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STEEL BUILDINGS

1-Empire State Building 2- Steel Bridge 3-Cantilever Bridge

EXPLANATION
1- Empire State Building :-

Height (architectural) : 381.01 m Height (observation floor) : 320.04 m Height (observation deck) : 373.08 m Floors (above ground) : 102

*STRUCTURE IN GENERAL:
Construction type: skyscraper Current status : existing [completed] Structural system: rigid frame Structural material: steel Facade material : limestone Facade system : curtain wall Facade color : light brown Architectural style: art deco

*USAGE:

1930 Cornerstone was laid: September 17. 1982. 1931 by pressing a button from the White House that turned on the building's lights.000 cubic feet of Indiana limestone and granite Excavation began: January 22. 6. Regained city's "tallest" title: September 11. 1930 President Herbert Hoover officially opened the building: May 1. 1981 Listed on State & National Register of Historic Places: December 20. Yet it was used for only one zeppelin landing because the winds were too strong at such heights making mooring dangerous and also because the golden age of zeppelins was quickly slipping into the past.886 kilometres (1.000 tons of structural steel Construction took: just 18 months Composed of: more than 200. 1.000 tonnes ^ Initially the building was intended to have a flat roof until a "hat" or metal-plated tower on top of the building was designed. 2001 Declared a National Historic Landmark: October 23. Framework rose: at the rate of 4 1/2 floors per week The masonry was completed: November 13. It initially served double duty as a zeppelin mooring mast and an observatory.Main usages: commercial office Side usages: shop *FEATURES AND AMENITIES: ~City landmark ~National landmark ~Observation deck on roof ~Observation floor is available ~One of the city's famous buildings *SOME FACTS: Built in: 1930 Constructed with: 60. 1930 Construction started: March 17.400 windows and weighs 331. 1930 by former New York governor Alfred E. ^ A broadcasting antenna was added to the building in 1951 . 1986 *ABOUT BUILDING: ^ The building incorporates 10 million bricks. Declared Landmark by the New York City Landmarks Preservation Commission: May 18. ^ The metal-plated tower on top of the building was planned as a zeppelin port. Smith.172 miles) of elevator cables.

the building has been featured on album covers of music of nearly every genre. ^ The building was completed about a month and half ahead of schedule and about $5 million under budget. Pope Pius XII. Smith's invitation was Walter P.putting the almost vacant metallic tower at the top to use as a storage area for broadcasting equipment. only a handful of workers lost their lives during construction. ^ During planning stages the construction death toll was estimated to be one worker per floor. including the French Prime Minister. the building has been featured on countless artistic impressions of the city.Steel Bridge:- *INFO: Carries Upper: 2 outer traffic lanes and two inner lanes solely for MAX Light Rail . ^ At least 32 people jumped to their deaths off the observation deck on the top during the deck's operation ^ Soon after opening it became a major tourist attraction. Fidel Castro and Queen Elisabeth II. or over 100 workers overall. Chrysler. for instance. However. from jazz of the thirties to hip hop of the '00s. to name a few The only one known to have refused Alfred E. Albert Einstein. attracting many famous people. ^ As a popular symbol of the city and its spirit. ^ The Empire State Building is a member of the World Federation of Great Towers. 2. eating facilities were set up on appropriate floors to cater for the workers. Winston Churchill. ^ During construction of the steel frame.

Its lower deck carries railroad and bicycle/pedestrian traffic.7 million.Lower: Union Pacific Railroad (incl. after the nearby Hawthorne Bridge. it was simply given its predecessor's name. Oregon. very unusual for the time. former Oregon Route 99W) and light rail (MAX). Its name originated because steel. 163 feet (50 m) fully raised Opened 1912 (replaced 1888 bridge) *H ISTORY: The Steel Bridge is a through truss. United States.9 m) closed. The bridge links the Rose Quarter and Lloyd District in the east to Old Town Chinatown neighborhood in the west. It is the only double-deck bridge with independent lifts in the world and the second oldest vertical in North America. Oregon Maintained by Union Pacific Railroad Design Through truss with a double vertical Width 71 feet (22 m) Longest span 211 feet (64 m) Clearance below 26 feet (7. It opened in July 1912 . double lift bridge across the Willamette River in Portland. The 1888 structure was the first railroad bridge across the Willamette River in Portland. making the bridge one of the most multimodal in the world. The bridge was completed in 1912 and replaced the Steel Bridge that was built in 1888 as a double-deck swing-span bridge.Amtrak toward Eugene) and walkway Crosses Willamette River Locale Portland. while the upper deck carries road traffic (on the Pacific. When the current Steel Bridge opened. The structure was built by Union Pacific Railroad and the Oregon Railway and Navigation Company at a cost of $1. was used in its construction. 72 feet (22 m) lower deck raised. instead of wrought iron.

