometimes it can be so severe that the damage done to the body is permanent.

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