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Chl¥ung 4

MACH DI~N SA PHA

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4.1. KHAI NltM CHUNG
nganh

Ngay nay dong dien xoay chieu ba pha dl1QC Slr dung rong rai trong cac san xuat VI :

- D¢ng co dien ba pha c6 cA'u tao dun gian va d~c tinh t6t hun d(lng co dien mot pha, - Truyen tlii dien nang bAng mach dien ba pha titt kiern dUQ'cday dA.n. giam bm: t6n thA't dien nang va t6n thit di~n ap so vOi.truyen tlii di¢n nang bang dong dien mOt pha, Mach dien ba pha bao g6m ngu6n di~n ba pha, duong day truyen tii va cac tlti ba pha. 1. Ngu6n di~~ ba pba dien ba pha, ngU'm ta dung cac may phat dien xoay chieu ba pba. Loai may phat di~n trong cac nha may di¢n hi~n nay 18: ay phat di¢n m d6ng b¢ (dl1qc trlnh bay chi tic!t trong may di¢n). Cau tao cua may phat dien d6ng b() (hlnh 4.1) g6m: ba pha dlJt trong cac ranh cua lOi thep stato (ph~n tlnh). Cac day qusn Day
thuong - Ba day quan

De tao ra dong

ky

hieu 18. : AX

(day quan pha A) ~ BY (day quan pha B) ~ CZ (day quan pha C).
Cac day quan cua cac pha c6 cung s6 vong day va

x
Hinh 4.1. Oiu '\10 may phiil d6ng b¢

z

lech nhau m¢t g6c 120° di~n trong khong gian,

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- Ph4n quay ('con gQi'iA roto) III nam cham di¢n N - S Khi quay roto, tic tnrong se 14n hrot quet qua cac day quan pha A. pha B pha C cua stato va trong day quan pha stato xuA't hien sec dien dQng cam tmg, suc di¢n dQng nay c6 dang hmh sin cung bien dO, cung tltn s6 g6e ro va l¢eh pha nhau mOt g6c

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3'"'

2n

Neu chon pha d4u cua SUe di¢n dOng eA cua day quan AX bang khong, thi bieu thirc sue dien dOng trrc thci cua cac pha U. :
Suc di¢n dQng pha A

eA Suc di¢n d()ng pha B eB Suc di¢n dong pha C
ec =E

= E..fi

sin rot

r;; = E ..... sin( rot - -21t ) " 3

J2 sin( rot B"A = Eei°

41t)

3

= E J2 sin ( rot + 21t)
3

hoac bil~u dien bang s6 phirc

E"c = E ell
Hlnh 4.2a ve dd thi tri s6 tU'c thm hlnh sin cua sec di¢n d()ng ba pha.

..

·2R

va. hlnh

4.2h

ve

dd thi vecto

lilt

a)

b)

Hlnh 4.2.

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dong dien m6i pba cua ngu6n dien (hoac tail goi Iii sue dien dong pha ky hieu III E. khong tie"t kiem nen thuc te! khOng dung. 0 cac tie't tiep thea). Suc dien dong.2. + EB + Ee =0 cua cac pha bang nhau ZA tro phirc = Zs = Zc . dien ap.4. dan dien nang tit ngu6n toi tai. D6i vOi ngu6n d6i xung. Cac quan M giG'a dai hrong pba va dai hrong day phu thuoc (hlnh sao hay tam giac) se xet ky 0 cac tie't tie'p thea. 80 . Thirong ba pha cua nguon dien n6i voi nhau. ky hieu III u. 4. Mach di~n ba pha dol x6'ng Ngu6n dien g6m ba sac dien dQng hlnh sin cimg bien dO. M6i mach dien nhu vay goi la met pha cua mach dien ba pha. Thong thuong dung 2 each n6i: n6i hlnh sao ky hieu ta Y va n6i hlnh tam giac ky hieu la a (xem cac hlnh 4.a c6 dirong day ba pha n6i Zc B ~ Ie Hlnh 4.. z c Y~ZB MJ. ta co : eA + eD + Cc:::: 0 EA Tai ba pha c6 t6ng tai ba pha d6i ximg. Mach di¢n 3 pha n6i rieng re nguon voi tai.. Neu khOng thoa man dii!u kien da neu goi Ia mach ba pha khOng d6i xirng. dien ap pba ky hieu la Up.3). each noi mach ditn ba pha Ne"u m6i pba cua nguon di~n ba pha nOt rieng re voi m6i pha cua thl ta c6 h¢ tb6ng ba pha khOng lien h¢ nbau (hinh 4.5. tM va duang day d6i xung goi la mach dien ba pba d6i xirng (con duoc gci Ia mach ba pha can bing).Lch dien ba pha khOng lien b~ nhau can 6 day dan.3. cung nhau v~ pba 23 1t • tiln s6. rai. dong dien pha ky hieu la Ip. lech goi la ngu6n ba pba d6i xung. I Dong dien chay tren duong day pha tir ngu6n d€n tai goi Iii dong dien day ky hieu Ii! Id• dien ap giua cac dirong day pha goi 18 dien ap day.goi 1ft MJ. ba pha cua tai n6i voi nhau v. V80 each n6i 3.Lcbdien ba pba g6m ngu6n.