At low river levels the lower deck is 26 feet (7. *STRUCTURE: The lift span of the bridge is 211-foot (64 m) long. two for the upper and eight for the lower. The lower deck of the bridge was threatened by major floods in 1948. a 220-foot (67 m) long and 8-foot (2.000. with over 2.000 lb (4.4 m) wide cantilevered walkway was installed on the southern side of the bridge's lower deck as part of the East bank Esplanade construction. while the City of Portland is responsible for the approaches. Between 1984 and 1986 the bridge underwent a $10 rehabilitation.100 metric tons).9 m) above the water. The upper deck was closed again for summer 2008 for maintenance and to allow a junction to be built at the west end for the MAX Green Line.to rail traffic and on August 9. and 163 feet (50 m) of vertical clearance is provided when both are raised. and 500 bicycles.100 daily bicycle crossings in 2005. The average daily traffic in 2000 was 23. Because of the independent lifts. and 1996. 1964. the Steel Bridge became an important part of a new U. raising to three the number of publicly accessible walkways across the bridge. . million In 2001. 99W highway between Harbor Drive and Interstate Avenue. Each deck has it own counterweights. The bridge is owned by Union Pacific with the upper deck leased to Oregon Department of Transportation. 1912 to automobiles. In 1950. telescoping into the upper deck but not disturbing it. totaling 9. 200 MAX trains. the lower deck can be raised to 72 feet (22 m). including construction of the MAX light rail line. The machinery house is above the upper-deck lift span with an operator's room suspended below the house so that the operator can view river traffic as well as the upper deck.100 vehicles (including many Tri Met bus lines).S. The construction of the lower-deck walkway connected to the East bank Esplanade resulted in a sharp increase in bicycle traffic. and subleased to TriMet. Harbor Drive was removed in 1974 and replaced with Tom McCall Waterfront Park. including the two narrow sidewalks on the upper deck. 40 freight and Amtrak trains.

Engineers could more easily calculate the forces and stresses with a hinge in the girder. however.3-Cantilever Bridge:- *ABOUT: A cantilever bridge is a bridge built using cantilevers. the cantilevers may be simple beams. Heinrich Gerber was one of the engineers to obtain a patent for a hinged girder (1866) and is recognized as the first to build one. supported on only one end.500 feet (460 m). The use of a hinge in the multi-span system presented the advantages of a statically determinate system and of a bridge that could handle differential settlement of the foundations. structures that project horizontally into space. or box girders built from prestressed concrete. This would result in lower stresses in the girder or truss and meant that longer spans could be built. and can be more easily constructed at difficult crossings by virtue of using little or no false work. . For small footbridges. The steel truss cantilever bridge was a major engineering breakthrough when first put into practice. as it can span distances of over 1. large cantilever bridges designed to handle road or rail traffic use trusses built from structural steel. *ORIGINS: Engineers in the nineteenth century understood that a bridge which was continuous across multiple supports would distribute the loads among them. Several nineteenth century engineers patented continuous bridges with hinge point’s mid-span.

they support a central truss bridge which rests on the ends of the cantilever arms. meeting at the center. The suspended span. is not needed for the main span of a cantilever bridge. In a common variant. The Kentucky River Bridge spanned a gorge that was 275 feet (84 meters) deep and took full advantage of the fact that false work. still the current record holder. Dickinson (1889) were all important early uses of the cantilever design. The suspended span may be built off-site and lifted into place. the cantilever arms do not meet in the center. or constructed in place using special traveling supports. Sheller Smith (1877). The need to resist compression of the lower chord is seen in the use of wooden poles while the tension of the upper chord is shown by the outstretched arms. the suspended span. the Niagara Cantilever Bridge by Charles Conrad Schneider (1883) and the Poughkeepsie Bridge by John Francis O'Rourke and Pomeroy P. instead. or temporary support. is seen in the center. This bridge held the record for longest span in the world for seventeen years only to be surpassed by the Quebec Bridge.The Hapsburg Bridge over the Main river in Germany with a central span of 124 feet (38 meters) was completed in 1867 and is recognized as the first modern cantilever bridge. The most famous early cantilever bridge is the Forth Rail Bridge. where Chichi Watanabe sits. Benjamin illustrated the structural principles of the suspended span cantilever in the photo on the left. The action of the outer foundations as anchors for the cantilever is visible in the placement of the counterweights. *FUNCTION: A simple cantilever span is formed by two cantilever arms extending from opposite sides of the obstacle to be crossed. The High Bridge of Kentucky by C. .

the bridge superstructure often takes the form of towers above the foundation piers. Thus. The Commodore Barry Bridge is an example of this type of cantilever bridge. Many truss cantilever bridges use pinned joints and are therefore statically determinate with no members carrying mixed loads. Because of the need for more strength at the balanced cantilever's supports. *CONSTRUCTION METHODS: Some steel arch bridges (such as the Navajo Bridge) are built using pure cantilever spans from each side. while the compression is carried to the foundations beneath the central towers. and two anchor arms which extend away from the obstacle.A diagram of the parts of a suspended-span cantilever truss bridge A common way to construct steel truss and prestressed concrete cantilever spans is to counterbalance each cantilever arm with another cantilever arm projecting the opposite direction. in a bridge built on two foundation piers. the counterbalancing arms are called anchor arms. forming a balanced cantilever. with neither false work below nor . the structure distributes the tension via the anchor arms to the outermost supports. when they attach to a solid foundation. Commonly. there are four cantilever arms: two which span the obstacle. Steel truss cantilevers support loads by tension of the upper members and compression of the lower ones. Prestressed concrete balanced cantilever bridges are often built using segmental construction.

These are then joined with a pin. Such unsupported construction is only possible where appropriate rock is available to support the tension in the upper chord of the span during construction.temporary supporting towers and cables above. usually limiting this method to the spanning of narrow canyons. usually after forcing the union point apart. and when jacks are removed and the bridge decking is added the bridge becomes a truss arch bridge. .