chay trong cac day pha 06i tit ngu6n t61 taL Cac dong di¢n 6-Giio trinh KTf) 81 . Cella ngu6n v6'i 3 diem d4u cac pha cua tai gQi Ia ba dAy pha. Day dAn nOi diem trung tfnh ella ngu6n t6i diem trung tinh ella tai goi Ia day trung tinh..2..+ Uc =0 4. Cac quan b~ glita d~lluvng dAy va pba kbi d6i xting a) Quan h~ giua dongdi~n ddy vtl dong di~n pha I. co tri so' hieu dung bang nbau va l¢eh pha nhau 120°. Y. ba diem cu6i X. A.nguen. CACH N6I HiNH SAO ( Y ) 1. Y. Thuong quen ky hieu dau pha l8. B. Mu6n n6i hinh sao ta nOi ba diem eu6i ella pha v6'i nhau tao thanh diem trung tinh (hlnh 4. Z n6i v6i nbau thanh diem trung tfnh 0 ella ngu6n. Y'.4a). B. eu6i pha Ia X.4 Dong dien pha Ip III dong dien chay trong m6i pha ella nguon (hoac tai). Z' n6i v61 nhau tao thanh trung tinh O· cua tai. Dong dien day I. ba diem euOi X'.. Z. D6i v6i . Cach nOi MOi pha ella ngu6n (hoac tai) c6 d4u va eu6i. dong dien cua cac pha se d6i 'xrmg. Ba day n6i 3 diem d4u A.. tao thanh cac hlnh sao dOi ximg va t6ng cua chang bang khong o IA + IB+ Ie ~ 0 UA+ UB. 2. B lh 14 A' Io I. B' B Io a) b) Hinh 4. cac dai hrong dien lip. U. C.mach ba pha dOi xung. DOi v6i tai.

U c.4b hoac 4. ho~e giil'a day pha va day trung doh). . U B.nay da duqc ky hieu tren hlnh 4.4c .V~ tri "S6hieu dung u. AB = 2 AH = 2 OA"cos .J3 Up AB ia di¢n ap day U.4 . b) Quan hf giiia difn ap ddy vd di~n ap pha (4-1) Dien ap pha Up la di¢n ap gi11a di!m -dliu va di~m eu6i ella m6i pha (bo~e gitra di!m dAu eua mOi pha va di~m trung tfnh. = . vi du dien ap day UAB (giUa pha A va pha B). Xet tam giac OAB (hlnh 4. OA ia di¢n ap pha Up Til' d6 thi vecto. 3f! = 20A J3 -=J30A 2 u.4.. U"CA (giua pba eva pha A). Usc (gitra pha B va pba C) . thl di¢n ap day d6i xtrng. Thea dinh nghia dien ap day ta co: (4-2a) (4-2b) U CA De ve thi vecto di¢n ap day. la dien ap gitra 2 diem dliu eua 2 pha (hoac dien ap giua 2 day pha). Hlnh 4..4b) d6 =U C- U A (4-2e) . Nhln VaG mach dien ta thay quan be gi11a dong dien day va dong di¢n pha nhu sau: lJ = I.c 82 . = . sau d6 dua vao cong thee (4 -2) ve dd th] vectc dien ap day nbu blnh 4.V~ pha : dien lip day virot tnroc di¢n ap pha luang Ung mot g6c 30° (U AB v\lQt tru6'c U A mt')t g6c 30°. ta tb4"y: Khi dien ap pha dOl ximg. truec het ve d6 thi vecto dien ap pha U A.fj U_p (4·3) . Dien ap day U.

5 83 .. va d6 th] vecto. Bitt dong dien day Id =lOA.. = 380V. cua cac gia dinh .! . lB. di~ ap pha ngu6n Up" =220 V. dong dien pha ella tlii va ella ngu6n.220 = 380 V Tai n6'i hlnh sao. B Yo fa Ie: ~ c a) b) Hmh 4. 10 = IA + IB + Ie =0 Trong tnrong hop nay e6 the khOng Clin day trung tfnh. IA T. vi du nhu tAi sinh hoat cua khu t~p the. giai : Ngu6n n6i hlnh sao. di¢n lip ph'h ella tai. ta c6 mach ba pha ba day. Khi tiii 3 pha khOng d6i xung. LM. D¢ng eo dien ba pha lit tiii d6i KUng.Uci R 1. Ngu6n cung c(p di¢n cho tai R ba pha d6'i ximg (hlnh 4. = . theo eOng thirc (4-3) dien lip pha ella tai 18 u. Ic .• day trung tfnh c6 dong di~n 10 bAng 10 = IA + IB + Ie Vi du I: M¢t nguOn di¢n ba pha d6'i xlingn6'i hlnh sao.UBC virot tnroc Un mot g6c 30° • UCA vuQt tnroc Uc mot g6c 30°).5a). dong dien trong day trung tinh bang khong. lip dung eOng th(i'c (4-3) di¢n lip day li\: u. chi dn dua ba day pha de'n dong co ba pha. 380 J3 ="J3 = 220 V Ii.J3 Up = Up! = Jj . Tfnh di¢n lip day U. . bitt U. tao thanh hlnh sao d6i KUng.. Khi tM d6i xung lA.

ella tii trung pha . tii n6i sao.lngcOng thac (4-2) Dong dien pha cua tai Ipl VI tii thuan di~ (hlnh 4. Cach n6i tam giac khong c( day trung tfnh.) 1. ta l~y d~u pha nay n6i vci cu6i pha kia. . . C n6i vci Y (hlnh 4. di~ ap pha = I. Cach n61 Mu6n n6i hlnh tam giac.. Vi du A n6i v6i Z ~B n6i voi X. Dong di~n pha ngu6n ap d1. t. I.Ay VB pba khi dol xUng ~ Khi gitii mach di~n 'n6i tam giac ta thireng quen quy u6c: chieu dirong dong di~n cac pha I.Ngu6n n6i sao.t = lOA. chieu duong dong di¢n pba ella tM dang chi~u quay kim d6ng h6 (hlnh 4. A C B tile B -J.6 C8.6).5b). 2. fA u. CACH N61 HINH TAM GIAC (6. trc! R.e dl. cua ngudn nguqc chieu quay kim d6ng h6.1 hrqngd. 4.li hrqngday 0) Quan va pha duqe h~ giua difn ky hieu tren hlnh 4. v6i dong dien pha cua tii I.. Cac quan b~giita d. ap ddy va difn tip pha Ud Nhln vao mach di~n n6i tam giac ta thay: = Up (4-4) b) Quan 84 hf giua ddng di~n day va ddng di~n pha .6).3. ie ' a) b) Hlnh 4 .6a.

U Be. L I. L= OF . dong dien pha cua ngu6n ~ =20 A. D6 thi vectcr dong dien pha lAO. 10 cham pba loe mot gee 30°. IDC• leA va dong dien day IA• lB' hlnh 4. De . Ie. Bitt d~n lip pha cua ngu6n Upn= 2kV. ta c6 : (4-5a) (4-5b) Tai nut C: Ic = ICA .. ta dua vao phirong trmh (4 .. lech pha voi dien ap U AB.Kbi dong dien pba d6i ximg thl dong dien day d6i xirng. Ie cham pha leA mOt goc 30°). ngu6n di¢n n6i sao.V ~ tri s6 hieu dung (4-6) .lBe day (4-5c) DOng di~n IA• lB' Ie chay tren cac day pha tlr ngu6n d€n tai la dong dien L.. . : la dongdien day OE 18 dong di¢n pha Tlr d6 thi vecto tathiy . Ie. .6 b).J3 r. Ie ve tren Xet tam giac OEF OF"". a) Hiiy day.4).30E 2 J3 r.. Upt. ve set d6 n6i day mach ba pha va tren set d6 ghi ro cac dai luqng pha va Liri gilti : a) Set d6 nOi dAy mach di¢n ve a hlnh 4. tii n6i hinh tam giac.Ap dung dinh luat Kiecshop 1 tai cac nut. Qua trlnh tuong t\l ta ve lB. b) Hiiy xac djnh dong di¢n pha va dien ap pha cua t!i~.1 85 . U CA mOt goc <p (blnh 4. DOng dien lAB' lBe' leA chay trong cac pha la dong di~n pha.V~ pha : dong dien day cham sau dong dien pha nrong dng goc 3011 (IA cham pha lAB met goc 30°.6b.l 2 : Ml)t mach di¢n ba pha. 2 OE-=". ve dong dien day IA• lB. Vecto lAB cong voi vecto (-b) ta co vecto IA. Vi dl.

464 kV Hlnh 4. bang di¢n ap day u. ~ U.b) Vi ngudn nO'i hlnh sao. ngu6n n6i hlnh tam !l Ngudn va tai d~u d6i xUng.8 b) Vi tii n6i hlnh sao nen I.. = 3. = J3 .8 JpI Hlnh 4.464 kV I nho han dong dien day J3 Hin Vi d\l 3 : MQt mach dien ba pha. . nen dien ap pha eua tai Upt = Dong di¢n pha cua tai Up.2 = 3.7 VI teli n6i hlnh tam giac. = Ip< = 50A 86 . tai noi hlnh sao. Tren sa d6 chi ro d~i luqng pha va day. dien ap pha ciu Up! = 220V. b) Hay xac diri. nen dong dien day Mng dong dien pha A A Id bang = Ipn = 20 A lip day . Bie't dong di¢n pha eua tai Ip! = 50A./314n di¢n lip Di¢n pha ngu6n . UPQ' Lbi gial : a) Sa d6 n6i day mach di¢n ba pha ve tren hlnh 4.t-= J3 u.h dong dien pba va di¢n ap pha cua ngu6n lpn. a) HAy v! set d6 n6i day mach ba pha.

OSql CPA = COS<po = COS'Pe = coso (4-7) (4-8) = 3D 2 P -.. Vl nguon d6i xeng n6i hlnh tam giac. Up= d6i voi hlnh tam giac : I. tra pha cua do R.fj. up A co = U d vito cong thirc (4-7) ta bi~u thee cong suat viet theo dai hrong day.=L.u. 220 = 380V Bier dong dien day va dien lip day. ta eo the tfnh dUQe dong dien pha va dien a p pha ella nguon. Cong suit tac dung P Cong suat tac dung P cua mach ba pha bang t6ng cong sua't tac dung cua cac pha ceng Iai. CONG SUAT eVA M~CH DI¢N BA PHA 1.4.868A 4. va 87 . Pc nrong ling lit cong suat tac dung cua pha A. dung cho ca tnrong hop hlnh sao hlnh tam giac d6i xtrng.. G9i PA.fj Id = .. = i. U Thay dai hrong pha bAng dai luong day: d6i voi each n6i blnh sao : I. nen ta e6 di¢n ap pha Up" ella la : Upn Dong di~n pha ella nguon = U.fj Up. B. = . C ta co: P = PA + Pe + Pc = VA Khi ba pha d6i ximg Dien ap pha : IA coso A + VoIa COScp + Ve Ie COS'Pc VA = Va = Vc = Up Dong dien pha : IA =Ia H~ s6 ccng sua't : cos ta c6 hoac Trong P = Ie = Ip ~pC. = ngudn . Pa..3R p 1p . = 380V la Ipn = .fj 50 = 28. la dien uii. lip.

)p J3u lJ d (4-13) (4-14) S= ho~c S = 3ZpI/ (4-15) Vi dl. Tfnh di¢n ap ~t len m6i pha day qu(n. d¢ng ca di¢n. V1 day quan dQng co n6i hlnh sao.mg S hose = 3U.la di~n khang pba cUa tai.89. Neu tinh thea cac dai luqng day Q = J3 Udldsincp (4-12) 3. DAy quan dQng CC1 :: di¢n n6'i hlnh sao. di¢n ap dAy mang di¢n Ud =380V.l4 : MQt dQng co di¢n ba pha c6 cOng su4't dinh mac Pdm = 14kW.88. v~y cOng suit di¢n dQng co lieu thu la:. = R p ~R2p +X2p 2.trong d6 cp. h¢ s6 cOng sult dinh liuk cos<Pdm 0. ts true 88 . cong SUll d!nh rmre Pdmla cOng sult co c6 Ich dQng co. a) Sa dd n6i day cUa dQng co tren hlnh 4. nen di¢n 4p pha d~t vao m6i dAy quan pha ia Ud U P=T3 = 380 13= 2 20 V b) D6i v6i. .g6e lech pha giii'a di~n ap pha va dong di~n pha nrong lffig eoscp . hieu suit d!nh mac TJdm = 0.9.I sincp = 3XpI2p trong d6 : X. + UBIBsincpB+ Uclcsincpc (4-10) (4-11) Khi mach d6i xung ta c6 : = 3U. C6ng suit b14u kl~n cua mach 3 pba dui x. Tfuh dong di¢n day Liri glii: . C6ng suit phan khang Q Cong suat phan khang Q cua ba pba Ia t6ng eOng suat phan khang ella cac pha cong Iai Q= QA +QB+QC = UAI Q ho~c Q p A sino. va dong di¢n pha clla d¢ng co di~.

Thea cOng thuc (4. 89 .J3.1 PI =(ikW . Q2 = 2kV Ar . COng sult bieu ki~n tAi 2 ~= Vpl+Q.9) P<ll~ == . . 103 .89 h 27.211kVA. 14.246kVA. VI dl.0. QI = 4kV Ar. dong di¢n day cua tai 1 IA I == I Jjud S.2 = J62 == +42 =7. Till 2 tieu thu P2 == 8kW .380 • ..8$.J3Ud~ coso V~y dong dien cua d¢ng co Ia ~ == -J3ud cOS(fI Jiu Pdi~.3 . Thea cOng th1lc (4 .8) Tfnh dong dien day ciia mOi tii b) Tfnh dbng di¢n day I" cua ngudn cung clp cho 2 tii tren.2+Q. = Pw d COS(fI<lm'ldm .10 Cong su4't bieu kien too 1 SI: ~p.l 5 : M¢t mach dien ba pha doi xung U" == 380V cung c!p dien cho 2 till d6i xung: Tai 1 tieu th1.14).16A.0. = ~=10956A .2 J82 + 22= 8.380.16 A. Vi day quen nci hlnh sao nen Ip == ~ == 27. Lbi giai : a) Set d6 mach di¢n 3 pha viStren hlnh 4 .

dong dien day ella tii 2 I2- . Vi vay khi mach d61 xrmg. ti tach ra mot pha tfnh.Qa = P.J3ud S2 A 1 n. khi biet dugc dong dien ciia mQt pha.380 4.Q. 'BOY ~ cua nguon cung c(p cho [ii.14) ta c6 dong di¢n day nguon cung cap cho 2 tii I= d J3Ud S = 15231 '" 23. CACH GIAI MJ).5. T812 I).. t U .10 Cong suat phan khang ngu6n cung c(p cho 2 [Ai = 6kV AI Congsuat bieu kien ngu6n s= ~p2 +Q2 = J142 +62 = 15. bb qua t6ng tra dubng day.380 = 12 528A ' I. cac buac tinh toan thuc hien nhir sau: .14A J'j. net biet t6ng tra tai. de Khi tAi nOi vao nguon c6 di¢n ap dAy Ud.Buoe 2 : Xac dinh dien ap pha Up cua tM Neu tiii nOi hlnh sao 90 . + P2 =6+8= 14kW Q = Qr + Q2 = 4 + 2 Hinh 4. r. tfnh dong di¢n Id ~ ngudn. va l~ch pba nhau m¢t g6c.231kVAr Ap dung cong thee ( 4 .Btt6'e 1 : Xac dinh each n6i dAy cua tM (hlnh sao hay hlnh tam giac). [a dn tfnh cong su(t cua De ::: 8246 Jj. dong di¢n (di¢n ap) cac pha c6 tri SI hieu dung bAng nhau.CH I>I~N BA PHA' 1>61 XU'NG DOi vol mach di¢n ba pha d6i xang. ta c6 the suy n dong di¢n cac pha con lai. . COng su(t lac dung nguon cung c(p cho 2 tlii P T811 ~.

Ltd giai : Theo so d6 nISiday mach di¢n. Di¢n ap pha cua tai T6ng tnJ pha ella tii zp '" JRp2 + Xp2 = J20 2 + 152 = 250 91 . Zp -Tit dong di¢n pha Ip. S = 3z.J3 r. X. eOng su(t tAi tieu thy va vi! d6 thi vecto dien ap day va dong di¢n pha tAi. di¢n khang pha ella m6i pha eua tai. di¢n khang pha X.Neu tai n6i hlnh tam giae Up = u. = 15 n.Dude 3 : Xac dinh t6ng tn1 pha Z.11 a). = ... Tfnh dong di¢n pha Ip.2 hoac 3UpIp coso hoac Q :: 3 X. . tiii n6'i tam giac. V.. d1} 6 : MQt tAi 3 pha e6 di¢n tnJ pha R.Ip2lJo~e 3UpIp boac .J3 Udl. == 20 n.J = Ip Nc!u ill n6i hlnh tam giae .J ella tai.J3 Ud1d . N~u tAi n6i hlnh sao I. va T6rig tra pha cua taL Zp = JR2p + R_L x2p =~ R R P 2 H¢ s6 cong suat cos <p = zp +X p P 2 trong d6 Rp.J3 UdId coso.Ip2 hoac '3UpIp sin<phoac . nrong llng la di¢n tra pha.BUGeS : Tinh r. cong sua:t rai tieu thu P = 3 RpI.B 1Wc 4: Tfnh dong di¢n pha I. tfnh dong di¢n day I. d(u vAom~g di¢n co dien ap day U.J simp. = 220 V (hloh 4. ella tai Ip u = . .::e. M s6 cong suat cua tai . nISihinh tamgiac. dbng di¢n day Id.

8. C08<p c.Dong dien pha cua tii Up Ip= zp = 220 -=8.8 25 A Vi tai n6i tam giac. 15. b) Tfnh cOng 5U!t P. 8. 92 .87° Dong di¢n pha cham sau di~n lip pha mQt g6c <p = 36. D6 th] vecto dong di¢n va dien lip pha v! tren hlnh 4. Cuon dAy duge thitt kt cho Urn viec vci dien dinh ml1'c 220V. 7: MQt tai 3 pha g6m 'ba cuon day d!u vao mang dien ba pha c6 di¢n tip day la 380V.11. I~ = 3. Cuon dAy e6 dien tra R = 20 . di¢n khang X =80. Q= 3 S= x. dong dien day cua tlii: r. 8. Q. = Cong l'u!t tai tieu thu .-22OV C B tiM C a) Uac b) Hinh4.f3lp = .82 = 4646.8V Ar .24A 4W P = 3 R.lia tai.11 Vi d.8 <p = 36. A Id A U.24 = l0030.J3 Ud~ -Rp = . 15. I~ = 3.35VA.J3. 20.87° . =- H¢ 56 cOng suat cua tai cos <p = 20 25 Zp ". ap a) Xac dinh each n6i cac cuon day thanh tii ba pha.J3 .8 = 15. 380.82 = 3484.0.

vi khi n6i hlnh sao.12a). 93 ..24 8 = 0..fj = -Ii .6W COng su!:t phan khang Q cua tii Q = . --- B. 26. =Ip= 26. = Ji . c .7A COng sUilr tac dung Pella tii p = .7 26.7. 380.!.12b) Ae------.7A r..fj UdIdsincp Cong sua't bie'u kien S S = .7VAr 8VA ur. dien lip pha d~r len cuon day Ia Up = U = 380V > di~ d lip dinh mUt: ciul euon day. 0.fj ._--------~ a) B. 26. -38QV----..Uri· glii : a) cae cuen day nOi hlnh sao d!:u vao mang dien. 380.. dien lip pha d~t len cuen day 18: Up = ~ =7r= 220 V= di¢n ap dinhrmrc ella cuon dAy (hmh 4.380. sm<y Rp zp Xp zp 8.97 = 17045. A -j-ll..242 = 4252.42 = 0.fj UdIdeoscp = . 0.24 (} H¢ s6 cOng su!:t coso ella rai = _2_ cose = .9 7 Dong di¢n pha Ip cua tii Up zp = -:: Ip= Dong di¢n day Id 220 8.. = 17572. Ntu tii nOi tam giac.7.------------~ b) Hlnh 4.242 =- =- 8. cuon day siSbi hOng (hmh 4./2 b) TOng tra pha cua tii Zp = JRp2 + Xp2 = J22 +82 = 8.24 26.

mach ba pha kh6ng dOi xung (hlnh 4. Day 18. Khi tAi cac pba tbay d6i dien ap Up tren tAi h~u nhu vln giu duqc blnb thirong (hlnh 4. cung cap dien cho cac khu dan cu Ii mang di¢n ba pha 4 day: 3 day pha A... Khi khOng co day trung tfnh.13b).13c).13).. c6 pha dien ap giam di (vf du tai pha A chiu di~n i1.+ Ie 10 IB . ta giai timg pba rieng reo tinh duqc dong dien cac pha lA' lB.. Ie. c6 pba di~n . do tai khOng dOi xung. b) c) Hlnh 4.13 qua t6ng dAy trung tfnh (nghia 18. hoac day trung tfnh bi dltt.bo qua di~n ap rei tren day trung tfnh) dien the diem trung tfnh 0' cUa tAi coi III trung v6i dien thl! diem trung tinh 0 cua nguon. ' Day ill uu diem cua day trung tinh. boac bang s6 phuc 10 =IA +IB +Ic 94 .6. Tai cac pha khOng gi6ng nbau va thay d6i nhieu.. .4. GIAI M~CH TRUNG TiNH BA PHA KH()NG D61 XU'NG CO DAy Mang dien sinh hoat.ip tang len. trong khi d6 di~n ap U'B ella tiii pha B nha hon Up. Dien cung cllp cho met can hQ Illy til mot pha va day trung tfnh (dien ap pha).. C va day trung tfnh.• dong di~n trong day trung tfnh 10 va eOng sutlt ba sau: no tea DOng dien trung tinh bAng d6 thi vecto 10 -. neu tAi cac pha thay d6i thl diem trung tfnh 0' clla tai lech khoi diem trung tinh 0 cua nguon.' llr~ B' c [)typha B a) li. D6i hin luot sullt cac pha nhu v6i mach ba pha hlnh sao c6 day trung tfnh. PB' Pc .p V'A Urn han Up rat nhieu. otyphaA A.. = IA + . cOng pha PA.. B. U'e thay d6i rllt nhieu (hlnh 4... dien ap pha ella tlli U'A' U'B. khOng virot qua dien ap pha.

...COng suat ba pha P=PA+PB+Pc Q=QA+QB+QC De hieu ro ta hay xet cac vi du duoi day. B6ng den 220V mAc song song v6i nhau gina dAy pha mAc dAy v! tren hlnh 4. a) Ve sa do mach di¢n ba b) Tfnh lAO 10. b) VI di~n ap d~t len b6ng den bAng dinh muc eOng su!""tb6ng den tieu thu bAng dinh rmfc 60W. cac dAy pha) 220V la di¢n ap pha (gina dAy pha va day trung tfnh). Di¢n ap d~t len cac den la 220V= Udm ella den. Vi dl} 8 : MQt mach dien 3 pha c6 day trung tfnh 380V/ 220V cung cap di~n eh 90 b6ng den sqi d6't. = 30. e6 20 den b~t sang.dung djnhmli'e. S6 b6ng den d~u cho 3 pha .14 .14 a) Mach di~ 3 pha 380V / 220V la mach ba pha 4 day. pha C dien cat d) Tfnh di¢n ap d~t len cac den pha A vA pha B a muc C. = 1800W 3. P khi den dt!:u b~t sang . u. Hlnh 4.1800 = 5400W. 3 day pha 380V lA "di¢n lip day (gilla va day trung tfnh.10. ~e=3--+------~----------c o 0' B 380\ ZID~ ca b6ng c) Tfnh IA• 10. . Sa de o i. t.. Pdm = 60W.60 COng su«t ba pha P=3Pp "" va dAy trung tfnh. pha. cac den lam viec.15 95 . s6' hi~u dinh mac ella mOi den Udm = 220V. III>P khi pha A co 10 den b~t sang pha B. tit duqe pharo A. khi pba C cat -di¢n va dAy trung tfnh bj dl1t~ Uri giii : Hlnh 4. T(t ell b6ng den d~u b~t sang mach ba pba d6'i XUng eOng su«t dien cae pha bang nhau: PA = Po = Pc =P.

IB.17 b) 96 . Ie IiJ-O M thong vecto c) Khi pha C cat dien. 1 '" 8.60 + 20..5. nen dong IA Vi = 18 = Ie = Ip = UpPcosqI = 220. COS'P = 1.60 = 1800W Do thi vecto ve tren hlnh 4. thuan di¢n tra R.. 72 A d) Khi pha C cat dien vA dOng thbi day trungtfnh bi dCrt. trj s6 hi¢u d\mg Hlnh 4. cac pha khac van blnh thuong.18A -r 1800 nguon va tai d6i xlhlg nen 10 = D6 thj vecto thanh IA + iB + Ic d6i xrmg.16 .Titi IA cac b6ng den.17a.45 A P = PA + P8 = 10.2. 10 = IA + Ie Theo cong thirc hlnh hoc.5 = 4. di¢n ap tren cac den 10. vin dinh mire IA = ~= U cOSIp Ie =0.45. =0 ve tren hlnh 4. g6c lech pha di¢n cac pha IA : 'P = 0 . trong d6 dong di¢n trung pha dien ap.452 -2.73 A 220. mach dien con lai ve a hinh 4. IA.2. 10 Ifltn B a) H11Jh4.1 220. den pha A va pha B mac n6i tiep nhau va n6i vao dien ap day U AD' A UAB-38OV B A I UAB-38QV B 0' RA Ra U I u>.73.15 .1 ID=~=~ U COSIp =5.0.732 +5.16 10 IA cos 10 = ~lA 2 +18 2 +2IAIS 1200 = f.60 = 2.

.7.66. De tinh toan. khOng c6 day trung tfnh khi rai tbay ddi.3.63V < U"m= 220V den pha B phat sang du6'i dinh mac.14 U'. cOng su<t dim tieu thu chua biet. dien tip tren cac pita cua rai thay dOi ra:t nhieu.6 10 10 = 80660 • Pha B co 20 bong den mac song song nen dien tra pha B lit 20 R 8 = ~= 20 806. = ~= uen Pdm u2 - 2202 60 = 8066 ' n Vi cac bong den mi1c song song. c6 pha dien ap vuQt qua dinh rmrc. b muc C tuy tii tbay d6i song nho c6 day trung tinh nen di~n ap d~t len den khOng vuqt qua dinh mUc.27V > Udm = 220V den pha A phat sling qua rmrc c6 the bi chay.18) roi nhan ba P=3P 7-Giao trlnh KTE) p (4-16) 97 . tnroc h€t tfnh dien tro ella bong den R. Do cOng suat mach di~n ba pha d6i xirng COng su4't cac pha bAng nhau.l7b.33 =3. ta chi ctin do cOng sulft mot pha (hlnh 4.14A =R A• I = 80.6 = 40330 ' Mach dien nrong dUC1IlgviS tren hlnh 4.66 380 __ -+ 40.63V Di¢n <ipd~t len den pha B iA .d muc d. Dong dien I chay trong mach : Di¢n ap d~t len den pha A lit U'A 80. Di¢n ap d~t len den pha B U'B = 126. 4.= 253.33.27V = 126. Qua vf du tren.D'B = RBI Dien lip d~t len den pha A = 40.3. nen dien tro pha A..14 = 253. RA bAng di¢n trC1 tUC1Ilg duong ella 10 bong den mAc song song RA = RdI!n = 806. DO CONG SUAT M~CH DI~N BA PHA 1.Liic nay dien ap d~t len den khong con bAng dinh rrnrc.

.._-. ta phai d6i chieu cuen day dong di~n (hoac cuon dien ap) cua oat kt! d6 va la:y gia tri p am. vay cong sua:t lac dung cua ba pha bAngcOng suar tac dung qua 2 oat kt! P = PI + P2 Phuong phap 2 oat kt! duqc dung cho mach 3 pha 3 day d6i ximg va khong d6i xung.-_-' khOng Hlnh4.2.(iA + iB) = nen PI + P2 "" UA iA + uaiB + "ucic"" PA + PB + Pc A I-----i M9Ch bapha c---+--+-<.. song c4n chu y rang. B--+-C bapha Mfch the _-+----\ 661 xCIng N--.-_-' c--------t Hinh 4..19). khi dii mac day dung cue tfnh nhu hlnh ve..-_-' Trang SO' d6 nay oat kt! 1 co dien ap day UAC va dong di~n iA• oat kt! 2 co dien ap day Usc va dong di¢n iB' Cong sua:t tuc thoi qua 2 oat kt! la PI Hlnh 4...20. L.18 + P2 = uAciA + UBC iB Uc Uc ic Vi.. N----+---~--~~ L. P=PA+Pa+Pc D6i vm mach 3 pha 3 day (khong co day trung tinh) ta c6 dang 2 oat kt! mAc' day theo sc dd hlnh 4.20 d61 x(ing L..IY Cong sua:t tuc thol qua 2 oat kt! chfnh la cong suat nrc thm cua ba pha. Do cong SU~l mach ba pha khOng dOl xung Ta dung 3 oat kt! do cOng suA'ttimg pha r6i cong lai (hlnh 4. UAC UBC = UA UB - = ... oat kt! nao c6 kim quay nguqc.. Vi du kim oat kt! 2 quay nguqc tbi: 98 ......

Cac day quan nay thtreng n6i hlnh sao c6 day trung tfnh. = 380V . = a 99 . hoac l(y tit day quan 3 pha thll c(p ctia may bie'n ap.4.21). Vi du d~ng co ba pha c6 di~n ap dinh rmrc cho m6i pha dAy quan 18 220V (Up = 220V). Tren the' gi6i t6n tai 2 loai mang dien 380V/ 220V (U. song toy thuec vao di~n ap dinh muc cua thiet bi. = 380V. Hien tai niroc ta sit dung mang di~n 380V/220V. Khi thie't ke' che' tao ngum ta dB.22a).Up = 220V) va mang dien 220V/127V (U.22b). = 220V. Cach ntli ngu6n dl~n Cac nguon di~n dung trong sinh hoat I(y tlr day quan 3 pha stato may phat dien./Y220V /380V. hie d6 dien ap diJt len moi day qum pha Clla dOng co blog di~n ap day 220 V.quy dinh di~n ap dinh mec cho m6i day quan.ngco ghi 18 !::.. a phaA B phaB phaC dAytrung thh Hlllh 4.21 2. Up = 127V). ' Neu d~ng co lam viec a mang di~n c6 U. tren ohan ctia dc. thi dong co phii da'u hlnh sao (hinh 4.8. 220V. 1. di~n ap diJt len mOi day quan pha lA Up =~ = 220V bAng dung di~n ap quy dinh. thi d(mg co ph8i duQ'C n6i hlnh tam giac (hlnh 4. CACH N61 NGu6N vA TAl TRONG M~CH BA PHA Ngu6n dien va tii ba pha Mu c6 the n6i hlnh sao hose hlnh tam giac. CAch btli d~hg co di~n ba pha M6i d~ng co dien ba pha g6m c6 3 day qum pha. bang dung di~n ap quy dinh. D¢ng CO lam viec phai dung vOi dien ap quy dinh a'y. cua mang di¢n va cac yeu cau ki thu~t ta se chon each n6i day phil hop. N6i nhu v~y c6 uu diem la c6 tM cung cap 2 di~n ap khac nhau: di~n ap pha va dien ap day (hlnb 4. Neu d~ng co a'y 18m viec mang dien c6 U.

.23b). quat dien. -.. ) I) 41 II U l Hlnh4. cac d6 dung di¢n gia dlnh ~=-l::~=-1=-:::::1 -.23 la Cac ill mQt pha cac d(Jog co di~n mQt pha.22OV . BY.) tren nhan cac thie't b] nay c6 ghi tri 56 di¢n ap djnhrmrc.. CZ obit hlnh 4. (den dien. cac 10 dien mQt pha.24b). '6) hop n6i day tren vi>dQng eo (hlnh 4.Up~. -. tii lanh . De thuan tien cho vi¢c dA'udQng co. cac thi€t bi nay dUQ'e .2.24 a) hose hlnh tam giac (hlnh 4. ngirci ta ky hieu 6 dAu day cua 3 day quan a Viec dA"u day thuc hien bang each thay d6i vi trf cau n6i gina cac bu long nay thanh hlnh sao (hlnh 4. =--I~=--+-I=----<l1~~ . I a) b) Khi 100 sir dung.22 dQng co AX. each 06'1 eac til mQt pha ABC _1 2 a) 3 b) Hinh4.) b) U Innh4.24 .23a va dua 6 d&u day nol ra 6 bu long (1. 3..

7. I". Blet dong dililn pha cua ngut'SnIpn= 17.nhu giU duqc blnh thuong. dong di~n day va quan h+ gilta chung khi noi sao va noi tam gh\c. I" = Ip = 667mA . nen day Iii mach 3 pha khO~g d6i xrmg. Cac d(!lc di&m cca mach di~n ba pha doi Xltng 4. Ip. 4. di(ln ap dAy.ng dl+n 3 pha U" = 380V.Pn = P.32A.n ba pha n61sao.. ngiroi ta co gang phan b6 d~u cac tii mot pha cho ca ba pha.n: qua dien ap pha va khi pha nao bi hong chi eo pha fiy mfit dien.= 180n. diu vao m.5. 4. aap s6: Ip = 23.5W. Khi thie"t ke"mang dien. 10. P = 240W.3. S trong mach ba pha doi xCtng.6. I1I+n trlf m5i pha cua tal Rp = 380. Mc)t tai ba pha dol x(fng diu hlnh tam giac. 4.25 4.52A . Blip so : U" = 207. cac thi~t bi n6i vci pha fiy khOng tam viec.2. khong vm. vi the"cac tai mot pha phai e6 dien ap djnh mire bAng dien ap pha ella mang dien. 101 . Q.n cho tai noi sao c6 day trung Unh. = 11400W 4. Hinh 4. Q eua tai.74A . a!nh nghia di~n ap pha. Trnh di(m lip pha cue ngulSn va e6ng su~t P. song do viec sir dung khOng d6ng d~u. Up' = 120V cung cilp di.1. Mc)t ngulSn di. dien ap d~t len cac thiet bi h4u. 10 = 0 . Mc)t ngu6n tfl+n 3 pha doi x(tng da'u sao cung cilp di~n cho tai ba pha doi x((ng d~u tam gllie.8. 4. P = 24893. fJap s6: Upn = 220V. 4.cua nguiSn cung cap cho t~i 3 pha.25).4A. eon cac pba khac vAn blnh thuong. Cac bi&u tMc cua cOng suli't P.4. DAypha Up Nho c6 day trung tinh nen mac du tai khOng d6i xung. Tili c6 di~n pha Rp. Q = 9957. tro nnh U". P. dong dJE)n pha.84V . N6u nhil'ng lIU I1I~mcua mach di(ln ba pha.da:u giii'a day pha va day trung tfnh (hlnh 4. Tfnh Ip. Xp = 6n.9. Val tra cua day trunq tfnh trong mach di~n ba pha tai khong dol x((ng. biat Rp = 15n . I". P cua mach 3 pha. I" = 40. Trinh bay cac bU'bcgiai mach di~n ba pha doi x((ng 4.

4. Tal pha A va pha B thucin IrO RA = Re 100. Tfnh dong di~n pha clH d¢ng co. 4.slp O.33A. = = 380V/220V.9kW '1dm p eJ I. Ie va dong cJj~ntrong dAy trung tfnh I". M¢t m.666n. XL= 8.85. d¢ng Cd tieu Ihl.14. Xac d!nh dong di~n Ie va dong dl~n Ie trong dAy trung tlnh khi dEIhpha Clam vi(lc binh thltClng. Xac djnh dong dit)n dAy IB' Irung tlnh khi eae den pha B va pha Clam vlt)e binh thui1ng. a) Xac d!nh dong dit)n dAy khi cs 3 pha dAu lam vi~c blnh thlJi1ng. M¢t miilng di~n 3 pha 4 dAy 380Vl220V.12.81A .88 .85 (cae den dA dt4fC bu). cOng su'l cc djnt mrre P<lm= 14kW .4A kMng 10 = 29. di. NQubi ta diu d¢ng co vao m~ng 220V/127V. lam vi$c vOi m'i'ng dj~n c6 U" 380V .n pha cua 49n9 co. t. = 29. cac tal m{lt pha noi gilta dAy pha va dAy trung tinh. . = 0 b) Is = Ie = 29. b) Khi den pha A b! c~t di~n.89 .9A .n ap den U<lm =·220V. lai pha CIa cuen dAy He 50 .10. 'e. M~t d~ng Cd dl~n 3 pha dA"usao. Tfnh dong dj~n trong dAy trung tfnh 1(>..!.4A 4. M¢t d"n9 CO di~n l1A"u hlnh sao. Y/A . c) Tlnh dong di~n day I" va dong l1i$n pha Ip cCJal1{>ngco.BB5. dong d1~n day I" va dong di. M s6 cong suat cose = 0. M¢t l1¢ng Cd khang d6ng b9 c6 s6 Ii$u dinh mllc sau . £)tJp s6: t. = = £)ap s6: IA = Is = lc = 22A 10 = 22A 102 .Tfnh cong sual phan khi.! cOng suat di(m 20kW . 81A . bie dong ditn day I" = 26. cOng sua't chfn IlIU 25W.lOg cua d{>ng = Cd lieu thu.4A kMng ddi t. cO.13. = I" = 26.11. h~ so cong suat COSIp<lm 0. = 27A 4.52 kVAr : Ip = I" = 34. Tfnh dong di~n cac pha lA' Is.ng di~n 3 pha 4 dAy 380Vl220V cung cAp di~n cho 60 dEIOph6ng di~n cao ap cOng su't den P 250W.4A t.4. d~u vao m'i'ng 3 pha U" = 380V. cOng suit dh)n d¢ng co lieu thl. £)tlp 86: a) IA = Is = Ie = I" = 29.4A d&i e) Ie = 29. £)ap s6: a) ~ng b) P<llfn CO n6i hinh tam giae A = __£!L = 15. £)ap = 86: Q = 10. dong di~n 1(> trong di'Jy c)Khi dim pha A va lien pha B b! cAt di+n. Pmtl! = f5kW. hi$u suft T)<lm 0. = DEmdLl'9cpMn dAu cho 3 pha. = 46. h~ so eong sua't cose = 0.. a) Xac d!nh each dfu dAy d¢ng eo b) Tfnh cong su't di~n d¢ng co ti6u thu khl dlnh rmrc.